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USER DESCRIPTION 78/1553-HSC 103 12/4 Uen B

User Description, Dynamic BTS Power Control


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Ericsson AB 2002. All rights reserved.
Di#$%&i'er
The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to continued
progress in methodology design and manufacturing.
Ericsson shall have no liability for any error or damages of any !ind resulting from
the use of this document.
Contents
1 In"ro()$"ion
2 *%o##&ry
2." #oncepts
2.2 Abbreviations and Acronyms
3 C&p&+i%i"ie#
$." %nterference
$.2 Battery bac!up power consumption
$.$ &eceiver saturation
$.' (uality and signal strength impact
4 Te$!ni$&% (e#$rip"ion
'." )eneral
'.2 Algorithm
'.$ *andover power boost
'.' +ower regulation e,ample
'.- )+&./E)+&.
'.0 A1& 2& +ower #ontrol
'.3 1ain changes in Ericsson ).1 system &"0/B.. &"0
5 Enineerin )i(e%ine#
-." %nteractions with other features
-.2 2re4uency planning aspects
-.$ &ecommendations
, P&r&'e"er#
0." 1ain controlling parameters
0.2 +arameters for special adjustments
0.$ 5alue ranges and default values
7 Re-eren$e#
8 .ppen(i/ .
1 Introduction
6ith the 7ynamic BT. +ower #ontrol feature the output power of a Base Transceiver
.tation 8BT.9 can be controlled during a connection. The control strategy is to
maintain a desired received signal strength and 4uality in the mobile station 81.9.
This :ser 7escription describes the BT. +ower #ontrol and A1& +ower #ontrol
algorithm for circuit switched connections only.
2 Glossary
2.1 Concepts
0e&#)re'en"
Repor"
1essage consisting of measurements done by the 1. which is
sent from the 1. to the BT..

0e&#)re'en"
Re#)%"
1essage consisting of the 1easurement &eport and
measurements done by the BT. which is sent from the BT. to
the B.#.

