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CONFIDENTIAL INTRODUCTION A V-12, 38 Litre 0,1. engine is fitted to the heavy infantry tank - the K.Ve of approximately 56 tons - and the cruiser tank - the 1.34 of approxi~ mately 28 tons. These two form the bulk of the Russian built tanks used by ‘the Red Ary. ‘The engine dealt with in this report, the "V-2", was removed from a 7.34 tamke The "V-2eK" engine as fitted to the K.Ve tank has not yet been examined tut is known to be basically similar to the "V-2", differing only 4n certain details ond in its rethor higher rated output, ise. 600 HP. at 2,000 R.PsMe as compared with 500 HaP. at 1800 R.PsMe Since the engine has not yet been bench tested in this country, the first two parts of the report have been written without firet-hani knowledge of its performance characteristics; it is, however, scheduled to be tested and the test results will be published as a further part of this report. The fucl injector equipment has not yet been examined, tut as soonas a sultelie opportunity arises for its removal and wamlnation, a report will ve propared end also published as a further part of this report. General remarks ani conclusions on the design of the engine will be found in Part I under the heading "Design", but it mst be borne in mind that these have been made thout first hand knowledge of its performance or relinbility. -D, Barnes, Wajor, R.T.Re Dell, Poarge, ByA.) \Contabs Tune, 15h. Tes PART GENERAL DESCRIPTION, DESIGN, HANUFACTURE AND HATERIALS LEADING DATA NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT OF CYLINDERS BORE STROKE ~ Master roa bank (1eft) = Articulated rod bank (right) STROKE/BORE RATIO = Master rod bank ~ articulated rod bank CAPACITY PER CYLINDER = Master rod bank ~ articulated rod bank TOTAL CAPACITY COMPRESSION RATIO = Master rod bank = articulated rod tank RATED NAXDAM B.H.P. MAXDAM RP. Me ‘MEAN PISTON SPEED AT 2000 R.P. Ue aster rod bank articulated rod bank DIRSOTION OF ROEATION FIRING ORDER ‘WSICHT OF ENGINE (DRY COMPLETE WITH FAN AND DYNAMO) OVERALL LENGTH OVERALL. WIDTH OVERALL HEIGHT (exoluding air cleaner) LEFT BANK (MASTER R008) rood "Y.2" Water cooled 0,1. ongiinc. 12'= 60 Ve 150 mm. (5+9~ine 180 mm. (7.1-n, 18607 um (7+35~in ) 12 te 16242 46 32182 Litros (19445 ousins. 3.300 Litres (201.5 ousinss 38,88 litres (2375 cusinse ) ee a) 15.8 : 46 500 att 1600 R. Pelle 2000 2370 ft/min. 250 24/nin Anti-lock fron flywheel ends 4L = 6R - 5L = 2h = 3b - UR 6b - 18 = & - 5R - Ab - 5K 2210 Ibs. 1590 mms (5-fte 2-ins. ) G0 xm. (2=ft. 9ninss ) 1064 mm. (3-ft+ 6-ins.) TIGHT GANK (ARTIC RODS SRIVEN ENO OF INJECTOR PUNE Gylinder fusbering Diagrox GENERAL DESCRIPTION ‘The design of the V.12 cylinder engine generally follows orthodox aero engine practice. It is very light, the cylinder heats, blocks, crankcase and sump being Light alloy castings. The crankcase is split along the centre line of the orankshaft. Seperate blocks and heads ere held down by long stuis sorewed into the crankcase. The blocks are fitted with wet liners. Four vertical valves per oylinier are operated directly ty two camshaft ‘An injeotor nozzle is situated centrally between the valves in each oylinder. ‘The combustion chanber is of an orthodox open type. Acro-type die pressed. pistons and articulated "H" section stecl rods with copper lead big-end earings are employed. The master rods are on the left hand bank, The one piece crankshaft runs in eight copper lead bearings. A ball thrust race is Provided at the driving end, No torsional vibration damper is fitted. All the euxiliaries are shaft driven, A master bevel on the free ent of tho crankshaft drives up to the camshafts, injector pump and governor, air dis- tribution velve and dynamo, Also driven from this bevel and located on the 1r.g! fank Engine sump are the water pump, of1 pump ani fuel focd pumps The 12 oylinder in Line Bosch-type injector pump and governor and the air distribution valve are mounted between the cyliner banks. The dynamo is strapped to the side of the crankcase. Dry sump lubrication is employed, there being two gear- type scavenge pumps and one pressure pump, Cooling water is fei into each Blook by the centrifugal water pump. DESIGN Although the history of the development of this engine is not known, it has evidently been adapted from an aero engine ani has not been originally designed specifically for tanks. This hes not resulted in a unit that is un- suitable as a tank engine; it is considered, in fact, that its main features nake it very suitable for its Job. In the first place, the performance characteristios and the low specific fuel consumption of the large milti- oylinder diesel put this engine at some considerable advantage when compared with the petrol engine of equivalent output, although this is to some extent offset by the dnoreased bulk of the former. Its aero engine ancestry, however, has certain drewbecks, notably the inaccessibility of most of the auxiliaries and the relatively high cost of mamfacture. In practice this latter may be mullifiea ty the convenience of being able to use up sub-stanlard ani obsolete airoreft components which would otherwise be scrape. ‘As to the aero engine from which the "V.2" engine has been developed, very little oan be said owing to the almost complete lack of informtion ".2u" dere Engine. relating to Russian aero engines in this country, It is knom, that before the war, the Russian aero engine industry was mainly engaged in producing engines of foreign design, notably Wright, Bristol, Hispano-Suiza ani Gnome- Rhone. Several engines of so-called original design have been developed al~ though these were probably largely based on foreign models. One of these, the 4.34, was shown at the 1936 Paris Acro