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Manual Transmission

Purpose of the Manual Transmission



The purpose of the manual transmission
is to multiply engine torque or modify
engine rpm to match varying forward
operating conditions. The transmission
uses different gear ratios to achieve these
results by using gears of various sizes to
give the engine a mechanical advantage
over the driving wheels. The
transmission also provides a way to back
up a vehicle. Transmissions make use of
idler gears (gears located between drive
and driven gears) for this purpose. Idler
gears cause the transmission output to
rotate opposite of the input. In this way,
they allow a vehicle to be reversed.
Transmissions provide a way to optimize engine power and torque. For one,
torque requirements are greater for moving a vehicle from a standstill;
however, engines provide less torque at low rpm. Without a transmission, the
engine would tend to stall as power was engaged to move the vehicle. High
engine rpm would be needed to provide enough torque to move the vehicle
from rest, and initial acceleration would be jerky and unacceptable. Secondly,
the internal combustion engine develops maximum power over only a very
narrow rpm range. The transmission provides a way to operate the vehicle in
this range under many speed and load conditions.
To use available engine power in the most efficient manner, transmissions
use several different gear ratios, first gear; second gear; third gear; etc. The
transmission lower gears multiply (increase) torque while they reduce speed
at the gearbox output. As vehicle speed increases, less torque multiplication
is needed. A higher gear, having less gear reduction, is selected. Output
shaft speed increases as a result, allowing engine rpm to be reduced to its maximum power range.
At highway, or cruising, speeds, torque multiplication is not a requirement, and high gear (direct
drive) is selected. It provides no gear reduction. Transmission output shaft speed again increases.
Engine speed may be reduced to operate within its maximum power range again. Some vehicles
have an overdrive gear for highway travel. These have a gear ratio of less than one and allow the
engine to run even slower and more efficiently.
Gears
The purpose of a gear in a manual transmission is to transmit rotating motion. Gears are normally
mounted on a shaft, and they transmit rotating motion from one
parallel shaft to another. Gears and shafts can interact in one of
three ways: the shaft can drive the gear; the gear can drive the
shaft; or the gear can be free to turn on the shaft. In this last case,
the gear acts as an idler gear. Sets of gears can be used to multiply
torque and decrease speed, increase speed and decrease torque,
or transfer torque and leave speed unchanged.




Transmission gears are made of high quality steel, carefully
heat-treated to produce smooth, hard surface gear teeth with
a softer but very tough interior. They are drop-forged
(machine hammered into shape) while at red-hot
temperatures. The teeth and other precision areas are cut on
precision machinery to exacting specifications.
Gear Design
Gears are used in tons of mechanical devices. They do
several important jobs, but most important, they provide a
gear reduction in motorized equipment. This is key because,
often, a small motor spinning very fast can provide enough
power for a device, but not enough torque. For instance, an
electric screwdriver has a very large gear reduction because it
needs lots of torque to turn screws, but the motor only
produces a small amount of torque at a high speed. With a
gear reduction, the output speed can be reduced while the
torque is increased.
Another thing gears do is change the direction of rotation. For
instance, in the differential between the rear wheels of your
car, the power is transmitted by a shaft that runs down the
center of the car, and the differential has to turn that power 90
degrees to apply it to the wheels.
There are a lot of intricacies in the different types of gears.
Basics
On any gear, the ratio is determined by the distances from the
center of the gear to the point of contact. For instance, in a
device with two gears, if one gear is twice the size of the
other, the ratio
would be 2:1.