2.2 Abbreviations and Acronyms
.0R Adaptive 1ulti &ate

BCCH Broadcast #ontrol #hannel

C/I #arrier to %nterference &atio

CN. #ellular ;etwor! Administration

DT1 7iscontinuous Transmission

*PRS )eneral +ac!et &adio .ervice

2RP <ocating &eference +oint

SDCCH.tand Alone 7edicated #ontrol #hannel

3 Capabilities
3.1 Interference
The aim with BT. +ower #ontrol is to increase the number of 1.s with sufficiently
good #/%. BT. +ower #ontrol will improve #/% if traffic is maintained or maintain #/%
when traffic is increased or tighter fre4uency re=use is realised. The gain is obtained
by a reduction of the over all interference level 8%9 in the networ!.
6hen BT. +ower #ontrol is used in all BT.s in the networ! the total amount of
radiated power is reduced compared to when it is not used. This implies that the
downlin! co= and adjacent channel interference in the networ! is reduced. .ince 1.s
with low signal strength or bad 4uality use full BT. output power reduced
interference level imply increased #/% for these connections. >n the other hand the
#/% is decreased for connections with high signal strength and good 4uality since
they are subjected to a reduced BT. output power. &eduction of #/% will not affect
the speech 4uality of these connections since they have a margin to the lowest
tolerable #/%.
2re4uency *opping together with BT. +ower #ontrol and 7T? improve the
possibilities to achieve very tight fre4uency reuse see further :ser 7escription
7iscontinuous Transmission and :ser 7escription 2re4uency *opping.
3.2 Battery backup power consumption
%f the power supply for the base station is cut off a battery bac!up is used. 6hen
BT. +ower #ontrol is used the battery consumption is reduced and the ma,imum
possible speech time will increase.
3.3 Receiver saturation
The high signal energy from BT.s transmitted to 1.s that are close might saturate
the 1. receiver. The sensitivity of the receiver will then decrease and the speech
4uality become poor. %f the output power of the concerned BT.s is lowered the ris!
for this !ind of radio fre4uency bloc!ing is reduced. The receiver might still be
bloc!ed if an 1. is very close to the base station but the probability for this is
significantly reduced.
3.4 Quality and signal strength impact
Both 4uality and signal strength is considered by the algorithm. (uality is the
estimated bit error rate which is represented by rxqual. .ignal strength is
represented by rxlev. Bad 4uality as well as low signal strength will increase the
output power of the BT..
4 Technical description
4.1 General
%mportant notice@ The algorithms in 1. +ower #ontrol and BT. +ower #ontrol are the
same.
%n 2igure " the BT. output power and the signal strength in the 1. versus path loss
between a BT. and an 1. is shown. A BT. can only transmit at distinct power levels
this is illustrated in the figure.
Figure 1 Base station output power and MS signal strength versus path loss.
Quality is not taken into account.
6hen a connection has low path loss 8left part of 2igure " 9 the BT. transmits at its
lowest possible power level. Although the 1. receives a signal that e,ceeds the
desired value the BT. can not reduce the transmitted power any further. #onversely
when a connection e,periences high path loss 8right part of 2igure "9 the BT.
transmits at the ma,imum allowed power level for the cell. The power cannot be
increased even if the received signal strength in the 1. is low. ;ote that this is
dependent on the path loss compensation used 8see .ection '.2.' 9.
6hen 4uality is ta!en into account the output power is regulated up or down
depending on the received 4uality 8see 2igure 2 9. The base station power then
varies with the 4uality measured by the 1.. 6hen an 1. has low rxqual 8high
4uality9 the base station sends on low power and when an 1. has high rxqual on
high power. The higher the rxqual the higher the power and vice versa.
Figure 2 Exaple o! B"S output power versus rxqual. Signal strength is not taken
into account.
4.2 Algorithm
43231 *ener&%
7ynamic BT. +ower #ontrol is performed for Traffic channels 8T#*s9 as well as for
.7##*s. +ower control of the .7##*s is enabled with the switch SDCCHRE*. All
time slots on the B##* fre4uency are transmitted on full power i.e. there is no
+ower #ontrol of these time slots.
7uring a call the 1. measures the downlin! signal strength and 4uality. These
measurements are sent to the BT. in the 1easurement &eport and further on to the
B.# in the 1easurement &esult message where they are used for calculation of a
new BT. output power.
The measurements from the 1easurement &esult that are used in the 7ynamic BT.
+ower #ontrol algorithm are shown in Table ".
Table 1 Measurements used by BTS Power Control
D&"& (e#$rip"ion So)r$e
signal strength downlin! full set
8"9
1.
signal strength downlin! subset
8"9
1.
4uality downlin! full set
8"9
1.
4uality downlin! subset
8"9
1.
power level used by BT. BT.
7T? used by BT. or not BT.
8"9
The 1. performs signal strength and signal 4uality measurements on the
downlin!. 1easurements are made on the full set of frames 8full set9 as well as on
the subset of frames where there is always traffic 8subset9. 6hich of the sets will be
used depends on whether 7T? downlin! has been used or not during the
measurement period 8see also :ser 7escription 7iscontinuous Transmission 9.
The minimum time period between two consecutive power orders is controlled by the
parameter RE*INTD2. RE*INTD2 is set in units of .A##* periods 8'A0 ms9
between " and "0.
The BT. is able to change its output power on a time slot basis. The resolution in
output power is in steps of 2 dB and the ma,imum configurative change is $0 dB.
2or a single connection the ma,imum change per .A##* period is also $0 dB.
7own regulation can be limited to 2 dB per .A##* period by means of the parameter
STEP2I0D2. The default value of this parameter is >22.
The 7ynamic BT. +ower #ontrol algorithm consists of three stages@
". Preparation of input data
The output power level used in the latest measurement period is converted
from a relative scale. A decision is ta!en about which set of measurements
8full set or subset
8"9
9 to use. .ignal strength and 4uality are compensated for
fre4uency hopping and power control.
2. Filtering of measurements
1easurements are filtered in e,ponential non=linear filters in order to
eliminate variations of temporary nature.
$. Calculation of power order
Two power orders are calculated according to the algorithm using two
different parameter settings. The one with the ma,imum power order
8minimum attenuation9 is chosen. A number of constraints 8according to
hardware limitations and parameter settings9 are applied to the chosen power
order.
43232 Prep&r&"ion o- inp)" (&"&
The output power level used by the BT. 8T&:9 at .A##* period k is given by #$used
8see e4. "-9 as a number of 2 dB steps downwards from the configured output
power.
B"S %"&'( output power %k( %dB( B BSP4RT = 2 C #$used 8"9
%n the 1easurement &esult message the BT. sends information about whether 7T?
8see :ser 7escription 7iscontinuous Transmission 9 has been used during the
measurement period or not. This information is used by the B.# to decide which set
of downlin! measurements full set or subset to use on T#*s. The subset of
measurements should be used if 7T? was used during the measurement period by
the BT.. >n .7##*s the full set of measurements are always used.
To be able to use the desired 4uality 85DESD29 and the measured rxqual in the
calculations both must be converted to )*+ e,pressed in dB according to Table 2.
The mapping between rxqual and )*+ is non=linear due to that faster regulation is
needed for low and high rxqual values.
Table 2 Table with relations due to non-linear r!ual to C"# mapping
5DESD2 Ddt4uE 0 "0 20 $0 '0 -0 00 30
rxqual 0 " 2 $ ' - 0 3
)*+ DdBE 2$ "F "3 "- "$ "" A '
5DESD2 defines a desired value for rxqual that the regulation will aim for in the
regulation process and is given in dt4u 8deci=transformed 4uality units9. 7ifference
between dt4u and rxqual is a factor of ten. %f 5DESD2 is not e4ual to the values
given in Table 2 linear interpolation is used to realiGe )*+.
E,ample of 5DESD2 interpolation@
%f 5DESD2 B $- then )*+ B "-H8"$="-9C0- B "' dB
5DESD2 e,pressed in #/% is called Q,ES,$-dB which is the value used in the
calculations.
The B##* fre4uency is not subjected to power control. 6hen fre4uency hopping
8:ser 7escription 2re4uency *opping 9 is applied and the B##* fre4uency is
included in the hopping set the BT. output power will vary from burst to burst
depending on which fre4uency the burst is sent on. A compensation is necessary to
obtain a correct estimation of the measured signal strength see e4. 2.
SS"). B SSM = 8BSP4R-BST1P4R H2C#$used 9 / /! 829
where SS"). is the signal strength on the down regulated T#* carriers SSM the
measured signal strength reported by the 1. BSP4R is the BT. output power on
the B##* fre4uency in the <&+ 8see :ser 7escription <ocating 9 BST1P4R is the
BT. output power on the T#* fre4uencies in the <&+ 8see :ser 7escription
<ocating 9 and /! is the number of fre4uencies in the hopping fre4uency set. The
compensation is performed if the B##* fre4uency is included in the hopping set and
if the 1. measures on the B##* fre4uency. All signal strength measurements are
compensated before the filtering 8see .ection '.2.$9.
SS"). is also compensated for power control according to e4. $.
SS-)0M# B SS "). H 2C #$used 8$9
where SS-)0M# is the signal strength compensated for both down regulation and
fre4uency hopping.
%f the B.# does not receive the 1easurement &esult from a BT. the power
regulation is inhibited for that connection. At the same time the RE*INTD2 counting
is suspended. 6hen a 1easurement &esult is received again power regulation and
RE*INTD2 counting are resumed.
The signal strength filter will not be updated when signal strength results 8measured
in the 1easurement &eport9 are missing. This means that the output from the signal
strength filter is held until the ne,t value is received.
1issing 4uality values in the 1easurement &eport are set to the worst possible value.
This means that missing 4uality values are interpreted as rxqual B 3.
%f information about the BT. power level used is missing in the 1easurement &eport
the missing values are set to the latest calculated power order.
43233 6i%"erin o- 'e&#)re'en"#
The filtering for both signal strength and 4uality is done with e,ponential non=linear
filters. SSF+$"E&E, in e4. ' is the filtered signal strength compensated for down
regulation i.e. the signal strength that would have been received by the 1. if no
power control was used. SSF+$"E&E, is defined as@
SSF+$"E&E, %k( 1 2 3 SS-)0M#%k( 4 a 3 SSF+$"E&E, %k51( 8'9
where 2 and a 8 2 1 %15a(9 represent the filter coefficients SS-)0M# is the signal
strength compensated for both down regulation and fre4uency hopping and k is a
se4uence number. #oefficient a is given by the length of the e,ponential filter 8see
Appendi, A9. Each filter length 8$9 corresponds to a certain value of a and $ is
determined in the following way@
if SS-)0M#%k( 6 ..2%<TE&E7 8!="9