show. A photograph of this engine is reproduced here since it is clear from the external appearance that the "V.2" engine is very similar in general design. The reduction gear ‘oni the super charger are naturally missing on the tank engine, tut the oylinier blocks, heads (allowing for conversion to C.I.), the general grouping of auxiliaries and the engine bearers appear to be virtually the seme on each engine. The Wa34 is rated at 950 HPs As no further particulars are known, tho two engincs may differ radically in tho internal design, but in view of their external. similarity this scams unlikely. Tho %434 is thought to have been originally designed in Italy (Fiat) for the Russians, ani on the assumption that it is basically sinilar intermilly to the "V.2" the design closely follows Italian in-line Aero engine practice. This is particularly noticeable in the con= necting rods and valve gosr layouts. A Gorman roport states that the "V7.2" engine was developed fron a Hispano-Suiza aero engine. Although design ami development may quite possibly have been influ enced ty Hispano-Suiza there do not appear to be any salient features to support this statement. ‘This sane German report also states that the con version to 0.Is, was carried out to the designs of Coatalen, This again may de the case, but the conversion has been car- ried out in such a straight- forward end orthodox manner that thera are ne fratunes that suggest any particu lar origin, The Coatalen Ve12 0.1 aero engine as exhibited shortly before the war at the Paris Aero show had certain points in common with the "V.2", dees, the same cylinder tore, four valves per oylinier ond a similer type of combustion aatee ys ausceaeianies 17.21 tank Engine, Pront Tew however, it differed in most respects oni it had a very special type of fucl injection equipments Whatever its true origin may be, its design, on the whole, follows principles well tried ani established in one or other of the well known in-line aero engines. Largely built of light alloys it is very Light, and the lower half of the engine appears somewhat lacking in rigidity. The external design is very clean, but the grouping of the auxiliaries, excluding the injection pump and air distributer valve, 4s bad from the point of view of ncoasaibilitys The injectors are decidedly inaccessible when tho engine is installed in the tank, “Several examples of detail design are worthy of notes The simple method of locating the driving bevel on the crankshaft ani the location of the big-end cap ani wrist-pin ore umsual. The angle which the centre of the wrist pin mkes with the axis of the master rod has been chosen to give 7.D.0 on the articulated rod bank 60° from T.D.C on the master rod bank. This has resulted in the stroke of the ertioulated rod bank being some 546 greater then that of the master rod denk, The object of this, presumably, has been to achieve identical injection ‘timing on both banks. The design of valve gear has been used on several engines. Tt is very simple ami easy to adjust, although the-valve guides probably tent to wear rather rapidly oving to the high side loading. The type of combustion chamber usel is frequently foun on the slower spood G.I. engines; it should give a low fuel consumption ani good starting from cold, Tt is evident from the design that there has been no attempt to create any form of controlled swirl or turbulence. This is normelly achieved by making the inlet velves, omi it is considered that if this were done the performance at high speed could’ be improved, ani on injector nozzle with fewer holes could be used. The leakage past the injectors ani fucl pump is led directly into the engine, Although this my have certain alvantages in very cold climates, it goons hantly Likely that the accumlative dilution of the lubricating off wuld be desiretie. 1W.2! tank Engine, # Front An interesting point in the design of the engine generally is the very small number of ball and roller bearings used, The ducl starting system - electric and compressed air - is a good feature, especially in cold climates when the efficiency of storage batteries will deteriorate. In conclusion, it is considered that ty far the greatest asset of the [-2* lies in the fact that it is a large CI. engine having, therefore, the right sort of performance characteristics for a tank engine. It is rather tulky for its power, but is very Light. Modified from what wae apparently a rather crude design of aero engine, it has a certain advantage as a tank engine in that it is not particularly delicate or complicated. The conversion from an aero engine to a tank engine could, with advantage, have been carried a stage further ty ro-grouping certain of the auxiliarios So that thoy would be more secessitle in the tank. On the other hand, the fairly bold change over to 0.1, has been woll carried out. MANUFACTURE ‘The processing ani finish of the components generally suggests aero engine rather than heavy vehicle engine practices stress relieved end ground tolts and studs, polished rods and crankshaft ani die pressed pistons may be quoted as particular examples. Judged by aircraft staniards, howover, tho finish is in most cases, very rough. The surfaces of the sand castings are exccptionally rough and even where surface smoothness is desirable, ise. in the valve ports eto., the surface is only roughly fettled. On the other hand the castings appear tp be quite sound, there being no sign of flaws or blow holes on the machined surfaces. AS appearance has obviously not been considered, a coarse moulding sani may bo Preferred for certain reasons. Although there is no evidence of rorosity to ‘the naked eye, the interior surfaces of mst castings have boon treated with linseed of1 or some