One of the most primitive types of gears we could
look at would be a wheel with wooden pegs
sticking out of it.
The problem with this type of gear is that the distance from the center of each gear to the point of
contact changes as the gears rotate. This means that the gear ratio changes as the gear turns,
meaning that the output speed also changes. If you used a gear like this in your car, it would be
impossible to maintain a constant speed -- you would be accelerating and decelerating constantly.
Many modern gears use a
special tooth profile called an
involute. This profile has the very
important property of maintaining
a constant speed ratio between
the two gears. Like the peg
wheel, the contact point moves;
but the shape of the involute gear
tooth compensates for this
movement.
Details on Involute Gear
Profiles
On an involute profile gear tooth,
the contact point starts closer to
one gear, and as the gear spins, the contact point moves away from that gear and toward the other.
If you were to follow the contact point, it would describe a straight line that starts near one gear and
ends up near the other. This means that the radius of the contact point gets larger as the teeth
engage.
The pitch diameter is the effective contact diameter.
Since the contact diameter is not constant, the pitch
diameter is really the average contact distance. As the
teeth first start to engage, the top gear tooth contacts
the bottom gear tooth inside the pitch diameter. But
notice that the part of the top gear tooth that contacts
the bottom gear tooth is very skinny at this point. As the
gears turn, the contact point slides up onto the thicker
part of the top gear tooth. This pushes the top gear
ahead, so it compensates for the slightly smaller contact diameter. As the teeth continue to rotate,
the contact point moves even further away, going outside the pitch diameter -- but the profile of the
bottom tooth compensates for this movement. The contact point starts to slide onto the skinny part
of the bottom tooth, subtracting a little bit of velocity from the top gear to compensate for the
increased diameter of contact. The end result is that even though the contact point diameter
changes continually, the speed remains the same. So an involute profile gear tooth produces a
constant ratio of rotational speed.

Gear pitch is a very important factor in gear design and operation. Gear pitch refers to the number of
teeth per given unit of pitch diameter. A simple way of determining gear pitch is to divide the number
of teeth by the pitch diameter of the gear. For example, if a gear has 36 teeth and a 6-inch pitch
diameter, it has a gear pitch of 6. It is important to remember is that gears must have the same pitch
to operate together. A 5-pitch gear meshes only with another 5-pitch gear, a 6-pitch only with a 6-
pitch, and so on.
Types of Gears
Gears are normally used to transmit torque from one shaft to another. These shafts may operate in
line, parallel to each other, or at an angle to each other. These different
applications require a variety of gear designs, which vary primarily in the size
and shape of the teeth. Gears are normally classified by the type of teeth
they have and by the surface on which the teeth are cut.
Spur Gears
The spur gear is the simplest gear design used in manual transmissions.
Spur gear teeth are cut straight across the edge parallel to the gear's shaft.
During operation, meshed spur gears have only one tooth in full contact at a time. Its straight tooth
design is the spur gear's main advantage.
It minimizes the chances of popping out of gear, an important consideration during
acceleration/deceleration and reverse operation. For this reason, spur gears are often used for the
reverse gear. The spur gear's major drawback is the clicking noise that occurs as teeth contact one
another. At higher speeds, this clicking becomes a constant whine.
Helical Gears
A helical gear has teeth that are at an angle or are spiral to the
gear's axis of rotation. This allows two or more teeth to mesh at the
same time. This distributes tooth load and produces a very strong
gear. Helical gears also run more quietly than spur gears because
they create a wiping action as they engage and disengage the
teeth on another gear. One disadvantage is that helical teeth on a
gear cause the gear to move fore or aft (axial thrust) on a shaft,
depending on the direction of the angle of the gear teeth. Thrust washers and bearings must absorb
this axial thrust.
Helical gears can be either right-handed or left-handed. When mounted on parallel shafts, one
helical gear must be right-handed and the other left-handed. Two gears with the same direction
spiral do not mesh in a parallel mounted arrangement.
External and Internal Gear Teeth
Spur and helical gears having teeth cut around their outer
edge are called external gears. When the teeth of two
external gears are meshed, the direction of rotation is
reversed as the gears turn. An internal gear has teeth around
its inside diameter. When an external gear and an internal
gear are meshed and rotate, they do so in the same
direction.
Idler Gears
An idler gear is a gear that is placed between a drive gear and
a driven gear. Its purpose is to transfer motion from the drive
gear to the driven gear.