then $ 1 SS2END2

else $ 1 SS2END2 C UPD4NR.TIO * 177 8-9
where $ is rounded upwards to .A##* periods. 6hen the length e,ceeds $0 .A##*
periods the length is set to $0.
To enable calculating and sending the power order immediately after assignment or
handover the filter is initiated with SSF+$"E&E, %k51( B SSDESD2. This leads to that the
regulation starts immediately after the first valid 1easurement report.
(uality filtering is performed in the same way as for signal strength i.e. with
e,ponential non=linear filters. The filtering is done according to e4. 0.
QF+$"E&E, %k( 1 2 3 Q-)0M#%k( 4 a 3 QF+$"E&E, %k51( 809
where QF+$"E&E, is the filtered 4uality compensated for down regulation i.e. the
estimated #/% 8in dB9 that would have been received by the 1. if no power control
was used. Q-)0M# is the compensated 4uality part according to e4. 3.
Q-)0M# 1 &8Q'9$-dB H 2C#$used 839
where &8Q'9$-dB is the measured rxqual transformed to )*+ 8in dB9 according to
.ection '.2.2.
The coefficient a in e4. 0 above is given by the length of the e,ponential filter 8see
Appendi, A9 in the same way as for the signal strength case only that this time $ is
determined in the following way@
if Q-)0M#%k( 6 (2%<TE&E7 8!="9

then $ 1 52END2

else $ 1 52END2 C UPD4NR.TIO * 177 8A9
where $ is rounded upwards to .A##* periods.
To enable calculating and sending the power order immediately after assignment or
handover the 4uality filter is initiated with Q F+$"E&E, %k51( B Q,ES,$-dB.
43234 C&%$)%&"ion o- po7er or(er
The calculation of the power order is made in three steps@
". The two basic power orders are calculated.
2. #ertain constraints are applied.
$. The output data is finally converted to power order units before it is
transmitted to the BT. as a power order.
The actual information sent to the BT. is the power level #$used according to .ection
'.2.0.
The basic power orders for regulation 8pu1 and pu29 are given by the following
e,pression@
pui 1 i 3 8SSDESD2 5 SSF+$"E&E, 9 H i C 8(7E.7<IdB = (2%<TE&E7 9 8F9
i 1 1: 2