similar substance. The cylinder head end partioulerly tho cylinder block have intricate cored passages ani call for a reasonably high stamierd of founiry technique. Die castings have been used for certain of ‘the smaller cluminium components. These eppear to be sound and indicate Production in some quantity. It oan be seid that there is virtually no unnecessary machining on any of the castings. ‘The use of dic pressed pistons is interesting since this process is comparatively new to most countries, The design calls for very little machin- ing; the skirt is not diaroni turned ani is comparatively roughs ‘The internal @ianeter of the bottom of the skirt has a wide tolerance ani may be machined away to adjust the weight which, according to the drawing, has a limit of +10 grams, ‘The stanlard of pressing appears to be satisfactory. ‘The connecting rode ani crankshaft are machined all over ani roughly polished, although on the former there ere a large munber of machining marks, some quite deep, that have not been renoved, There is evidence of rather rough hand work in removing sharp edges, burrs otc. ‘The big-end studs have an exceptionally fine finish, ani it 1s considered, therefore, that they aro very highly stressed, The webs are turned on the orarkshaft which is quite possibly machined from a solid billet. The velve gear has a finish comparable with British aero engines of moderate output. ‘The cam profiles ere not very accurately machined and even with tappot cloarances infividually adjusted to give the best timing, cortain opening ani closing periods vary by as mich as 45°. The oylinder liners are very roughly turned on their outer diameters and appear to have been cadmium plated, The moro highly strossod stuis and Yolts are all stress relieved ani ground and the threads aro generally well finished, probably having beon ground or milled. The thick steel backs for the main bearings appear to have been rolled from flat strip. The big-end bearings ore of the normal thin walled strip types Osrtain of the less important details, ani especially those components that appear to be modifications, have a general finish that is decidedly crude. The air cleaner is en example of particulorly rough workmanship. ‘Al tolts, mits ani studs have been blued, Inlet manifolds ani water pipes have been enamelled ani oil ani air pipes plated with cadmium or some similar metal, External surfaces of the aluminium costings have received no surface treatment. The very lerge mmber of inspection stamps on’ the components suggest on ‘exceptional degree of production control. This my be as a result of employ- dng a large proportion of semi or unskilled labour. As an exomplo of this ~ a piston bears a total of 20 inspection stamps of six different typos, pre~ sumably there were others subsequently removed by machining, as well as a large mmber of marks indicating batch mmbers, size, weight eto. 1.2) fanh Bngine, # Rear MATERIALS The scope of the materials examination was severely Limited ty the need for preserving the engine in sound running conlition, Certain aluniniun specinens, however, wore obtained for motallurgical analysis and haminoce figures were obtained for most of the ferrous materials with a shore Scleroscope. In aidition to these, U.S.S.R material specifications for the Piston, rings and guigeon pin were obtained, In view of these limitations only general conclusions may be dram, but it is not considered that the materials employed are umisusl or that they differ very widely from those used ty nemfacturers of aircraft and diesel engines in this country. FEBROUS MATERIALS Examination ty the Shore Solerescope has given the following data. The conneoting rods appear to be of an alloy steel heat treated to about 60 - 70 tons per square inch U.T.S, The oranksheft is somewhat harder ani would probably give about 75 - 80 tons per square inch U.7.S. The uniformity of the hardness figures along the orankshaft indicates accurate heat treatment, and there is no evidence of surface hardness on the orankpins or main bearing Journals, which with the rest of the shaft are of the order of 350 ~ 370 V.D.He ‘The guigeon pins ani wrist pins are made froma case hardening steel carburised to give atout 725 V.D.Hs The U.S.S.R material specification for the gudgeon pin calls for e normal case hardening steel but of rather low carton content (0.05/0. 15%) ‘The camshaft appears to be heat treated to give about 60 - 70 tons per square inch U.T.S with the cam profiles carburised to about 675 - 725 V.D.He The Journal bearing surfaces have not been surface hardenal. ‘There is no apparent difference in the materiels of the inlet ani exhaust valves which have a uniform hardness of 240 V.D.H indicating an alloy steel heat treated to approximately 50 tons per square inch U.T.S. The valves are not austenitic. The tappet heads have been carburised to give 675 - 725 V.D.H No reliable hardness figures could be obtained for the cylinder liners although the bores have probatly been nitrided, The piston rings are of normal cast irom NON-FERROUS VATERTALS The U.S.S.R material specification for the piston calls for an aluminium alloy of similar chendcal analysis to the specification R.R.59 This is a suitable alloy for hot pressing, with a tensile strength of approximately 21 ~ 22 tons per square inch in the final heat treated condition. The cylinier heads are cast ina silicon eutectic alloy. This alloy is well established; At casts well, has good corrosion resistance, low co-efficient of thermal expansion end good elongation. Other aluminium sani castings, such as the oylinder block ani the sump, are of an alloymyhich comes within the epeoifi~ cation D,T.D. 424. Material analyses were not possible for the big-end and. main