14th National Conference on Technological Trends  30  31, August 2013  College of Engineering Trivandrum
A direct modulation method for matrix converter with SVPWM at inverter and rectiﬁer sides
Deepak Devassy M ^{1} , Shiny G ^{2} Dept. of Electronics and Communication College of Engineering Trivandrum.
deepakdevassy1987@gmail.com ^{1} , shinyjayan@yahoo.com ^{2}
Abstract A matrix converter(MC) is an AC to AC power converter topology that receives extensive research attention as a sub 
Many papers introduced in the ﬁeld of MC [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] in recent years reﬂects the increasing interest in the ﬁeld of matrix converter. Mainly two different methods are used for the modulation strategy of matrix converter. The 

stitute to conventional ACDCAC converters. Unlike a con 
ﬁrst 
one is indirect matrix converter modulation strategy us 
ventional inverter, MC does not contain any bulky life lim 
ing 
a rectiﬁer side and inverter side and using a ﬁctitious 
ited capacitor which in turn increases the reliability of MC. 
DC 
link between them. This has considerable advantages 
Applying the concept of space vector pulse width modula tion at rectiﬁer and inverter side and combining the duty 
such as high voltage transfer ratio without adding the third harmonics, operation under unbalanced voltage conditions 

ratios of both sides we can easily realize a MC. Instead of 
and 
a simple control algorithm [7]. The second method 
directly ﬁnding the duty ratios of MC using conventional equations, we can ﬁnd the duty ratios with reduced com plexity. The goals of this paper are to reduce the compu tational complexity in ﬁnding the duty ratios of direct ma trix converter and to regulate the output current with re duced ripple. The theory and simulation results presented 
is direct matrix converter strategy which was introduced by M. Venturini and Alesina [8]. Output voltage ripple and current ripple are the disadvantages of direct matrix con verter. In this paper, a short introduction of existing three phase direct matrix converter principle and its timing calcu lation is given(considering timing constraints and switch 

in this paper demonstrate the validity of the proposed con 
ing 
states). The new proposed method is given with the 
trol method. The results conﬁrm the improved performance 
timing calculation and switching state selection. A sys 

of MC with reduced current ripple at the output side. 
tem 
level simulation and study has been conducted in MAT 
1. Introduction
Matrix converter is a direct power converter topology which is used to convert AC input voltage into variable frequency and magnitude output voltage with controllable power factor. Matrix converter concept was ﬁrst put for ward by M. Venturini and Alesina in 1980 [1]. The most desirable features of matrix converter are the following:
• Simple and compact power circuit without life limiting bulky Capacitors.
• Generation of load with arbitrary amplitude and fre quency.
• Sinusoidal input and output current.
• Operation with unity power factor for load.
• Bidirectional power ﬂow and longer life span.
LAB/SIMULINK to verify the validity of the method.
Figure 1. Conventional Direct Matrix Converter
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14th National Conference on Technological Trends  30  31, August 2013  College of Engineering Trivandrum
Rotating Vectors 
Stationary Vectors 
Zero vectors 