where the parameters i and i are defined as follows@
1 1 2CO0PD2 * 177 8pathloss compensation9 8"09
1 1 5CO0PD2 * 177 84uality compensation9 8""9
2 1 7.; 8pathloss compensation9 8"29
2 1 7.< 84uality compensation9 8"$9
The parameters i and i control the compensation of path loss and 4uality. The
parameters 1 and 1 can be set by means of 2CO0PD2 and 5CO0PD2 while
parameters 2 and 2 are fi,ed. These values have been optimised to get the
regulation towards the noise floor fast without jeopardising the 4uality. The setting of
2 and 2 is however not critical since these parameters merely serve as a limitation
for regulation close to the noise floor 8see .ection '.'9.
The two power orders are calculated simultaneously 8e4. F9 and the one with the
highest value 8minimum down regulation9 is used. This resulting power order is
called the unconstrained power order pu.
pu 1 ax%pu1 :pu2 ( 8"'9
43235 Po7er or(er $on#"r&in"#
7ynamic power range limitation is applied if the unconstrained power order is outside
the dynamic range@
The highest allowed power order is Gero 809. This corresponds to full power
according to BSP4RT .
The lowest allowed power order is given by the ma,imum of
a. =$0
b. BSP4RT = 81iminum BT. output power 8*6 limit99
c. BST1P4R - BSP4R0IN
;ote that even if the actual output power BSP4RT in the BT. is set to the minimum
value lower power levels can actually be achieved when BT. +ower #ontrol is active.
2or an &B.2000 ).1F00 1*G with minimum output power possible to configure
e4ual to $- dBm 8 BSP4RT@ $- to '3 dBm odd values only9 the lowest achievable
output power is '3 = $0 B "3 dBm when BT. power control is active.
4323, Con8er#ion o- o)"p)" (&"&
The new power order has to be converted from the internal dBm scale to #$used
representation before it can be transmitted to the BT.. %n reality this means that the
constrained power order is 4uantisiGed in steps of 2 dB according to@
#$used B %nt8=pu/2 9 D0.."-E
where #$used is the power level. #$used B 0 represents full power and #$used B "-
represents $0 dB down regulation.
The power is always truncated to a higher value 8lower down regulation9.
43237 Re)%&"ion pro$e()re
6hen a T#* connection is set up ma,imum configurative output power is always
used for e,ample in the following situations@
assignment of a T#*.
assignment failure or handover failure.
intra=cell handover and subcell change.
inter=cell handover.
7own regulation always starts after the first valid 1easurement report 8see .ection
'.2.$9. The response time for up regulation is controlled by the parameters 52END2
and SS2END2. 52END2 determines the response time on high interference and
SS2END2 on signal strength drops. The values of 52END2 and SS2END2
corresponds to a F0 J rise time of the e,ponential filters.
The response time for down regulation is determined by the e,pressions 52END2
CUPD4NR.TIO /"00 and SS2END2 CUPD4NR.TIO /"00 where UPD4NR.TIO
is the ratio between up= and down regulation speed. This results in a 4uic! up
regulation and a smooth down regulation.
UPD4NR.TIO is a B.# e,change property.
6hen a power order is sent it ta!es RE*INTD2 .A##* periods before the ne,t
power order can be sent. %f this power order differs from the previous one it is sent.
%f it does not differ from the previous one a new order is calculated every .A##*
period until a different power order is obtained. Then that order is sent and
RE*INTD2 .A##* periods must elapse before a new order can be sent again.
43238 0)%"i#%o" $on-i)r&"ion
%f the T#* channel is a part of a channel combination it can be either a main bi=
directional or a uni=directional channel.
%f the channel is a main channel in a multislot configuration the difference between
the computed power order and the previous power order must e,ceed a hysteresis of
two dB before a new power order is sent.
BT. power regulation on bi=directional channels is done independently of the other
channels.
2or uni=directional channels BT. +ower #ontrol is activated without starting normal
power regulation. ;o 1easurement reports will be received for uni=directional
channels. %nstead the BT. power value of the main channel is distributed to the uni=
directionals in the multislot configuration.
%n a multislot configuration only the main channel is affected by the handover power
boost see .ection '.$.
.ee further :ser 7escription #hannel Administration and :ser 7escription *igh
.peed #ircuit .witched 7ata 8*.#.79 .
4.3 Handover power boost
6ith *andover power boost the handover command is sent by the B.#/BT. to the
1. on ma,imum configurative power. *andover command includes information about
which uplin! power the 1. shall use in serving cell. The 1. then ac!nowledges the
handover command using ma,imum configurative power. %n case of a *> failure the
*> failure message is also sent on ma,imum configurative power. 6hen handover
power boost is triggered normal regulation is inhibited until the 1. has received the
handover command. The BT. ignores all BT. or 1. power orders sent by the B.# in
the serving cell until the 1. has ac!nowledged the handover command.
The speech/channel coding and interleaving in ).1 is very robust. A small number
of bursts/frames can be lost without speech degradation 8the number depends on
the error distribution9. +ower #ontrol should therefore also be used for connections
close to the cell border. .ince the signaling for the handover procedure 8e.g.
*andover #ommand9 is more critical and error=sensitive it should be sent on
ma,imum power in order to ma,imise the handover performance.
*>+B is useful when the .. 4uic!ly drops for e,ample when the 1. moves around a
street corner. %n this case due to the system delay and the limited up=regulation
speed the signaling would be sent on a too low power without *>+B. Thus in order
to ma,imise the probability of a successful handover *andover +ower Boost should
be used.
.ince the ma,imum configurative power is only used for a short time before the
handover activating *>+B has a minor impact on the overall interference level in the
networ!.
;ote that *>+B only improves the *> performance if power control is activated.
*andover power boost is activated by setting the state variable *+B.TATE.
4.4 Power regulation example
The most important thing for good comprehension of the BT. +ower #ontrol
