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Pronouns and Articles in Marathi

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Let us learn pronouns today. Below chart has the list.

As I would always say, go through the list once. But do not get daunted by the details.
When we will start preparing sentence, come back to chart and get the required
pronoun.
Using them frequently will make you familiar. And afterwards you will not need to come
back this chart.


Pronoun in English Pronoun in Marathi Transliteration
I

mI
we

AmhI
we ( listener including)

ApaN
You (singular)

tU
You (plural)


tumhI
He / That (male)

to
She /That (female)

tI
It /That (neuter)

te
They (Plural of He) /Those
(m.)

te
They (Plural of She)
/Those(f.)

tyA
They (Plural of it) /Those
(n.)

tI
This(Male)

hA
This(Female)

hI
This(neuter)

he
These (male)

he
These (female)

hyA
These (neuter)

hI


Difference between (AmhI) and (ApaN)
(AmhI) is used when listener is not included in referred group.
e.g if a boy went to a party with his family. Then he will tell his friend as
We went to party -> "" -> AmhI partylA gelo
Here listeners i.e. friends are not included in the WE

Same boy will tell to his family member
We went to party -> "" -> ApaN "party"lA gelo
Here the listener i.e. family member is included in we

********************* Articles *************************

In English there are three article "a', "an" and "The". In Marathi there is no custom of using such
articles.
"This is horse" and "This is a horse" will be translated in Marathi same way " "(hA ghoDA
Ahe )
"This is ant" and "This is an ant" will be translated in Marathi same way " " ( hI muMgI
Ahe )
"The Sun", "The moon" will be translated as if written just "sun", "moon" without article "The"
i.e. (sUrya), (chaMdra)


Using plurals to indicate respect

(AdarArthI
bahuvachan )
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In Marathi, plurals are used to indicate respect. This is called


(AdarArthI bahuvachan )
e.g. If you are talking about prime minister of you are country. In English you
will say.
"He is Prime Minister. He is speaking".
As seen before in Marathi, "He" in English is (to) in Marathi. So In Marathi,
literal translation will be
. ( to paMtapradhAn Ahe. to bolat Ahe )
But because you are talking about P.M. and you will want say these sentences
with respect, so actually you will use plural of (to) which is (te). And
sentence will be formed accordingly.
So Marathi sentence will be
. ( te paMtapradhAn Ahet. te bolat Ahet ).
Which if translated literally in English, it will be "They are Prime Minister. They
are speaking". Which sounds odd in English. But in Marathi it is natural and
correct way. And it should be followed when you are talking with an elder person
or with any one who you want to give respect.

Similarly if you are talking about lady
She is good -> ( tI chAMgalI Ahe )
When saying with respect; plural of is (tI) is (tyA). So sentence will be
( tyA chAMgalyA Ahet ).

Similarly "How are you" is translated as
( tU kasA Ahes )
Plural of (tU) is ( tumhI). So question with respect will be asked as
( tumhI kase AhAt )

In old time few learned persons or rich person, used to address themselves with
respect. So they used ( AmhI) which is "we" in English while talking about
themselves.
So
I am coming -> ( mI yeto Ahe )
Giving oneself respect they used to say ( AmhI yet Ahot )
In editorials of Marathi newspaper you will find editor calling himself
(AmhI)
But nowadays in day-to-day communication nobody calls himself
( AmhI) as it looks like boasting.