Herringbone gears
Herringbone gears are actually
double helical gears with teeth
angles reversed on opposite
sides. This causes the thrust
produced by one side to be
counterbalanced by the thrust
produced by the other side. The two sets of teeth are often separated
at the center by a narrow gap for better alignment and to prevent oil
from being trapped at the apex. Herringbone gears are best suited for quiet, high-speed, low-thrust
applications where heavy loads are applied. Large turbines and generators frequently use
herringbone gears because of their durability.
Gear Ratios
Gear ratio is the speed relationship between two gears. The gear ratio shows the difference in the
number of teeth between two gears. This is the same as saying it is the number of teeth on the
driven gear divided by the number of teeth on the drive gear. In the illustration, the driven gear has
90 teeth. The gear that drives it, or the drive gear, has 30 teeth. The ratio between the two gears is
found to be: 90/30 (90 divided by 30), which equals 3:1 (read as "3 to 1"). The gear ratio relates the
speed of the drive gear to the speed of the driven gear.
A 3:1 gear ratio is an example of what
is called gear reduction. A 3:1 gear
reduction means that it takes three
revolutions of a drive gear to turn the
driven gear through one whole
revolution. In transmission there are
usually several sets of gears involved in
the transmission of power and speed.
When there are more than one pair of
driven and drive gears involved their
ratios are multiplied together. For
example let us look at a simple
transmission pictured below.
The green gear in the input or first drive gear and has 24
teeth. The red gear it is driving is the first driven gear and it
has 32 teeth. The red gear is attached to the countershaft or
layshaft. It is called a countershaft because it will turn in an
opposite direction to the input shaft, usually
counterclockwise. The small red gear at the far right is also
attached to the countershaft and is driving the large blue
gear on the output shaft. The small red gear has 16 teeth
and the driven blue gear it drives has 46 teeth. There are
two ways to figure out the total ratio of this arrangement we
can find the individual ratios of the two sets of gears and the
multiply them together or we can find the ratio all at once.

Driven gears 32 X 46 = 1472 = 3.83
Drive gears 24 X 16 384 1

Or a ratio of 3.83: 1
This means that the input shaft will have to turn 3.83 times to turn the output shaft once.
So speed is reduced by 3.83 times and torque in increased by the
same number.
Idler gears as mentioned earlier are installed in a gear train to turn
the output gear or shaft in the same direction as the driving gear.
When an Idler gear is in a gear train it acts as both a driven gear
because it is being driven by the input gear and as a driving gear
because it drives the output gear so when finding out the ratio it
cancels itself out. For example if we look at the idler gear arrangement
at right assuming the red gear is input and has 30 teeth, the idler gear
in between has 11 teeth and the blue output gear has 38 teeth the
calculation include the idler would be as follows.

Driven Gears 11 X 38 = 418 = 1.27
Drive Gears. 30 X 11 330 1

Or a ratio of 1.27 :1
Because the idler is both a driving and a driven gear its 11 teeth appear above and below the line
and can be cancelled out in the equation or completely ignored for that matter.
In the previous equation I have included the idler gears 11teeth in the calculation to demonstrate a
point. If I were to ignore the idler gear altogether the calculation would look like this.

Driven Gears 38 = 1.27
Driving Gears 30 = 1

Again we get ratio of 1.27:1

So you can see that the idler gear has absolutely no bearing on the outcome.
If you have a geartrain with more than two pairs of gears involved in the power transmission it
simply becomes a matter of putting all the driven gears multiplied together above the line and
dividing them by all the drive gears multiplied together below the line. Alternatively you can find the
ratio of each pair of gears and the multiply all the ratios together.

Gear ratios allow us to operate a vehicle under many varying conditions. For example a set of gears
with a ratio of 3:1 is considered a reduction gearset. This is because the speed at the output shaft
will be less than the speed of the input. While a reduction gearset reduces speed, it has the opposite
effect on torque; the reduction gearset multiplies torque. For example, with a 3:1 reduction gearset,
1 ft.-Ib. of torque on the drive gear generates 3 ft.-lb. on the driven gear. A vehicle requires different
gear ratios for different operating conditions. Engines develop only minimal torque when engine
speed is low. To overcome this problem, reduction gearsets are used in the transmission. In a car a
typical reduction in low gear is about 3:1. At a 3:1 ratio, a 900-rpm engine speed would be reduced
at the transmission output to 300 rpm. At the same time speed is being reduced, torque is being
multiplied. If 50 ft.-lb. of torque enters the gears, 150 ft.-lb. leaves. The reduction gearset, then,
serves as a torque-multiplying device to get the vehicle moving at low speeds. As vehicle speed
increases, less torque is needed to keep the vehicle moving; also, the engine is turning faster and is
producing more power. The vehicle can then be shifted into a gear with less reduction, such as 2:1.
As an example, at the transmission output, an engine speed of 1500 rpm will be reduced to 750
rpm, and an engine output of 75 ft-lb. will be increased to 150 ft-lb. When the vehicle is moving at
highway speeds, gear reduction is no longer needed or desired. The vehicle is shifted into high
gear, which is direct drive. Direct drive, in which gears are not actually used to transmit power, the
input shaft is actually connected to the output shaft in this gear, so it has a gear ratio of 1:1. It allows
the engine to run at reduced speed while maintaining vehicle road speed. With this gear ratio, there
is no change in either speed or torque between engine output and transmission output. For greater
fuel economy at higher speeds, overdrive is often employed. Overdrive gearsets may have a ratio of
0.66:1. This means that an engine speed of 1000 rpm will exit the transmission at 1500 rpm. With
this type of ratio, there is a speed increase through the gearset. This allows the engine to run more
slowly than a higher gear ratio would permit at the same speed of travel. Since the engine is running
more slowly, it will use less fuel and last longer.
Ratios in heavy duty vehicles cover a much broader range due to the fact that the engines in these
vehicles have a much smaller operating range in
terms of engine RPM. Whereas a car engine may
have an effective operating range of 3000 to 5000
RPM, (some have even more than this), a typical
truck engine may have an operating range of less
than a 1000 RPM. This fact coupled with the reality
that these vehicles are expected to carry extremely
heavy loads explains why some trucks will have as
many as 18 or 20 gear ratios and gear reductions
as low as 17 or 19:1 and overdrives up to .6:1.