algorithm is to understand how the two algorithms wor! in parallel and how different
settings of the available parameters will influence the regulation. The e4uations given
in .ection '.2.' can be used to find out how much the output power will be down
regulated for a certain signal strength and 4uality. But to get an overview picture of
the algorithm as a whole the dependence between signal strength 4uality and down
regulation must be understood.
A suitable way of studying these three 4uantities is in a three dimensional plot
describing the static behaviour of the algorithm. <et 4uality 8rxqual9 and signal
strength 8rxlev9 constitute a two dimensional plane that if BT. +ower #ontrol is not
active holds all traffic in the networ!. <et us now introduce down regulation in the
third dimension. %f BT. +ower #ontrol is activated the surface then becomes raised
for those values of rxqual and rxlev where the algorithm allows down regulation. As
an e,ample of this see 2igure $ which shows a principal figure for downregulation.
Figure ; #rincipal !igure !or downregulation
As it can be seen in 2igure $ the surface is raised for rxlev K "' and rxqual L -. The
down lin! for 1.s in this area is down regulated. The level of the down regulation is
shown on the G=a,is.
;ote that rxqual and rxlev in 2igure $ corresponds to the measured values collected
from the 1easurement &eport before any compensation has been done.
The static behaviour is calculated by assuming an initial down regulation of Gero and
that the path loss to the 1. is constant. Then for a certain value of initial &,<ev and
&,(ual 8a point in the ,=y plane9 the down regulation 8G=value9 settles after some
iterations. &epeating the calculations over the entire ,=y plane produces the graphs
above.
2or the recommended setting SSDESD2 and 5DESD2 are set to =F0 and $0
respectively. These two values define the point 8mar!ed " in 2igure $9 on the two
dimensional plane 84uality vs signal strength plane9 where the two separate planes
8mar!ed 2 and $ in 2igure $9 of the algorithm meet. +lane 2 regulates the 1.s
towards the noise floor 8low signal strength9 and plane $ towards 4uality. The
position of these planes in the three dimensional plot is determined by SSDESD2
and 5DESD2 or SSDESD2.6R and 5DESD2.6R for A1& +ower #ontrol see
.ection '.0. ;ote that figure $ shows the down regulation 7i"!o)" "!e "r)n$&"ion
of the power order to illustrate the two different algorithms 8planes9.
The parameters 5CO0PD2 and 2CO0PD2 decide about the angles of plane $
towards the two dimensional plane 84uality vs signal strength9. 5CO0PD2 sets the
angle along the 5DESD2 =value and 2CO0PD2 along the SSDESD2 =value. The
angles of plane 2 are fi,ed 8see .ection '.2.'9.
4.5 GPRS/EGPRS
)+&./E)+&. BT. +ower #ontrol is not supported in B.. &"0. 2ull output power is
used on all )+&./E)+&. channels.
4.6 AMR FR Power Control
43,31 *ener&%
Adaptive 1ulti &ate 8A1&9 is a speech and channel codec feature for full rate
channels that ma!es it possible to acheive improved speech 4uality for mobile
connection as well as better capacity see :ser 7escription Adaptive 1ulti &ate.
The A1& +ower #ontrol is used to minimiGe the interference in the radio networ! for
A1& 2& connections by reducing the output power of the A1& 2& connections.
43,32 .0R Po7er Con"ro% .%ori"!'
The A1& +ower #ontrol is based on the the 7ynamic BT. +ower #ontrol and 7ynamic
1. +ower #ontrol respectively see :ser 7escription 7ynamic 1. +ower #ontrol.
The A1& 2& speech coding is more robust and can perform well on low #/% levels.
This results in a possibility to down regulate the output power of A1& 2& connections
more than for non=A1& connections. This means that A1& 2& +ower control
parameter set can be set more aggressive than for non=A1& parameter setting. To
be able to set the parameter more aggressive for A1& 2& connections two new
parameters are implemented SSDESD2.6R and 5DESD2.6R in the 7ynamic BT.
+ower #ontrol. This means that the two power orders for A1& 2& connections are
calculated according to@
pui B i C 8SSDESD2.6R = SS F+$"E&E,9 H i C 8(7E.7<A2&IdB =
QF+$"E&E,9
i 1 1:2
8"-9
The Q,ES,$9F&-dB is 5DESD2.6R e,pressed in )*+ 8in dB9 according to .ection
'.2.2.
Then the remaining calculations in .ection '.2.' are the same.
4.7 Main changes in Ericsson GSM system R10/BSS R10
A1& +ower #ontrol is introduced.
5 Engineering guidelines
5.1 Interactions with other features
The gain of BT. +ower #ontrol increases in high capacity systems utiliGing a tight
fre4uency reuse. The primary application is a system that uses a combination of
7ynamic BT. +ower #ontrol 7ynamic 1. +ower #ontrol 2re4uency *opping and
7T?. The mutual interaction between these features provides a very powerful
method to increase system performance and thereby system capacity 8see further in
:ser 7escription 7iscontinuous Transmission :ser 7escription 2re4uency *opping
and :ser 7escription 7ynamic 1. +ower #ontrol 9.
+referably power regulation should be configured to be performed before an intra=
cell handover occurs. Also power regulation should be configured to always occur
before a bad 4uality urgency handover is attempted.
The desired regulation performance can be achieved through a well balanced
combination of the following@
the BT. +ower #ontrol parameters SSDESD2 and 5DESD2 that set the limits
for how close to the noise floor 8how low rxlev 9 and how high in interference
8how high rxqual 9 BT. down regulation can be performed.
the A1& 2& +ower #ontrol parameters SSDESD2.6R and 5DESD2.6R that
set the limits for how close to the noise floor 8how low rxlev9 and how high in
interference 8how high rxlev9 A1& 2& down regulation can be performed.
the 4uality compensation factor 5CO0PD2 and the path loss compensation
factor 2CO0PD2 that determine the angles of inclination of plane $ in 2igure
$.
the intra=cell handover area defined by 5O66SETD2 and 5O66SETD2.6R
8:ser 7escription %ntra #ell *andover 9.
the threshold triggering bad 4uality urgency handovers 52I0D2 and
52I0D2.6R8:ser 7escription <ocating 9.
the lengths of the locating 4uality filter 52ENSD 8:ser 7escription
<ocating 9 and the power control 4uality filter 52END2.
E,ample@
5DESD2 B $0 5O66SETD2 B - and 52I0D2 B --.
6ith this setting full power will always be used before an intra=cell or urgency