bearings, but it is considered that those are of copper lead. ADIEG 07 PART 11 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE CRANKCASE Upper view of Crankcase showing Pistons and Puel Pusp The orankoase is of cast aluminium ani is separate from the eylinder blocks. ‘The sump Joint lies along the centre line of the arankshaft and the orankease is therefore very shallow and does not appoar to be very rigid. A flat surface is machined Between the 60 degree cylinder block faces to oarry the fuel pump ani the air distributor. Internally it is divided by the seven main bearing walls into which are threaded the main bearing cap stuis ani the oylinier block ani head stula, These walls extend dom below the sump joint each side of the main bearing cape to give a lateral support to the bearings, ani two horizontal tie bolts pass through each assentiy. The main bearing caps are of considerable depth, ani appear to be die pressed of aluminium alloy. The rear main bearing cap, which incorporates the thrust race, is scoured by four stuis; ell the other main bearing caps are secured by two studs. Housings for the hovel geare ani shaft drives to the camshafts, injector pump ani dynamo are oast integrally with the erankease, and a small cast iron inspection oover is provided for the goers. The dynano ie strapped to brackets oast on the side of the crankease. Tho engine is rigidly mounted from four lugs oast at each corner of the crank= ease, each lug having two bolt holes, The cast aluminium sump is scoured to the orerkoase ty a large muuber of smoll studs. At the front ond of the sump are grouped the water and oil pumps, driven vertically, the fuel feed pump, aciven horizontclly, ani the oil filter. DATA AND _DIMENS| ONS Overall Length oo + s+ oe ce co co oe oe oe Whoo height lsc se! soccer vst er eee tara Centre line of crankshaft to block face +s ++ we Gylinder centres 41 se ee ee ee ce oe oe oe Angle between banke cylinder holding down studs, number « Diameter «+ Number of main bearing caps (lo. 7 cap incorporates two journal bearings ond thrust race) «. «+ «+ Main bearing cap holding down stuis, mumber Wos. 1 - 6 Noe 7 Diemeter Kos, 1-6 ce en cr + oo oe 22 oa Diameter Now 7 ++ esters ++ 2 front +. 2rear + Horizontal tie bolts, mmber « Aiamter -. ++ ae Width of oap Depth of cap ee ee 1350 mm se ee 260 am oe ee 25 um tee 176 mm ceomeee 602 «+ 1h per bank 1765 mm. 22.5 om. over threads oo 7 ee 18.5 mm Inderside of Crankcase showing aain bearing Housings, Crankshaft ond Rods. CYLINDER BLOCKS AND LINERS The cylinder block on cach benk is a single aluminium oasting with hardened steel vet Liners, The block is very light ani has a very small water capacity. Holding down studs screwed into the arankease pana through cored passages dn the block end through hojes in the head, The tlook is positioned ‘on the orankcase ty four dowels, Each stecl sleeve is provided with a flange at its upper end locating in on anmlar recess in the top of the block, As is shown in the drawing this flonge stands prowl of the top of the block and is grooved to bite into the cluminium gasket. At the lower end the sleove is sealed ty three rubber rings fitted in a counter bore at tho bottom of tho blocks The lower ring therefore seats on tho cronkease face. The lower end of the sleeve extends into the crankcase. Cooling water enters the block at one end ani passes through pessages cored round each liner. Tt passes out into the head through a mmmber of holes in the top of the block. These holes are sealed ty aluminium ferrules passing through thick rubber washers compressed Detwoen the block and head, The water passages an the passages for the holding down studs are separate. Overall Tength soe 4400 =m. Depth of liner ea 276 m, "© Blok a 217 m Depth of vater passages (from he 18 m. Gylinier bore ae 150 mm Thickness of Liner ace top 45 m ‘Thickness of gasket es 3m Top of liner to face of tock +. 25 mm CYLINDER HEADS A separate cast cluminium head of very light construction is fitted to each banks Circular flat topped combustion chanbers are machined in the head feoc and cach carries four vertical valves and a central injector nozzles ‘As is shown in the drawing a combustion space is formed in the piston crown, only a mechanical clearance existing between the elge of the piston crown and the top of the combustion chamber at top dead centre. Cylinder Head and Block The closed type nozzle is provided with seven holes which direct the spray into the annuler space. tho inside of eech head and the axhauet ports on the out- side, a single siamesed port being provided for each pair of valves. The exhaust ports ere rather sualler than the Anlot ports, anl a water space 4s cored between cach pair. ‘Theve is no water space between each pair of inlet ports. Hronze valve guides are pressed Anto the head. The top face of the head is machined flat to receive the pelostal boar= ings for the canshefts, the Anjeotor nozzle stuls, the valve cover stuis, ani the holding dom ~utse AFIS Circular recesses are machinel in the edge of the piston crown to allow clearance for the valves, tut there is no indication that the design of the valves and ports ete, is intended to pro- duce any form of controlled swirl or turbulence, Bronze valve seats are screwed into the head. The inlet ports are on In addition to the main holding down stuis, tv of which are situated etieen each pair of cylinders, there are a munber of small studs holding the edges of the head to flenges on the upper sides of the block. Below each inlet port is a brass bushed hole drilled through into the combustion chamber and tapped to receive the air valve for the air starting aystens The injeatara aro located in the usual manner with tvo studs. The cast aluminium valve