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JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018




























COMMITTEES
MARRIAGE AND LEGAL SEPARATION - Placido J. Concepcion
Topic Head
Joseph Eliezer D. Herrero
Member
RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS/
PROPERTY RELATIONS OF - Veronica Louise D. Mandi
HUSBAND AND WIFE Topic Head
THE FAMILY/
PATERNITY AND FILIATION - Kara Denise V. Dupio
Topic Head
Fatima I. Bahjin
Meneth F. De Baguio
Rena Mae D. Melocoton
Members
ADOPTION - Althea Kristabele C. Lagura
Topic Head
Florian A. Piedad II
Khim Tonne B. Bation
Members

SUPPORT, PARENTAL AUTHORITY,
AND EMANCIPATION OF MAJORITY - Jayson M. Capundag
Topic Head
Noreen Rose A. Duran
Joselyn M. Mercado
April Anne C. Justalero
Members
PERSONS, EFFECTS AND APPLICATIONS
OF LAWS AND HUMAN RELATIONS - Ebenezer Daryl P. Manzano
Topic Head
Gala Gay N. Bolen
Karen B. Cabual
Charisse T. Tubog
Members
Ebenezer Daryl P. Manzano
Subject Head

Atty. Levy S. Estolloso
Professor
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Iam||y Code
1he lamlly Code Look effecL on AugusL 3, 1988.
MAkkIAGL
8LCulSl1LS
nA1u8L Cl MA88lACL, A81.1
ArL. 1, lC. Marrlage ls a speclal conLracL of
permanenL unlon beLween a man and a woman
enLered lnLo ln accordance wlLh law for Lhe
esLabllshmenL of con[ugal and famlly llfe. lL ls Lhe
foundaLlon of Lhe famlly and an lnvlolable soclal
lnsLlLuLlon whose naLure, consequences, and
lncldenLs are governed by law and noL sub[ecL Lo
sLlpulaLlon, excepL LhaL marrlage seLLlemenLs may
flx Lhe properLy relaLlons durlng Lhe marrlage
wlLhln Lhe llmlLs provlded by Lhls Code.
klnuS Cl 8LCulSl1LS
(1) LssenLlal 8equlslLes (ArL. 2)
a. Legal CapaclLy of Lhe conLracLlng
parLles, who musL be a male and a female
b. ConsenL (of Lhe parLles) freely glven ln
Lhe presence of a solemnlzlng offlcer.
(2) lormal 8equlslLes (ArL. 3)
a. AuLhorlLy of solemnlzlng offlcer
b. A valld marrlage llcense
c. LxcepL: Marrlages ln ottlcolo mottls or
when one or boLh parLles are aL Lhe polnL of
deaLh
d. Marrlage Ceremony:
l. Appearance of conLracLlng parLles ln
Lhe presence of a solemnlzlng offlcer
ll. ersonal declaraLlon LhaL Lhey Lake
each oLher as husband and wlfe ln
Lhe presence of noL less Lhan
2 wlLnesses

LllLC1 Cl A8SLnCL Cl 8LCulSl1L

LSSLn1lAL 8LCulSl1LS
Age
Legal CapaclLy [ArL. 3]
Male or female 18 years old and above, noL under
any lmpedlmenLs menLloned ln ArL. 37 (lncesLuous
marrlage) & ArL. 38 (marrlage agalnsL publlc
pollcy), may conLracL marrlage.
Must be ma|e and fema|e
!ones v Pallahan, (1973): AppllcaLlon for marrlage
llcense was denled slnce marrlage ls deflned by law
as a conLracL enLered lnLo beLween a man and a
woman.
Coodrldge v. uepL. of ubllc PealLh, (2003): Same-
sex couples should noL be denled Lhe same
beneflLs as heLerosexual couples, Lhe rlghL Lo
marry lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo choose who Lo marry.
Sllverlo v 8epubllc, (2007): Changlng of gender ln
one's blrLh cerLlflcaLe was denled, oLherwlse, lL
would resulL ln confuslon and would allow
marrlage beLween persons of Lhe same sex whlch
ls ln deflance of Lhe law, as marrlage ls a unlon
beLween a man and a woman.
Note: 1be best sootce fot cltloq tbe tepoltemeot (of
mole/femole) ls stlll stotototy, os ptovlJeJ expllcltly
lo tbe lomlly coJe.
Consent free|y g|ven
eople v. SanLlago, (1927): A marrlage enLered lnLo
by a person whose real lnLenL ls Lo avold
prosecuLlon for rape ls vold for LoLal lack of
consenL. 1he accused dld noL lnLend Lo be marrled.
Pe merely used such marrlage Lo escape crlmlnal
llablllLy.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Llgenmann v. Cuerra (1964): 1here was no
reasonable and well-grounded fear of an lmmlnenL
and grave evll upon hlm or hls properLy, faLher-ln-
law's words were merely an admonlLlon Lyplcal of
concerned parenLs.
Ceremony
Mottloqe cetemooy
no prescrlbed form or rellglous rlLe for Lhe
solemnlzaLlon of marrlage ls requlred. (ArL. 6)
1he couple's wrlLLen agreemenL where Lhey
declare Lhemselves as husband and wlfe, slgned by
Lhem before a [udge and Lwo capable wlLnesses,
even Lhough lL was lndependenLly made by Lhem,
sLlll counLs as a valld ceremony. [MarLlnez v 1an,
(1909)]
Mlolmom tepoltemeots ptesctlbeJ by low:
(1) Appearance of conLracLlng parLles personally
before Lhe solemnlzlng offlcer [ArL. 3]
(2) ersonal declaraLlon LhaL Lhey Lake each oLher
as husband and wlfe. [ArL. 3]
(3) resence of aL leasL Lwo wlLnesses of legal age.
[ArL. 3]
(4) 1he declaraLlon shall be conLalned ln Lhe
Marrlage cerLlflcaLe. [ArL. 6]
(3) Marrlage cerLlflcaLe shall be Slgned by Lhe
conLracLlng parLles and Lhelr wlLnesses and
aLLesLed by Lhe solemnlzlng offlcer. [ArL. 6]
Note. lo o mottloqe lo ottlcolo mottls, wbeo ooe ot
botb pottles ote oooble to slqo tbe mottloqe
cettlflcote, lt sboll be sofflcleot fot ooe of tbe
wltoesses to wtlte tbe oome of solJ potty, wblcb
sboll be ottesteJ by tbe solemolzloq offlcet. (Att. 6,
pot. 2)
laces where marrlage SPALL be publlcly
solemnlzed:
(1) Chambers of Lhe [udge or ln open courL
(2) Church, chapel, or Lemple
(3) Cfflce of Lhe consul-general, consul or vlce-
consul [ArLlcle 8]

LxcepLlons:
(1) Marrlages performed ln ottlcolo mottls or ln
remoLe places. [ArL. 29]
(2) Where boLh parLles requesL ln wrlLlng LhaL
marrlage be solemnlzed aL a place deslgnaLed by
Lhem.
non-compllance wlLh Lhls requlremenL does noL
lnvalldaLe Lhe marrlage
Who may so|emn|ze marr|ages:
(1) lncumbenL member of Lhe !udlclary wlLhln hls
[urlsdlcLlon. [ArL. 7]
(2) rlesL, 8abbl, lmam or MlnlsLer of any Church or
8ellglous SecL. MusL be:
(a) uuly auLhorlzed by hls church or
rellglous secL
(b) 8eglsLered wlLh Lhe clvll reglsLrar
general
(c) AcLlng wlLhln Lhe llmlLs of Lhe wrlLLen
auLhorlLy granLed Lo hlm by hls church or rellglous
secL.
(d) AL leasL one of Lhe conLracLlng parLles
belongs Lo Lhe solemnlzlng offlcer's church or
rellglous secL. [ArL. 7]
(3) Shlp CapLaln or Alrplane Chlef may solemnlze a
marrlage ln ottlcolo mottls beLween passengers or
crew members [ArL. 7, 31]
(4) A MlllLary commander of a unlL may solemnlze
marrlages ln ottlcolo mottls beLween persons
wlLhln Lhe zone of mlllLary operaLlon. (ArL. 7, 32)
(3) Consul-general, consul or vlce-consul may
solemnlze marrlages beLween llllplno clLlzens
abroad. (ArL. 7, 10)
(6) Munlclpal and ClLy Mayors (LCC sec. 444 and
433)
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
LxcepLlons - ArL. 33
(1) Marrlage ls vold when solemnlzed by any
person noL legally auLhorlzed Lo perform marrlages
unless elLher or boLh parLles belleved ln good falLh
LhaL Lhe solemnlzlng offlcer had legal auLhorlLy Lo
do so. [ArL. 33 (2)]
2) Absence & lrregularlLy of AuLhorlLy of a
solemnlzlng offlcer
Lack of valld noLlflcaLlon of boLh parLles deslrlng a
ceremony ln a remoLe place was held Lo be only a
mere l88LCuLA8l1? [navarro vs. uomagLoy
(1996)]
8espondenL [udge was faulLed for solemnlzlng a
marrlage ouLslde hls LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon. Also,
presenLaLlon of Lhe marrlage llcense subsequenL Lo
Lhe solemnlzaLlon of marrlage wlll noL cure Lhe
defecL. [Aranes v. Ccclano (2002)]
Llcense requlred Ceneral 8ule: Llcense requlred
ArLlcle 9 - lssued by local reglsLrar of clLy or
munlclpallLy where elLher conLracLlng parLy
hablLually resldes
ArLlcle 11 - Lach conLracLlng parLy should flle
separaLely.
ArLlcle 20 - Llcense valld ln any parL of Lhe
hlllpplnes for 120 days from daLe of lssue,
auLomaLlcally cancelled aL Lhe explraLlon of such
perlod.
lorelgn naLlonal When elLher or boLh parLles are
forelgn naLlonals: CerLlflcaLe of legal capaclLy Lo
conLracL marrlage, lssued by a dlplomaLlc or
consular offlclal, shall be submlLLed before a
marrlage llcense can be obLalned [ArL. 21]
SLaLeless persons or refugees from oLher counLrles:
affldavlL sLaLlng clrcumsLances showlng capaclLy Lo
conLracL marrlage, lnsLead of cerL. of legal capaclLy
[ArL. 21]
LxcepLlons
(1) Marrlage ln arLlculo morLls [ArL. 27]
(a) 1he marrlage may be solemnlzed
wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of a marrlage llcense.
(b) lL remalns valld even lf alllng parLy
survlves.
(2) 8eLween passengers or crew members ln a shlp
or alrplane [ArL. 31]
(3) ersons wlLhln a mlllLary zone [ArL. 32]
(4) Marrlage ln 8emoLe and lnaccesslble places
[ArL. 28]
(3) Marrlages by Musllms and LLhnlc culLural
mlnorlLles provlded Lhey are solemnlzed ln
accordance wlLh Lhelr cusLoms, rlLes or pracLlces.
[ArL. 33]
(6) Marrlage by parLles who have CohablLed for aL
leasL 3 years wlLhouL any legal lmpedlmenL Lo
marry each oLher. [ArL. 34, nlnal vs. 8adayog
(2000)]
8equlslLes for Lhe 3-year cohablLaLlon Lo be valld
for Lhe exempLlon from acqulrlng a marrlage
llcense
(1) 1he man and woman musL have been
llvlng LogeLher as husband and wlfe for aL leasL flve
years before Lhe marrlage,
(2) 1he parLles musL have no legal
lmpedlmenL Lo marry each oLher,
(3) 1he facL of absence of legal lmpedlmenL
beLween Lhe parLles musL be presenL aL Lhe Llme of
marrlage,
(4) 1he parLles musL execuLe an affldavlL
sLaLlng LhaL Lhey have llved LogeLher for aL leasL
flve years [and are wlLhouL legal lmpedlmenL Lo
marry each oLher], and
(3) 1he solemnlzlng offlcer musL execuLe a
sworn sLaLemenL LhaL he had ascerLalned Lhe
quallflcaLlons of Lhe parLles and LhaL he had found
no legal lmpedlmenL Lo Lhelr marrlage. [8or[a-
Manzano vs. !udge Sanchez (2001)]


JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Marr|age cert|f|cate
Absence and lrregularlLy of marrlage llcense and
conLracL 8epubllc v. CA and CasLro (1994):
lssuance of Lhe Clvll 8eglsLrar of a CerLlflcaLe of
uue Search and lnablllLy Lo flnd Lhe appllcaLlon of a
marrlage llcense cerLlfles Lhe llcense's lnexlsLence,
Lhus renderlng Lhe marrlage vClu.
Moreno v. 8ernabe (1993): 8efore a marrlage can
be solemnlzed, a valld marrlage llcense musL be
presenLed flrsL, oLherwlse, Lhe marrlage ls vClu.
eople v. 8orromeo (1984): non-exlsLence of a
marrlage conLracL does noL lnvalldaLe Lhe marrlage
as long as all Lhe requlslLes for lLs valldlLy are
properly complled wlLh.
1hlngs Lo do aL Lhe local clvll reglsLrar:
(1) llle an appllcaLlon of marrlage llcense aL Lhe
proper local clvll reglsLrar. [ArL. 11]
(2) resenL blrLh or bapLlsmal cerLlflcaLe for proof
of age. [ArL. 12]
(3) lf aged 18-21 years, presenL parenLal consenL.
[ArL. 14]
(4) lf aged 21-23, presenL parenLal advlce. [ArL. 13]
(3) lf aged 18-23, presenL cerLlflcaLe of marrlage
counsellng from your prlesL. [ArL. 16]
(6) (u 963) ALLend famlly plannlng semlnar or geL
a brochure regardlng famlly plannlng
(7) ay Lhe requlred fees. [ArL 19]
(8) lf forelgner, presenL cerLlflcaLe of legal capaclLy
lssued by dlplomaL or consular offlclals. (ArL. 21)
Marrlage CerLlflcaLe Where parLles declare LhaL
Lhey Lake each oLher as husband and wlfe, conLalns
Lhe followlng:
(1) lull name, sex, age of parLy
(2) ClLlzenshlp, rellglon, hablLual resldence
(3) uaLe and preclse Llme of celebraLlon of
marrlage
(4) 1haL marrlage llcense was properly lssued
(excepL ln marrlages exempL from ML req'L)
(3) 1haL parenLal consenL was secured, when
requlred
(6) 1haL requlremenL as Lo parenLal advlce was
complled wlLh, when requlred
(7) 1haL parLles have enLered lnLo marrlage
seLLlemenLs, lf any [ArL. 22]
Note: Not oo esseotlol ot fotmol tepolslte wltboot
wblcb tbe mottloqe wlll be volJ jMoJtlJejo v. Je
leoo (19J0)]
8esL evldence LhaL a marrlage does exlsL. [1enebro
v. CA (2004)]
LllLC1 Cl MA88lACLS CLLL88A1Lu A88CAu Anu
lC8LlCn ulvC8CL
MA88lACLS CLLL88A1Lu A88CAu
Ceneral 8ule: Marrlages solemnlzed abroad ln
accordance wlLh Lhe laws ln force ln LhaL counLry
shall be valld ln Lhe hlllpplnes. [ArL 26]
LxcepLlons:
(1) Marrlage beLween persons below 18 years old
[ArL. 33(1)]
(2) 8lgamous or polygamous marrlage [ArL. 33(4)]
(3) MlsLake ln ldenLlLy [ArL. 33 (3)]
(4) Marrlages vold under ArLlcle 33 [ArL. 33 (6)]
(3) sychologlcal lncapaclLy [ArL. 36]
(6) lncesLuous marrlages [ArL. 37] (7) Marrlage vold
for reasons of publlc pollcy [ArL. 38]
LssenLlal requlslLes
lnherenL ln Lhe parLles, carrled everywhere
Lex naLlonalll - Laws relaLlng Lo famlly rlghLs and
duLles, or Lo Lhe sLaLus, condlLlon, and legal
capaclLy of persons are blndlng upon hll clLlzens
even Lhough llvlng abroad (ArL 13, CC).
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
lorelgn marrlages may be vold under hll law due
Lo absence of a formal requlslLe under forelgn (ArL.
26, CC)
lormal requlslLes
8equlremenLs lndependenL of Lhe parLles
Lex locl celebraLlonls- lf valld where celebraLed,
Lhen valld everywhere, forms of conLracLlng
marrlage are Lo be regulaLed by Lhe law where lL ls
celebraLed.
lorelgn marrlages vold under hll law due Lo lack
of an essenLlal requlslLe, even lf valld under forelgn
laws, wlll noL be recognlzed laws.
8CCl Cl lC8LlCn MA88lACL ln order LhaL lL may
be upheld:
(1) rovlslons of Lhe forelgn law
(2) CelebraLlon of Lhe marrlage ln accordance wlLh
sald provlslons
lC8LlCn ulvC8CLS
(1) 1hose obLalned by llllplno clLlzens are vold
under hlllpplne law.
(2) lf Lhe forelgn spouse obLalns a valld forelgn
dlvorce, Lhe llllplno spouse shall have capaclLy Lo
remarry under hlllpplne law. (ArL. 26)
van uorn v. 8omlllo (1983): A dlvorce obLalned by
Lhe forelgn spouse ln accordance wlLh Lhe sald
spouse's naLlonal law ls recognlzed ln Lhe
hlllpplnes and releases llllplno spouse from Lhelr
marrlage.
CulLa v. uandan (1998): 1he clLlzenshlp of Lhe
spouses aL Lhe Llme of Lhe dlvorce deLermlnes Lhelr
capaclLy Lo obLaln a valld dlvorce. Slnce Lhe
dlvorce and Lhe naLurallzaLlon of W occurred
wlLhln Lhe same year, Lhe case was remanded Lo
deLermlne whlch occurred flrsL.
LlorenLe v. CA (2000): ClLlzenshlp aL Lhe Llme Lhe
dlvorce ls obLalned deLermlnes lLs valldlLy. Slnce P
was no longer a llllplno clLlzen when he dlvorced
W, Lhe naLlonallLy prlnclple dld noL apply Lo hlm
anymore and Lhe dlvorce ls valld.
Carcla v. 8eclo (2001): A dlvorce decree obLalned
by Lhe forelgn spouse ls recognlzed under hll law
lf lL ls execuLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe forelgner's
naLlonal law. 1he parLy musL prove dlvorce as a
facL and LhaL sald dlvorce ls obLalned ln conformlLy
wlLh Lhe law allowlng lL, before Lhe hlllpplne
courLs can Lake [udlclal noLlce.
VCID AND VCIDA8LL MAkkIAGLS
lk5uMl1lON Ol MAkklAC
(1) resumpLlon ln favor of a valld marrlage [ArL
220, CC]
(2) 1he presumpLlon LhaL a man and a woman
deporLlng Lhemselves as husband and wlfe have
enLered lnLo a lawful conLracL of marrlage ls
saLlsfacLory lf unconLradlcLed. [Sec. 3 (aa), 8ule
131, 8CC]
(3) ln marrlages of excepLlonal characLer, Lhe
exlsLence of Lhe marrlage ls presumed, even ln
Lhe 1C1AL A8SLnCL of a marrlage llcense. [vda.
ue !acob v CA (1999)]
(4) lf a marrlage cerLlflcaLe ls mlsslng, and all
means PAvL nC1 ?L1 8LLn LxPAuS1Lu Lo flnd
lL, Lhen Lhe marrlage ls presumed Lo exlsL
[Sevllla v Cardenas (2006)]
Absence of a marrlage cerLlflcaLe ls noL proof of
absence of marrlage. 1o prove Lhe facL of
marrlage, Lhe followlng would consLlLuLe
compeLenL evldence:
(1) Lhe LesLlmony of wlLnesses Lo maLrlmony,
(2) Lhe couple's publlc cohablLaLlon, and
(3) blrLh and bapLlsmal cerLlflcaLes of chlldren
born durlng Lhe unlon. [1rlnldad v CA (1998)]
Absence of 8equlslLes ArL. 4(1): 1he absence of
any essenLlal or formal requlslLes shall render
Lhe marrlage vold ab lnlLlo, excepL as sLaLed ln
ArLlcle 33 (a).
ArL. 3: Any male or female of Lhe age of
elghLeen years or upwards noL under any of Lhe
lmpedlmenLs menLloned ln ArLlcles 37 and 38,
may conLracL marrlage.
vold from Lhe 8eglnnlng [ArL. 33].
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(1) Marrlage where any parLy ls below elghLeen
years of age even wlLh Lhe consenL of parenLs
or guardlans.
(2) Marrlage solemnlzed by any person noL
legally auLhorlzed Lo perform marrlages unless
such marrlages were conLracLed wlLh elLher or
boLh parLles bellevlng ln good falLh LhaL Lhe
solemnlzlng offlcer had Lhe legal auLhorlLy Lo
do so.
noLe: Ooes bellef lo qooJ foltb tbot tbe
solemolzloq offlcet bos tbe tepolteJ ootbotlty ls
o mlstoke of foct, ooJ oot of low.
(3) Marrlage solemnlzed wlLhouL a valld
marrlage llcense, excepL ln marrlages under
excepLlonal clrcumsLances.
(4) 8lgamous or polygamous marrlages noL
falllng under ArLlcle 41 (ArL. 41: subsequenL
marrlage by presenL spouse who obLalned a
declaraLlon of presumpLlve deaLh for absenL
spouse prlor Lo Lhe subsequenL marrlage).
(3) 1here ls a mlsLake as Lo Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe
oLher conLracLlng parLy.
(6) SubsequenL marrlages LhaL are vold under
ArLlcle 33 (non-compllance wlLh ArL. 32)
sychologlcal lncapaclLy ConLracLed by any
parLy who, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe celebraLlon, was
psychologlcally lncapaclLaLed Lo comply wlLh
Lhe essenLlal marlLal obllgaLlons of marrlage,
even lf such lncapaclLy becomes manlfesL only
afLer lLs solemnlzaLlon [ArL. 36]
8epubllc v. Mollna, (1997): (1) 1he burden of
proof Lo show Lhe nulllLy of Lhe marrlage
belongs Lo Lhe plalnLlff. (2) 1he rooL cause of
Lhe psychologlcal lncapaclLy musL be: (a)
medlcally or cllnlcally ldenLlfled, (b) alleged ln
Lhe complalnL, (c) sufflclenLly proven by Lhe
experLs, (d) clearly explalned ln Lhe declslon. (3)
1he lncapaclLy musL be proven Lo be exlsLlng aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe celebraLlon" of Lhe marrlage.
(4) Such lncapaclLy musL also be shown Lo be
medlcally or cllnlcally permanenL or lncurable.
(3) Such lllness musL be grave enough Lo brlng
abouL Lhe dlsablllLy of Lhe parLy Lo assume Lhe
essenLlal obllgaLlons of marrlage. (6) 1he
essenLlal marlLal obllgaLlons musL be Lhose
embraced by ArLlcles 68 up Lo 71 of Lhe lamlly
Code as regards Lhe husband and wlfe as well
as ArLlcles 220, 221, and 223 of Lhe same Code
ln regard Lo parenLs and Lhelr chlldren. (7)
lnLerpreLaLlons glven by Lhe naLlonal AppellaLe
MaLrlmonlal 1rlbunal of Lhe CaLhollc Church ln
Lhe hlllpplnes, whlle noL conLrolllng/declslve,
should be glven greaL respecL by our courLs. (8)
1he Lrlal courL musL order Lhe prosecuLlng
aLLorney or flscal and Lhe SollclLor Ceneral Lo
appear as counsel for Lhe sLaLe. no declslon
shall be handed down unless Lhe SollclLor
Ceneral lssues a cerLlflcaLlon.
SanLos v. 8edla-SanLos, (1993): Lald down 3
characLerlsLlcs for deLermlnlng psychologlcal
lncapaclLy: gravlLy, anLecedenL, and
lncurablllLy.
1sol v. CA, (1997): 8efusal of husband Lo have
sex was lnLerpreLed Lo be l. A man who can
buL won'L ls l"
Marcos vs. Marcos (2000): sychologlcal
lncapaclLy maybe esLabllshed by Lhe LoLallLy of
Lhe evldence presenLed. ersonal medlcal
examlnaLlon could be dlspensed wlLh.
8epubllc vs. San !ose (2007): 1here ls no
requlremenL LhaL Lhe respondenL be medlcally
examlned flrsL.
AnLonlo v. 8eyes, (2006): aLhologlcal llar"
consldered as psychologlcal lncapaclLy, Mollna
guldellnes meL.
lncesLuous marrlages ArLlcle 37 (lncesLuous):
(1) 8eLween ascendanLs and descendanLs of
any degree, leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe (2)
8eLween broLhers and slsLers, wheLher of Lhe
full or half blood, leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe
AgalnsL ubllc ollcy ArLlcle 38 (AgalnsL ubllc
ollcy): (1) 8eLween collaLeral blood relaLlves,
leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe, up Lo Lhe fourLh clvll
degree. (2) 8eLween sLep-parenLs and sLep-
chlldren. noLe: SLepbroLhers and sLepslsLers
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
can marry because marrlages beLween Lhem
are noL among Lhose enumeraLed ln ArLlcle 38.
(3) 8eLween parenLs-ln-law and chlldren-ln-law.
(4) 8eLween adopLlng parenL and adopLed
chlld. (3) 8eLween Lhe survlvlng spouse of Lhe
adopLlng parenL and Lhe adopLed chlld. (6)
8eLween Lhe survlvlng spouse of Lhe adopLed
chlld and Lhe adopLer. (7) 8eLween an adopLed
chlld and a leglLlmaLe chlld of Lhe adopLer. (8)
8eLween adopLed chlldren of Lhe same
adopLer. (9) 8eLween parLles where one, wlLh
Lhe lnLenLlon Lo marry Lhe oLher, kllled LhaL
oLher person's spouse, or hls or her own
spouse.
8elaLlonshlps ouLslde of ArL. 37 and 38 whlch
are noL lmpedlmenLs Lo marrlage: broLher-ln-
law wlLh slsLer- ln-law, sLepbroLher wlLh
sLepslsLer, guardlan wlLh ward, adopLed wlLh
llleglLlmaLe chlld of Lhe adopLer, adopLed son
of Lhe husband wlLh adopLed daughLer of Lhe
wlfe, parLles who have been convlcLed of
adulLery
vold subsequenL marrlages ArLlcle 40 (no
!udlclal ueclaraLlon of nulllLy) A person enLered
lnLo a subsequenL marrlage wlLhouL flrsL
geLLlng a [udlclal declaraLlon of nulllLy of Lhe
flrsL vold marrlage
ArLlcle 41 (resumpLlve ueaLh) lallure of Lhe
presenL spouse Lo obLaln a [udlclal declaraLlon
of presumpLlve deaLh before enLerlng a
subsequenL marrlage
ArLlcle 44 (8ad lalLh of boLh spouses) 8oLh
spouses enLerlng a subsequenL marrlage afLer
presumpLlve deaLh, who acLed ln bad falLh
ArLlcle 33 (non-8ecordlng): SubsequenL
marrlage of spouses, where Lhe requlremenLs
of recordlng under ArL. 32 have noL have been
complled wlLh, shall be null and vold.
ArL. 32. 1he [udgmenL of annulmenL or of
absoluLe nulllLy of Lhe marrlage, Lhe parLlLlon
and dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe properLles of Lhe
spouses and Lhe dellvery of Lhe chlldren's
presumpLlve leglLlmes shall be recorded ln Lhe
approprlaLe clvll reglsLry and reglsLrles
of properLy, oLherwlse, Lhe same shall noL
affecL Lhlrd persons.
revlous marrlage declared vold ab lnlLlo or
annulled ArL. 40. 1he absoluLe nulllLy of a
prevlous marrlage may be lnvoked for purposes
of remarrlage on Lhe basls solely of a flnal
[udgmenL declarlng such prevlous marrlage
vold.
ln order Lo have a subsequenL marrlage: (1)
1he prevlous marrlage should be [udlclally
declared vold or annulled (flnal [udgmenL)
(1erre v. 1erre (1992), ALlenza v. 8rlllanLes
(1993)) (2) MusL comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs
of ArL. 32
under Lhe Clvll Code (superseded by Lhe lamlly
Code), Lhere was no need for a [udlclal
declaraLlon of nulllLy of a prevlous marrlage for
a subsequenL marrlage Lo be valld [eople v.
Mendoza (1934)]
1erre v. 1erre, (1998): A lawyer was dlsbarred
for grossly lmmoral conducL by convlnclng Lhe
oLher parLy LhaL a [udlclal declaraLlon of nulllLy
was noL requlred and subsequenLly conLracLlng
anoLher marrlage whlle hls flrsL marrlage was
subslsLlng.
lf Lhere ls no !udlclal ueclaraLlon of nulllLy,
subsequenL marrlage vold for belng blgamous.
ALlenza v. 8rlllanLes, (1993): Lven lf Lhe [udge's
flrsL marrlage conLracLed ln 1963 was vold for
noL havlng a marrlage llcense, Lhe requlremenL
for a [udlclal declaraLlon of nulllLy ln ArL. 40 sLlll
applles for hls subsequenL marrlage conLracLed
ln 1991.
ag v. CanLero, (1997): Where boLh marrlages
were conLracLed prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe
lC, Lhe requlremenL of ArL. 40 does noL apply
Lo Lhe second marrlage where a rlghL ls already
vesLed and whlch Lhe lC cannoL have
reLroacLlve effecL.
uomlngo v. CA, (1993): 1he [udlclal declaraLlon
of nulllLy can be lnvoked for purposes oLher
Lhan remarrlage. ArLlcle 40 was lnLerpreLed as
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
belng a requlremenL for purposes of
remarrlage buL noL llmlLed for LhaL purpose.
SeparaLlon of properLy ls also a valld purpose
for flllng for a [udlclal declaraLlon of nulllLy.
1he word solely" ln ArL. 40 referred Lo
valldaLlng subsequenL marrlages buL nC1 Lo
llmlLlng Lhe purposes for whlch a [udlclal
declaraLlon of nulllLy can be lnvoked.
8or[a-Manzano v. Sanchez, (2001): Legal
separaLlon does noL severe marlLal bonds.
CohablLaLlon under ArL. 34 merely exempLs Lhe
spouses from obLalnlng a marrlage llcense, and
ls noL meL when Lhere exlsLs legal lmpedlmenL
Lo marry durlng Lhe perlod of cohablLaLlon.
SubsequenL Marrlage when one spouse ls
absenL 8equlremenLs for SubsequenL Marrlage
Lo be valld When rlor Spouse ls AbsenL [ArL.
41]: (1) SubsequenL marrlage due Lo ordlnary
absence where: (a) AbsenL spouse had been
absenL for 4 consecuLlve years, (b) 1he spouse
presenL had a well-founded bellef LhaL absenL
spouse ls dead, and (c) !udlclal declaraLlon of
presumpLlve deaLh was secured (no pre[udlce
Lo Lhe effecL of Lhe reappearance of Lhe absenL
spouse). (2) SubsequenL marrlage due Lo
exLraordlnary absence where: (a) AbsenL
spouse had been mlsslng for 2 consecuLlve
years, (b) 1here ls danger of deaLh under Lhe
clrcumsLances seL forLh ln Lhe provlslons of ArL.
391 CC aLLendanL Lo Lhe dlsappearance, (c) 1he
spouse presenL had a well-founded bellef LhaL
Lhe mlsslng person ls dead, and (d) !udlclal
declaraLlon of presumpLlve deaLh was secured
(no pre[udlce Lo Lhe effecL of Lhe reappearance
of Lhe absenL spouse).
LxLraordlnary clrcumsLances [ArL. 391, CC]: (a)
Cn 8CA8u vLSSLL losL aL sea voyage, alrplane,
(b) A8MLu lC8CLS ln war, or (c) uAnCL8 Cl
uLA1P under oLher clrcumsLances, exlsLence
noL known
noLes: (1) lnsLlLuLlon of a summary proceedlng
ls noL sufflclenL. 1here musL also be a summary
[udgmenL. (8alane) (2) Cnly Lhe
deserLed/presenL spouse can flle or lnsLlLuLe a
summary proceedlng for Lhe declaraLlon of
presumpLlve deaLh of Lhe absenLee.
(8lenvenldo case) (3) 1here musL have been
dlllgenL efforLs on Lhe parL of Lhe deserLed
spouse Lo locaLe Lhe absenL spouse. 1hese
dlllgenL efforLs correspond Lo Lhe requlremenL
of Lhe law for a well-founded bellef.
LffecL of 8eappearance of AbsenL Spouse
Ceneral 8ule: 1he subsequenL marrlage
remalns valld.
LxcepLlon: lL ls auLomaLlcally LermlnaLed by Lhe
recordlng of Lhe affldavlL of reappearance of
Lhe absenL spouse aL Lhe lnsLance of any
lnLeresLed person, wlLh due noLlce Lo Lhe
spouses of Lhe subsequenL marrlage. [ArL. 42]
noLe: lL ls Lhe recordlng of Lhe affldavlL of
reappearance LhaL auLomaLlcally LermlnaLes
Lhe subsequenL marrlage. Pence, lf absenLee
spouse reappears wlLhouL recordlng affldavlL of
reappearance, Lhen Lhere ls no legal effecL.
Meanwhlle, absenLee spouse cannoL remarry.
(1olenLlno)
LxcepLlon Lo Lhe excepLlon: lf Lhere ls a
[udgmenL annulllng Lhe prevlous marrlage or
declarlng lL vold ab lnlLlo. [ArL. 42]
Cood lalLh: L8lCu of absence for
8LSuM1lvL uLA1P ls MAnuA1C8? Lhus
cannoL be shorLened by good falLh and lf be
done so wlll be vClu.
8urden of roof: 1wo successlve marrlages,
presumpLlon of valldlLy on 2nd marrlage and
burden on parLy A11ACklnC vALlul1? Cl 2nu
MA88lACL. 8LSuM1lCn ln favor of
lnnCCLnCL prevalls over 8LSuM1lCn of
CCn1lnuAnCL Cl LllL Cl 1S1 SCuSL &
MA8l1AL 8LLA1lCnS.
D|fference between Absence |n the C|v|| Code
and Iam||y Code
As to petloJ
4 years under normal clrcumsLances and 2
years under exLraordlnary clrcumsLances
[lamlly Code]
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
AbsenL for aL leasL 7 years under normal
clrcumsLances and 4 years under exLraordlnary
clrcumsLances [Clvll Code]
As to temottloqe
ln order Lo remarry, summary proceedlng ls
necessary [lamlly Code]
ueclaraLlon of presumpLlve deaLh ls noL
necessary [Clvll Code]