I have listed pairs here just for reference :-

- mI -AmhI
- ( tU -tumhI )
- ( to - te )
- ( tI -tyA )
- ( te -tI )

Even if sentences does not have pronoun; it should be formed with
plural way to indicate respect.
e.g.
Shivaji Maharaj was great
Literal translation -> ( shivAjI mahArAj mahAn hotA)
Correct way with respect ->
( shivAjI mahArAj mahAn hote)

Kaushik is my teacher Literal translation -> ( kaushik
mAjhA shikshak Ahe )
Correct way with respect -> ( kaushik mAjhe shikshak
Ahet )

Note that, we do not use plural of main noun. Plural form of only pronoun,
adjective, verb is used.
Your mother is good (with respect) -> (tujhyA AI chAMgalyA
Ahet).
We used (AI) and not its plural i.e (AyA)

Another example,
She is my husband's sister -> (tyA mAjhyA naNaMd Ahet). We will
not use ""(naNaMdA) which is plural of (naNaMd)

But when you use a preposition with noun, we use plural.
e.g. To mother (literal translation) -> (AIlA)
To mother (with respect) -> (AIMnA)

For teacher (literal translation) -> (shikShakAsAThI)
For teacher (with respect) -> (shikShakAMsAThI )

I have thoroughly discussed preposition in later chapter. So revisit this part after you are
clear with that concept.


*********** Using (ApaN) instead of (tumhI)*************
When speaking very formally or in very formal written communication instead
of (tumhI) we use (ApaN). Rest of the sentence structure remains
same.
How are you ->
(With respect) ( tumhI kase AhAt )
(Very formal communication ) -> ( ApaNkase AhAt )

You are doing work ->
(With respect) ( tumhI kAm karat Ahat )
(Very formal communication ) -> ( ApaN kAm karat Ahat )

Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=odSie1Zt-BU

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Marathi language online.
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Posted by Learn Marathi by Kaushik Lele

Verbs in Marathi
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Friends, let us move a step ahead towards sentence formation today. We will talk about
verbs.
In English some verbs are :- to go; to come; to speak; to sit; to eat etc.
In Marathi some verbs
are (yeNe), (jANe), (bolaNe), (basaNe), (khaaNe) etc.

While using verb in English sentence we strip "to" out of it. "To come" is used in
sentence as "I come" etc.
Same way in Marathi ending (Ne) is stripped in sentence.

Like in English, Just saying the verb is asking someone to do that action.
When you say "Come !" you are asking someone to come. Same way in Marathi saying
"(ye)" is asking someone to come.

So by knowing the verbs you can easily request someone.

Verb in English Verb in Marathi Transliteration
Come ye
Go jA
Sit basa
Eat khA
Sing Ga
Speak bola
Listen aik
Beat mAr
Drink pI
Smile has
Write lihI
Do kar
Get up uTh
Sleep jhop
Run dhAv
Stop thAMb
Open ughaD
Close baMd kar
See bagh



Listen verbs online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdZy2x1Xugo


Simple Present Tense in Marathi
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Today we will finally reach to sentence formation. Let us see Simple Present Tense in
Marathi.

In English a boy will say I go In Marathi he will say (mI jAto)
As we have seen before the verb Go is (jA) in Marathi.
So for Simple present tense we suffixed (to) to verb. Simple !!
(jA)+ (to) = (mI jAto)

Similarly a girl will say (mI jAte ).
Note that there is different suffix based on gender of the speaker. For feminine, suffix
is (te)
(jA)+ (te) = (jAte)

So formula for forming sentence is
Pronoun followed by verb+suffix.

Below table list the suffix to be used for different pronouns
Pronoun in English Prnoun in Marathi Suffix in
Marathi
Suffix
Trnsliteration
I (male)

to
I (female)

te
we

to
we ( listenr
including)

to
You (singular
male)

tos
You (singular
female)


tes
You (plural)


tA
He / That (male) /
This (male)
/ /
to
She / That
(female)/ This
(female)
/ /
te
It
/That(neuter)/This
(neuter )
/ /
te
They (Plural of
He) /Those (m.)
/These (m.)
/ /
tAt
They (Plural of
She) / Those (f.) /
These (f.)
/ /
tAt
They (Plural of it) /
Those (n.) / These
(n.)
/ /
tAt

Now apply the formula "Pronoun verb+suffix" using above table and verbs seen in last
post; create as many sentences as possible.

