Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 48

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
TO
SEMICONDUCTORS
2/ 5/ 2013
1
EE201
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
2
OBJ ECTIVES
1. The basic structure of an atom
2. Atomic structure affects the flow of
material.
3. Features and electrical properties of
semiconductors.
4. What type of semiconductor material-N
and P-type produced
FIRST OBJ ECTIVES :-
3
Struktur asas
bagi atom
The basic structure of an atom
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
4
Jirim terdiri
daripada
atom.
Each atom consists of
i. proton
ii. electron
iii. neutron
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
5
The properties of electrons, protons and neutrons: -
i. Electron
- Electrons are particles of the lightest and smallest.
- Each electron has a negative charge of equal size.
-Always move at high speed around neukleus
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
6
The properties of electrons, protons and neutrons: -
ii. Proton
- Proton is estimated to be 1800 times greater than the electron
- Bringing positive charge equal
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
7
The properties of electrons, protons and neutrons: -
iii. Neutron
-The mass of a neutron approximately equal to the mass of a
proton
- No lead no charge
- neutral charge
8
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Nukleus
Awan
elektron
+
+ +
9
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
HYDROGEN
Contains only one proton
+
proton
electron
10
Neucleus atom: -
carbon - 6 proton 6 neutron
copper - 29 protons, 29 neutrons
Aluminium - 13 protons, 13 neutrons
Silicon - 14 protons, 14 neutrons
Germanium - 32 protons, 32 neutrons
ANOTHER ATOMIC
STRUCTURE
Atomic Structure
11
In the atom there is a maximum of 7 layers orbit
(shell)
Each layer is known as the layer K, L, M, N, O, P
and Q
The maximum number of electrons in an orbit
determined by the formula:
2 x n
n is the number of
layers position
12
Maximum number for each layer are:
Shell K (1) : 2n x 1 = 2
Shell L (2) : 2n x 2 = 8
Shell M (3) : 2n x 3 = 18
Shell N (4) : 2n x 4 = 32
Shell O (5) : 2n x 5 = 50
Shell P (6) : 2n x 6 = 72
Shell Q (7) : 2n x 7 = 98
Method to determine the number
of electrons in each shell
13
Examples of Atom Structure
+13
2 + 8 + 3 = 13
Layer K =
2 electron
Layer L =
8 elektron
Layer M = 3
elektron
Aluminium = 13 electron
14
Examples of Atom Structure
The outermost layer of atoms for something
- valence shell
shell is not more than 8 valence electrons
Electrons in this shell - valence electron
Numbers valence electrons determine the
electrical properties of the material things
15
Examples of Atom Structure
Trivalent atom.
Has 3 valence electrons
Example: -
Indium, Boron and Aluminum
16
Examples of Atom Structure
Pentavalent atom.
Has 5 valence electrons
Example: -
Antimony (Sb), arsenic (As)
17
Examples of Atom Structure
Neutral atoms: -
Total number of protons in the nucleus
equals the number of electrons in the
electron cloud. .
SECOND OBJ ECTIVES :-
18
Atomic structure affects
the flow of material
19
Materials that allow the flow of
charge / current when a voltage
source for many specific
magnitude applied between the
two terminals
i. i. CONDUCTOR CONDUCTOR
20
1. Can conduct electricity
2. Low resistance - easy current flow
3. Atomic valence electrons are more likely to release
4. Become free electrons move from one atom to
another.
Have one to three valence electrons
ii. Conductor Characteristics
21
Material that does not
allow any current flow
through
ii. ii. INSULATION INSULATION
22
1. Electric current can not flow
2. Have high resistivity
3. Receiving atomic valence electrons of atoms to
fill the other valence layer and make it stable &
capable atom Set as escape from any electrical
activity @ chemical
Have 5 to 8 valence electrons
ii. Insulation Characteristics
iii. SEMICONDUCTOR
23
A material with a level of
extreme thermal insulators
and conductors
24
Has 4 valence electrons
1. The situation is intermediate conductor
and insulator
2. Not easy to remove / receive valence
electrons of other atoms
iii. Semiconductor Characteristics
Silicon and Germanium as an example of
semiconductor
25
14
32
Layer (M)
Valens Layer = 4
Layer (N)
Layer Valens = 4
Layer (K) = 2 x 1 = 2
Layer (L)
2 x 4 = 8
Layer (M)
2 x 9 = 18
No. atom Germanium = 32
2 + 8 + 18 + 4 = 32
No.atom silikon = 14
2 + 8 + 4 = 14
Bond Covalent
26
Sharing of valence
electrons of an
atom with valence
electrons of
neighboring atoms
makes an atom is in
a stable condition
Si Si
Si Si Si
Si
Si Si Si
Figure of Bond
Covalent
THIRD OBJ ECTIVES :-
FEATURES SEMICONDUCTOR
TYPE - N and Type - P
MATERIAL N
28
When semicondutor @ Silicon
Germanium doped with impurities
pentavalent (Arsenic), occurring
over one electron.