abc 
cba 
abb(1) 
baa(10) 
bab(4) 
aba(13) 
bba(7) 
aab(16) 
aaa 
cab 
acb 
bcc(2 ) 
cbb(11) 
cbc(5) 
bcb(14) 
ccb(8) 
bbc(17) 
bbb 
bca 
bac 
caa(3) 
acc(12) 
aca(6) 
cac(15) 
aac(9) 
cca(18) 
ccc 
Figure 2. Switching Voltage Vectors
2. Conventional Direct Matrix converter
2.1. Switching Vector analysis
A conventional matrix converter contains nine bi directional switches between input source and load. So it has 2 ^{9} different switching states. A matrix converter con sists of 3 different sources and these sources must never be short circuited. Since the nature of the load is inductive, the output must be never left open. Taking these conditions into consideration, the effective switching states will be reduced to 27 i.e. in a direct matrix converter there are 27 effective switching combinations. With respect to the position of the switches, the vectors can be divided into rotating, station ary and zero vectors which are represented in ﬁg. 2. The switching vector state abb representing load 1 is connected to phase a, load 2 is connected to phase b and load 3 is con nected to phase b.
Figure 3. Output voltage space vectors
For the space vector modulation scheme we have to de ﬁne the space vectors in the rectiﬁer and inverter sides. In put and output phase voltage and current space vectors are deﬁned in the following equations [9],
_{V} ip _{=} _{2}_{/}_{3}_{(}_{v} a _{+} _{v} b _{e} j(2π/3) _{+} _{v} c _{e} j(4π/3) _{)}
_{(}_{1}_{)}
V _{o}_{p} = 2/3(v _{A} + v _{B} e ^{j}^{(}^{2}^{π}^{/}^{3}^{)} + v _{C} e ^{j}^{(}^{4}^{π}^{/}^{3}^{)} )
(2)
Figure 4. Input current space vectors
I _{i}_{p} = 2/3(i _{a} + i _{b} e ^{j}^{(}^{2}^{π}^{/}^{3}^{)} + i _{c} e ^{j}^{(}^{4}^{π}^{/}^{3}^{)} ) 
(3) 
I _{o}_{p} = 2/3(i _{A} + i _{B} e ^{j}^{(}^{2}^{π}^{/}^{3}^{)} + i _{C} e ^{j}^{(}^{4}^{π}^{/}^{3}^{)} ) 
(4) 
Where V _{i}_{p} is input phase voltage, V _{o}_{p} is output phase voltage, I _{i}_{p} is input phase current and I _{o}_{p} is output phase current. Combining the space vectors in rectiﬁer side and inverter side and switching the stationary vectors we will obtain resultant vectors in complex planes with varying am plitudes and frequencies. The output voltage space vectors and input current space vectors are shown in ﬁg. 3 and 4. By combining the input current and output voltage space vectors we obtain the PWM signals required to drive the
MC.
2.2. Time interval calculation using space vector approach
In the application of space vector modulation in MC, we have to ﬁnd separately the input current and output voltage space vectors(shown in ﬁg. 5 and 6). The input current angle ∆ _{i}_{p} is obtained by the equation [ [10],
(5)
where w _{i}_{p} t = 0 is deﬁned as the positive zero crossing of the phase A input voltage.Similarly the output voltage angle ∆ _{o}_{p} is obtained by the equation
∆ _{i}_{p} = mod(w _{i}_{p} t, π/3)
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14th National Conference on Technological Trends  30  31, August 2013  College of Engineering Trivandrum
= mod(w _{o}_{p} t + π/6, π/3) (6)
where w _{0}_{p} t = 0 is deﬁned as the zero crossing of the output voltage phase a. The positions of output voltage and input current space vectors are at arbitrary points in space. Therefore, in order to combine both we will have to divide both the current and voltage vectors. The output voltage reference V _{o}_{p} can be divided into V _{o}_{p}_{1} and V _{o}_{p}_{2} [11].
∆ _{o}_{p}
∗
∗
Figure 5. Voltage Space vector
V _{o}_{p}_{1} = V _{o}_{p} .sin(π/3 − ∆ _{o}_{p} ).2/ ^{√} 3
∗
= δ _{1} .cos(∆ _{o}_{p} − π/3)V _{o}_{p} .2/ ^{√} 3
− δ _{2} .cos(∆ _{o}_{p} − π)V _{o}_{p} .2/ ^{√} 3
V _{o}_{p}_{2} = V _{o}_{p} .sin(∆ _{o}_{p} ).2/ ^{√} 3
= δ _{3} .cos(∆ _{o}_{p} − π/3)V _{o}_{p} .2/ ^{√} 3
∗
(7)
− π)V _{o}_{p} .2/ ^{√} 3 (8)
where δ _{1}_{,}_{2}_{,}_{3}_{,}_{4} are on time durations of the corresponding applied vectors. In each sector the voltage corresponds to two stationary vectors and a zero vector. The input current vectors are also considered likewise,
− δ _{4} .cos(∆ _{o}_{p}
I _{i}_{p}_{1} = I _{i}_{p} .sin(π/3 − ∆ _{i}_{p} ).2/ ^{√} 3
∗
= δ _{2} .i _{x} .2/ ^{√} 3 − δ _{4} .i _{y} .2/ ^{√} 3
(9)
I _{i}_{p}_{2}
= I _{i}_{p} .sin(∆ _{i}_{p} ).2/ ^{√} 3
∗
= δ _{1} .i _{x} .2/ ^{√} 3 − δ _{3} .i _{y} .2/ ^{√} 3 (10)
In the equation above i _{x} and i _{y} are instantaneous values of output phase currents. Considering output currents as symmetrically distributed, the relationship between i _{x} and i _{y} are
i _{y} = i _{x} .sin(w _{o}_{p} t ± 2π/3)/sin(w _{o}_{p} t) (11)
By comparing the equations (7), (8), (9), (10) and (11) we will obtain the value of δ _{1}_{,}_{2}_{,}_{3}_{,}_{4} which is given by
δ _{1} = (2/ ^{√} 3).(V _{o}_{p} /V _{i}_{p} ).sin(∆ _{i}_{p} ).sin(π/3 − ∆ _{o}_{p} )
∗
(12)
δ _{2} = (2/ ^{√} 3).(V _{o}_{p} /V _{i}_{p} ).sin(π/3−∆ _{i}_{p} ).sin(π/3−∆ _{o}_{p} )
(13)
∗
δ _{3} = (2/ ^{√} 3).(V _{o}_{p} /V _{i}_{p} ).sin(∆ _{i}_{p} ).sin(∆ _{o}_{p} )
∗
(14)
δ _{4} = (2/ ^{√} 3).(V _{o}_{p} /V _{i}_{p} ).sin(π/3
∗
δ _{0} = 1 − (δ _{1} + δ _{2} + δ _{3}
− 
∆ _{i}_{p} ).sin(∆ _{o}_{p} ) 