I ( male) do. (mI karato)
I (female) do. (mI karate)
We dance. / (AmhI/ApaN nAchato )
You (male) cry. (tU raDatos)
You (female) cry. (tU raDates)
You (Plural) walk (tumhI chAlatA)
He walks. (to chAlato)
She speaks. (tI bolate)
It moves. (te halate)
They(Plural of He/She/It) dance. / / (te/tyA/tI nAchatAt )


Listen above examples at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFPLKfHIKQw

Simple Present Tense of "To Be" in Marathi
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In English the verb To Be has special significance. Its different forms are used along
with other verb to indicate tense. Same is the case in Marathi.

To Be in English is (asaNe) in Marathi.
In English am, are, is are different forms of To be for different pronouns.
Similarly in Marathi there are different forms of (asaNe)
Below chart shows has details.

Pronoun in
English
Form of
To Be
Pronoun in
Marathi
Form
of(asaNe)
in Marathi
Transliteration
I (male) am
Ahe
I (female) am
we are
Ahot
we ( listener
including)
are

You (singular
male)
are
Ahes
You (singular
female)
are
You (plural) are
AhAt
He / That (m.)
/ This (m.)
is
/ /
Ahe
She / That (f.)/
This (f.)
is
/ /
It / That(n.) /
This (n.)
is
/ /
They (Plural of
He) /Those
(m.) /These
(m.)
are
/ /
Ahet
They (Plural of
She) / Those
(f.) / These
(f.)
are
/ /
They (Plural of
it) / Those (n.)
/ These (n.)
are
/ /


So sentence can be formed as :-
I am :- ( mI Ahe )
You are :- ( tumhI AhAt )
They are :- ( te Ahet )
We are :- / ( AmhI/ApaN Ahot )

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOVQZRphPi0


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Present Continuous Tense in Marathi
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After Learning Simple Present Tense of To be it is easy to march toward learning
Present Continuous tense ( PCT)

In English PCT sentence is formed as follows :-
Pronoun form of To be Verb+-ing

I am doing


Similarly in Marathi PCT sentence is formed as follows :-

Pronoun form of verb in Simple Present
Tense
form of
(asaNe)




I -> Do -> Am ->

Let us take another example. He eats in Marathi is . Form of (asaNe) for
He is " "(Ahe)
So, followed by -> is Present Continuous ( I am eating)

Similarly --> (tI raDate Ahe) is Present Continuous ( She is cying)

There are few exception for pronoun "You" and "They"

1) Exception for You
You (male) eat --> (tU khAtos )
The form of (asaNe) for You is (Ahes). So as per above rule Present
continuous sentence will be . But exception is that ending (s) is not used
in verb .
Sentence will be .

2) Exception for "They"
They (plural of He/She/It) eat --> // (te/tyA/ I khAtAt )
The form of (asaNe) for You is (Ahet). So as per above rule Present
continuous sentence will be // .
But exception is that ending (tAt) is not used in verb . Instead only (t) is used.
Sentence will be // .

So below chart lists the suffixes of present continuous (which is internally combination of
suffixes for general verb and to be in Present continuous).
Exceptions highlighted.

Pronoun in
English
Pronoun in
Marathi
Suffix for
common
verbs in
Simple
Present
Form
of (asaNe)
in Simple
Present
Combined
suffix for
Present
Continuous
I (male)

I (female)

we

we ( listener
including)

You (singular
male)

You (singular
female)




You (plural)




He / That (m.)
/ This (m.)
/ /
She / That
(f.)/ This (f.)
/ /
It / That(n.) /
This (n.)
/ /
They (Plural of
He) /Those
(m.) /These
(m.)
/ /
They (Plural of
She) / Those
(f.) / These
(f.)
/ /
They (Plural of
it) / Those (n.)
/ These (n.)
/ /


Few examples :-
I ( male) am doing. (mI karato Ahe)
I (female) am doing. (mI karate Ahe)
We are dancing. / (AmhI/ApaN nAchato Ahot)
You (male) are crying. (tU raDato Ahes)
You (female) are crying . (tU raDate Ahes)
You (Plural) are walking (tumhI chAlatA AhAt)
He is walking. (to chalato Ahe)
She is speaking. (tI bolate Ahe)
It is moving. (te halate Ahe)
They are dancing. / / (te/tyA/tI nAchat Ahet )


Style 2 of present continuous tense
Second style of present continuous tense is same as above. Only difference is that, for
all nouns and pronouns the suffix for verb is (t).
Both styles are correct and part of standard Marathi.
So this form is bit simpler way for new learner.