As to wbo coo lostltote tbe octloo
Can be lnsLlLuLed by Lhe presenL spouse, any
lnLeresLed parLy, and Lhe subsequenL spouse
[lamlly Code]
1he spouses Lhemselves [Clvll Code]
As to effect oo sobsepoeot mottloqe
SubsequenL marrlage ls auLomaLlcally
LermlnaLed by Lhe recordlng of an affldavlL of
reappearance of Lhe absenL spouse [lamlly
Code]
upon reappearance, [udlclal proceedlng ls
necessary Lo declare marrlage null and vold
[Clvll Code]
As to qtoooJ
Well founded bellef LhaL Lhe absenL spouse ls
dead [lamlly Code]
Cenerally belleved Lo be dead [Clvll Code]
ConnecLed rovlslons
ArL. 390, Clvll Code: AfLer an absence of 7 years, lL
belng unknown wheLher or noL Lhe absenLee sLlll
llves, he shall be presumed dead for all purposes,
excepL for Lhose of successlon.
1he absenLee shall noL be presumed dead for Lhe
purpose of openlng hls successlon Llll afLer an
absence of 10 years. lf he dlsappeared afLer Lhe
age of 73 years, an absence of 3 years shall be
sufflclenL ln order LhaL hls successlon may be
opened.
ArL. 391, Clvll Code.
1he followlng shall be presumed dead for all
purposes, lncludlng Lhe dlvlslon of Lhe esLaLe
among Lhe helrs:
(1) A person on board a vessel losL durlng a sea
voyage, or an aeroplane whlch ls mlsslng, who has
noL been heard of for four years slnce Lhe loss of
Lhe vessel or aeroplane,
(2) A person ln Lhe armed forces who has Laken
parL ln war, and has been mlsslng for four years,
(3) A person who has been ln danger of deaLh
under oLher clrcumsLances and hls exlsLence has
noL been known for four years.
noLes: AlLhough 7 years ls requlred for Lhe
presumpLlon of deaLh of an absenLee ln Lhe Clvll
Code, ArL. 41 of Lhe
lamlly Code makes an excepLlon for Lhe purpose of
remarrlage by llmlLlng such requlremenL Lo 4 years.
ArLlcle 43 and 44 (LffecLs of 1ermlnaLlon of
8lgamous Marrlage under ArL. 42)
ArL. 43:
(1) Chlldren of subsequenL marrlage -
concelved prlor Lo lLs LermlnaLlon consldered
leglLlmaLe, cusLody and supporL declded by courL
ln a proper proceedlng
(2) roperLy 8eglme - dlssolved and
llquldaLed (parLy ln bad falLh shall forfelL hls/her
share ln favor of Lhe common chlldren or lf Lhere
are none, chlldren of Lhe gullLy spouse by a
prevlous marrlage, and ln case Lhere are none, Lo
Lhe lnnocenL spouse)
(3) uonaLlon propLer nupLlas - remalns
valld, (buL lf Lhe donee conLracLed marrlage ln bad
falLh, donaLlons wlll be revoked)
(4) lnsurance beneflLs - lnnocenL spouse
may revoke deslgnaLlon of gullLy parLy as
beneflclary, even lf such deslgnaLlon ls sLlpulaLed
as lrrevocable
(3) Successlon 8lghLs - arLy ln bad falLh
dlsquallfled Lo lnherlL from lnnocenL spouse,
wheLher LesLaLe or lnLesLaLe
ArLlcle 44:
uoootloos. lf botb pottles of sobsepoeot mottloqe
octeJ lo boJ foltb, ooy Joootloos ooJ testomeototy
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Jlsposltloos moJe by ooe potty to tbe otbet by
teosoo of mottloqe wlll be tevokeJ
AC1ICN Ck DLILNSL CI NULLI1
rescrlpLlon
ArL. 39. 1he acLlon or defense for Lhe declaraLlon of
absoluLe nulllLy of a marrlage shall noL prescrlbe.
(as amended by 8A 8333)
lL musL be noLed LhaL under Lhe new Supreme
CourL 8ule on ueclaraLlon of AbsoluLe nulllLy of
vold Marrlages and AnnulmenL of voldable
Marrlages A.M. no. 02-11-10-SC, effecLlve March
13, 2003, nulllLy of Lhe marrlage can sLlll be
collaLerally aLLacked.
Who may flle Lhe peLlLlon for nulllLy? As Lo Lhe
parLles allowed Lo flle Lhe acLlon: Cnly an aggrleved
or ln[ured spouse may flle a peLlLlon for annulmenL
of voldable marrlages or declaraLlon of absoluLe
nulllLy of vold marrlages. Such peLlLlon cannoL be
flled by compulsory or lnLesLaLe helrs of Lhe
spouses or by Lhe SLaLe. 1he CommlLLee ls of Lhe
bellef LhaL Lhey do noL have a legal rlghL Lo flle Lhe
peLlLlon. Compulsory or lnLesLaLe helrs have only
lnchoaLe rlghLs prlor Lo Lhe deaLh of Lhelr
predecessor, and, hence, can only quesLlon Lhe
valldlLy of Lhe marrlage of Lhe spouses upon Lhe
deaLh of a spouse ln a proceedlng for Lhe
seLLlemenL of Lhe esLaLe of Lhe deceased spouse
flled ln Lhe regular courLs. (Lnrlco v. Pelrs of Sps.
Medlnacell (2007)), also relLeraLed ln (Carlos vs.
Sandoval (2008))
Pow Lo aLLack a vold marrlage? Ceneral 8ule: vold
Marrlages may be aLLacked collaLerally or dlrecLly.
LxcepLlon: A person ln a vold marrlage musL flrsL
flle for a declaraLlon of nulllLy ln order Lo
subsequenLly marry
AnnuLLA8LL MA88lACL (noLe: AlLhough Lhe
Supreme CourL ln lLs syllabus seems Lo make a
dlsLlncLlon beLween annullable and voldable
marrlages by Lhe facL LhaL Lhey made Lwo separaLe
caLegorles for Lhe Lwo, 1olenLlno makes no
menLlon of any such dlfference.)
ArL. 14: ln case elLher or boLh of Lhe conLracLlng
parLles, noL havlng been emanclpaLed by a
prevlous marrlage, are beLween Lhe ages of
elghLeen and LwenLy-one, ln addlLlon Lo Lhe
requlremenLs of Lhe precedlng arLlcles:
(a) LxhlblL Lo Lhe local clvll reglsLrar Lhe
consenL Lo Lhelr marrlage of Lhelr faLher, moLher,
survlvlng parenL or guardlan, or persons havlng
legal charge of Lhem, ln Lhe order menLloned
(b) ManlfesLed ln wrlLlng by Lhe lnLeresLed
parLy, who personally appears before Lhe proper
local clvll reglsLrar, or
(c) ln Lhe form of an affldavlL made ln Lhe
presence of Lwo wlLnesses and aLLesLed before any
offlclal auLhorlzed by law Lo admlnlsLer oaLhs
(d) 1he personal manlfesLaLlon shall be
recorded ln boLh appllcaLlons for marrlage llcense,
and Lhe affldavlL, lf one ls execuLed lnsLead, shall
be aLLached Lo sald appllcaLlons.
Crounds for AnnulmenL ArLlcle 4 sLaLes LhaL xxx A
defecL ln any of Lhe essenLlal requlslLes shall render
Lhe marrlage voldable as provlded ln ArLlcle 43."
ArLlcle 43. Marrlage may be annulled on Lhe
followlng grounds exlsLlng aL Llme of marrlage:
(1) Cne of Lhe parLles ls 18 or above buL below 21
years old, and Lhere ls no parenLal consenL.
(2) LlLher parLy was of unsound mlnd (lnsanlLy).
(3) 1he consenL of elLher parLy was obLalned
Lhrough fraud (dlfferenL from mlsLake ln ldenLlLy):
(a) 1hrough non-dlsclosure of a prevlous
convlcLlon of a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude,
(b) 1hrough concealmenL by Lhe wlfe of Lhe
facL LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe marrlage she was
pregnanL by anoLher man,
(c) 1hrough concealmenL of a sexually-
LransmlLLed dlsease, regardless of lLs naLure,
exlsLlng aL Lhe Llme of marrlage,
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(d) 1hrough concealmenL of drug addlcLlon,
hablLual alcohollsm or homosexuallLy/lesblanlsm.
(ArL.46)
(4) 1he consenL of elLher parLy was obLalned
Lhrough force, lnLlmldaLlon, or undue lnfluence.
(3) LlLher parLy ls physlcally lncapable of
consummaLlng Lhe marrlage (lmpoLence, Lhls ls
dlfferenL from sLerlllLy, whlch ls Lhe lnablllLy Lo
produce offsprlng).
(6) LlLher parLy has a serlous and lncurable
sexually- Lransmlsslble dlsease, even lf noL
concealed.
Actloo to Aoool. Actloo lo tem,
coocetos stotos of pottles, tes ls telotloo
betweeo pottles ot mottloqe tle, jotlsJlctloo
JepeoJs oo ootlooollty ot Jomlclle oot tbe
ploce of celebtotloo.
Crounds for AnnulmenL explalned:
(1) Lack of parenLal consenL
(a) 18 < x < 21 wlLhouL parenLal consenL
(b) 8aLlfled by parLy 18 or above buL below
21 upon free cohablLaLlon upon reachlng 21.
(c) 1CLLn1lnC: parenLs whose consenLs
were wanLlng may raLlfy before 21, Lhls rlghL can
be walved, however, Lhe Code Commlsslon
belleves LhaL no such raLlflcaLlon can be made by
Lhe parenL.
(2) lnsanlLy
(a) MenLal lncapaclLy or lnsanlLy ls a vlce of
consenL, lnsanlLy: (1) of varylng degrees, (2)
curable belng an lllness, capable of raLlflcaLlon or
convalldaLlon, (3) has lucld lnLervals, (4) ground
only for annulmenL ln many counLrles
(b) Can be raLlfled by cohablLaLlon afLer
lnsanlLy ls cured or durlng a lucld lnLerval
(c) Mere menLal weakness ls noL a ground
for annulmenL, buL lf found grave enough may
amounL Lo psychologlcal lncapaclLy.
(d) lnLoxlcaLlon, somnambullsm where one
had no menLal capaclLy Lo glve consenL ls
equlvalenL Lo lnsanlLy
(e) MusL LxlS1 A1 1PL 1lML of Lhe
celebraLlon of Lhe marrlage.
(f) Law presumes SAnl1?, burden of proof
on parLy alleglng lnsanlLy
(3) lraud
(a) Cnly Lhose enumeraLed ln ArL. 46:
1) non-dlsclosure of prevlous CCnvlC1lCn
by flnal [udgmenL of a crlme lnvolvlng MC8AL
1u8l1uuL
(2) ConcealmenL by wlfe aL Lhe Llme of
marrlage, LhaL she was pregnanL by anoLher man
(3) ConcealmenL of S1u regardless of
naLure exlsLlng aL Llme of marrlage
(4) ConcealmenL of drug addlcLlon, hablLual
alcohollsm, homosexuallLy, lesblanlsm exlsLlng aL
Llme of marrlage
(b) nC oLher mlsrepresenLaLlon or decelL of
CPA8AC1L8, PLAL1P, 8Ank, lC81unL C8
CPAS1l1? shall consLlLuLe l8Auu.
(c) ConvlcLlon of Crlme: requlslLes are
(1) Moral LurplLude
(2) ConvlcLlon
(d) ConcealmenL of regnancy
(1) lraud agalnsL very essence of marrlage,
lmporLance of procreaLlon of chlldren, an assaulL
Lo Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe unlon by lnLroduclng ALlLn
8LCCu
(2) lf husband knew of pregnancy, Lhe
marrlage cannoL be annulled on Lhe ground of
concealmenL
(e) Marrlage cannoL be annulled on Lhe ground
LhaL wlfe concealed Lhe facL LhaL she had been
lewd & corrupL and had llleglLlmaLe chlld. (Shrady
v. Logan (1896)
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(f) Maybe raLlfled upon free cohablLaLlon afLer
knowledge of fraud.
Art. 4S d|st|ngu|shed from Art. 46
!"#$ &' ()" *+,: lL ls a ground for annulmenL, does
noL have Lo be concealed, musL be serlous and
lncurable, and Lhe S1u lLself ls Lhe ground for
annulmenL
!"#$ &- ()" *+,: 1he S1u ls a Lype of fraud whlch ls
a ground for annulmenL, lL musL be concealed,
need noL be serlous or lncurable, and lL ls Lhe
concealmenL LhaL glves rlse Lo Lhe annulmenL
LffecL of Cure Lo lraud ln ArL. 46:
8ecovery or rehablllLaLlon from S1u, drug
addlcLlon, and hablLual alcohollsm wlll nC1 8A8
AC1lCn for annulmenL, 1he defecL ls noL Lhe
dlsease, buL Lhe l8Auu whlch vl1lA1Lu CCnSLn1.
8uccaL v. Mangonon de 8uccaL, (1941): Wlfe gave
blrLh 3 monLhs afLer marrlage celebraLlon.
Pusband flled for annulmenL. uenled. Cround:
ConcealmenL of non-vlrglnlLy. CourL held LhaL lL
was unbellevable LhaL husband could noL have
noLlced when wlfe had been aL leasL 6 monLhs
pregnanL prlor Lo marrlage.
Aqulno v. uellzo, (1960): 1he Supreme CourL
granLed annulmenL because Lhe wlfe concealed Lhe
facL LhaL she was 4 monLhs pregnanL durlng Lhe
Llme of Lhe marrlage. lL argued LhaL slnce uellzo
was naLurally plump," Aqulno could hardly be
expecLed Lo know, by mere looklng, wheLher or noL
she was pregnanL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe marrlage.
Almelor v. 81C, (2008): lL ls Lhe concealmenL of
homosexuallLy, and noL homosexuallLy per se, LhaL
vlLlaLes Lhe consenL of Lhe lnnocenL parLy. Such
concealmenL presupposes bad falLh and lnLenL Lo
defraud Lhe oLher parLy ln glvlng consenL Lo Lhe
marrlage.
Corpuz v. CchoLerena, (2004): ln a legal separaLlon
or annulmenL case, Lhe prosecuLlng aLLorney musL
flrsL rule ouL colluslon as a condlLlon slne qua non
for furLher proceedlngs. A cerLlflcaLlon by Lhe
prosecuLor LhaL he was presenL durlng Lhe hearlng
and even cross-examlned Lhe plalnLlff
does noL sufflce Lo comply wlLh Lhe mandaLory
requlremenL.
(4) lorce, lnLlmldaLlon, undue lnfluence
(a) lC8CL musL be one as Lo prevenL parLy
from acLlng as a free agenL, wlll desLroyed by
fear/compulslon
(b) ln1lMluA1lCn musL be one as Lo
compel Lhe parLy by reasonable/well-grounded
fear/evll lmmlnenL upon person/properLles
(c) uLC8LL Cl ln1lMluA1lCn: age, sex,
condlLlon of person borne ln mlnd
(d) 1hreaL or lnLlmldaLlon as noL Lo acL as
l8LL ACLn1, LhreaLened of armed demonsLraLlons
by broLher ls AnnuLLA8LL (1longco v MaLlg- a)
(e) Man rapes a glrl, marrles her Lo conceal
Lhe rape & has no lnLenLlon Lo llve wlLh Lhe glrl,
marrlage ls annullable (eople v SanLlago (1927))
(f) CommlLLee added undue lnfluence",
maybe compelled Lo enLer ouL of 8LvL8Ln1lAL
lLA8 e.g., fear of causlng dlsLress Lo parenLs,
grandparenLs, eLc.
(g) May be raLlfled upon cohablLaLlon afLer
force, lnLlmldaLlon, or undue lnfluence has ceased
or dlsappeared.
(3) lmpoLency
(a) MusL exlsL aL Llme of marrlage, musL be
conLlnuous, musL be lncurable, Lhus lf lncapaclLy
can be remedled or ls removable byoperaLlon, nC1
AnnuLLA8LL (Sarao v Cuevarra(1940))
(b) Should be unknown Lo Lhe oLher parLy
(c) hyslcal condlLlon: sexual lnLercourse wlLh a
person of Lhe opposlLe sex ls lmposslble, noL mere
sLerlllLy
(d) When boLh spouses are lmpoLenL, marrlage
cannoL be annulled because nelLher spouse ls
aggrleved
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(e) C1LnC? 8LSuMLu, parLy who alleges
lmpoLency has burden of proof (!lmenez v
Canlzares (1960))
(f) AlLhough poLency ls presumed, Lhere ls a
docLrlne ln Lngland called 18lLnnlAL
CCPA8l1A1lCn LhaL lf wlfe remalns vlrgln afLer 3
yrs, husband presumed lmpoLenL & has burden Lo
prove oLherwlse (1ompklns v 1ompklns)
(g) 8LluSAL of wlfe Lo be examlned uCLS nC1
8LSuML lmpoLency because llllplno women are
lnherenLly shy & bashful, 1C musL order physlcal
examlnaLlon because w/o proof of lmpoLency, she
ls presumed poLenL, Lo order her Lo undergo
physlcal exam does noL lnfrlnge consLlLuLlonal
rlghLs agalnsL self- lncrlmlnaLlon (!lmenez v
Canlzares)
(h) vlllanueva vs. CA (2006): Absence of
cohablLaLlon ls noL a ground for annulmenL.
(l) nC1L: lf wlfe conLlnues Lo refuse Lo undergo
physlcal exam, she can be held for CCn1LM1 &
ordered Lo be conflned ln [all unLll she does so
([) 8LLA1lvL lMC1LnC?: may now be lnvoked
because Lhere are cases where one ls lmpoLenL
wlLh respecL Lo hls spouse buL noL wlLh oLher men
or women.
(k) LxAMLL: penlle erecLlon Lo oLher women
posslble, unusually large penls cannoL flL wlLh
abnormally small vaglna
(6) Sexually-Lransmlsslble dlsease serlous and
lncurable
(a) Should exlsL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe marrlage
(b) Should be found serlous
(c) Should appear Lo be lncurable
(d) Should be unknown Lo oLher parLy
(e) 8eason: danger Lo Lhe healLh of spouse &
offsprlng/s
(f) Same as lncurable lmpoLency
(g) noL sub[ecL Lo raLlflcaLlon 4 cannoL be raLlfled
or convalldaLed by prescrlpLlon or cohablLaLlon:
(a) rlor subslsLlng marrlage, would resulL
ln anomalous relaLlonshlp
(b) vlLlaLed by lmpoLency remalns as long
as affllcLed
(c) vlLlaLed by affllcLlon of S1u remalns as
long as affllcLed
(d) AffllcLlon of S1u ls unknown Lo Lhe oLher
spouse (8alane)
(e) 1he oLher spouse musL also be free from
a slmllar S1u. (8alane)
(h) 2 & 3 above prescrlbe w/ln 3 yrs by ArL.
47(3)
Cround
(ArL. 43)
Who can
flle? (ArL.
47)
rescrlpLlon
(ArL. 47)
8aLlflcaLlon
(ArL. 43)
Lack of
parenLal
consenL
under aged
parLy (18 or
under 21) or
parenL or
guardlan
wlLhouL
consenL
WlLhln 3
years afLer
aLLalnlng 21
or before
Lhe arLy
under 21
reaches Lhe
age of 21
lree
cohablLaLlon
afLer
aLLalnlng age
of 21
lnsanlLy Sane spouse
wlLh no
knowledge
of Lhe
oLher's
lnsanlLy or
legal
guardlan of
lnsane parL
or Lhe
lnsane parLy
Any Llme
before Lhe
deaLh of
elLher parLy
or durlng
lucld
lnLerval or
afLer
regalnlng
sanlLy, and
before
deaLh
lree
cohablLaLlon
of lnsane
parLy afLer
lnsane parLy
comes Lo
reason.
lraud ln[ured
parLy
WlLhln 3
years afLer
Lhe
dlscovery of
fraud
lree
cohablLaLlon
afLer havlng
full
knowledge of
fraud
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
lorce,
lnLlmldaLl
on,
undue
lnfluence
ln[ured
parLy
WlLhln 3
years afLer
dlsappearan
ce of force,
undue
lnfluence, or
lnLlmldaLlon
lree
cohablLaLlon
afLer Lhe
force or
lnLlmldaLlon
or undue
lnfluence has
ceased or
dlsappeared
lmpoLenc
e
oLenL
spouse
WlLhln 3
year afLer
marrlage
CannoL be
raLlfled buL
acLlon
prescrlbes.
S1u PealLhy
parLy
WlLhln 3
years afLer
marrlage
CannoL be
raLlfled buL
acLlon
prescrlbes