cover is held down by a munber of small studs round the edge. . Tho injector pipes pass through holes in the cover, and long union mts screwing into the Anjectors incorporate rubber washers to seal those holes. A separate casting bolted to the en of the head carries the vertical camshaft driving shaft in bronze bushes. DATA AND DIMENSIONS Inlet ports, mmber ae os oe oe 12 (6 pairs) Dimonsions ee ee oe oe 55um Atay (approx) Exhaust ports, mmber +. vs os os 12 (6 pairs) Dimensions ae ee ee oe 50mm Qiae (approx) Depth of head 3 Injector Nozzle Barrel diameter (holder) ++ e+ e+ e+ 25mm eo ree 12tam oe of holes . seats ey Spray angle ae Ees feeb ice .S/180% Dinneter of holes ne Mesh cts 20, Same Injection advance ee ee 8 eo 30 = 33 degrees Injection pressure . eee 2850 1bs/sqein. oylinder Read - inlet side -b864 - PISTONS The pistons are machined from luninium alloy pressings. Two gas rings and tvo bevel scraper Fings are fitted above the guigeon Pin, and a third bevel scraper ring near the bottom of the skirt, It will be seen from the drawing that y the skirt is very short, and, con- forming to normal OI. practice the top lant is fairly deep. The guigeon pin bosses are well support e@ from the crown, the underside of Cs which is heavily ribbed. The in- side of the skirt on each side of the gudgeon pin bosses is machined away for lightness; apart from this Piston, Oudgeon Pin and Pads there is very little internal machining. ‘The outside of the piston is turned to tro dianeters; the diameter from the com to the second scraper ring being 0.75 mm. smaller than that of the skirt. The guigeon pin faces are slightly relieved by eccentric turning, and a senivciroular depression is machined on each side of the pin. The piston rings are pro~ vided with a 45° gap ani are of normal design Top ani totton faces are parallel, and apart from the bevelled faces of the soraper, both gas and scraper rings are identical. The lover faces of the two lover scraper ring grooves are bevelled anda munber of oil holes drilled Inderstasicf Piston ‘through the skirt. The guigeon pin is filly floating, end move- ment being located by aluminium pads. These pads fit into the parallel bore of the pine ‘Two oil holes are Grilled into the bore from the underside of each gudgeon pin tosss DATA AND DIMENSIONS Piston Clearance Top land Ee 1.2 mm Skirt «+ tee 025 mm. (9,003 ineper in. piston dia.) Ring Thickness « a 520 me Depth «. es 2438 mie Pace Angle of scraper’. 238" Guigeon Pin Outside dianeter .. + 48 om Inside dianeter ... ++ 30 mm parallel tore engi Geni only tee s+ 132 mm, Piston (bare) «+ ++ s+ 54680 Tb. One Ring ae SS 0.085 1b. Gudgeon Pin and Pads s+ 2067 Tbe Total os +. tee e+ BelO Ibe o sy 2 SCRAP SECTION THROUGH BE ENDSTD—@-IMMeTTCH oN ° 100 Pa iuneraes. CONNECTING RODS The general design of the con necting rod assembly is shown in the drawing. Both the master and ertioulated rode are otecl stampings. The master rod is of deop "E" section and machined all over. The wrist pin is held in tw eyes machined on the rod, and central support is given to’ the pin by a strut situated between the eyes, the articulated mgd eye being suitably slotted, A hole is drilled fron the big-enl bearing into this strut to allow ofl to pasa from the big-end bearing to the wrist pin bearing. The magter rod is split at an angle of 60° to the normal axis ami the big-eni cap is retain ed by six studs, Tho cap is located laterally ty a circular spigot turned on the red and cap faces ‘wo dowels prevent any twist of the cap on the rod. The big-end studs pre threaded and pinned in the mastar rod, and the cap is retained by cestellated nuts. The wrist pin is a driving fit in the two eyes. It has a flange machined on one end and a lug on this flange locates in e milled slot in the side face of the pin eyes This prevents the wrist pin from turning in the eyes ani ensures that the oil hole in the pin is opposite the hole in the supporting strut. The bore of the pin is stepped down and tapped at ‘the Flange end, ond a circular @ headed bolt threaded in from the other end locates the pin Later- e e ally. ‘The articulated rod is of “HY section. The wrist pin end, which is smaller than the little~ end, has a slot millea through into the bearing to allow for the supporting strut on the master Fol: The wrist pin and 1itele- end bearings are of thosphor bronze located by brass pins ‘The little-ends of the master and articulated rods are identical and are drilled through the upper part of the bearings for lubrication. wetoTs Master Rod (complete with cap and bearings) «. .. 9.26 Ib. Articulated Rod 4+ + es ee ee ee we ee we oe oe be 25 be Wrist Pin and Retaining Bolt + ++ es ee ee os ee 164375 1b. Complete Connecting Rod Assembly s+. ++ +e ee oe ‘tleS Lbs a VALVE GEAR e\®, Inlet and Bxhaust Valves with fappet Head Locking Plate ond Springs wo inlet and two exhaust valves are situated vertically in each head. Two camshafts, one operating the inlet valves and the other the exhaust, act Girectly on tappet heads screwed into the top of the valve stems. One camshaft is driven by bevel gears from a vertical shaft, the other is driven fron this camshaft by a pair of spur gears. Details of the valves are shown in the draving. The heads of the inlet valves are rather larger than the exhaust ami have a narrower neck, From the valve stems up, however, both valves ‘are dimensionally identical. Since all the cem thrust 4s taken by the guides, the valve stems are of large diameter and are bored and tapped to teke the mushroom tappet heads. ‘The top outer diameter of the stem is splined. Over these splines slides a circular locking plate which forms the top spring seat. The top edge of this plate is serrated radially, These serrations mate with similar