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14th National Conference on Technological Trends | 30 - 31, August 2013 | College of Engineering Trivandrum

A direct modulation method for matrix converter with SVPWM at inverter and rectifier sides

Deepak Devassy M 1 , Shiny G 2 Dept. of Electronics and Communication College of Engineering Trivandrum.

deepakdevassy1987@gmail.com 1 , shinyjayan@yahoo.com 2

Abstract

A matrix converter(MC) is an AC to AC power converter topology that receives extensive research attention as a sub-

Many papers introduced in the field of MC [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] in recent years reflects the increasing interest in the field of matrix converter. Mainly two different methods are used for the modulation strategy of matrix converter. The

stitute to conventional AC-DC-AC converters. Unlike a con-

first

one is indirect matrix converter modulation strategy us-

ventional inverter, MC does not contain any bulky life lim-

ing

a rectifier side and inverter side and using a fictitious

ited capacitor which in turn increases the reliability of MC.

DC

link between them. This has considerable advantages

Applying the concept of space vector pulse width modula- tion at rectifier and inverter side and combining the duty

such as high voltage transfer ratio without adding the third harmonics, operation under unbalanced voltage conditions

ratios of both sides we can easily realize a MC. Instead of

and

a simple control algorithm [7]. The second method

directly finding the duty ratios of MC using conventional equations, we can find the duty ratios with reduced com- plexity. The goals of this paper are to reduce the compu- tational complexity in finding the duty ratios of direct ma- trix converter and to regulate the output current with re- duced ripple. The theory and simulation results presented

is direct matrix converter strategy which was introduced by M. Venturini and Alesina [8]. Output voltage ripple and current ripple are the disadvantages of direct matrix con- verter. In this paper, a short introduction of existing three phase direct matrix converter principle and its timing calcu- lation is given(considering timing constraints and switch-

in this paper demonstrate the validity of the proposed con-

ing

states). The new proposed method is given with the

trol method. The results confirm the improved performance

timing calculation and switching state selection. A sys-

of MC with reduced current ripple at the output side.

tem

level simulation and study has been conducted in MAT-

1. Introduction

Matrix converter is a direct power converter topology which is used to convert AC input voltage into variable frequency and magnitude output voltage with controllable power factor. Matrix converter concept was first put for- ward by M. Venturini and Alesina in 1980 [1]. The most desirable features of matrix converter are the following:

Simple and compact power circuit without life limiting bulky Capacitors.

Generation of load with arbitrary amplitude and fre- quency.

Sinusoidal input and output current.

Operation with unity power factor for load.

Bidirectional power flow and longer life span.

LAB/SIMULINK to verify the validity of the method.

longer life span. LAB/SIMULINK to verify the validity of the method. Figure 1. Conventional Direct Matrix

Figure 1. Conventional Direct Matrix Converter

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14th National Conference on Technological Trends | 30 - 31, August 2013 | College of Engineering Trivandrum

Rotating Vectors

 

Stationary Vectors

 

Zero vectors

abc

cba

abb(1)

baa(10)

bab(4)

aba(13)

bba(7)

aab(16)

aaa

cab

acb

bcc(2 )

cbb(11)

cbc(5)

bcb(14)

ccb(8)

bbc(17)

bbb

bca

bac

caa(3)

acc(12)

aca(6)

cac(15)

aac(9)

cca(18)

ccc

Figure 2. Switching Voltage Vectors

2. Conventional Direct Matrix converter

2.1. Switching Vector analysis

A conventional matrix converter contains nine bi- directional switches between input source and load. So it has 2 9 different switching states. A matrix converter con- sists of 3 different sources and these sources must never be short circuited. Since the nature of the load is inductive, the output must be never left open. Taking these conditions into consideration, the effective switching states will be reduced to 27 i.e. in a direct matrix converter there are 27 effective switching combinations. With respect to the position of the switches, the vectors can be divided into rotating, station- ary and zero vectors which are represented in fig. 2. The switching vector state abb representing load 1 is connected to phase a, load 2 is connected to phase b and load 3 is con- nected to phase b.

connected to phase b and load 3 is con- nected to phase b. Figure 3. Output

Figure 3. Output voltage space vectors

For the space vector modulation scheme we have to de- fine the space vectors in the rectifier and inverter sides. In- put and output phase voltage and current space vectors are defined in the following equations [9],