handover occurs.
5.2 Frequency planning aspects
%n order to utiliGe BT. +ower #ontrol in an optimum way it is preferable to use a
dedicated B##* band. This means that a B##* carrier is never used as a T#* carrier
and vice versa. The level of interference will in this way be decreased for all T#*
carriers. The B##* carriers are unaffected but will depending on the fre4uency
plan e,perience less adjacent channel interference from the down regulated T#*
carriers.
The B##* carriers can either be allocated in a contiguous B##* band or in a
staggered B##* band. %n a contiguous band carrier no. "="- can for e,ample be
used as B##* carriers whereas in a staggered band for e,ample every second
fre4uency can be used as B##* carriers 8"$-..$"9. There are pros and cons with
both these strategies. 2or BT. +ower #ontrol it is probably beneficial to use the
contigous B##* band since when using staggered B##* the down regulated T#*
carriers in between B##* carriers will suffer from adjacent channel interference from
the on full power always transmitting B##* carriers.
%n a networ! with tight reuse and if the B##* carriers are allocated in a contigous
band it is beneficial to use a more aggressive setting than the recommended e.g.
by increasing (#>1+7< to 0-.
5.3 Recommendations
53331 *ener&%
6hen attempting to decrease the downlin! co=channel and adjacent channel
interference in the system the BT. +ower #ontrol feature should be considered.
*owever since downlin! power regulation is never performed on B##* carriers the
impact of downlin! regulation will be greater in systems having three or more
Transceivers 8T&?s9 per cell.
6hen introducing BT. +ower #ontrol into a system it is recommended to begin with
moderate settings for the controlling parameters. The majority of the gain obtained
from using power control originates from the first decibels of regulation. Therefore a
good strategy is to down regulate many connections with a few dB. To get the best
effect it is important to reduce the BT. output power for as many connections as
possible also those connections to 1.s in the cell border regions being closest to
neighbouring users. 2or such 1.s however the interference levels are often
considerable and great care has to be ta!en not to degrade such calls.
53332 T)nin o- "!e &%ori"!'
The shown down regulation in 2igure $ and in the graphs in this section is a target
regulation that the algorithm aims for. %t is important to understand that the down
regulation is determined by the $o'+in&"ion of the parameters SSDESD2 and
5DESD2 or SSDESU2.6R and 5DESU2.6R for A1& 2& connections not one of the
parameters alone. .ince the environment changes 4uic!ly and the filtering of signal
strength and 4uality introduces delays the target down regulation is never reached
directly.
The recommended strategy 8see 2igure $9 is a good parameter setting that is not
particularly aggressive according to any regulation strategy. By changing the
parameters the regulation can be made more aggressive towards 4uality or signal
strength or combinations depending on the needs of the customer.
;ote it is not recommended to limit the down regulation with the parameter
BSP4R0IN. %f used the parameter will seriously limit the regulation towards
interference and also introduce a delay in the regulation algorithm. %nstead it is
recommended to use a more restrictive parameter setting e.g. according to 2igure 0.
To get a regulation that is more aggressive towards 4uality 8i.e. allows higher
interference before it regulates up to full power9 5DESD2 can be set to a higher
value e.g. 5DESD2 B '0. This will lead to if no other parameters are changed an
increase of the raised surface in 2igure $ that grows mainly to the right 8towards
worse 4uality9 but also a little bit to the left 8towards lower signal strength9. And if
the inclination of plane $ is left unchanged the result is also an upwards shift of this
plane. As an e,ample 2igure ' shows more aggressiveness towards 4uality signal
strength and down regulation compared to 2igure $. .till the only parameter that
has been changed is 5DESD2.
Figure < 9ggressive paraeter setting towards quality. "his setting is rather
aggressive: also towards signal strength and down regulation. 0nly paraeter
Q,ES,$ has 2een changed copared to recoended setting %see Figure ;(.
2or the parameter setting in 2igure ' the 4uality part of the power control will
always fully compensate for bad 4uality. 2ull power should be reached 4uic!ly in case
of high rxqual 8rxqual B - 0 or 39. This is in order to minimise the ris! of having
poor speech 4uality due to too much down regulation and also prevent unnecessary
intra=cell handovers and urgency handovers. *ence a shorter 4uality filter might be
needed 8see .ection -.$.'9.
As an e,ample of more aggressive regulation towards signal strength study 2igure
-. The only parameter changed compared to the recommended setting is SSDESD2
which is set to =F3. 2or this setting the downlin! for 1.s with rxlev B "0 and rxqual
B 0 is down regulated ' dB. ;ote that this might sound a bit more aggressive than it
is since at this low signal strength noise will impose occasional bit errors to the
connection. This will ma!e the regulation to MbounceM on the noise floor. 5ery few
connections will then manage to be as much as ' dB down regulated. %nstead most
connections will alter between 0 and 2 dB down regulation.
Figure = 9ggressive regulation towards low rxlev. MSs with low signal strength also
get down regulated in case o! good quality.
As an e,ample of a more careful regulation strategy see 2igure 0. This shows how
5DESD2 can be decreased compared to the recommended setting to get a very
moderate setting. 1a,imum "0 dB down regulation is then allowed.
Figure > Moderate paraeter setting. 0nly paraeter Q,ES,$ has 2een changed
copared to recoended setting %see !igure ;(
To compensate for this low setting of 5DESD2 one alternative could be to allow
more down regulation for those 1.s that have good 4uality. 2igure 3 show how this
can be done. The parameter 5CO0PD2 is increased and as a result the inclination of
plane $ is changed. The algorithm then allows more down regulation for 1.s with
good 4uality but is still careful when it comes to regulation towards bad 4uality.
