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Objective:
1. To measure the deflection of cantilever beam subjected to an increasing load for
different materials.
2. To establish the load deflection relationship in a simply supported beam.
3. To establish the length deflection relationship in a simply supported beam.
Theory:
The deflections of a beam are an engineering concern as they can create an unstable
structure if they are large. People dont want to walk in a building in which the floor beam
deflect an excessive amount, even though it may be in no danger of failing. Consequently,
limits are often placed upon the allowable deflection of a beam, as well as upon stresses.

When loads are applied to a beam, their originally straight axes become curved.
Displacements from initial axes are called bending or flexural deflections.

If the value of bending moment at any point on a bean is known in term of x, the distance
along the beam, and provided that the equation applies along the complete beam, then
integration of the moment equation will be:

)

Where A and B are constants of integration evaluated from known conditions of slope and
deflection for particular values of x.

(a) Cantilever with concentrated load at the end

Figure 1: Cantilever beam subjected to a point load

]
x
x
x
2

]

Boundary condition,

When


and when

]

Maximum deflection occurs at x = 0,

-- (1)

Where,

P=load (N)
L=Distance from support to position of loading (m)
E=Youngs modulus for cantilever material (N/m
2
)
I=Second moment of area of cantilever (m
4
)


for a solid rectangular section









(b) Simply supported beam with central concentrated load






Figure 2: Simply supported beam with central concentrated load



x
x
x
L
P
L/2

(depth)
(width)
3

In order to obtian a single expression for bending moment which will apply across the
complete beam in this case it is onvenient to take the origin for x at the centre, then

]

Boundary condition,
When


and when

]
Maximum deflection occurs at x = 0,

-- (2)



Where in this case,



Apparatus description:
Figure 3 shows the apparatus of beam deflection experiment. It consists of a backboard
with a digital dial test indicator. The digital dial test indicator is on a sliding bracket, which
allows it to traverse accurately to any position along the test beam. Two rigid clamps mount
on the backboard and can hold the beam in any position. Two knife-edge supports also
fasten anywhere along the beam. Scales printed on the backboard allow quick and
accurate positioning of the dial test indicator, knife-edges and loads.
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Figure 3: Deflection of beam experiment


Figure 4 shows the deflection of beams experiments fits into a test frame.

Before setting up and using the equipment, always:
1. Check all components are secure and fastenings are sufficiently tight.
2. Position the test frame safety.
3. Never apply excessive loads to any part of the equipment.

Figure 4: The test frame of beam apparatus









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Procedures:

Experiment 1: Deflection of a Cantilever
1. The width b, and depth d, of the steel beam were measured by using a vernier
caliper. The values in Table 1 (a) was recorded. 3 readings of each width and depth
along the beam were taken and the average values were calculated. The reading
were used to calculate the second moment of area, I.
2. The beam was clamp as shown in Figure 4. A length of approximately 350mm was
leaved from the clamp to the end of the beam.


Figure 4: Experiment layout

3. The digital test indicator was slide to a length L of 300mm from the clamp and was
locked by using the thumbnut at the rear.
4. A knife-edge hanger was slide to the digital test indicator.
5. The frame was tapped lightly and zero the digital test indicator using the origin
button.
6. Masses was applied to the knife-edge hanger in the increments shown in the Table
1(a). The frame was tapped lightly each time, and recorded the digital dial test
indicator reading for each increment of mass in Table 1(a).
7. The procedure for the other two materials, brass and aluminum beam were repeated
and record in the Table 1b and 1c respectively.
8. The theoretical deflection was calculated using Equation (1) for each beam and
results was recorded in each respective table.
9. The graph was draw of deflection against loading for each beam in one graph.


300mm

50mm
6


Experiment 2 (Part I): Deflection of a Simply Supported Beam

Figure 5 Experiment layout

1. Any clamps was removed from the backboard . Length between supports, L to
400mm was set, set up the beam as shown in Figure 5.
2. The digital test indicator was slide into center of the test beam and lock it using the
thumbnut at the rear.
3. A knife-edge hanger was slide to the center position of the beam length.
4. The frame was tapped lightly and zero the digital test indicator using the origin
button.
5. Masses were applied to the knife-edge hanger in the increments shown in the results
Table 2 (a). The frame was tapped lightly each time, and recorded the digital dial test
indicator reading for each increment of mass in Table 2 (a).
6. The theoretical deflection for the beam was calculated by using Equation (2) and
results was recorded in each respective table.
7. The graph of deflection against loading was draw.