V ip = 2/3(v a + v b e j(2π/3) + v c e j(4π/3) )

(1)

V op = 2/3(v A + v B e j(2π/3) + v C e j(4π/3) )

(2)

π / 3 ) + v C e j ( 4 π / 3 ) )

Figure 4. Input current space vectors

I ip = 2/3(i a + i b e j(2π/3) + i c e j(4π/3) )

(3)

I op = 2/3(i A + i B e j(2π/3) + i C e j(4π/3) )

(4)

Where V ip is input phase voltage, V op is output phase voltage, I ip is input phase current and I op is output phase current. Combining the space vectors in rectifier side and inverter side and switching the stationary vectors we will obtain resultant vectors in complex planes with varying am- plitudes and frequencies. The output voltage space vectors and input current space vectors are shown in fig. 3 and 4. By combining the input current and output voltage space vectors we obtain the PWM signals required to drive the

MC.

2.2. Time interval calculation using space vector approach

In the application of space vector modulation in MC, we have to find separately the input current and output voltage space vectors(shown in fig. 5 and 6). The input current angle ip is obtained by the equation [ [10],

(5)

where w ip t = 0 is defined as the positive zero crossing of the phase A input voltage.Similarly the output voltage angle op is obtained by the equation

ip = mod(w ip t, π/3)

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14th National Conference on Technological Trends | 30 - 31, August 2013 | College of Engineering Trivandrum

= mod(w op t + π/6, π/3) (6)

where w 0p t = 0 is defined as the zero crossing of the output voltage phase a. The positions of output voltage and input current space vectors are at arbitrary points in space. Therefore, in order to combine both we will have to divide both the current and voltage vectors. The output voltage reference V op can be divided into V op1 and V op2 [11].

op

V o p 1 and V o p 2 [11]. ∆ o p ∗ ∗ Figure

Figure 5. Voltage Space vector

V op1 = |V op |.sin(π/3 op ).2/ 3

= δ 1 .cos(∆ op π/3)|V op |.2/ 3

δ 2 .cos(∆ op π)|V op |.2/ 3

V op2 = |V op |.sin(∆ op ).2/ 3

= δ 3 .cos(∆ op π/3)|V op |.2/ 3

(7)

π)|V op |.2/ 3 (8)

where δ 1,2,3,4 are on time durations of the corresponding applied vectors. In each sector the voltage corresponds to two stationary vectors and a zero vector. The input current vectors are also considered likewise,

δ 4 .cos(∆ op

I ip1 = |I ip |.sin(π/3 ip ).2/ 3

= δ 2 .i x .2/ 3 δ 4 .i y .2/ 3

(9)

I ip2

= |I ip |.sin(∆ ip ).2/ 3

= δ 1 .i x .2/ 3 δ 3 .i y .2/ 3 (10)

In the equation above i x and i y are instantaneous values of output phase currents. Considering output currents as symmetrically distributed, the relationship between i x and i y are

Figure 6. Current Space Vector
Figure 6. Current Space Vector

i y = i x .sin(w op t ± 2π/3)/sin(w op t) (11)

By comparing the equations (7), (8), (9), (10) and (11) we will obtain the value of δ 1,2,3,4 which is given by

δ 1 = (2/ 3).(|V op |/|V ip |).sin(∆ ip ).sin(π/3 op )

(12)

δ 2 = (2/ 3).(|V op |/|V ip |).sin(π/3ip ).sin(π/3op )

(13)

δ 3 = (2/ 3).(|V op |/|V ip |).sin(∆ ip ).sin(∆ op )

(14)

δ 4 = (2/ 3).(|V op |/|V ip |).sin(π/3

δ 0 = 1 (δ 1 + δ 2 + δ 3

ip ).sin(∆ op )

 

(15)

+

δ 4 )

(16)

From the above equations we can find which vector has to be activated and how long each vector has to be activated

to obtain the corresponding output vector. Condition for the

time constraints is δ 1,2,3,4 >= 0. As seen from the recti-

fier side the two lines with maximum line to line voltage is switched according to the condition of the correspond-

ing output inverter side vector position. In addition to that

inverter side vectors are switched to get the corresponding rotating current vector at the input.