I ( male) am doing.
Style 1 -> (mI karato Ahe)
Style 2 -> (mI karat Ahe)

She is speaking.
Style 1-> (tI bolate Ahe)
Style 2-> (tI bolat Ahe)

It is moving.
Style 1-> (te halate Ahe)
Style 2-> (te halat Ahe)

You (male) are crying.
Style 1-> (tU raDato Ahes)
Style 2-> (tU raDato Ahes)

Listen examples of Style 1 and Style 2 at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msbyIKBOlq0

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Simple Future Tense in Marathi
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Future Tense
Similar to Simple present tense, the Simple future tense also has same sentence
structure
Pronoun followed by verb+suffix.

Example 1) For I(male/female) the suffix is (en)
So for verb (chAl) the future tense will be
(chAl) + (en)= (chAlen )
The full sentence "I will walk" --> (mI chAlen )

Example 2)
For We the suffix is (U)
So for verb (chAl) the future tense will be
(chAl) + (U)= (chAlU)
The full sentence "We will walk" --> (AmhI chAlU)


Example 3)
For They the suffix is ( tIl )
So for verb (chAl) the future tense will be
(chAl) + ( tIl ) = (chAlatIl )
The full sentence "They will walk" --> ( te chAlatIl)

Interestingly the form to to Be i.e. (asaNe) also follows same rule.
So they are not irregular as in Simple tense

Using above three examples the forms of will be used as follws :-
I will be --> + -->
We will be --> + -->
They will be --> / / + --> / /

Below table enlists all the suffixes and also the form of (asaNe)

Pronoun in
English
Pronoun
in Marathi
Suffix for Simple
Future tense
Form of
(asaNe)
I (male)
(en )/
(In)
(asen )/
(asIn)
I (female)
we

(U)

(asU )

we ( listener
including)



You (singular male)


( shIl )

(asashIl )
You (singular
female)


You (plural)
(Al)
In special cases
(yAl )
(asAl )


He / That (m.) /
This (m.)
/ /
(el )

In special cases
(Il )
(asel )

She / That (f.)/ This
(f.)
/ /

It / That(n.) / This
(n.)
/ /

They (Plural of
He) /Those (m.)
/These (m.)
/ /

(tIl )
(asatIl )

They (Plural of She)
/ Those (f.) / These
(f.)
/ /

They (Plural of it) /
Those (n.) / These
(n.)
/ /

Examples:-
I ( male) will do. / (mI karen/karIn)
I (female) will do. / (mI karen/karIn)
We will dance. / (AmhI/ApaN karU)
You (male) will cry. ( tU raDashIl)
You (female) will cry. ( tU raDashIl)
You (Plural) will walk ( tumhI chAlAl)
He will walk. ( to chAlel )
She will speak. ( tI bolel )
It will move. ( te halel)
They will dance. / / ( te/tyA/tI nAchatIl )

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyN9FzLBTuI

**** Explanation where multiple suffixes are mentioned *****
1) For first person i.e. "I"
1a) for verbs ending with (a) both suffixes can be used.
So for verbs (bol), (kar)
(bolen) & (bolIn) are both correct forms.
(karen) & (karIn ) are both correct forms.

1b) For verbs NOT ending with (a) only (In) is used. (en) is not used.
So for verbs (de), (ho)
(deen) , (hoen) are incorrect form.
Correct forms are (deIn), (hoIn).