Figure ? Moderate paraeter setting: ore aggressive towards down regulation.
Another way of changing the inclination of plane $ would be to change the path loss
compensation parameter 2CO0PD2 . %n 2igure A 2CO0PD2 has been set to "0
while all other parameters are the same as in 2igure 0. This results in that the 1.s
with high signal strength regardless of 4uality gets more down regulated.
Figure @ Moderate paraeter setting with path loss copensation !actor $)0M#,$
set to 17. "his results in a very aggressive 2ehaviour towards down regulation.
6ith the setting in 2igure A plane $ has become very large and dominating. This
setting has regulation towards signal strength and is more aggressive towards down
regulation. The ma,imum down regulation is here "A dB compared to "' dB for the
old recommended setting.
%mportant notice@ The default values given in Table $ are also ;>T recommended to
useN
53333 E/&'p%e# o- p&r&'e"er #e""in#
Below are some e,amples of static behaviour with different parameter settings
shown. The first figure illustrates the recommended setting and the rest of the
e,amples are sorted in order of increasing MaggressivenessM. These e,amples can all
be considered as recommendations for different MaggressivenessM levels.
Figure A "he recoended setting.
Figure 17
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 1;
Figure 1<
Figure 1=
Figure 1>
53334 6i%"er ")nin
)enerally for up regulation the BT. +ower #ontrol 4uality filter 52END2 can be set
to a value between 2 or -. This is fairly uncritical since instability in the control loop
has not shown to be a problem with this control strategy. Therefore it is better to
have a short power control 4uality filter since the response to bad 4uality then
becomes 4uic!. %t is not useful to set 52END2 B ". This would only lead to
e,tremely nervous behaviour resulting in less average down regulation. Tests have
shown that the difference in fast up regulation between 52END2 B 2 and 52END2 B
$ is insignificant.
%n order to avoid unstable behaviour the down regulation must be slow. Tests have
shown that a filter with lengths between 0 and F is good. >f course longer filters can
also be used. This would result in an even more cautious behaviour. The filter length
on the down regulation is determined by parameters 52END2 and UPD4NR.TIO.
UPD4NR.TIO sets how much longer the down regulation filter is compared to the
up regulation filter in percent. %t is recommended to use high UPD4NR.TIO
instead of using STEP2I0D2. As an e,ample of how the system reacts to bad
4uality see 2igure "3.
E,ample@
52END2 is 2 and UPD4NR.TIO is 000.
This gives 2 .A##* periods filter length for up regulation and 2C000J B 2C0 B "2
.A##* periods filter length for down regulation.
Figure 1? Step response to 2ad quality. #araeter setting Q$E/,$ 1 ; and
'#,B/&9"+0 1 ;77 was used. /ote the logarithic 2ehaviour o! the down
regulation.
The BT. +ower #ontrol signal strength filter is less critical. The regulation is done in
the same way as for 4uality filtering. The length of the up regulation filter is set by
the parameter SS2END2 and for the down regulation by SS2END2 and
UPD4NR.TIO. 2or up regulation SS2END2 B $ is recommended. The parameter
UPD4NR.TIO should be tuned for the 4uality filter. %f it is tuned for 4uality
filtering it is also valid for signal strength filtering. Thus for down regulation a filter
length of 0 to F is recommended but longer filter lengths can be used if necessary.
.ee also 2igure "A.
Figure 1@ Step response to low signal strength. #araeter setting SS$E/,$ 1 ;
and '#,B/&9"+0 1 ;77 was used. 9ggressive paraeter setting gave 1> dB down
regulation 2e!ore the low signal strength occurred. /ote the logarithic 2ehaviour o!
the down regulation.
RE*INTD2 should be set to RE*INTD2 B " in order to ma!e the up regulation
4uic! in bad 4uality situations.
6 Parameters
6.1 Main controlling parameters
SSDESD2 defines the target value for the desired signal strength measured by the
receiver in the 1. at the outer rim of the regulation area. The parameter is set per
subcell.
5DESD2 defines the target value for the desired 4uality level measured by the
receiver in the 1.. %t is measured in r,4ual units and transformed into dB units
before is used in the algorithm. The parameter is set per subcell.
SSDESD2.6R defines the target value for the desired signal strength for A1& 2&
connection measured by the receiver in the 1. at the outer rim of the regulation
area. The parameter is set per subcell.
5DESD2.6R defines the target value for the desired 4uality level for A1& 2&
connection measured by the receiver in the 1.. %t is measured in r,4ual units and
transformed into dB units before is used in the algorithm. The parameter is set per
subcell.
2CO0PD2 is the parameter that determines how much of the path loss that shall be
compensated for in the algorithm that regulates towards 4uality. The parameter is
set per subcell.
5CO0PD2 is the parameter that determines the weight of the 4uality compensation.
This parameter ranges between 0 and "00 and is set per subcell.
6.2 Parameters for special adjustments
RE*INTD2 defines the regulation interval. The parameter is set per subcell.
SS2END2 defines the length of the signal strength filter. The parameter is set per
subcell.
52END2 defines the length of the 4uality filter. The parameter is set per subcell.
SDCCHRE* is a switch for the regulation of .7##* channels. The switch is set per
subcell.
BSP4R0IN defines the minimum allowed output power for the BT. on the non=
B##* fre4uencies. The parameter is set per subcell.
BST1P4R defines the ma,imum allowed power level for BT.s in the current subcell.
The parameter is also used in <ocating see :ser 7escription <ocating.
BSC e/$!&ne proper"ie#
UPD4NR.TIO is the ratio between the up= and down regulation speed.
STEP2I0D2 is a switch that ma!es it possible to limit the down regulation to 2 dB
per .A##* period.
6.3 Value ranges and default values
Table $
P&r&'e"er n&'e
De-&)%"
8&%)e
Re$o''en(e(
8&%)e
9&%)e r&ne Uni"
SSDESD2
8"9
=30 =F0 =""0 to ='3 dBm
5DESD2 20 $0 0 to 30 dt4u
SSDESD2.6R
8"9
=30 =F0
8$9
=""0 to ='3 dBm
5DESD2.6R 20 '0
8$9
0 to 30 dt4u
2CO0PD2 30 - 0 to "00 J
5CO0PD2 $0 -- 0 to "00 J
RE*INTD2 - " " to "0
.A##*
periods
SS2END2 - $ $ to "-
.A##*
periods
52END2 A $ " to 20
.A##*
periods
SDCCHRE* >22 >; >; >22

