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Induction Motor Fundamentals

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Induction Machine - Introduction
A machine with only armortisseur windings is called an
induction machine.

No DC field current is required to run the machine. Rotor
voltage is induced in the rotor windings rather than being
physically connected by wires.

Induction machine has the same physical stator as a
synchronous machine with a different rotor construction.

Induction machines can be operated as either motors and
generator. However, they are primarily used as induction motors.

Induction machines are by far the most common type of motor
used in industrial, commercial or residential settings.
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IM Stator
Stator for a 2hp induction machine
http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~knight/ee332/induction/basics/construction.html
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IM Rotor
Two types of rotors for induction machine:
Cage Rotor
Wound Rotor
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Cage Rotor
A cage (or squirrel-cage) rotor consists of a series of conducting bars
laid into slots carved in the face of the rotor and shorted at either end
by large shorting rings.
skewed
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Wound Rotor (1)
A wound rotor has a complete set of three phase windings usually Y-connected.
The ends of three rotor wires are tied up to slip rings on the rotors shaft, where
extra resistance can be inserted into rotor circuits for control.
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Wound Rotor (2)
skewed
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IM Basic Concepts
state steady at follows speed,
s synchronou at rotates field, magnetic induced s rotor' :
speed s synchronou at rotates field, magnetic s stator' :
rotor the of speed or speed mechanical :
rpm in speed s synchronou
120
stator on frequency electrical :
S
R
S
m
e
sync
e
n
P
f
n
f
B
B
B
=
But rotor will not follow B
S.

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Concept of Rotor Slip
% 100

=
sync
m sync
f
f f
s
sync m
n s n ) 1 ( =
) 1 (
) 1 (
sync m
sync m
f s f
s
=
= e e
P
f
n
P
f
n
f
e
sync
e
sync
syn
120
2 / 60
=
= =
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Rotor Electrical Frequency
rotor the to relative of speed :
2 /
frequency electrical rotor :
R
r
r
P
f
f
B
Since B
R
follows B
S
, we have:
2 / P
f
f f
r
m sync
+ =
e sync m sync r
sf
P
sf
P
f f f = = =
2 2
) (
) (
120
m sync r
n n
P
f =
Induction Motor Equivalent
Circuit
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Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor (1)
1
4.44
e eff m
E f N = u
stator copper loss
0
0
4.44
4.44
4.44
R r effR m
e effR m R
R e effR m
E f N
sf N sE
E f N
= u
= u =
= u
effR
eff
R
eff
N
N
E
E
n = =
0
1
R
I
From B
net

leakage
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Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor (2)
R e R
R R e R r R r R
L f X
sX L sf L f L X
t
t t e
2
2 2
0
0
=
= = = =
0
0
0
/
R R
R
R R
R
R R
R
R
jX s R jsX R jX R +
=
+
=
+
=
E E E
I
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Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor (3)
1 :
eff
n
per phase equivalent circuit
0
2
2
2
2
R eff
R eff
X n X
R n R
=
=
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Thevinin Equivalent Circuit
Thevinin equivalent circuit
M c
M c
M c M
jX R
X jR
jX R Z
+
= = //
1 1
1 1
1 1
) (

) //(
jX R Z
jX R Z
jX R Z Z
M
M
M TH
+ +
+
=
+ =
TH TH TH
jX R Z + =
|
V V
1 1
jX R Z
Z
M
M
TH
+ +
=
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Induction Motor Power Flow
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Power and Torque (1)
2
2
2
I n I
R n R
eff R
R eff
=
=
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Power and Torque (2)
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Power and Torque (3)
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Per Phase Equivalent Circuit with Rotor Loss and
Converted Power Separated
Induction Motor Torque Speed
Characteristics
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Induced Torque from Physical Standpoint (1)
net R ind
k B B T =
o sin
net R ind
B kB T =
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Induced Torque from Physical Standpoint (2)
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Induced Torque from Physical Standpoint (3)
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( d c b a
o sin
o sin
net R ind
B kB T =
s
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Thevinin Equivalent Circuit
Thevinin equivalent circuit
M c
M c
M c M
jX R
X jR
jX R Z
+
= = //
1 1
1 1
1 1
) (

) //(
jX R Z
jX R Z
jX R Z Z
M
M
M TH
+ +
+
=
+ =
TH TH TH
jX R Z + =
|
V V
1 1
jX R Z
Z
M
M
TH
+ +
=
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Induced Torque Equation
] ) ( ) / [(
/ 3
2
2
2
2
2
2
X X s R R
s R V
T
TH TH sync
TH
ind
+ + +
=
e
sync
AG
ind
P
T
e
=
] ) ( ) [(
3
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
s X X R s R
s R V
T
TH TH sync
TH
ind
+ + +
=
e
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Torque Speed Characteristic (1)
s
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Torque Speed Characteristic (2)
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Converted Power vs Speed Characteristic
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Effect of R
2

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Maximum (Pullout)Torque
] ) ( ) / [(
/ 3
2
2
2
2
2
2
X X s R R
s R V
T
TH TH sync
TH
ind
+ + +
=
e
2
2
2
2
2
) ( 0
) / (
X X R
s
R
s R
T
TH TH
ind
+ + = =
c
c
] ) ( [ 2
3
2
2
2
2
max
X X R R
V
T
TH TH TH sync
TH
+ + +
=
e
2
2
2
2
max
) ( X X R
R
s
TH TH
+ +
=
has no relationship with R
2
and s
Appendix - Examples
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Example 1
details in im1.m
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Example 2
details in im2.m
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Example 3
details in im3.m
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Example 4
details in im4.m
Neglect mechanical losses.
n
m1
n
m2
T
ind2
T
ind1
low slip region is pretty linear
n
sync
1
2
1
2
1
2
s
s
n n
n n
T
T
m sync
m sync
ind
ind
=

=
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Example 5
details in im5.m
=
c
R