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Further reading

Anyone who is interested in reading further about encouraging students to

take a deep approach, might find the following suggestions helpful.
Gibbs, G (1992) mpro!ing the "uality of student learning #ristol$ %echnical
and &ducational ser!ices 'td.
[Graham Gibbs writes very straightforwardly and with lots of practical
suggestions as to how tutors can improve the quality of student learning. I
have used his material for years, in fact the pyramid system that I use in the
sessions described in this pack are adapted from an original idea put forward
by Gibbs].
Gibbs, G. (&d) (199() mpro!ing student learning. %heory and )ractice
*+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff .e!elopment.
[This is a collection of papers given at the first International Improving
tudent !earning ymposium in "##$ and as such, it covers a wide variety of
approaches % mainly with a heavy research emphasis. I personally have found
Gibbs& preface and chapter " on the research conte't particularly useful, but
there are a lot of different areas that might well interest colleagues including
the paper by (iggs )"##*+ putting forward the systemic model of student
learning. ]
-ee also$
Gibbs, G.(&d) Improving tudent !earning. Through ,ssessment and
-valuation. *+ford$ *+ford ,entre for -taff .e!elopment.
Gibbs, G. (&d) (199/) Improving student learning. .sing research to improve
student learning. *+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff .e!elopment.
0ust, ,. 1 Gibbs, G.(&ds.) (1992) Improving student learning. Improving
student learning through course design. *+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff
and 'earning .e!elopment.
0ust, ,. (&d) (1993) Improving tudent !earning. Improving tudents as
!earners. *+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff and 'earning .e!elopment.
0ust, ,. (&d) (1999) Improving tudent !earning. Improving tudent
!earning /utcomes. *+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff and 'earning
0ust,,. (&d) (2444) Improving tudent learning. Improving tudent !earning
through the disciplines. *+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff and 'earning
6abeshaw, %., 6abeshaw, -. and Gibbs, G. (1939) 78 nteresting ways of
helping your students to study. #ristol$ %echnical and &ducational -er!ices.
[This is one of a series of books full of practical suggestions that you might
like to incorporate into your teaching. They generally have 0$ suggestions in,
and cover many different aspects of learning and teaching, including
assessment. -ven if you do not want to use their suggestions directly, it is very
good as a thought provoker.]
0amsden, ). (1992) 'earning to teach in higher education 'ondon$ 0outledge
[/f all the books I have read about teaching in higher education, this one has
been the most influential in my own development as a lecturer. 1amsden
writes in a straightforward and powerfully convincing style. 2ot to be
0ichardson, 9.%.&.., &ysenck, :.;. 1 ;arren )iper, .. (eds) (1932) -tudent
learning$ 0esearch into education and cogniti!e psychology. :ilton <eynes$
*pen =ni!ersity )ress
[4on&t be put off by the title of this book % it really is a fascinating collection
of papers giving some very interesting insights into not only the nature of the
learning e'perience, but also ways in which both the quality and the
e'perience of learning can be enhanced. This is another one of the books I
couldn&t be without.]
Articles, our own:
>orton, '.-. (1994) &ssay writing$ ;hat really counts? 5igher -ducation, 24,
(, (11@((2.
>orton, '.-. and ,rowley, ,.:. (1997) ,an students be helped to learn how
to learn? An e!aluation of an Approaches to 'earning programme for first
year degree students, 5igher -ducation, 29, pp. 842@823.
>orton, '.-. 1 .ickins, %.&. (1997) .o Approaches to 'earning courses
impro!e studentsA learning strategies? n G. Gibbs (&d) Improving tudent
!earning. Through ,ssessment and -valuation. *+ford$ *+ford ,entre for
-taff .e!elopment.
>orton, '.-., -cantlebury, 1 .ickins, %.&. (1999). 6elping undergraduates to
become more effecti!e learners$ An e!aluation of two learning inter!entions.
Innovations in -ducation and Training International )I-TI+. 8/ ((), pp. 228 @
%illey, A. 1 >orton, '.-. (1993). )sychology lecturersA conceptions of the
ideal student using the deal -elf n!entory (-). 6sychology Teaching
1eview 2,1, 1( @ 28
Other recommended articles and references:
#ergenhenegouwen, G. (1932) 6idden curriculum in the uni!ersity. 5igher
-ducation 1/, 787 @7(8.
#oud, .. (1994) Assessment and the promotion of academic !alues. kills in
5igher -ducation 17, 1, 141 @114.
#rown G. (1992) %eaching psychology$ A Bade :ecum. 6sychology Teaching
1eview, /,2, 112@12/.
&ntwistle, >. (1932) A model of the teaching@learning process in 9.%.&.
0ichardsonC :.;. &ysenck, 1 .. ;arren )iper (&ds) tudent !earning.
1esearch in -ducation and 7ognitive 6sychology. :ilton <eynes$ *pen
=ni!ersity )ress 1 -06&.
Gibbs, G. (&d) (199() Improving tudent !earning. Theory and 6ractice.
*+ford$ %he *+ford ,entre for -taff .e!elopment.
6owarth, . 1 ,roudace, %. (1997) Ampro!ing the "uality of teaching in
uni!ersities$ a problem for occupational psychologists?A 6sychology Teaching
1eview, (,1,1@11.
<ember, .. (1992) A reconceptualisation of the research into uni!ersity
academicsD conceptions of teaching. !earning and Instruction, 2,8, 277 @ 227.
:arton, E., .allDAlba, G. 1 #eaty, &. (1998) ,onceptions of 'earning
International 8ournal of -ducational 1esearch, 19, 222@844.
:arton, E. 1 -alFo, 0. (1992) Approaches to learning, in E. :arton, ..
6ounsell 1 &ntwistle, >. (&ds.) The e'perience of learning. Implications for
teaching and studying in higher education. &dinburgh$ -cottish Academic
:arton, E. 1 -alFo, 0. (192/) *n "ualitati!e differences in learning .
*utcome and process. (ritish 8ournal of -ducational 6sychology (/, (@11.
G%his is a seminal paper as :arton 1 -alFo were the first researchers to make
a distinction between deep and surface approaches to studying5
0amsden, ). (1929) -tudent learning and perceptions of the academic
en!ironment. 5igher -ducation 3, (11@(22.
0ichardson, 9.%.&. (199() :ature students in higher education$ . A literature
sur!ey on approaches to studying. tudies in 5igher -ducation, 19, 8, 849
0ichardson, 9.%.&. (1997) :ature students in higher education$ . An
in!estigation of approaches to studying and academic performance. tudies in
5igher -ducation, 24, 1, 7@12.
-alFo, 0. (1929) 'earning about learning, 5igher -ducation, 3, ((8@(71.
Ban 0ossum, &.9. (193() %he relationship between learning conception, study
strategy and learning outcome (ritish 8ournal of -ducational 6sychology, 7(,