Marrlages noL Sub[ecL Lo 8aLlflcaLlon/
ConvalldaLlon by cohablLaLlon
(1) Cne spouse ls lncurably lmpoLenL (ArL. 47 -
prescrlpLlon: 3 years)
(2) Cne spouse has an lncurable S1u (ArL. 47 -
prescrlpLlon: 3 years)
(3) Sane spouse marrles an lnsane spouse w/o
knowledge of lnsanlLy
resence of rosecuLor
ArL. 48: 1o prevenL colluslon beLween Lhe parLles,
fabrlcaLlon or suppresslon of evldence, Lhe
prosecuLlng aLLorney or flscal shall appear on
behalf of Lhe SLaLe.
LllLC1 Cl LnulnC AC1lCnS/uLC8LL
ArL. 49: uurlng Lhe pendency of Lhe acLlon and ln
Lhe absence of adequaLe provlslons ln a wrlLLen
agreemenL beLween Lhe spouses, Lhe CourL shall
provlde for Lhe supporL of Lhe spouses and Lhe
cusLody and supporL of Lhelr common chlldren. 1he
CourL shall glve paramounL conslderaLlon Lo Lhe
moral and maLerlal welfare of sald chlldren and
Lhelr cholce of Lhe parenL wlLh whom Lhey wlsh Lo
remaln as provlded for ln 1lLle lx. lL shall also
provlde for approprlaLe vlslLaLlon rlghLs of Lhe
oLher parenL.
(1) 1he courL shall provlde for Lhe supporL of Lhe
spouses,
(2) 1he cusLody and supporL of Lhe common
chlldren, glvlng paramounL conslderaLlon Lo Lhelr
moral and maLerlal welfare, Lhelr cholce of parenL
wlLh whom Lhey wlsh Lo remaln.
(3) 1he courL shall also provlde for vlslLaLlon rlghLs
of oLher parenL.
ueclslons on Lhe nulllflcaLlon of Lhe marrlage
ArL. 48 (2): ln Lhe cases referred Lo ln Lhe precedlng
paragraph, no [udgmenL shall be based upon a
sLlpulaLlon of facLs or confesslon of [udgmenL.
SLlpulaLlon of lacLs: An admlsslon by boLh parLles
afLer agreelng Lo Lhe exlsLence of any of Lhe
grounds or facLs LhaL would consLlLuLe a
vold/voldable marrlage
Confesslon of [udgmenL: 1he admlsslon by one
parLy admlLLlng hls/her faulL Lo cause Lhe lnvalldlLy
of Lhe marrlage.
LllLC1S Cl nuLLl1?
1he effecLs provlded for by paragraphs (2), (3), (4)
and (3) of ArLlcle 43 and by ArLlcle 44 shall also
apply ln Lhe proper cases Lo marrlages whlch are
declared ab lnlLlo or annulled by flnal [udgmenL
under ArLlcles 40 and 43 (ArL. 30(1)).
llnal [udgmenL ln such cases shall provlde for Lhe
llquldaLlon, parLlLlon, and dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe:
(1) roperLles of Lhe spouses
(2) CusLody and supporL of Lhe common chlldren
(3) uellvery of Lhelr presumpLlve leglLlmes
(a) unless such maLLers had been
ad[udlcaLed ln prevlous [udlclal proceedlngs (ArL.
30(2))
(b) All credlLors (of Lhe spouses/properLy
reglme) shall be noLlfled of Lhe proceedlngs for
llquldaLlon (ArL. 30(2 and 3))
ln Lhe parLlLlon, Lhe con[ugal dwelllng and loL shall
be ad[udlcaLed Lo Lhe spouse wlLh whom ma[orlLy
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
of Lhe common chlldren remaln (ArL. 102 and 129)
(ArL. 30(4)
resumpLlve leglLlmes, compuLed as of Lhe daLe of
Lhe flnal [udgmenL, shall be dellvered ln cash,
properLy or sound securlLles:
(1) unless Lhe parLles, by muLual agreemenL
[udlclally approved, had already provlded for such
(ArL. 31(1))
(2) 1he chlldren/guardlan/LrusLee of properLy may
ask for Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe [udgmenL (ArL.
31(2))
(3) 1he dellvery of Lhe presumpLlve leglLlmes shall
noL pre[udlce Lhe ulLlmaLe successlonal rlghLs, buL
Lhe value of Lhe properLles already recelved shall
be consldered as advances on Lhelr leglLlme (ArL.
31(3))
Cenerally, chlldren born or concelved wlLhln vold
marrlages are llleglLlmaLe.
LxcepLlons:
(a) Chlldren concelved or born before Lhe
[udgmenL under ArLlcle 36 has become flnal and
execuLor (ArL. 34)
(b) Chlldren concelved or born of subsequenL
marrlages under ArLlcle 33 (ArL. 34)
Legal SeparaLlon
C8CunuS lC8 LLCAL SLA8A1lCn noLe: 1he
grounds for legal separaLlon are excluslve. (ArLlcle
33)
1hese musL be flled wlLhln 3 years afLer occurrence
of cause (ArLlcle 37)
(1) 8epeaLed physlcal vlolence or grossly abuslve
conducL dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe peLlLloner, a common
chlld, or a chlld of Lhe peLlLloner,
(2) hyslcal vlolence or moral ressure Lo compel
Lhe peLlLloner Lo change rellglous or pollLlcal
afflllaLlon,
(3) ALLempL of respondenL Lo CorrupL or lnduce Lhe
peLlLloner, a common chlld, or a chlld of Lhe
peLlLloner, Lo engage ln prosLlLuLlon, or connlvance
ln such corrupLlon or lnducemenL,
(4) llnal [udgmenL senLenclng Lhe respondenL Lo
lmprlsonmenL of more Lhan slx years, even lf
pardoned,
(3) urug addlcLlon or hablLual alcohollsm of Lhe
respondenL,
(6) Lesblanlsm or PomosexuallLy of Lhe
respondenL,
(7) ConLracLlng by Lhe respondenL of a subsequenL
8lgamous marrlage, wheLher ln Lhe hlllpplnes or
abroad,
(8) Sexual lnfldellLy or perverslon,
(9) ALLempL by Lhe respondenL AgalnsL Lhe llfe of
Lhe peLlLloner, or
(10) AbandonmenL of peLlLloner by respondenL
wlLhouL [usLlflable cause for more Lhan one year.
eople v. ZapaLa and 8ondoc (1931): AdulLery ls
noL a conLlnulng crlme, buL ls consummaLed and
exhausLed aL Lhe momenL of carnal unlon. Lach
sexual acL consLlLuLes one acL of adulLery. As such,
every sexual acL ls a ground for legal separaLlon.
Candloco v. enaranda (1989): ln sexual lnfldellLy
as a ground for legal separaLlon, Lhere ls no need
for prlor convlcLlon for concublnage, because legal
separaLlon only requlres a preponderance of
evldence, as opposed Lo proof beyond reasonable
doubL requlred ln concublnage.
Lapuz Sy v. Lufemlo (1972): 1he deaLh of one parLy
ln a legal separaLlon case abaLes Lhe acLlon. 1hls ls
because Lhe deaLh of elLher spouse auLomaLlcally
dlssolves Lhe marrlage. An acLlon for legal
separaLlon ls also purely personal beLween Lhe
spouses.
uela Cruz. v. uela Cruz (1968): AbandonmenL ls noL
mere physlcal esLrangemenL buL also flnanclal and
moral deserLlon. 1here musL be an absoluLe
cessaLlon of marlLal relaLlons, duLles, and rlghLs
wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon of perpeLual separaLlon.