Transmission Types
Standard transmissions are typically classified by the method of
changing or selecting gear ratios. There are three basic types.
Sliding gear
For many years this was the industry standard but as technology
evolved this type of transmission has been phased out.

Some five-speed commercial
vehicle transmissions use a
variation of this technology in that a
combination or sliding first and
reverse gear is used.
Straight cut spur gears are the only
gears that can be used with this type of transmission. The shift collar, a groove to receive the shift
fork is cast in as part of the mainshaft gears. The shift fork slides into the collar. Movement of the
gearshift lever causes the shift fork to slide the mainshaft gear along the mainshaft into or out of
mesh with the corresponding countershaft gear. In neutral all the mainshaft gears are positioned
between the countershaft gears. Gear clash and grinding are typical problems associated with
shifting this type of transmission as the driver or operator is responsible for gear speed
synchronization.
Collar shift (sliding collar) or (sliding clutch)
This type or style of transmission is most
typically found in medium and heavy-duty
commercial vehicles. Some medium duty
applications might incorporate a sliding
first and reverse gear. As this
transmission is constant mesh straight cut
spur or helical gearing may be used.
Mainshaft gears are always in constant
mesh with the corresponding countershaft
gears. Mainshaft gears rotate freely on
the shaft with the use of needle bearings
and are not attached to the shaft in any way. Shift collars or clutching collars are positioned between
each pair of mainshaft gears and they are splined internally to the mainshaft. Shift collars have a set
of external clutching teeth and the mainshaft gears incorporate a clutching hub with internal
clutching teeth that match the teeth on the shift collars. A taper is built into the ends of the clutching
teeth on the collar and gear to aid in engagement. Shift collars have a groove midway along their
length to engage with the shift fork. Movement of the gearshift lever causes the shift fork to move
the shift collar along the mainshaft into or out of mesh with the mainshaft gears. In neutral none of
the shift collars are in mesh with any of the mainshaft gears. Power flows from the input shaft to the
countershaft and mainshaft gearing only as the mainshaft gears are not attached to the mainshaft
they spin freely. Although this style of transmission offers an improvement over a sliding gear style
in regard to shifting the driver or operator is still responsible for synchronization