serrations on the underside of the tappet head. The locking plate is held against the tappet head by the valve spring, and ‘thus prevents the tappet head from turning in the valve stem and altering the tappet clearance. To adjust the tappet clearance, therefore, it is necessary to hold the locking ring stationary and screw the tappet head in or out of the valve stem over-riding the serrations. Two valve springs are fitted to each valve. ‘The lower ends of the springs seat directly in recesses machined in the top face of the head. ‘The exhaust end inlet cam profiles are identical ani the timing diagram is symmetrical. The profile is of orthodox harmonic construction, the base circle being ground away to allow a large tappet clearance. Both camshafts are supported in pedestal bearings held by stuls to the top fave of the heads ‘The camshafts run directly in these bearings which appear to be of die pressed aluminium alloy. ‘The bearings are split, ami each pedestal forms bearings for the two camshafts. ‘The shafts are supported between each pair of camss Flanges are machined on the camshaft on each side of the driving end bearing to take end thrust. The camshafts are drilled throughout their length and are very light. Each is splined at one end to take the driving pinion, AGG IF 77 £4 68664 osR 165. INLET VALVE ARRANGEMENT toc. TOTAL OPENING, TOTAL OPENING PERIOD EXHAUST VALVE PERIOD INLET VALVE 18 DIA. 139-5 1 DIA V 275R Bac nea aR VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM Z Py '3| | soon—| i n| DOHAUST VALVE: T_ VALVE gol 3}9 “THESE DIMENSIONS ALSO APPLY | a] TO IMLET VALE q al 6 q 5 4| 3 2 1 MILLIMETRES 4 Boe 30° TDC. BDC, WET_ROTATY VALVE _LIFT_ DIAGRAM Dana AD dneRIsroLs Canshatt dering Ramee ce Garagwam ete (i) wets) Woes - Nos. 2-7. Peres 36. tte Minimum Diameter of Shaft 2. oo os oo oe ee 29 mie Tappet Head Diameter. Tappet Clearance ++ ee ee ee ee ce ce ee oe 203K me Valves Inlet Exhaust Nos per oylinder +. se ve ee oe 2 2 Port Diameter +. oe ee ee ee oe 48 mm Ady ome Valve Lift . +. + so ee 1362 mm 13.2 mm Minimm area through valve . 6. 1969 on” 18.3 ow? Mean gas velocity through) valve at 2000 R.P.M. ) « «+ 175 ft/sec. 190 ft/sec Valve Spring (Inlet ani Exhaust) No. per valve «+ as roe. 3 Outer Diameter of wire s+ es se ee ++ 3 tm 365 mm No, of active coils .. +. +. + 6 Led Moon Aiancter ++ fete ee 30 mm 40 ame Rate on ae) ties) cc sees enyeicieniyones soe tame Pree Length « ee ee ee ee oe oe 61 mm 65 nme Pitted length eo ++ 0+ oe oe oe 42 mm 42 mm Woights Inlet Valve (bere) 4. 22 ee ce ce ce ce oe ee 00554 Ibe Buhaust Valve (Dare) sos se ee ee oe oe ee oe 55 Ibe Tappet head ond locking ring «+ «+ ee se 0.342 Ibe Outer valve spring (inlet or exhaust) .. +. +. 0.139 1b. Inner valve spring (inlet or exhaust) .. .. + 095 Lb. Inlet Valve (complete vith tappet head, locking ring ani springs) e+ ve ce ee +e 16130 1b. Exhaust Valve (complete with tappet head, locking ring and springs). ss se es ee 16126 be CRANKSHAFT ‘The six throw crankshaft is supported in eight main bearings. ‘The throvs are at 120° ani they are arranged as in a normal 6 or Vs12 engine, with numbers 4 and 6, 2 end 5 ani 3 ani in pairs. A main Journal is provided between each throw, ant at the rear eni is a ball thrust race between two main bearingse The shaft is machined all over ani has circular eccentric webs. Generous radii are machined between the webs and pins ani journals. Large dianeter holes,are tored longitudinally through the pins ani journals, the ends of the vores being closed by conical aluminium caps ani tie bolts. "A single oil hole is Grilled fron the pin or Journal face through to the bore, ani a copper pipe expanied into the hole. The pipe extends sone @istance into the bore to form a sludge trap. Two holes are drilled in each web at right angles to the crankshaft axis; these connect the bores of the journals with those of the pins. The crankshaft itself ends after the first main bearing, and a separate tail shaft is shrunk ani pegged in the first journal. As shown in the araw= ing, this shaft carries the bevel pinion driving the camshafts ani eutiliaries, ani elso forms an oil pick-up for the crankshaft. The bevel pinion is a sliding fit on splines on the tail sheft, and is not located longitudinally on the shaft. Eni location is provided on the thrust side ty a steel thrust washer seating against the turned side face of the end bearing housing and cap. Thus, correct meshing of the bevel gears is indepenient of end Zloat in the crankshaft, The tail shaft is hollow ani carries at its end a bush fitted with three piston ring type of1 scale. Those rings are free to rotate and fit into a sleeve attached to the end of the crankcase, oil being fed into the centre of the sleeve. The oil pressure keeps this sleeve up against the bevel pinion, which is thus held against the thrust washer. OK OK AE BF cnnes y Brae me Sean PARSE EL PNON THRUST WaSHER Au pwensions iw muuwerses §— | __70. Prent End of Crankshaft showing O41 Inlet and Bavel Pinton Flywheel Bnd of Crankshaft showing Rear Mains and thrust Race A single row bell thrust race with en aluminium cage locates against @ shoulder on the reer end of the crankshaft. This shoulder transmits the clutch thrust through the race to the side face of an anmuler groove turned an the rear main bearing housing ani cap. The thrust race appears to be held against this shoulder by a conical split ring over wnich is shrunk a steel collar. A piston ring type oil seal end a dished oil flinger are provided where the crankshaft passes through the end of the crankcase. ‘The Clutch body is secured on parallel splines on the end of the crankshaft ty two bronze split cones. DATA AND DIGRSTONS No. of main bearings .. -. s+ ++ ++ ++ 8 jourmls 1 