BSP4R0IN =20 =20 =20 to H-0 dBm
BST1P4R
829

0 to A0 dBm
UPD4NR.TIO 200 $00 "00 to 300 J
STEP2I0D2 >22 >22 >; >22

8"9 SSDESD2 and SSDESD2.6R ta!es the corresponding positive value in 11<
commands and #;A.
829 The value of this parameter is highly dependent on the cell planning. ;o default
value is provided.
8$9 These recommended values are based on assumptions/simulations and have not
been live tested.
7 References
". :ser 7escription 7iscontinuous Transmission
2. :ser 7escription 2re4uency *opping
$. :ser 7escription <ocating
'. :ser 7escription %ntra #ell *andover
-. :ser 7escription 7ynamic 1. +ower #ontrol
0. :ser 7escription #hannel Administration
3. :ser 7escription *igh .peed #ircuit .witched 7ata 8*.#.79
A. :ser 7escription Adaptive 1ulti &ate
8 Appendix A
6i%"er $oe--i$ien"#
Table % Coefficients for the eponential filters used&
6i%"er %en"! ' 6i%"er $oe--i$ien" a
" 0."000
2 0.$"02
$ 0.'0'2
' 0.-02$
- 0.0$"0
0 0.0A"$
3 0.3"F3
A 0.3'FF
F 0.33'$
"0 0.3F'$
"" 0.A"""
"2 0.A2-'
"$ 0.A$33
"' 0.A'A$
"- 0.A-33
"0 0.A000
"3 0.A3$$
"A 0.A3FF
"F 0.AA-F
20 0.AF"$
2" 0.AF02
22 0.F000
2$ 0.F0'3
2' 0.F0A-
2- 0.F"20
20 0.F"-2
23 0.F"A$
2A 0.F2""
2F 0.F2$3
$0 0.F20"