Synchromesh
Although this style of transmission is not typically found in heavy-duty commercial vehicles it is the
most common for light and some medium duty vehicles. Synchronizers are used in some multi-
speed transmissions, (greater than six speeds) but incorporate pneumatic controls for synchronizer
movement.
A constant mesh
geartrain is used in
synchromesh
transmissions as per
collar shift style
transmissions with
mainshaft gears
rotating on needle
bearings. The
function of the
synchronizer is to
match, (synchronize)
the speed between
the mainshaft gear
and the mainshaft to
eliminate gear clash
and then lock the
gear to the shaft. A synchronizer is made up of a clutching hub or collar with a blocker ring on each
side. Synchronizers are spring loaded to hold them in the neutral or the applied position. Blocker
rings are made of brass, aluminum alloy, or a composite material. The blocker ring has a tapered
shoulder with threads, and reliefs machined into it to cut into and channel away transmission
lubricant. The tapered shoulder on the blocker ring
matches a taper on a shoulder which is part of the
gear or a separate cup that attaches to the
clutching teeth of the gear. The blocker ring also
has teeth machined into it that match the clutching
teeth on the clutching hub of the synchronizer.
Initial movement of the gearshift lever causes the
blocker ring to come into contact with the
corresponding tapered shoulder of the gear or the
cup which is attached to the gears clutching teeth
while the hub or collar is still in the neutral position.
Contact between the two dissimilar materials causes a high
rate of friction which acts to slow down or speed up the
faster or slower moving gear to the speed of the mainshaft.
This contact also causes the blocker ring to rotate in the
slightly either right or left depending on whether the
mainshaft gear is turning faster or slower than the
mainshaft. This slight rotation causes the teeth on the
blocker ring to be out of line with the teeth on the clutching
hub so it cannot pass over them to engage the clutching
teeth on the mainshaft gear. As the gears speed starts to
match the speed of the mainshaft the inertia of the gear rotates the blocker ring in the opposite
direction lining up the blocker ring teeth and allowing the clutching hub to slide over the blocker ring
teeth and engage the mainshaft gear locking it to the mainshaft. Synchronizers come in several
types, Block type, Disc and Plate type, Plain and Pin type.
Bushings and Bearings
Bearings are devices used to reduce friction between
rotating and stationary parts. They guide and support
rotating parts, to prevent damage from misalignment or
excessive clearances. There are two major classes of
bearings: (A) Bushings (B) bearings.
Bushings are pressed into place and do not move. A
rotating shaft slides around on the bushing surface. Bushings are used for supporting rotating
shafts. These bushings have a one piece or two piece construction. Sleeves and bushings are one
piece. Bushings are small sleeves. Two piece bushings are called insert bearings (like crankshaft
bearings). Bushing material Bushings are composed of many materials. Most bushings used in
transmissions are made of a steel shell with a coating of a soft metal, such as copper, brass, lead,
or aluminum. Sometimes babbit metal, which is an alloy of tin or lead, copper, and antimony, is used
for the coating. Pilot bushings in the clutch assembly, used to support transmission input shafts, and
some bushings used in transmissions, are solid brass or bronze. One thing is true about any
bushing, no matter what its composition; it is always designed to wear before the shaft metal. This is
done so that the bushing, which is relatively cheap, will wear out instead of the expensive shaft.
Bushing lubrication
To reduce friction, bushings must be lubricated. For proper bushing lubrication, the shaft and
bushing must be separated entirely by a film of lubricant. When enough lubricant is present, the
sliding action takes place in the lubricant between the shaft and the bushing; the shaft rides on the
film. In order to accommodate the bushing lubricant, a clearance is needed between the shaft and
bushing. An oil clearance must allow the lubricant to enter and circulate properly. If the clearance is
too tight, the lubricant cannot form an adequate surface between the mating parts. If it is too loose,
the lubricant will leak out too quickly to maintain the surface separation. The shaft and bushing are
said to have a running fit when the oil clearance is sufficient to enable parts to turn freely and
receive proper lubrication. The lubricant
may be a type of oil supplied by pressure,
splash or immersion. The lubricant can
also be grease that is applied periodically.
Most bushings will have slots and
grooves for lubricant. They allow the
lubricant to be distributed around a
moving shaft.
Anti friction Bearings
Anti-friction bearings contain rolling
elements that operate within a housing
made up of one or two pieces of metal. The rolling elements can be balls or rollers. The pieces of
the housing are called races. For long life, all of these parts are made of heat-treated, high-strength
steel. A typical bearing, with inner race, outer race, and rolling element, is shown. In addition to
rolling elements and races, many bearings contain a cage to keep the rolling elements in position.
Also, some bearings are pre-lubricated, and these have seals to keep the lubricant in and to keep
dirt and moisture out. Anti-friction bearings may be pressed or slipped into position onto a shaft, or
into a stationary housing. Frequently, the bearing is pressed onto the shaft, and then the shaft and
bearing are slipped into place in the stationary housing. In some cases, such as rear axle pinion
gear bearings, the bearing is pressed into the stationary housing. The advantage of the bearing is
that it uses a rolling motion, rather than a sliding motion like the bushing. The rolling motion
produces less friction. The bearing is usually used where rotating parts are highly stressed or where
it is difficult to supply adequate amounts of lubricant. The bearing is more efficient than the bushing,
but it is more expensive. Sometimes, however, size, clearance problems, or the back-and-forth
movement of the shaft prevent the use of a bearing.
Types of anti-friction bearings
The two major types of bearings are ball bearings and roller bearing. Ball bearings are used for
clutch throw-out bearings, which are used for clutch release. They are also used for pilot bearings
and in some transmissions. Roller bearings of various types are used as pilot bearings and also in
transmissions and rear axle assemblies. Tapered roller bearings, needle bearings, and thrust
bearings are all variations of the roller bearing.
Ball bearings. Although
they vary in size, ball
bearings used in
automotive drive trains are
all of the same basic
design; however, methods
of lubrication vary.