3. Modified Direct Matrix converter

The main idea behind modified approach towards the

MC is to separately apply the space vector modulation

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14th National Conference on Technological Trends | 30 - 31, August 2013 | College of Engineering Trivandrum

REC

 

Sector 1

   

Sector 2

   

Sector 3

   

Sector 4

   

Sector 5

   

Sector 6

 

INV

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

 

1 abb

cbb

aab

ccb

acc

abb

aac

aab

bcc

acc

bbc

aac

baa

bcc

bba

bbc

caa

baa

cca

bba

cbb

caa

ccb

cca

 

2 aab

ccb

bab

bcb

aac

aab

cac

bab

bbc

aac

cbc

cac

bba

bbc

aba

cbc

cca

bba

aca

aba

ccb

cca

bcb

aca

 

3 bab

bcb

baa

bcc

cac

bab

caa

baa

cbc

cac

cbb

caa

aba

cbc

abb

cbb

aca

aba

acc

abb

bcb

aca

bcc

acc

 

4 baa

bcc

bba

bbc

caa

baa

cca

bba

cbb

caa

ccb

cca

abb

cbb

aab

ccb

acc

abb

aac

aab

bcc

acc

bbc

aac

 

5 bba

bbc

aba

cbc

cca

bba

aca

aba

ccb

cca

bcb

aca

aab

ccb

bab

bcb

aac

aab

cac

bab

bbc

aac

cbc

cac

 

6 aba

cbc

abb

cbb

aca

aba

acc

abb

bcb

aca

bcc

acc

bab

bcb

baa

bcc

cac

bab

caa

baa

cbc

cac

cbb

caa

Figure 7. Voltage Vectors of matrix converter

method to inverter side and rectifier side, then combine their respective switching stages to obtain the final gating signals to drive the MC. By using traditional SVM in rectifier side, we can consider the rectifier side as a current source recti- fier(CSR). In space vector diagram the input current vector that is to be switched is shown in fig. 4. In the space vector diagram the synthesis of the refer- ence vector is shown in fig. 6. The stationary vectors (I 0 - I 6 ) correspond to the positions of corresponding switching vectors of rectifier. The input CSR side is designed in such a way that the total input DC-link voltage is constant over a time period. For a particular sampling time period the ref- erence time is synthesized by two active vectors and a zero vector. The duty ratios are calculated by,

r u = m c sin(π/3 ip )

r v =

m c sin(∆ ip )

(17)

(18)

(19)

where m c is the rectifier modulation index normally set to unity to make the rectifier side output voltage maximum. In this case we are giving the modulation index 1. The zero vectors do not contribute to DC link voltage. So the DC link voltage can be written as,

r 0 = 1 d u d v

(20)

By switching the corresponding vectors we can give a si- nusoidal input current. The three phase voltages gives bal- anced DC link output voltage V DClink at the rectifier side. This constant voltage at the input side of inverter is the pre- requisite of designing the Voltage source inverter(VSI). The different switching states of the VSI are listed in fig. 3. In the space vector diagram in fig. 5, p and n represents the different output voltages that have to be connected corre- sponding to the cycle of operation. p represents the DC link voltage that must be connected to the output load and n rep- resents the DC link voltage that must be open circuited. The switching states of the corresponding vectors are found out by

V DClink = V ll1 r u + V ll2 r v

I u = m b sin(π/3 op )

(21)

I v = m b sin(∆ op )

(22)

I 0 = 1 I u I v

(23)

In the equations (21) and (22) m b represents the modu- lation index for the inverter side which will define the output voltage of the matrix converter.

3.1. Switching state combination

In the previous section we found the duty ratios of in- verter side and rectifier side separately to define CSR, VSI part. In the coming section we are combining the CSR and VSI timing signals. The duty ratios of the corresponding CSR section and VSI section are converted into the timing diagram in such a way that the zero vectors must reach at the ends of the timing diagram in each sampling time .