2) For you(plural) i.e. (tumhI)
2a) For verbs ending with (a) only (Al) is used.
e.g. (bolAl) (karAl)

2b) For verbs not ending with (a) only is only (yAl) is used.
Ending vowel is replaced by (yAl)
For verb (de) ending vowel 'e' is replaced by (yAl) it becomes (dyAl)
For verb (pi) ending vowel 'i' is replaced by (yAl) it becomes (pyAl)

Form of verb (ho) is exceptional. It is (vhAl )
You will become great -> ( tumhI mahAn vhAl )

3)For third person singular i.e. "He/She/It"
3a) for verbs ending with (a) only (el) used.
So (bolIl ) , (karIl) are incorrect.
Correct forms are (bolel), (karel).

3b) For verbs NOT ending with (a) only is only (Il) is used
So for verbs (de), (ho)
(deel) , (hoel) are incorrect forms.
Correct forms are (deIl), (hoIl).

4) For verbs ending with (u) forms are changed little bit. If suffix starts with
vowel then consonant (v) is added in between verb and suffix.
e.g. for verb "To wash" i.e. (dhuNe)
(dhu) + (v) + (en ) -> (dhuven) I will wash-> (mi dhuven)
(dhu) + (v) + (In) -> (dhuvIn) I will wash -> (mi dhuvIn)
(dhu) + (v) + (U) -> (dhuvU) We will wash -> / (AmhI/ApaN dhuvU)
(dhu) + (v) + (Al) -> (dhuvAl) You(plural) will wash -> ( tumhI dhuvAl)
(dhu) + (v) + (el) -> (dhuvel) He/She/It will wash -> // ( to/tI/te dhuvel )
You(singular) will wash -> ( tU dhushIl
They will wash -> // ( te/tyA/tI dhutIl )

There are hardly any verbs ending with (u) so you may skip rule no. 4

Listen above explanations of multiple suffixes online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iOeOGYyv4FQ

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Future Continuous Tense in Marathi
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Friends, you have learnt Simple Future tense of to Be i.e. (asaNe). So you have
almost done with Future Continuous Tense.

The sentence structure in Future Continuous Tense is :-
Pronoun Verb+ (t) Form of (asaNe) in Simple Future
( mI ) (chAl)+ (t) ( asen )

Example 1) For I(male/female) Form of (asaNe) in Simple Future Is ( asen ).
The full sentence
I will be walking --> ( mI ) (chAl)+ (t) ( asen )
--> (mI chAlat asen )

Example 2)
For We Form of (asaNe) in Simple Future Is (asU)
The full sentence
we will be walking --> (AmhI) (chAl)+ (t) (asU)
--> (AmhI chAlat asU )



Below table enlists the combined suffix for Future Continuous tense

Pronoun in
English
Pronoun

in

Marathi
Suffix
for

common

verbs
Form of


(asaNe)

in Simple
Combined

suffix for

Future

Continuous
Transliteration
in

Future
Continuous

Future
I (male)







(t)










t asen


I (female)






t asen


we

t asU


we ( listener
including)

t asU


You (singular
male)






t asashIl


You (singular
female)






t asashIl


You (plural)

t asAl
He / That (m.) /
This (m.)
/ /





t asel


She / That (f.)/
This (f.)
/ /





t asel


It / That(n.) /
This (n.)
/ /





t asel


They (Plural of
He) /Those
(m.) /These
(m.)
/ /
t asatIl


They (Plural of
She) / Those
(f.) / These (f.)
/ /
t asatIl


They (Plural of
it) / Those (n.)
/ These (n.)
/ /
t asatIl


Examples :-

I ( male) shall be doing.
I (female) shall be doing.
We will be dancing. /
You (male) will be crying.
You (female) will be crying .
You (Plural) will be walking
He will be walking.
She will be speaking.
It will be moving.
They will be dancing. / /

Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZRjH9U0Tiw

Simple Past Tense in Marathi - Part 1
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Friends, for learning past tense you need to put extra attention. Because, Past tense has
comparatively different structure than other Tense.
Also there are multiple exceptions to common rules. So be more attentive.