thrust Web diameter .. «. se ee ee 'ee 180 om, Web thickness .. «+ nies 25 me BIG-END AND MAIN BEARINGS ‘The bearing metal for the big-enis and mains is copper lead. Thin walled rteel shells are used in the big-end and thick walled shells in the mains. In both cases the bearings are located by circular owls. In the main bearings the dowels are disposed centrally and at 90° to the joint, the dowel hole for the upper bearing being circular and that for the lover bearing ‘being roughly elliptical to allow a certain tolerance in the circumferential position of the dowel or hole. A similar arrangement of dovels is employed fon the big-ends except that the dowels are offset from the centre of the Dearing, and therefore out of line with the central oil hole to the wrist pin Dearing, The bearing faces are truly circular ani are not relieved near the , Joints. There are no oil grooves, and the edges are chamfered at 45° DATA AND DIMENSIONS, Main Bearing: Diameter .. WAAEH o. 0+ 46 oe oe oe Thickness of bearing Thickness of shell « Big-End Bearings Diameter «. Width .. .. ‘Thickness of bearing metal .. ‘Thickness of shell . .. metal . 95 me 46 mate 0675 mm. se he25 mm 85 om. 60 nme 075 me 1475 mmm CAMSHAFT AND AUXILIARY DRIVES The camshafts end auxiliaries are all driven off a master bevel pinion attached to the front end of the crankshaft. The general layout of these drives is shown in the sketch. The master pinion drives three bevels, one on a vertical shaft driving up to the camshafts etc., the second on a vertical shart ariving dow to the auxiliaries in the sump and the third on a shaft driving up at an angle to the dynam. In most cases the shafts run in plain bronze bearings, the mmber of ball races employed being very small. 11 pinions have straight teeth ani in mst cases the Pinions are integral with the shaft. The vertical shafts to the canshefts are driven through sliding splines and are fully enclosed in steel tubes. Z acy Ue oS Auxiliary Drives 499°9-Yb Front Bnd of Crankshaft showing Bevel Drives SPEED x ENGINE R.P.M. Osmalatbc st geet 0.5 Injector Pump’ ar Governor + 065 Water Pup. 165 (ag ee ooo ea 1.725 Piel Feet Purp | sae 0.68 Dynamo +s + os 105 Air Distributor Valve. 1. 1. 0.5 Pals Neneee ees ershecsseer 4.0 GEAR DATA (for principal gears) Gear No. of Shaft —Pitch din. Wodule “Face width teeth __angle es ne nm ry zy 902 405 38 22 B 18 50° 68.5 3.8 4 c 18 90° 50 2.8 7 D 18 30° 63 3.5 7 z 42 508 42 3.5 1 F 18 508, 8 3.5 th c 12 30° 38 3.2 th H 2 90° 7 302 1h x 22 - 66 3.0 1h K 23 - 5765 25 18 L 56 - 30 205 8 u 20 - 50 2.5 8 oY LUBRICATION O41 Pumps and Filter Dry sump lubrication is employed. Two scavenge pumps drew the ofl from ‘a pick-up at each end of the sump ani deliver it to two tanks situated on either side of the engine. A single pressure pump draws oil from these tanks and delivers it through a filter to the engine bearings. No oil cooler is Provided. The circulation system is shown in the diagrammatic sketch. om PP The triple gear type oil pump is bolted to the unlerside of the sump and is driven ty spur gears off the | vertical shaft which drives | the water pum. The min | body consists of four | aluniniun castings held to- | gether ty four long bolts. ‘The top tvo house the two scavenge pump gears, the one below, the pressure’ pump gears and the bottom one the Pressure relief valve. The driving gears are keyed to the driving shaft which runs in bronze bushes pressed in- to the aluminium casinge. The driven gears are fittea | fj with bronze bushes, and run on a stationary shaft ge) located ty a set screw at the top. All the gears are of steel ani are straight toothed. They are identical, except for the two pairs of ZF scavenge pump gears which are | of Kus longer than the pair of ppekaure “yum koe O42 Ctreutation 499 89-8 End thrust of the gears is taken only on the machined faces of the aluminium castings. A spring loaded conical seat release valve by-passes across the Pressure pump at a pressure regulated ty on external set screw acting on the end of the spring. A coarse mesh filter surrounds each of the two oil pick- ups in the sump, OIL FILTER AND CIRCULATION Prom the pressure pump the ofl is fed directly into an oil filter which is bolted to the sump. ‘The filter con- sists of a mmber of circular dished wire gauze clenents clemped together in alternate positions by a central stud and housed in a cylindrical cast aluminium cases "The elements are secured by the stud to a detachable end Plate. The bore of each clement is larger than the @ioneter of the stud, and the anmilar space thus formed communicates with the oil inlet. An oil tight Joint is formed at the outer and inner Gianeters of alternate pairs of elenents, presenting in effect e total filter surface of the form of « circular Yellows. Tn the event of a complete tnderssae of suap showing ost, Dlockage in the filter a spring loaded Vater and L.P. Feed Purp release valve allows the oil to by-pass it. Pron the filter the ofl is delivered to the crankshaft ofl pick-up and thenoe through the hollow shaft to the min ani big-eni bearings. (Details of the oil pick-up and the oflways in the shaft are given in the section dealing with the crankshaft). From this pick-up, a pipe leeds ofl to the timing gear and dynano drive bearings ani, via internal oilways ani tvo pipes, to the front camshaft bearings on each hetd. The oil passes through the hollow canahaft to cach bearing and through a hele in tho hoel of osch cam to the teppet heads. Oil is returned from the valve gear via a pipe conmnicating cach cylinier head with the crankoases DATA AND DIMENSIONS, No. of Pressure Pumps No. of Scavenge Pumps Normal Oil Pressure 1 é 2 85 - 130 10/in’, Proscure and Scavengo Pumps Nos of teeth «. +. Outside diameter . Root circle dianeter Pitch diemeter .. .. o. Wotle «. 