Rectifier side

Inverter Side

Switching State

0

0

5

0

1

5

0

2

5

1

0

5

1

1

2

1

2

4

2

0

5

2

1

1

2

2

3

Table 1. Switching state comparison table

After that we will combine the switching states of the corresponding VSI and CSR section by comparing the cor- responding switching times. The switching time for a time sample must be designed in such a way that the zero vec- tor switching times should come at the beginning and at the end. This way, when we compare the switching times the

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14th National Conference on Technological Trends | 30 - 31, August 2013 | College of Engineering Trivandrum

zero vectors of inverter and rectifier side will coincide and the effective voltage transfer ratio will be as maximum as possible. The corresponding switching states are compared and the switching states that have to be switched are ob- tained. Table 1 will show the corresponding states that have to be switched to obtain AC at output of the matrix con- verter. In table 1 switching state 5 corresponds to zero vec- tor in matrix converter. According to the switching states that are represented in fig. 7, the output states are switched and the corresponding output current and voltage wave forms are obtained.

4. Simulation results

A three phase source and R-L load driven by the

proposed method is simulated using the software MAT- LAB/Simulink. The PWM algorithm to drive the nine bi-directional switches are obtained. The obtained volt- age and current waveforms are plotted. The input voltage sources are three 50Hz 230V 120 degree phase shifted volt- age sources. The proposed method generates a sinusoidal output current with reduced ripple(fig. 8) and a sinusoidal input current(fig. 11). The output phase voltage(fig. 10) and line voltage(fig. 9) are also plotted.

10) and line voltage(fig. 9) are also plotted. Figure 8. Output current waveform 5. Conclusion and

Figure 8. Output current waveform

5. Conclusion and Future Works

In this paper the conventional direct MC has been ana-

lyzed and a modulation method to find the duty ratios of the MC has been proposed. The proposed method’s design flow is divided into two steps. First, derive the duty ratios of the rectifier side and inverter side and then combine them to produce the PWM signals to drive the MC. The new method

for the matrix converter is simulated and results confirm that the output current harmonics and THD are reduced. But in the proposed scheme the switching frequency as well as switching losses are more than in the existing methods.

as switching losses are more than in the existing methods. Figure 9. Output line voltage waveform

Figure 9. Output line voltage waveform

the existing methods. Figure 9. Output line voltage waveform Figure 10. Output phase voltage waveform Figure

Figure 10. Output phase voltage waveform

voltage waveform Figure 10. Output phase voltage waveform Figure 11. input current waveform References [1] M.

Figure 11. input current waveform

References

[1] M. Venturini and A. Alesina, “The generalized transformer:

A new bidirectional sinusoidal waveform frequency con- verter with continuously adjustable input power factor,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, pp. 242–252, 1980.

[2] Johan W. Kolar Jose Rodriguez, Marco Rivera and Patrick W. Wheeler, “A review of control and modulation methods for matrix converters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 58–69.

[3] Lee Empringham Alejandro Weinstein Jose Rodriguez, Jon C. Clare and Patrick W. Wheeler, “Matrix converters: A technology review,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUS- TRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 276–288.

[4]

BinWu Jorge O. Ponttand Samir Kouro Jose Rodriguez, Stef- fen Bernet, “Multilevel voltage-source-converter topologies for industrial medium-voltage drives,” IEEE TRANSAC-

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14th National Conference on Technological Trends | 30 - 31, August 2013 | College of Engineering Trivandrum

TIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 54, no. 6, pp.

2930–2944.

[5] Angelo Tani Domenico Casadei, Giovanni Serra and Luca Zarri, “Matrix converter modulation strategies: A new gen- eral approach based on space-vector representation of the switch state,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 370–381.

[6] Roberto A. Petrocelli, “New modulation method for matrix converters,” A thesis submitted to the University of Manch- ester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., May.

[7] Dewei (David) Xu Jiacheng Wang, Bin Wu and Navid R. Zargari, “Indirect space vector based modulation techniques for high-power multi-modular matrix converters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 3060–3071, May.

[8] F. Blaabjerg P. Wheeler J. Clare J. Rodriguez, E. Silva and J. Pontt, “Matrix converter controlled with the direct trans- fer function approach: Analysis, modelling and simulation,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 63–85.

[9]

Amit Kumar Gupta and Ashwin M. Khambadkone, “A space vector pwm scheme for multilevel inverters based on two- level space vector pwm,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IN- DUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1631–1639.

[10] Huber and D. Borojevic, “Space vector modulated three- phase to three-phase matrix converter with input power fac- tor correction,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1234–1246.

[11] Allan Holm Jorgensen Stig Munk-Nielsen Lars Helle, Kim B. Larsen and Frede Blaabjerg, “Evaluation of modulation schemes for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 158–171.

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