(15) 

+ 
δ _{4} ) 
(16) 
From the above equations we can ﬁnd which vector has to be activated and how long each vector has to be activated
to obtain the corresponding output vector. Condition for the
time constraints is δ _{1}_{,}_{2}_{,}_{3}_{,}_{4} >= 0. As seen from the recti
ﬁer side the two lines with maximum line to line voltage is switched according to the condition of the correspond
ing output inverter side vector position. In addition to that
inverter side vectors are switched to get the corresponding rotating current vector at the input.
3. Modiﬁed Direct Matrix converter
The main idea behind modiﬁed approach towards the
MC is to separately apply the space vector modulation
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14th National Conference on Technological Trends  30  31, August 2013  College of Engineering Trivandrum
REC 
Sector 1 
Sector 2 
Sector 3 
Sector 4 
Sector 5 
Sector 6 

INV 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 abb 
cbb 
aab 
ccb 
acc 
abb 
aac 
aab 
bcc 
acc 
bbc 
aac 
baa 
bcc 
bba 
bbc 
caa 
baa 
cca 
bba 
cbb 
caa 
ccb 
cca 

2 aab 
ccb 
bab 
bcb 
aac 
aab 
cac 
bab 
bbc 
aac 
cbc 
cac 
bba 
bbc 
aba 
cbc 
cca 
bba 
aca 
aba 
ccb 
cca 
bcb 
aca 

3 bab 
bcb 
baa 
bcc 
cac 
bab 
caa 
baa 
cbc 
cac 
cbb 
caa 
aba 
cbc 
abb 
cbb 
aca 
aba 
acc 
abb 
bcb 
aca 
bcc 
acc 