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
AC1S Cl vlCLLnCL ACCC8ulnC 1C 8A 9262
(1) Causlng physlcal harm Lo Lhe woman or her
chlld,
(2) 1hreaLenlng Lo cause Lhe woman or her chlld
physlcal harm,
(3) ALLempLlng Lo cause Lhe woman or her chlld
physlcal harm,
(4) laclng Lhe woman or her chlld ln fear of
lmmlnenL physlcal harm,
(3) ALLempLlng Lo compel or compelllng Lhe woman
or her chlld Lo engage ln conducL whlch Lhe woman
or her chlld has Lhe rlghL Lo deslsL from or deslsL
from conducL whlch Lhe woman or her chlld has
Lhe rlghL Lo engage ln, or aLLempLlng Lo resLrlcL or
resLrlcLlng Lhe woman's or her chlld's freedom of
movemenL or conducL by force or LhreaL of force,
physlcal or oLher harm or LhreaL of physlcal or
oLher harm, or lnLlmldaLlon dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe
woman or chlld. 1hls shall lnclude, buL noL llmlLed
Lo, Lhe followlng acLs commlLLed wlLh Lhe purpose
or effecL of conLrolllng or resLrlcLlng Lhe woman's
or her chlld's movemenL or conducL:
(a) 1hreaLenlng Lo deprlve or acLually
deprlvlng Lhe woman or her chlld of cusLody Lo
her/hls famlly,
(b) ueprlvlng or LhreaLenlng Lo deprlve Lhe
woman or her chlldren of flnanclal supporL legally
due her or her famlly, or dellberaLely provldlng Lhe
woman's chlldren lnsufflclenL flnanclal supporL,
(c) ueprlvlng or LhreaLenlng Lo deprlve Lhe
woman or her chlld of a legal rlghL,
(d) revenLlng Lhe woman ln engaglng ln
any leglLlmaLe professlon, occupaLlon, buslness or
acLlvlLy or conLrolllng Lhe vlcLlm's own money or
properLles, or solely conLrolllng Lhe con[ugal or
common money, or properLles,
(6) lnfllcLlng or LhreaLenlng Lo lnfllcL physlcal harm
on oneself for Lhe purpose of conLrolllng her
acLlons or declslons,
(7) Causlng or aLLempLlng Lo cause Lhe woman or
her chlld Lo engage ln any sexual acLlvlLy whlch
does noL consLlLuLe rape, by force or LhreaL of
force, physlcal harm, or Lhrough lnLlmldaLlon
dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe woman or her chlld or her/hls
lmmedlaLe famlly,
(8) Lngaglng ln purposeful, knowlng, or reckless
conducL, personally or Lhrough anoLher, LhaL
alarms or causes subsLanLlal emoLlonal or
psychologlcal dlsLress Lo Lhe woman or her chlld.
1hls shall lnclude, buL noL be llmlLed Lo, Lhe
followlng acLs:
(a) SLalklng or followlng Lhe woman or her
chlld ln publlc or prlvaLe places,
(b) eerlng ln Lhe wlndow or llngerlng
ouLslde Lhe resldence of Lhe woman or her chlld,
(c) LnLerlng or remalnlng ln Lhe dwelllng or
on Lhe properLy of Lhe woman or her chlld agalnsL
her/hls wlll,
d) uesLroylng Lhe properLy and personal
belonglngs or lnfllcLlng harm Lo anlmals or peLs of
Lhe woman or her chlld, and
(e) Lngaglng ln any form of harassmenL or
vlolence,
(9) Causlng menLal or emoLlonal angulsh, publlc
rldlcule or humlllaLlon Lo Lhe woman or her chlld,
lncludlng, buL noL llmlLed Lo, repeaLed verbal and
emoLlonal abuse, and denlal of flnanclal supporL or
cusLody of mlnor chlldren of access Lo Lhe woman's
chlld/chlldren.
uLlLnSLS C8CunuS lC8 uLn?lnC LLCAL
SLA8A1lCn (A81lCLL 36):
(1) CondonaLlon by aggrleved parLy
(2) ConsenL by aggrleved parLy Lo Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe offense
(3) Connlvance beLween parLles ln Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe offense
(4) MuLual gullL or 8ecrlmlnaLlon beLween spouses
ln Lhe commlsslon of any ground for legal
separaLlon
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(3) Colluslon beLween parLles Lo obLaln decree of
legal separaLlon
(6) rescrlpLlon of acLlon for legal separaLlon (ArL.
37: 3 years from occurrence of Lhe cause of acLlon)
(7) 8econclllaLlon of parLles durlng pendency of
acLlon (ArL. 66 par.1)
(8) ueaLh of elLher parLy durlng pendency of acLlon
(Lapuz-Sy vs. Lufemlo)
CCCLlnC-Cll L8lCu Anu 8LCCnClLlA1lCn
LllC81S
AcLlon cannoL be Lrled before slx monLhs have
elapsed from Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon (ArL. 38).
AcLlon cannoL be Lrled unless Lhe courL has
aLLempLed Lo reconclle Lhe spouses, and
deLermlned LhaL desplLe such efforLs, reconclllaLlon
ls hlghly lmprobable (ArL. 39)
Note: 1bls ls wltboot ptejoJlce to joJlclol
Jetetmlootloo of costoJy of cbllJteo, ollmooy, ooJ
soppott peoJeote llte.
AraneLa vs. Concepclon, (1936): CourLs can sLlll
resolve oLher lssues, pendlng Lhe walLlng perlod or
coollng off perlod. ln resolvlng lssues, Lry noL Lo
Louch, as much as posslble, on Lhe maln lssue (l.e.
adulLery lf LhaL ls Lhe ground used). Powever,
CourL musL sLlll recelve evldence lf [usL Lo seLLle
lncldenLal lssues of supporL and cusLody.
Note: 1hls provlslon of Lhe lamlly Code
dlcLaLlng a mandaLory 6-monLh coollng-off perlod
does noL apply ln cases where vlolence, as used ln
8A 9262 (AnLl-vlolence AgalnsL Women and Lhelr
Chlldren), ls alleged. 1he case should be heard as
soon as posslble by Lhe courL.
CCnlLSSlCn Cl !uuCMLn1
no decree of legal separaLlon shall be based upon
a sLlpulaLlon of facLs or a confesslon of [udgmenL
(ArL. 60, par. 1. lC).
Note: Att. 60 pot. 1 opplles ooly lf tbe
joJqmeot wos boseJ solely oo tbe stlpolotloo of
focts ot solely oo tbe coofessloo of joJqmeot. 1bos,
lf otbet qtoooJs wete oseJ, Att. 60 pot. 1 ls oot
oppllcoble. (8olooe)
Ccampo v llorenclano (1960): 1he prohlblLlon on
confesslon of [udgmenL does noL mean LhaL Lhe
CourL wlll noL granL peLlLlon lf one parLy admlLs Lo
belng gullLy of Lhe charges of adulLery. 1he polnL of
Lhls provlslon ls LhaL Lhe CourL should sLlll admlL
evldence, noL declde [usL based on an admlsslon of
gullL. 8ecause whaL ls prohlblLed ls handlng down a
decree of legal separaLlon based solely on a
confesslon of [udgmenL.
LllLC1S Cl llLlnC L1l1lCn
(1) 1he spouses are enLlLled Lo Llve separaLely, buL
Lhe marlLal bond ls noL severed. (ArL. 61 (1)
(2) AdmlnlsLraLlon of CommunlLy or Con[ugal
roperLy - lf Lhere ls no wrlLLen agreemenL
beLween Lhe parLles, Lhe courL shall deslgnaLe one
of Lhem or a Lhlrd person Lo admlnlsLer Lhe AC or
CC. (ArL. 61, par. 2)
LllLC1S Cl LnuLnC?
1he CourL shall provlde for: (ArL. 62, cf. ArL. 49. lC)
(a) SupporL of spouses
(b) CusLody of chlldren
1he courL shall glve cusLody of chlldren Lo
one of Lhem, lf Lhere ls no wrlLLen agreemenL
beLween Lhe spouses. lL shall also provlde for
vlslLaLlon rlghLs of Lhe oLher spouse.
(c) vlslLaLlon rlghLs of Lhe oLher spouse
LllLC1S Cl LLCAL SLA8A1lCn
(1) 1he spouses can llve separaLely (ArL. 63) buL Lhe
marrlage bonds are noL severed.
(2) 1he AC or CC shall be dlssolved and
llquldaLed, and Lhe share of Lhe gullLy spouse shall
be forfelLed ln favor Lhe common chlldren,
prevlous chlldren, or lnnocenL spouse, ln LhaL order
(ArL. 63. cf. ArL. 43, par. 2).
(3) CusLody of Lhe mlnor chlldren shall be awarded
Lo Lhe lnnocenL spouse (ArL. 63, cf. ArL 213)
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(4) CullLy spouse shall be dlsquallfled from
lnherlLlng from lnnocenL spouse by lnLesLaLe
successlon. 1he provlslons ln favor of Lhe gullLy
parLy ln Lhe wlll of Lhe lnnocenL spouse shall also
be revoked by operaLlon of law. (ArL. 63)
(3) uonaLlons ln favor of Lhe gullLy spouse may be
revoked (ArL. 64) buL Lhls acLlon prescrlbes afLer 3
years from Lhe decree of legal separaLlon.
(6) lnnocenL spouse may also revoke deslgnaLlon of
gullLy spouse as beneflclary ln an lnsurance pollcy,
even lf such sLlpulaLlons are lrrevocable. (ArL. 64.
lC, cf. u 612, sec. 11)
(7) CbllgaLlon for MuLual supporL ceases, buL Lhe
courL may order Lhe gullLy spouse Lo supporL Lhe
lnnocenL spouse. (ArL. 198)
(8) 1he wlfe shall conLlnue Lo use Lhe Surname of
Lhe husband even afLer Lhe decree for legal
separaLlon. (ArL. 372, CC)
8LCCnClLlA1lCn PCW uCnL
Should Lhe spouses reconclle, Lhey should flle a
correspondlng [olnL manlfesLaLlon under oaLh of
such reconclllaLlon. (ArL. 63)
LllLC1S Cl 8LCCnClLlA1lCn
(1) roceedlngs for legal separaLlon shall be
LermlnaLed aL whaLever sLage. (ArL. 66)
(2) lf Lhere ls a flnal decree of legal separaLlon, lL
shall be seL aslde. (ArL. 66)
(3) 1he separaLlon of properLy and forfelLure of
share of gullLy spouse shall subslsL, unless Lhe
spouses agree Lo revlve Lhelr former properLy
reglme or Lo lnsLlLuLe anoLher properLy reglme.
(ArL. 66 cf. ArL. 67) (
4) !olnL cusLody of chlldren ls resLored.
(3) 1he rlghL Lo lnLesLaLe successlon by gullLy
spouse from lnnocenL spouse ls resLored.
1he rlghL Lo LesLamenLary successlon depends on
Lhe wlll of Lhe lnnocenL spouse.
vold and voldable Marrlages and Legal SeparaLlon
Vo|d
Marr|ages
Vo|dab|e
Marr|ages
Lega| Separat|on