02 oe 0 oe o Length of geor (ee pine Length of gear (scavenge Theoretical delivery et 100g effecioncy at 350 RePeM. pump speed (2000 R.P- Me angine speed) ~ Pressure Pump ,. 22.5 golle/nin. Scavenge Pump (1) 32 galls/nin. Ratio of scavenge pump deliveries to Pressure pump delivery .. 2.84 : 1 garsyes FR BRB oul Filter Gauze mesh . os 6 sete ee 25 x 25,mesh/om. Total filter surface area... 1265 on ENGINE COOLING Assendtea ana sxplogea véews of water punp A single centrifugal water pump bolted to the underside of the sump draws water fron two radiators, one situated on each side of the engine, ant delivers it to the lower front end of each block. From the rear end of each head a single pipe returns the water to the top of the adjacent radiator. Details of the water passages around the oylinier liners and to the head are shown in a drawing in the section dealing with the cylinder blocks. be noted that these passages are sufficiently small lation round the liners and into the head. Tt will, to cause a rapid circu- ‘The water capacity of the head is larger than that of the block, and clroulation therefore less rapid. Water Passages are cored around the injector tosses, exhaust and inlet ports and only partially round the valve seats. WATER PUMP ‘The water pump is driven by a vertical shaft from the master bevel on the crenkshaft, The main body is an aluminium casting; volutes each leading into a delivery pipe to one of it incorporates two the oylinder blocks. A detachable end cover is bolted to the main body, and incorporates two inlet pipes each drawing from one of the radiators, and a draining the system splined to the shaft. is housed in the main body and a coil spring applies rings in both glands. The glands are non-ad justable spring loaded valve for ‘The cast aluminium impeller is rivetted to a steel boss ‘The top of the shaft runs in a ball race located in a separate aluminium housing which also incorporates an oil gland. A water gland pressure to the packing es A bronze bush is pressed into the main tody below the gland. The impeller vanes are not shrouied ani are of an unusual design. ‘They are inclined backwards, but their curvature is in the reverse to normal practice so that whilst the heel makes an angle of approximately 50° with the tangent, the DATA AND DIMENSIONS of engine .. one block " one head .. as Gross sectional area of inlet to tock " " nm 8 to head « outlet from head Water capacity tip is approximately radial. 17.20 litres 3.00 litres 5.56 litres 9465 on! 2 2 12.0 ont 8.60 on ae No. of vanes s+ + os + Tip diameter of vanes ¢ Heel dianeter of vanes s+. width of vanes at Lip ss ss Width of vanes at heel ss. se cece cece ce oe 18 0m Angle of inclination of vanes to tangent at tip 90° ‘Angle of inclination of vanes to tangent at heel 50! crseies ee Corn INTAKE_AND_ EXHAUST SYSTEMS. A circular oil bath-type air elcancr is mounted betwoon the oylindcr banks. It is flange mounted on a "Y" pipe which is connected by rubber hose to an inlet manifold on each bank. ach inlet manifold is made of two sheet steel pressings welded together with six flanges welded in position; those aro bolted to the inlet ports on the head. The design of the air cleaner is clearly shown in the Arawing: The air pacces over the ofl. before passing through an annular space filled with coarse steel wool ‘The steel wool is hela in place at the top and bottom by perforated steel plates. ‘The exhaust manifolds are of similar construction to the inlet mani~ folds ani each leads into a pipe passing directly through the tail plate. No silencers are fitted. FUEL AND INJECTION EQUIPMENT It is hoped that the injection equipment will be examined in detail by a specialist firm at some later date. A brief description, however, is given below, ‘The equipment appears to be of Bosch design. The 12 cylinder in line pump is mounted between the cylinder banks upon three aluminium pedestals and 4a driven through an orthodox Bosch-type fibre coupling. The pump has a 40 um barrel diemeter. A centrifugal governor is integrally mounted at the free end, The overflow, due to leakage, of the pump is taken by a pipe to the engine crankcase. ‘The nozzle holders have a very long reach, and, apart from the fact that the leak off goes directly into the valve chamber, they appear to be of normal, Bosch design. Details of the nozzles are given under the section dealing with the "Cylinder Head." Fuel is delivered to the injection pump through a Bosch-type felt elenent filter, by a small engine-driven vane-type feed pump mounted on the side of ‘the sump above the water pump. ENGINE STARTING AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ‘The engine may be started by an axial type electric starter mounted on the gearbox ani engaging with the flywheel ring gear or ty compressed air. ‘The electric starter together with the dynamo will be the subject of a sepernte report. The eir starting equipment consists of a disc-type distributor velve riven et half engine speed off the shaft that also drives the injection pump This valve distributes air to each oyljnder on the expansion stroke, Air under 2 maximim pressure of about 2000 11 is delivered to the valve from tro ateel cylinders, which con only be refilled from an external source. WEIGHTS OF COMPONENTS CYLINDER HRAD (bare)... «+ CYLINDER BLOOK AND LINERS .. CRANKSHAFT (including thrust race and oil Se CANSHAPT PISTON (bere)« ++ Cea ies ence One Ring «+ + Beet ee aie Gudeon pin and pais... ++ Rebel tects sense MASTER ROD (complete with oap and bearings). 2+ ++ e+ + Wrist Pin and Retaining Bolt . Complete Connecting Rod assembly .. ++ IMIER:VAUYR (Baro)! 5

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