4 baa 
bcc 
bba 
bbc 
caa 
baa 
cca 
bba 
cbb 
caa 
ccb 
cca 
abb 
cbb 
aab 
ccb 
acc 
abb 
aac 
aab 
bcc 
acc 
bbc 
aac 

5 bba 
bbc 
aba 
cbc 
cca 
bba 
aca 
aba 
ccb 
cca 
bcb 
aca 
aab 
ccb 
bab 
bcb 
aac 
aab 
cac 
bab 
bbc 
aac 
cbc 
cac 

6 aba 
cbc 
abb 
cbb 
aca 
aba 
acc 
abb 
bcb 
aca 
bcc 
acc 
bab 
bcb 
baa 
bcc 
cac 
bab 
caa 
baa 
cbc 
cac 
cbb 
caa 
Figure 7. Voltage Vectors of matrix converter
method to inverter side and rectiﬁer side, then combine their respective switching stages to obtain the ﬁnal gating signals to drive the MC. By using traditional SVM in rectiﬁer side, we can consider the rectiﬁer side as a current source recti ﬁer(CSR). In space vector diagram the input current vector that is to be switched is shown in ﬁg. 4. In the space vector diagram the synthesis of the refer ence vector is shown in ﬁg. 6. The stationary vectors (I _{0}  I _{6} ) correspond to the positions of corresponding switching vectors of rectiﬁer. The input CSR side is designed in such a way that the total input DClink voltage is constant over a time period. For a particular sampling time period the ref erence time is synthesized by two active vectors and a zero vector. The duty ratios are calculated by,
r _{u} = m _{c} sin(π/3 − ∆ _{i}_{p} )
r _{v} =
m _{c} sin(∆ _{i}_{p} )
(17)
(18)
(19)
where m _{c} is the rectiﬁer modulation index normally set to unity to make the rectiﬁer side output voltage maximum. In this case we are giving the modulation index 1. The zero vectors do not contribute to DC link voltage. So the DC link voltage can be written as,
r _{0} = 1 − d _{u} − d _{v}
(20)
By switching the corresponding vectors we can give a si nusoidal input current. The three phase voltages gives bal anced DC link output voltage V _{D}_{C}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{k} at the rectiﬁer side. This constant voltage at the input side of inverter is the pre requisite of designing the Voltage source inverter(VSI). The different switching states of the VSI are listed in ﬁg. 3. In the space vector diagram in ﬁg. 5, p and n represents the different output voltages that have to be connected corre sponding to the cycle of operation. p represents the DC link voltage that must be connected to the output load and n rep resents the DC link voltage that must be open circuited. The switching states of the corresponding vectors are found out by
V DClink = V ll1 ∗ r u + V ll2 ∗ r v
I _{u} = m _{b} sin(π/3 − ∆ _{o}_{p} ) 
(21) 
I _{v} = m _{b} sin(∆ _{o}_{p} ) 
(22) 
I _{0} = 1 − I _{u} − I _{v} 
(23) 
In the equations (21) and (22) m _{b} represents the modu lation index for the inverter side which will deﬁne the output voltage of the matrix converter.
3.1. Switching state combination
In the previous section we found the duty ratios of in verter side and rectiﬁer side separately to deﬁne CSR, VSI part. In the coming section we are combining the CSR and VSI timing signals. The duty ratios of the corresponding CSR section and VSI section are converted into the timing diagram in such a way that the zero vectors must reach at the ends of the timing diagram in each sampling time .
Rectiﬁer side 
Inverter Side 
Switching State 
0 
0 
5 
0 
1 
5 
0 
2 
5 
1 
0 
5 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
4 
2 
0 
5 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
Table 1. Switching state comparison table
After that we will combine the switching states of the corresponding VSI and CSR section by comparing the cor responding switching times. The switching time for a time sample must be designed in such a way that the zero vec tor switching times should come at the beginning and at the end. This way, when we compare the switching times the
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14th National Conference on Technological Trends  30  31, August 2013  College of Engineering Trivandrum
zero vectors of inverter and rectiﬁer side will coincide and the effective voltage transfer ratio will be as maximum as possible. The corresponding switching states are compared and the switching states that have to be switched are ob tained. Table 1 will show the corresponding states that have to be switched to obtain AC at output of the matrix con verter. In table 1 switching state 5 corresponds to zero vec tor in matrix converter. According to the switching states that are represented in ﬁg. 7, the output states are switched and the corresponding output current and voltage wave forms are obtained.