Cne ls a
mlnor
Lack of
parenLal
consenL
8epeaLed physlcal
vlolence
no auLhorlLy
Lo marry
lnsanlLy ressure Lo compel Lo
change
rellglous/pollLlcal
afflllaLlons
no valld
marrlage
llcense
lraud CorrupLlon/lnducemenL
Lo engage ln
proposlLlon
8lgamous
and
polygamous
marrlages
lorce,
lnLlmldaLlon,
or undue
lnfluence
llnal [udgmenL wlLh
senLence of more Lhan
6 years even lf
pardoned
MlsLake of
ldenLlLy
lmpoLence urug
AddlcLlon/PablLual
alcohollsm
vold
subsequenL
marrlage
Serlous and
lncurable
S1u
PomosexuallLy /
Lesblanlsm
sychologlcal
lncapaclLy
8lgamous marrlage
(engaglng ln)
lncesLuous
Marrlage
Sexual lnfldellLy
Marrlages
agalnsL publlc
pollcy
ALLempLs agalnsL Lhe
llfe
AbandonmenL wlLhouL
[usL cause for more
Lhan 1 year

LffecLs of llllng / endlng uecree
Vo|d]Vo|dab|e Marr|ages Lega| Separat|on
SupporL for Lhe Spouses SupporL for Lhe Spouses
CusLody and supporL for
Lhe chlldren
CusLody and supporL for
Lhe chlldren
vlslLaLlon rlghLs Lo Lhe
oLher spouse
vlslLaLlon rlghLs Lo Lhe
oLher spouse
no rlghL Lo llve separaLely Spouses Lo llve separaLely
roperLles are sLlll
managed by boLh parLles
ueslgnaLlon of an
admlnlsLraLor of Lhe
properLles



JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
LffecLs of AffldavlL of 8eappearance, !udlclal
ueclaraLlon and annulmenL and legal separaLlon

Vo|d
Marr|ages
1erm|nated
Marr|ages
(Art. 41)
Vo|dab|e
Marr|ages
Lega|
Separat|on
Status of Mar|ta| 1|es
severed severed Severed noL severed
Status Marr|age
vold ab
lnlLlo
SubsequenL
marrlage ls
LermlnaLed
vold valld
Status of Ch||dren born and conce|ved before
term|nat|on
llleglLlmaLe
LxcepL: ArL.
36 and 33
concelved
and born
before
[udgmenL
(leglLlmaLe)
leglLlmaLe leglLlmaLe leglLlmaLe
Custody of Ch||dren
CourL
proceedlng
CourL
proceedlng
CourL
proceedlng
lnnocenL
spouse
roperty ke|at|ons
1. ulssoluLlon and llquldaLlon of properLles
a. CullLy/8ad lalLh spouse wlll forfelL hls/her
share from Lhe neL roflLs Lo Lhe (ln order)
l. Common chlldren
ll. Chlldren of Lhe gullLy spouse
lll. Chlldren of Lhe lnnocenL spouse
2. noLlflcaLlon of credlLors wlLh Lhe proceedlngs
for llquldaLlon
3. Con[ugal dwelllng Lo be ad[udlcaLed Lo Lhe
spouse who has ma[orlLy cusLody of common
chlldren
4. lnsurance pollcy may be lnvoked only by Lhe
lnnocenL spouse (Legal SeparaLlon: only wlLhln
3 years)
S. Spouse l bad falLh/gullLy shall be dlsquallfled Lo
lnherenL (LesLaLe and lnLesLaLe)


Donat|on ropter Nupt|as
valld, nuL lf done
conLacLed marrlage ln bad
falLh, revoked by
operaLlon of law
May be revoked wlLhln 3
years (Legal SeparaLlon)

kIGn1S AND C8LIGA1ICNS
8L1WLLN nUS8AND AND
WIIL
1) Llve LogeLher (ArL. 68)
LxcepLlon: lf one of Lhe spouses should llve
abroad or Lhere are oLher valld and compelllng
reasons
*shall noL apply lf Lhe same ls noL compaLlble
wlLh Lhe solldarlLy of Lhe famlly
2) Cbserve muLual love, respecL and fldellLy
3) 8ender muLual help and supporL
4) llx Lhe famlly domlclle (ArL. 69)
LxcepLlon: ln case of dlsagreemenL beLween
husband and wlfe, courL shall declde
3) ManagemenL of household (ArL. 71)
*expenses shall be pald ln accordance wlLh Lhe
provlslons of ArL. 70
6) !olnL responslblllLy for Lhe supporL of Lhe famlly
(ArL. 70)
*Lxpenses for such supporL and oLher con[ugal
obllgaLlons shall be pald from Lhe communlLy
properLy and, ln Lhe absence Lhereof, from Lhe
lncome or frulLs of Lhelr separaLe properLles
*ln case of lnsufflency or absence of sald
lncome or frulLs, such obllgaLlons shall be
saLlsfled from Lhelr separaLe properLles
n8: LxcepL for supporL, a courL cannoL valldly lssue
a declslon compelllng Lhe spouses Lo llve LogeLher,
observe muLual love, respecL and fldellLy.
neverLheless, oLher remedles can be avalled of lf a
spouse ln 8Au lAl1P refuses Lo comply wlLh Lhe
above obllgaLlons.
LllLC1 Cl nLCLLC1 Cl uu1?
ln case Lhe oLher spouse neglecLs hls or her duLles
or commlLs acLs whlch Lend Lo brlng danger,
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
dlshonor or ln[ury Lo Lhe famlly, Lhe aggrleved
parLy may apply Lo Lhe courL for rellef. (ArL. 72)
ln[ury conLemplaLed ls physlcal, moral, emoLlonal
or psychologlcal, noL flnanclal.

1y vs CA: 1here can be no acLlon for damages
merely because of a breach of marlLal obllgaLlons
llusorlo v. 8lldner (2000):
A person has a purely personal rlghL Lo consorLlum
(ConsLlLuLlonal rlghL Lo llberLy). CourL cannoL order
a man Lo go back Lo Lhe con[ugal dwelllng.

ColLla v. Campos 8ueda (1916):
1he husband demanded Lhe wlfe perform
'unchasLe and lewd' sexual acLs.
1he wlfe refused buL Lhe husband kepL lnslsLlng.
1he wlfe lefL Lhe famlly home. Wlfe peLlLloned for
supporL/ separaLe malnLenance.
SC: CourL cannoL compel Lhe woman Lo go back Lo
Lhe husband. 1he duLy of Lhe husband Lo supporL
Lhe wlfe ls also noL LermlnaLed because she lefL Lhe
house, when lL ls Lhe husband's faulL she lefL ln Lhe
flrsL place. Pusband ls compelled, ln Lhls case, Lo
glve supporL for separaLe malnLenance (ouLslde
famlly home).

Arroyo v. vasquez de Arroyo (1921):
A courL cannoL compel a marrled woman Lo go
back Lo her husband

kCILSSICN
Ceneral 8ule:
LlLher spouse may exerclse any leglLlmaLe
professlon/buslness wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
oLher
LxcepLlon:
1he oLher spouse may ob[ecL on valld, serlous and
moral grounds. ln case of dlsagreemenL, Lhe courL
shall declde wheLher
a. 1he ob[ecLlon ls proper Anu
b. 8eneflL has accrued Lo Lhe famlly before and
afLer Lhe ob[ecLlon.
-lf beneflL accrued Lo Lhe famlly before Lhe
ob[ecLlon, Lhe resulLlng obllgaLlon shall be
enforced agalnsL Lhe separaLe properLy of Lhe
spouse who has noL obLalned consenL
-lf beneflL accrued Lo Lhe famlly afLer Lhe ob[ecLlon
has been made, Lhe resulLlng obllgaLlon shall be
enforced agalnsL Lhe communlLy properLy

roperLy 8elaLlons beLween Pusband and Wlfe
WPA1 CCvL8nS 8CL81? 8LLA1lCnS
8L1WLLn SCuSLS:
1. Marrlage seLLlemenL- fuLure spouses may agree
upon Lhe reglme of AC, CC, compleLe separaLlon
of properLy or any oLher reglme
2. lamlly Code- lf Lhere ls no marrlage seLLlemenL
or when Lhe reglme agreed upon Lhereln ls vold,
Lhe sysLem of AC shall govern
3. Local cusLoms

kLUISI1LS CI A VALID MAkkIAGL SL11LLMLN1:

1. ln wrlLlng
2. Slgned by Lhe parLles
3. LxecuLed before Lhe celebraLlon
of marrlage
4. 1o flx Lhe Lerms and condlLlons of Lhelr properLy
relaLlons
3. lf a parLy execuLlng Lhe seLLlemenL needs
parenLal consenL, Lhe parenL/guardlan whose
consenL ls needed musL be made a parLy Lo Lhe
agreemenL
6. lf Lhe parLy execuLlng Lhe seLLlemenL ls under
clvll lnLerdlcLlon or any oLher dlsablllLy, Lhe
guardlan appolnLed by Lhe courL musL be made a
parLy Lo Lhe seLLlemenL
7. 8eglsLraLlon (Lo blnd 3
rd
persons)

NC1 ALICA8LL:
1. When boLh are allens, even lf marrled ln Lhe
hlls.
2. As Lo exLrlnslc valldlLy of conLracLs
3. ConLrary sLlpulaLlon

DCNA1ICNS 8 kLASCN CI MAkkIAGL
8efore Marrlage Ceneral 8ule:
luLure spouses cannoL donaLe Lo each oLher more
Lhan 1/3 of Lhelr presenL properLy (excess shall be
consldered vold)

8equlslLes:
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
1. Made before celebraLlon of marrlage
2. ln celebraLlon of marrlage
3. ln favor of one or boLh fuLure spouses

LxcepLlon:
lf Lhey are governed by AC

uurlng Marrlage Ceneral 8ule:
Spouses cannoL donaLe Lo each oLher, dlrecLly or
lndlrecLly
(donaLlons made by spouses Lo each oLher durlng
Lhe marrlage are vClu)
8aLlo:
1. 1o proLecL unsecured credlLors from belng
defrauded
2. 1o prevenL sLronger spouse from lmposlng upon
Lhe weaker one Lhe Lransfer of Lhe laLLer's properLy
Lo Lhe former
3. 1o prevenL lndlrecL modlflcaLlon of Lhe marrlage
seLLlemenL

LxcepLlon:
1. ModeraLe glfLs on Lhe occaslon of any famlly
re[olclng
2. uonaLlon morLls causa
- Applled Lo common law spouses (ArL. 87)

Solls v. 8arroso (1928): ln donaLlons propLer
nupLlas, Lhe marrlage ls really a conslderaLlon, buL
noL ln Lhe sense of glvlng blrLh Lo Lhe obllgaLlon.
1here can be a valld donaLlon even lf Lhe marrlage
never Look place, buL Lhe absence of marrlage ls a
ground for Lhe revocaLlon of Lhe donaLlon.
MaLeo v. Lagua (1969): uonaLlons
propLer nupLlas are wlLhouL onerous conslderaLlon,
marrlage belng merely Lhe occaslon or moLlve for
Lhe donaLlon, noL lLs cause. 8elng llberallLles, Lhey
remaln sub[ecL Lo reducLlon for lnofflclousness
upon Lhe donor's deaLh, lf Lhey should lnfrlnge Lhe
leglLlme of aforced helr.