Clutch throw-out bearings
and some rear axle
bearings are greased by
the manufacturer and are
not intended to be re-greased. Ball bearings used in other parts of the drive train are lubricated by
oil splashed from other moving parts.
Roller bearings. As mentioned, there are several types of roller bearings. Straight roller-bearings
are used for axle bearings in rear axle assemblies. They are also used in manual and automatic
transmissions. This type of bearing usually comes as a one-piece unit.
A tapered roller bearing is shown. Rollers of this bearing assembly are tapered. The outside
diameter of the inner race (cone) and the inside diameter of the outer race (cup) are both tapered,
also to fit the rollers. Tapered roller bearings are used for heavy loads and axial loads as well.
Needle bearings is another type of roller bearing. Needle bearings perform the same function as
other roller bearings, but their diameter is much smaller in relation to their length. Needle bearings
have tiny rollers that resemble needles, hence, the name needle bearing.
Thrust bearings, are flat, disc like bearings that resemble washers. Thrust bearings are made up of
needle rollers. The rollers are arranged radially. This kind of bearing is sometimes called a
Torrington bearing.
Lubricants
Lubricants that exist in a liquid state are called lubricating oils, or lube oils. The major function of the
oil is to lubricate the drive train parts. The lube oil must also help cool the components and help
carry away destructive particles. The oil must be compatible with, or not cause damage to gaskets,
seals, and other parts.


Gear oils are heavy oils that provide lubrication for the
gears and bearings in manual transmissions.
These oils have high SAE viscosity grades, such as
SAE 90 or 140. Note that gear oils are not necessarily
always heavier than engine oils. Engine oils and
lubricating oils are graded on different scales. For example, an
SAE 90 gear oil viscosity can be similar to that of an SAE 40
engine oil. Some vehicle manufacturers even recommend the
use of a good quality engine oil in their trans-axles, instead of
gear oil. Gear oils are available in multi-grade versions,
similar to multi-grade engine oils. A gear oil marked SAE
85W-140, for instance, is rated at SAE 85 when cold. The oil
contains additives that cause it to maintain enough thickness
to rate SAE 140 when it heats up. Multi-grade gear oils flow
freely between moving parts when cold, but still provide good
lubrication when the parts heat up. Gear oils contain other
additives, including friction reducing and other anti-wear agents. One
type of additive, in particular, prevents oil from being squeezed out from between helical and hypoid
gears as they revolve. Gear oil with this type of additive is called extreme-pressure, or EP, lube.
Hypoid gear lube is another name for it. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has developed a
gear oil rating system using GL numbers. GL1 is the lowest grade. GL1 is used only for low-speed,
light-duty applications. As the GL numbers increase, the quality of the oil increases. Always refer to
the service manual to determine the correct lubricant and viscosity range for the vehicle and
operating conditions. Do not use mild EP gear oil or multi-purpose gear oil when operating
temperatures are above 230 degrees Fahrenheit. Many of these gear oils break down above 230
degrees F. and coat seals, bearings and gears with deposits that might cause premature failures.
When it becomes necessary to add oil, the types or brands of oil should not be mixed. For service
convenience, many units are now designed with a dipstick and a filler tube. Check the oil with the
engine off and the vehicle resting on level ground. Most manual transmissions have holes, capped
with fill plugs, on the sides of their cases for adding oil. Once the plug is removed, the gear oil may
be added through the opening. The unit is full when a small amount of oil begins to drip from the
opening; at which point, the fill plug is replaced and tightened. The oil level must be level with the
bottom of the fill hole. Do not overfill the transmission, as it will cause the oil to break down due to
excessive heat and aeration. When servicing inspect the lube oil for metal particles, which may
appear as a shiny, metallic color in the lubricant. Large amounts of metal particles indicate severe
bearing, synchronizer, gear, or housing wear. It is also a good idea to have oil samples taken on a
regular basis to have the oil content analyzed by a professional laboratory.