4. Simulation results
A three phase source and RL load driven by the
proposed method is simulated using the software MAT LAB/Simulink. The PWM algorithm to drive the nine bidirectional switches are obtained. The obtained volt age and current waveforms are plotted. The input voltage sources are three 50Hz 230V 120 degree phase shifted volt age sources. The proposed method generates a sinusoidal output current with reduced ripple(ﬁg. 8) and a sinusoidal input current(ﬁg. 11). The output phase voltage(ﬁg. 10) and line voltage(ﬁg. 9) are also plotted.
Figure 8. Output current waveform
5. Conclusion and Future Works
In this paper the conventional direct MC has been ana
lyzed and a modulation method to ﬁnd the duty ratios of the MC has been proposed. The proposed method’s design ﬂow is divided into two steps. First, derive the duty ratios of the rectiﬁer side and inverter side and then combine them to produce the PWM signals to drive the MC. The new method
for the matrix converter is simulated and results conﬁrm that the output current harmonics and THD are reduced. But in the proposed scheme the switching frequency as well as switching losses are more than in the existing methods.
Figure 9. Output line voltage waveform
Figure 10. Output phase voltage waveform
Figure 11. input current waveform
References
[1] M. Venturini and A. Alesina, “The generalized transformer:
A new bidirectional sinusoidal waveform frequency con verter with continuously adjustable input power factor,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, pp. 242–252, 1980.
[2] Johan W. Kolar Jose Rodriguez, Marco Rivera and Patrick W. Wheeler, “A review of control and modulation methods for matrix converters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 58–69.
[3] Lee Empringham Alejandro Weinstein Jose Rodriguez, Jon C. Clare and Patrick W. Wheeler, “Matrix converters: A technology review,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUS TRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 276–288.
[4]
BinWu Jorge O. Ponttand Samir Kouro Jose Rodriguez, Stef fen Bernet, “Multilevel voltagesourceconverter topologies for industrial mediumvoltage drives,” IEEE TRANSAC
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[5] Angelo Tani Domenico Casadei, Giovanni Serra and Luca Zarri, “Matrix converter modulation strategies: A new gen eral approach based on spacevector representation of the switch state,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 370–381.
[6] Roberto A. Petrocelli, “New modulation method for matrix converters,” A thesis submitted to the University of Manch ester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy., May.
[7] Dewei (David) Xu Jiacheng Wang, Bin Wu and Navid R. Zargari, “Indirect space vector based modulation techniques for highpower multimodular matrix converters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 3060–3071, May.
[8] F. Blaabjerg P. Wheeler J. Clare J. Rodriguez, E. Silva and J. Pontt, “Matrix converter controlled with the direct trans fer function approach: Analysis, modelling and simulation,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 63–85.
[9]
Amit Kumar Gupta and Ashwin M. Khambadkone, “A space vector pwm scheme for multilevel inverters based on two level space vector pwm,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IN DUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1631–1639.
[10] Huber and D. Borojevic, “Space vector modulated three phase to threephase matrix converter with input power fac tor correction,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1234–1246.
[11] Allan Holm Jorgensen Stig MunkNielsen Lars Helle, Kim B. Larsen and Frede Blaabjerg, “Evaluation of modulation schemes for threephase to threephase matrix converters,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 158–171.
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