Let us start.
In Simple Present , Continuous Present, Simple Future and Continuous future tense; the
verb is formed depending on the Nominative i.e. doer of the action. But in past tense
there is some difference.

In Simple past tense there 2 types of statements.
Type 1) Verbs which has nouns/objective
e.g. I ate mango.
Here I is subjective/Nominative and mango is objective.

Type 2) Verbs which do not have nouns/objective
e.g. I speak.
Here I is subjective (Nominative) . The verb speak doe not need noun/objective

For 1
st
kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of objective
And in 2
nd
kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of
Pronoun/subjective/Nominative


Sentence without Objective are formed as
Pronoun Verb+Suffix for Simple Past Tense

e.g. For We the suffix in Simple Past tense is ( lo )
So for verb (chAl) the Past tense will be
(chAl) + ( lo )= (chAlalo)
The full sentence
we walked --> (AmhI) (chAl) + ( lo )
--> (AmhI chAlalo)

Below table lists all the suffixes :-

Pronoun in English Pronoun

in

Marathi
Suffix for
Simple
Past Tense
Transliteration
I (male)

lo


I (female)

le
we

lo
we ( listener including)

lo
You (singular male)

lAs
You (singular female)

lIs
You (plural)

lAt
He / That (m.) / This (m.)
/ /
lA
She / That (f.)/ This (f.)
/ /
lI
It / That(n.) / This (n.)
/ /
le
They (Plural of He) /Those
(m.) /These (m.)
/ /
le
They (Plural of She) / Those
(f.) / These (f.)
/ /
lyA
They (Plural of it) / Those
(n.) / These (n.)
/ /
lI

Examples :-
I (male) spoke. (mI bolalo)
I (female) danced. (mI nAchale)
We smiled. / (AmhI / ApaN hasalo)
You (male) sat. (tU basalAs)
You (female) sat. (tU basalIs)
You (Plural) walked (tumhI chAlalAt)
He moved. (to halalA )
She shouted. (tI oraDalI )
It turned. (te vaLale )
They(plural of he) met. (te bheTale )
They(plural of she) met (tyA bheTalyA )
They(plural of it) met (tI bheTalI )


Exceptions :-
Please pay more attention towards the verbs (bagh ) , ( sAMg ), (kar ) ,
(khA ) etc.
In past tense verb itself is changed first. And suffixes are added to these changed verbs.
e.g as per above rules "He saw movie" will be " " ( tyAne mUvhI baghalA
). But in simple past tense the verb"" changes to "". so instead of we
say ( baghitalA ).
Similarly other changes.

As we will see ahead, the Perfect tenses depend on the sentence creation in simple past
tense. So these form s only used in perfect tenses also.

Go through below table :-

Verb in
english
Verb in
Marathi
Forms in simple
past tense
as per above
rule.
But DO NOT
USEthese forms
Changed verb Forms in simple
past tense as per
rule.
But USE
theseforms
See
/
/

/
/
(baghitalA /
baghitalI
/baghitale )
Tell
/ /



( sAMgitalA /
sAMgitalI /
sAMgitale )
Do
/ / / /
( kelA / kelI /
kele )

Eat
/ / / /

( khAllA / khAllI /
khAlle )
Ask for
/ /


/
/
(mAgitalA
mAgitalI
mAgitale )
Drink
/ /

/ /

(pyAyalA /
pyAyalI pyAyale )
Come
/ /

etc.
/ /
( AlA / AlI /
Ale )

etc.
Sing
/ /

etc.
/ /

( gayalA / gayalI
/ gaya le )

etc.

A separate lesson is added to discuss these exceptions as :-
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.com/2013/04/learn-marathi-exceptional-verbs-
changing-past-tense.html


Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rou-a3SYik

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