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Experiment 2 (Part II): Deflection of a Simply Supported Beam


Figure 6 Experiment layout
1. Length between supports, L was set up to 200mm, the beam was set up as shown in
Figure 6.
2. A knife-edge hanger was slide to the center position of the beam length.
3. The frame was tapped lightly and zero the digital test indicator using the origin
button.
4. A mass of 500g was applied to the knife-edge hanger. The frame was tapped lightly
each time, and the digital dial test indicator reading for each increment of mass was
recorded in Table 2 (b).
5. Steps 1 to 4 were repeated according to distance L given in Table 2 (b).
6. The theoretical deflection for the beam was calculated by using Equation (2).
7. The graph of length against deflection was drawed.

Results:
Steel Beam
Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Average (mm)
b 19.40 19.05 19.05 19.17
d 3.30 3.20 3.20 3.23
I = 53.83x



Mass (g) Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm)
Set 1 Set 2 Average
0 0 0 0 0
40 -0.42 -0.41 -0.405 -0.317
80 -0.85 -0.81 -0.83 -0.634
120 -1.27 -1.21 -1.24 -0.951
160 -1.69 -1.62 -1.65 -1.268
200 -2.11 -2.01 -2.06 -1.584
Table 1 (a)
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Brass Beam
Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Average (mm)
b 19.10 19.10 19.10 19.10
d 3.10 3.15 3.20 3.15
I = 49.75x




Mass (g) Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm)
Set 1 Set 2 Average
0 0 0 0 0
40 -0.76 -0.85 -0.805 -0.676
80 -1.65 -1.71 -1.66 -1.352
120 -2.48 -2.57 -2.525 -2.028
160 -3.30 -3.41 -3.355 -2.704
200 -4.17 -4.15 -4.16 -3.380
Table 1 (b)
Aluminum Beam
Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Average (mm)
b 19.05 19.05 19.10 19.07
d 3.15 3.20 3.10 3.15
I = 49.67




Mass (g) Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm)
Set 1 Set 2 Average
0 0 0 0 0
40 -1.21 -1.18 -1.15 -1.030
80 -2.41 -2.45 -2.43 -2.060
120 -3.60 -3.68 -3.64 -3.091
160 -4.80 -4.90 -4.85 -4.122
200 -5.99 -5.51 -5.75 -5.152
Table 1 (c)

Mass (g) Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm)
0 0 0
100 -0.13 -0.117
200 -0.30 -0.235
300 -0.44 -0.352
400 -0.58 -0.470
500 -0.75 -0.587
Table 2 (a)
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Length (mm) Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm)
200 -0.18 -0.007234
260 -0.29 -0.161
320 -0.38 -0.301
380 -0.62 -0.503
440 -0.99 -0.781
500 -1.34 -1.146
560 -1.82 -1.611
Table 2 (b)
Percentage Error:
Experiment 1 (a)- Steel Beam
Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm) Percentage error(%)
0 0 0
-0.405 -0.317 27.76
-0.83 -0.634 30.99
-1.24 -0.951 30.39
-1.65 -1.268 30.91
-2.06 -1.584 30.05

Experiment 1 (b)- Brass Beam
Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm) Percentage error(%)
0 0 0
-0.805 -0.676 19.08
-1.66 -1.352 22.78
-2.525 -2.028 24.51
-3.355 -2.704 24.08
-4.16 -3.380 23.08

Experiment 1 (c)- Aluminium Beam
Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm) Percentage error(%)
0 0 0
-1.15 -1.030 11.65
-2.43 -2.060 17.96
-3.64 -3.091 17.76
-4.85 -4.122 17.66
-5.75 -5.152 11.61

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Experiment 2 (a)
Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm) Percentage error(%)
0 0 0
-0.13 -0.117 11.11
-0.30 -0.235 27.66
-0.44 -0.352 25.00
-0.58 -0.470 21.28
-0.75 -0.587 27.77

Experiment 2 (b)
Measured deflection (mm) Theoretical deflection (mm) Percentage error(%)
-0.18 -0.007234 2388.25
-0.29 -0.161 81.99
-0.38 -0.301 26.25
-0.62 -0.503 23.26
-0.99 -0.781 26.76
-1.34 -1.146 16.93
-1.82 -1.611 12.98