C8CunuS 1C 8LvCkL uCnA1lCn
8C1L8 nu1lAS:

1. Marrlage ls noL celebraLed or ls [udlclally
declared vold ab lnlLlo
2. Marrlage wlLhouL Lhe needed parenLal consenL
3. Marrlage ls annulled and donee ls ln bad falLh
4. lf lL ls wlLh a resoluLory condlLlon and Lhe
condlLlon ls complled wlLh
3. ln legal separaLlon and donee ls Lhe gullLy
spouse
6. uonee commlLs acLs of lngraLlLude such as:
a. lf Lhe donee commlLs an offense agalnsL Lhe
person, honor or properLy of Lhe donor, hls wlfe, or
hls chlldren under hls parenLal auLhorlLy
b. lf Lhe donee lmpuLes Lo Lhe donor any crlmlnal
offense or any acL lnvolvlng moral LurplLude, unless
Lhe crlme was commlLLed agalnsL Lhe donee
hlmself, hls wlfe, or hls chlldren under hls auLhorlLy
c. lf Lhe donee unduly refuses Lo supporL Lhe donor
when he ls legally or morally bound Lo glve such
supporL















JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018










Abso|ute Commun|ty of roperty
CLnL8AL 8uLL:
1he communlLy properLy conslsLs of all Lhe
properLy owned by Lhe spouses aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
celebraLlon of Lhe marrlage or acqulred LhereafLer.
LxCL1lCnS:
Lxcluslons from CommunlLy roperLy:
1. roperLy acqulred before Lhe marrlage by elLher
spouse who has leglLlmaLe
2. descendanLs by a former marrlage and lLs frulLs and
lncome
3. roperLy for personal and excluslve use excepL
[ewelry
4. roperLy acqulred durlng Lhe marrlage by
graLulLous LlLle, excepL when Lhe donor, LesLaLor, or
granLor expressly provldes oLherwlse
-no walver of rlghLs allowed durlng Lhe marrlage
excepL ln case of [udlclal separaLlon of properLy. 1he
walver musL be ln a publlc lnsLrumenL.

PSL8 v. Mlguela uallo (2003): Lncumbrance or
dlsposlLlon of Lhe communlLy of properLy wlLhouL
Lhe consenL of Lhe oLher spouse ls vold. 8eneflL Lo
Lhe famlly musL always be proven.

AuMlnlS18A1lCn Cl 1PL CCMMunl1? 8CL81?:

Ceneral 8ule:
lL shall belong Lo boLh spouses LxcepLlons:
1. ln cases of dlsagreemenL, husband's
declslon shall prevall
-Wlfe can go Lo courL wlLhln 3 years
2. ln case one spouse ls lncapaclLaLed or unable Lo
parLlclpaLe ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe common
properLles, oLher spouse may assume sole powers.
-1hese powers do noL lnclude:
a. dlsposlLlon and
b. encumbrance
-Any encumbrance ls vold lf wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen
consenL of Lhe oLher spouse.

8ules on Came of Chance:
LCSS:
8orne by Lhe loser spouse and shall noL be charged
Lo Lhe communlLy properLy
WlnnlnCS:
lorm parL of Lhe communlLy properLy
CPA8CLS uCn 1PL AC:
1. uebLs and obllgaLlons conLracLed by elLher
spouse wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe oLher Lo Lhe
exLenL LhaL lL beneflLed Lhe famlly
2. uebLs and obllgaLlons conLracLed durlng Lhe
marrlage by deslgnaLed admlnlsLraLor-spouse, boLh
spouses, or by one wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe oLher
3. 1axes, llens, charges and expenses upon
communlLy properLy
4. SupporL of spouses, Lhelr common chlldren and
leglLlmaLe chlldren of elLher spouse
3. Lxpenses of llLlgaLlon beLween spouses unless
Lhe sulL ls found Lo be groundless
6. AnLe-nupLlal debLs whlch redounded Lo Lhe
beneflL of Lhe famlly
7. 1axes and expenses for mere preservaLlon made
durlng Lhe marrlage upon Lhe separaLe properLy of
elLher spouse used by Lhe famlly
8. Lxpenses for professlonal or vocaLlonal course
9. CLher anLe-nupLlal debLs, supporL of llleglLlmaLe
chlld, and llablllLles for crlme or quasl-dellcLs ln
absence of separaLe properLy
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
10. uonaLed or promlsed Lo common leglLlmaLe
chlldren for professlon, vocaLlonal course or self
lmprovemenL
-lf Lhe communlLy properLy ls lnsufflclenL Lo cover
all Lhese llablllLles, excepL Lhose falllng under (9),
spouses shall be solldarlly llable for Lhe unpald
balance wlLh Lhelr separaLe properLles.
-AdmlnlsLraLlon of communlLy properLy belongs Lo
boLh

1L8MlnA1lCn Cl AC/CC:
1. ueaLh of elLher spouse
2. uecree of legal separaLlon
3. AnnulmenL or declaraLlon of nulllLy of marrlage
4. !udlclal separaLlon of properLy durlng marrlage

8CCLuu8L lC8 ulSSCLu1lCn Cl AC:
1. lnvenLory of all properLles
a. lnvenLory of communlLy properLy
b. lnvenLory of separaLe properLy of Lhe wlfe
c. lnvenLory of separaLe properLy of Lhe husband
2. uebLs and obllgaLlon of AC are pald
3. 8emalnder of Lhe separaLe properLles of Lhe
spouses are reLurned Lo Lhe owner
4. neL remalnder of Lhe AC ls dlvlded equally
beLween husband and wlfe
3. resumpLlve leglLlmes of chlldren are dellvered
6. Ad[udlcaLlon of con[ugal dwelllng and cusLody of
common chlldren



LxCLuSlvL 8CL81? ln CC:
1. 1haL broughL lnLo Lhe marrlage as hls/her own
2. 1haL acqulred durlng Lhe marrlage graLulLously

3. 1haL acqulred by redempLlon, barLer or
exchange wlLh excluslve properLy
4. 1haL purchased wlLh excluslve money of spouse

WPA1 CCnS1l1u1LS CC:
1. lrulLs of con[ugal properLy due or recelved
durlng Lhe marrlage and neL frulLs of separaLe
properLy
2. 1hose acqulred Lhrough occupaLlon
3. LlvesLock ln excess of whaL was broughL Lo Lhe
marrlage
4. 1hose acqulred durlng Lhe marrlage wlLh
con[ugal funds
3. Share ln hldden Lreasure
6. 1hose obLalned from labor, lndusLry, work or
professlon of elLher or boLh spouse
7. 1hose acqulred by chance

8ules ln Cases of lmprovemenL of Lxcluslve
roperLy:
1. Accesslon- lf Lhe cosL of Lhe lmprovemenL of Lhe
plus value ls equal Lo or less Lhan Lhe value of Lhe
prlnclpal properLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe lmprovemenL,
Lhe enLlre properLy remalns Lhe excluslve properLy
of Lhe spouse
2. 8everse Accesslon- lf Lhe cosL of Lhe
lmprovemenL and Lhe plus value ls more Lhan Lhe
value of Lhe prlnclpal properLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
lmprovemenL, Lhe properLy becomes con[ugal
(sub[ecL Lo relmbursemenL)

CPA8CLS uCn CC:
1. uebLs and obllgaLlons conLracLed by one wlLhouL
Lhe consenL of Lhe oLher Lo Lhe exLenL LhaL Lhe
famlly beneflLed
2. uebLs and obllgaLlons conLracLed durlng Lhe
marrlage by admlnlsLraLor- spouse, boLh spouses
or one wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe oLher
3. 1axes, llens, charges, expenses upon con[ugal
properLy
4. SupporL of Lhe spouses, Lhelr common chlldren
and leglL chlldren of elLher spouse
3. Lxpenses of llLlgaLlon
6. AnLe-nupLlal debLs Lo exLenL famlly beneflLed
7. 1axes and expenses for mere preservaLlon of
separaLe properLy
8. Lxpenses for professlonal, vocaLlonal or self-
lmprovemenL courses of elLher spouse
9. value of whaL ls donaLed or promlsed Lo
common leglL chlldren for professlonal, vocaLlon or
self lmprovemenL courses

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
8CCLuu8L lC8 ulSSCLu1lCn Cl CC:

1. lnvenLory of all properLy
2. AmounLs advanced by C as paymenL for
personal debLs and obllgaLlons of elLher spouse are
credlLed
3. 8elmbursemenL for use of excluslve funds
4. uebLs and obllgaLlons of Lhe C are pald
3. 8emalns of excluslve properLles are reLurned
6. lndemnlfy loss of deLerloraLlon of movables
belonglng Lo elLher spouse used for Lhe beneflL of
Lhe famlly
7. neL remalnder of con[ugal properLy ls dlvlded
equally
8. uellvery of chlldren's presumpLlve leglLlmes
9. Ad[udlcaLlon of con[ugal dwelllng and cusLody of
chlldren
nC1LS:
-roperLy boughL on lnsLallmenLs pald parLly from
excluslve funds of Lhe spouses and parLly from
con[ugal funds:
a. lf full ownershlp ls vesLed before Lhe marrlage -
lL shall belong Lo Lhe buyer-spouse
b. lf full ownershlp was vesLed durlng Lhe marrlage
- lL shall belong Lo Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp
-1he separaLe properLles shall be solldarlly and
subsldlarlly llable for Lhe obllgaLlons lf Lhe
communlLy or con[ugal properLles are lnsufflclenL
-1he AC shall also be llable for anLe-nupLlal debLs,
supporL of llleglLlmaLe chlldren, and llablllLles
lncurred by elLher spouse by reason of a crlme or
quasl-dellcL ln case of lnsolvency of Lhe excluslve
properLy of Lhe debLor-spouse. aymenL advanced
by Lhe AC, sub[ecL Lo deducLlon from Lhe share of
Lhe debLor-spouse
-1he con[ugal parLnershlp properLy shall llkewlse
be llable for Lhe paymenL of Lhe personal debLs of
elLher spouse lnsofar as Lhey have redounded Lo
Lhe beneflL of Lhe famlly.


Ayala lnvesLmenL CorporaLlon v. CA
(1998)
lndlrecL beneflLs LhaL mlghL accrue Lo a husband ln
hls slgnlng as a sureLy or guaranLee agreemenL noL
ln favor of Lhe famlly buL ln favor of hls employer
corporaLlon are noL Lhe beneflLs LhaL can be
consldered as glvlng a dlrecL advanLage
accrulng Lo Lhe famlly. Pence, Lhe credlLors cannoL
go agalnsL Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp properLy of Lhe
husband ln saLlsfylng Lhe obllgaLlon sub[ecL of Lhe
sureLy agreemenL. A conLrary vlew would puL ln
perll Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp properLy by allowlng
lL Lo be glven graLulLously as ln cases of donaLlon of
con[ugal parLnershlp properLy, whlch ls prohlblLed.

A8ALCS v. MACA1AnCA? (2004)
rlor Lo Lhe llquldaLlon of Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp,
Lhe lnLeresL of each spouse ln Lhe con[ugal asseLs ls
lnchoaLe, a mere expecLancy, whlch consLlLuLes
nelLher a legal nor an equlLable esLaLe, and does
noL rlpen lnLo LlLle unLll lL appears LhaL Lhere are
asseLs ln Lhe communlLy as a resulL of llquldaLlon
and seLLlemenL. 1he lnLeresL of each spouse ls
llmlLed Lo Lhe neL remalnder resulLlng from Lhe
llquldaLlon of Lhe affalrs of Lhe parLnershlps afLer
lLs dlssoluLlon. 1hus, Lhe rlghL of Lhe husband or
wlfe Lo one-half of Lhe con[ugal asseLs does noL
vesL unLll Lhe dlssoluLlon and llquldaLlon of Lhe
con[ugal parLnershlp or afLer dlssoluLlon of Lhe
marrlage , when lL ls flnally deLermlned LhaL, afLer
seLLlemenL of con[ugal obllgaLlons, Lhere are neL
asseLs lefL whlch can be dlvlded beLween Lhe
spouses or Lhelr respecLlve helrs. 1he lamlly Code
requlres W8l11Ln consenL of Lhe oLher spouse or
auLhorlLy of Lhe courL for Lhe dlsposlLlon or
encumbrance of con[ugal parLnershlp by Lhe oLher
spouse lf Lhe former spouse ls lncapaclLaLed or
oLherwlse unable Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp.
CLherwlse, Lhe dlsposlLlon ls vold.

laLa v. ?aLco:
laLa purchased properLy when she was slngle.
When marrled, she and her husband 8ergosa co-
slgned a morLgage on Lhe properLy. upon
foreclosure, 8ergosa was sued for lllegal deLalner.
A wrlL of execuLlon on Lhe properLy was carrled ouL
buL laLa refused Lo leave Lhe premlses. SC ruled
LhaL laLa cannoL be held ln conLempL. roperLy ls
noL con[ugal. Per husband slgnlng as co-morLgagor
does noL converL lL Lo CC. She could lgnore
execuLlon because Lhe declslon was for her
husband alone.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Acabal v. Acabal (2003): All properLy acqulred
durlng Lhe marrlage, wheLher made, conLracLed, or
reglsLered ln Lhe name of one spouse, are
presumed con[ugal unless Lhe conLrary ls prove. As
a condlLlon slne qua non ln favor of Lhe con[ugal
parLnershlp, Lhe parLy who lnvokes Lhe
presumpLlon musL flrsL prove LhaL Lhe properLy
was acqulred durlng Lhe marrlage
Ayala lnvesLmenL v. Chlng (1998):1he Supreme
CourL ruled LhaL lndlrecL beneflLs LhaL mlghL accrue
Lo a husband ln slgnlng as a sureLy or guaranLee
agreemenL noL ln favor of Lhe famlly buL ln favor of
hls employer corporaLlon are noL beneflLs LhaL can
be consldered as glvlng a dlrecL advanLage accrulng
Lo Lhe famlly. Pence, Lhe credlLors cannoL go
agalnsL Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp properLy of Lhe
husband ln saLlsfylng Lhe obllgaLlon sub[ecL of Lhe
sureLy agreemenL. A conLrary vlew would puL ln
perll Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp by allowlng lL Lo be
glven graLulLously as ln cases of donaLlon of
con[ugal parLnershlp properLy, whlch ls prohlblLed.

uy v. CA (2000):
lC124 conLemplaLes a slLuaLlon where one spouse
ls absenL, or separaLed ln facL or has abandoned
Lhe oLher or consenL ls wlLhheld or cannoL be
obLalned. Suchrules do noL apply Lo cases where
Lhe non-consenLlng spouse ls lncapaclLaLed or
lncompeLenL Lo glve consenL le, ln coma. 1he
proper remedy ls Lo flle for guardlanshlp under Lhe
8CC. Lven assumlng LhaL Lhe rules on summary
proceedlngs apply, Lhe power of Lhe admlnlsLraLor
ls Lhe same as a guardlan. So a spouse who deslres
Lo sell con[ugal properLy as admlnlsLraLor musL sLlll
observe Lhe procedure for Lhe sale of Lhe ward's
esLaLe requlred of [udlclal guardlans under 8CC noL
Lhe summary [udlclal proceedlngs under lC.