Semiconductor becomes more
electron
This material is call material N
Si Si
Si As Si
Si
Si Si Si
Figure of Bounded
Convalent
Excess of 1
electron
MATERIAL P
29
When semicondutor @ Silicon
Germanium doped with impurities
trivalent (Indium) shortage, 1 pair.
Holes exist charged + ve
This becomes more holes
Semiconductor
This material is call material P
Si Si
Si In Si
Si
Si Si Si
Figure of Bounded
Convalent
Less than 1
pair of
electrons
Characteristics of Material P
30
Semiconductor doped with impurities
that have 3 electrons Valence
Majority current carriers are holes
Minority current carriers are
electrons
Material p
31
Semiconductor doped with impurities
that have five electrons Valence
Majority current carriers are
electrons
Minority current carriers are holes
Material N
Characteristics of Material N
32
The sequence of events when the
junction is formed
Material
N
Material
P
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
33
Depletion Region
Barrier voltage
i. Germanium = 0.3V
ii. Silicon = 0.7V
N-type
P-type
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
34
Electrons in the N material are
attracted to fill the holes, holes in P
type material
Crossings occur electrons from N-
type material to the P-type material
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
The sequence of events when the
junction is formed
35
This combination makes the electron-
holes near grafting atoms become
neutral.
After some time existed an area that
no longer have current carriers.
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
The sequence of events when the
junction is formed
36
Electron crossing stop.
The area around it is known as the
depletion area.
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
The sequence of events when the
junction is formed
37
There is little resistance between two
materials together due to the
formation of depletion region
Resistance small value
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
The sequence of events when the
junction is formed
38
Also there is a difference in potential
between the two materials - known as
Voltage Barrier.
Barrier voltage for: -
- Germanium = 0.3V
- Silicon = 0.7V
Characteristics of Material P-N Junction
The sequence of events when the
junction is formed
39
1. Bias Voltage
Define :-
Bias voltage is applied voltage
across combination of P-N
There are two types of bias: -
i)Forward bias
ii)Reverse bias
i. Forward bias
40
Define :-
Negative source is connected to the N-type
material and
Positive causes connected to the P-type material
1. Bias Voltage
41
i. The losses become narrow area.
ii. low resistivity
iii. Current can flow through it
BENDA N BENDA P
1. Bias Voltage
i. Forward bias
42
Define :-
N-type material to get the supply
voltage is + ve and P type of
material gets voltage - ve
ii. Reverse bias
1. Bias Voltage
43
i. The losses become wider area.
ii. Resistivity is high
iii. Not allow current to flow through it
BENDA N BENDA P
1. Bias Voltage
ii. Reverse bias
44
Minority current within the material.
Exists when the PN grafts given bias voltage
inverting.
The electrons in the p-type material will be rejected
by the bias voltage to the grafts, and crosses
2. LEAKAGE CURRENT
45
Resulting value of the current flow is very small.
This current is referred to as Leakage current or
reverse current
Its value depends on the temperature. The lower the
temperature, the lower the value, and vice versa.
.
2. LEAKAGE CURRENT
46
If the PN grafts reverse bias voltage applied is too high, it
will disrupt the stability of the covalent bond.
Elektrons will be attracted to the positive ability and free
as current carriers.
3. Point Breakdown
47
This liberated electrons would violate the ties of others.
Ensued a reverse current flow is very high value
Extent of the increase in current which suddenly is called
breakdown point
3. Point Breakdown
48
It can cause burns grafting P-N.
Voltage at the point of breakdown or (breakdown voltage) to a
maximum voltage that can be biased inverse grafting.
3. Point Breakdown