Pomeowner's Savlngs & Loan 8ank v. uallo (2003):
ln Lhe absence of (courL) auLhorlLy or wrlLLen
consenL of Lhe oLher spouse, any dlsposlLlon or
encumbrance of Lhe
con[ugal properLy shall be vold

Cheeseman v. lAC (1991):
lf however, one of Lhe spouses ls an allen, Lhe
llllplno spouse may encumber or dlspose of Lhe
properLy w/o Lhe consenL of Lhe former. 1he
properLy ls presumed Lo be owned excluslvely by
Lhe llllplno spouse.

arLosa-!o v. CA (1992):
hyslcal separaLlon of Lhe spouses, coupled wlLh
Lhe husband's refusal Lo glve supporL Lo Lhe wlfe,
sufflced Lo consLlLuLe abandonmenL as a ground
for an acLlon for Lhe [udlclal separaLlon of Lhelr
con[ugal properLy.



SLA8A1lCn Cl 8CL81?
-ln Lhe absence of an express declaraLlon ln Lhe
marrlage seLLlemenLs, Lhe separaLlon of properLy
beLween Lhe spouses durlng Lhe marrlage shall noL
Lake place excepL by [udlclal order.
-!udlclal separaLlon of properLy may elLher be
volunLary or for sufflclenL cause.

SulllClLn1 CAuSL lC8 !uulClAL
SLA8A1lCn Cl 8CL81?:
1. eLlLloner's spouse has been senLenced Lo a
penalLy whlch carrles wlLh lL clvll lnLerdlcLlon
2. eLlLloner's spouse has been declared an
absenLee
3. Loss of parenLal auLhorlLy of peLlLloner's spouse
has been decreed by Lhe courL
4. AbandonmenL by peLlLloner's spouse or fallure
Lo comply wlLh famlly obllgaLlons
3. Spouse granLed Lhe power of admlnlsLraLlon ln
marrlage seLLlemenLs has abused LhaL power
6. AL Lhe Llme of peLlLlon, Lhe spouses have been
separaLed ln facL for aL leasL one year and
reconclllaLlon ls hlghly lmprobable

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
C8CunuS lC8 8LvlvAL Cl lC8ML8 8CL81?
8LClML:
1. When clvll lnLerdlcLlon of Lhe prlsoner-spouse
LermlnaLes
2. When Lhe absenLee spouse reappears
3. When Lhe courL, belng saLlsfled LhaL Lhe spouse
granLed Lhe power of admlnlsLraLlon ln Lhe
marrlage seLLlemenL wlll noL agaln abuse LhaL
power, auLhorlzes resumpLlon of admlnlsLraLlon by
Lhe spouse formerly exerclslng such power
4. When Lhe spouse, who has lefL Lhe con[ugal
home wlLhouL a decree of legal separaLlon, reLurns
and resumes common llfe wlLh Lhe oLher
3. When parenLal auLhorlLy ls [udlclally resLored Lo
Lhe spouse prevlously deprlved Lhereof
6. When Lhe spouses who have separaLed ln facL
for aL leasL one year, reconclle and resume
common llfe
7. When afLer volunLary dlssoluLlon of AC or CC,
spouses agree Lo revlve Lhelr former properLy
reglme

C8CunuS lC8 18AnSlL8 Cl
AuMlnlS18A1lCn Cl LxCLuSlvL 8CL81? Cl
Ll1PL8 SCuSL:
1. Cne spouse becomes guardlan of Lhe oLher
2. Cne spouse [udlclally declared absenL
3. Cne spouse senLenced Lo penalLy wlLh clvll
lnLerdlcLlon
4. Cne spouse becomes a fuglLlve from [usLlce or ls
hldlng as an accused ln a crlmlnal case





































JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018

kCLk1 kLGIML CI UNICNS WI1nCU1 MAkkIAGL

ArL 147 ArL 148
AppllcablllLy 1. man and woman
2. llvlng LogeLher as husband and wlfe
3. wlLh capaclLy Lo marry (ArL.3
wlLhouL any legal lmpedlmenL)
-aL leasL 18 years old
-noL ArL. 37 (lncesLuous vold
marrlage)
-noL ArL. 38 (vold marrlage by reason
of publlc pollcy)
-noLblgamous
4. oLher vold marrlages / llve-ln

1. man and woman
2. llvlng LogeLher as husband and wlfe
3. nC1 capaclLaLed Lo marry
(ArL.33(1) under 18 years old)
4. adulLerous relaLlonshlp (e.g. concublnage)
3.blgamous/polygamous marrlage (ArL.33(4))
6. lncesLuous marrlages under ArL.37
7. vold marrlages by reason of publlc pollcy
under ArL.38

Salarles and Wages Cwned ln equal shares

Lxcluslvely owned, marrled parLy properLy of
CC of leglLlmaLe marrlage

roperLles acqulred
Lhrough excluslve
funds

8emalns excluslve provlded Lhere ls
proof

8emalns excluslve
roperLles acqulred
by boLh Lhrough
work or lndusLry

Coverned by rules on co-ownershlp

Cwned ln common ln proporLlon Lo respecLlve
conLrlbuLlon

roperLles acqulred
whlle llvlng LogeLher

-Cwned ln equal shares slnce lL ls
presumed Lo have been acqulred
Lhrough [olnL efforLs
-lf one parLy dld noL parLlclpaLe ln
acqulslLlon, presumed Lo have
conLrlbuLed Lhrough care and
malnLenance of famlly and household

resumed Lo be equal, however, proofs may
be shown Lo show LhaL Lhelr conLrlbuLlon and
respecLlve shares are noL equal

lorfelLure ln case
one parLy ls ln bad
falLh

When only one of Lhe parLles ls ln
good falLh, Lhe share of Lhe parLy ln
bad falLh shall be forfelLed:
1. ln favor of Lhelr common chlldren
2. ln case of defaulL of or walver by
any or all of Lhe common chlldren or
Lhelr descendanLs, each vacanL share
shall belong Lo Lhe respecLlve
survlvlng descendanLs
3. ln Lhe absence of such descendanLs,
such share belongs Lo Lhe lnnocenL
parLy

lf one parLy ls valldly marrled Lo anoLher:
- hls/her share ln Lhe co-owned properLles wlll
accrue Lo Lhe AC/CC of hls/her exlsLlng valld
marrlage
lf Lhe parLy who acLed ln bad falLh ls noL
valldly marrled Lo anoLher, hls/her share shall
be forfelLed ln Lhe same manner as LhaL
provlded ln ArL 147
1he same rules on forfelLure shall apply lf boLh
parLles are ln bad falLh



JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018

!CACulnC v. 8L?LS (2004)
lAC1S:
8espondenL 8eyes ls Lhe wldow of 8odolfo 8eyes.
8eyes had llllclL relaLlons wlLh peLlLloner !oaqulno.
A properLy ln 8l Pomes aranaque was execuLed
ln favor of !oaqulno. !oaqulno had no means Lo pay
for
Lhls properLy. 1he funds used Lo purchase Lhls
properLy were earnlngs of 8eyes from hls poslLlon
as corporaLe execuLlve and from a loan secured
from CommonwealLh lnsurance CorporaLlon.
!oaqulno and
8eyes had 3 llleglLlmaLe chlldren.

PLLu:
ArLlcle 148 ls Lhe properLy reglme LhaL wlll apply ln
case where Lhe parLners have a legal lmpedlmenL
Lo marry each oLher.ln Lhls properLy reglme, only
Lhe properLy acqulred by Lhem Lhrough Lhelr acLual
[olnL conLrlbuLlon of money, properLy or lndusLry
shall be owned by Lhem ln common and ln
proporLlon Lo Lhelr respecLlve conLrlbuLlons. 1he
reglsLraLlon of a properLy ln Lhe name of Lhe
paramour who had no lncome whaLsoever aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe donaLlon by a husband ls LanLamounL
Lo a donaLlon whlch ls vold under ArLlcle 87 of Lhe
lamlly Code. 1he paramour Lhen holds Lhe
properLy under a consLrucLlve LrusL under ArLlcle
1436 ln favor of Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp of Lhe
husband wlLh Lhe leglLlmaLe spouse. SLaLus of an
llleglLlmaLe chlld who clalmed Lo be an helr Lo a
decedenL's esLaLe could noL be ad[udlcaLed ln an
ordlnary clvll acLlon such as ln a case for recovery
of properLy.

vlLLAnuLvA v. CA (2004)

lAC1S:
Several properLles are Lhe sub[ecL of dlspuLe
beLween peLlLloner (llleglLlmaLe son) and Lhe
leglLlmaLe famlly of nlcolas, Lhe decedenL.
eLlLloner ls conLendlng LhaL Lhe sub[ecL properLles
are noL parL of Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp of nlcolas
and hls legal wlfe (Lusebla) buL under Lhe reglme
of co-ownershlp beLween nlcolas and peLlLloner's
moLher.


PLLu:
lor as long as lL ls proven LhaL properLy was
acqulred durlng Lhe marrlage, Lhe presumpLlon of
con[ugallLy wlll aLLach regardless ln whose name
Lhe properLy ls reglsLered. 1he presumpLlon ls noL
rebuLLed by Lhe mere facL LhaL Lhe cerLlflcaLe of
LlLle of Lhe properLy or Lhe Lax declaraLlon ls ln Lhe
name of one of Lhe spouses. A readlng of ArLlcle
148 shows LhaL Lhere musL be proof of acLual [olnL
conLrlbuLlon by boLh Lhe llve-ln parLners before Lhe
properLy becomes co-owned by Lhem ln proporLlon
Lo Lhelr conLrlbuLlon. 1he presumpLlon of equallLy
of conLrlbuLlon arlses only ln Lhe absence of proof
of Lhelr proporLlonaLe conLrlbuLlons, sub[ecL Lo Lhe
condlLlon LhaL acLual [olnL conLrlbuLlon ls proven
flrsL. Slmply puL, proof of acLual conLrlbuLlon by
boLh parLles ls requlred, oLherwlse Lhere ls no co-
ownershlp and no presumpLlon of equal sharlng.

CPlnC vs. CCu81 ALALS (2004)
1he presumpLlon of con[ugallLy arlses as long as lL
ls shown LhaL lL ls acqulred durlng Lhe marrlage. lL
ls noL even necessary Lo prove LhaL Lhe properLles
were acqulred wlLh funds of Lhe parLnershlps. ln
facL, even when Lhe manner ln whlch Lhe
properLles were acqulred does noL appear, Lhe
presumpLlon wlll sLlll apply. 1he presumpLlon shall
subslsL ln Lhe absence of clear, saLlsfacLory and
convlnclng evldence Lo overcome Lhe same.
8eneflL Lo Lhe famlly" musL be dlrecL and noL [usL
a by-producL or a spln-off of Lhe loan lLself. Where
a husband conLracLs obllgaLlons on behalf of Lhe
famlly buslness, Lhe law presumes and rlghLly so
LhaL such obllgaLlon wlll redound Lo Lhe beneflL of
Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp.

8lvera v. Pelrs of 8omualdo vlllanueva (2006)

lAC1S:
lrom 1927 unLll her deaLh ln 1980, aclLa Conzales
cohablLed wlLh 8omualdo vlllanueva wlLhouL Lhe
beneflL of marrlage because Lhe laLLer was marrled
Lo Amanda Musngl who dled ln 1963. uurlng Lhe
33 years of Lhelr cohablLaLlon Lhey acqulred Lhe
several properLles conLesLed ln Lhls case.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
ln !uly 1980, aclLa dled wlLhouL leavlng a wlll. Cn
AugusL 1980, 8omualdo and Angellna (sald Lo be
Lhe llleglLlmaLe chlld of aclLa and 8omualdo)
execuLed a deed of exLra[udlclal parLlLlon wlLh sale
of a number of properLles of aclLa's esLaLe.
eLlLloners (aclLa's half-broLhers, eLc.) flled a case
for parLlLlon of her esLaLe and annulmenL of LlLles
and damages.
ln dlsmlsslng Lhe complalnL, Lhe 81C made Lwo
flndlngs: (1) aclLa was never marrled Lo 8omualdo
even afLer Amanda's deaLh, and (2) respondenL
Angellna was aclLa's llleglLlmaLe chlld by
8omualdo and Lherefore her sole helr (Lo Lhe
excluslon of Lhe peLlLloners). CA afflrmed.
lSSuL:
WheLher Lhe real properLles acqulred durlng Lhe
cohablLaLlon of aclLa and 8omualdo are equally
owned by Lhem.
PLLu:
nC. aclLa and 8omualdo llved LogeLher wlLhouL
Lhe beneflL of marrlage and Lherefore Lhelr
properLy relaLlons were governed by ArL. 144 of
Lhe Clvll Code. Powever, Lhe conLendlng parLles
agreed LhaL Lhe relaLlonshlp of aclLa and
8omualdo was adulLerous, aL leasL unLll Lhe deaLh
of Amanda ln 1963. 8ecause Lhe cohablLaLlon of
aclLa and 8omualdo from 1927 Lo 1963 was
adulLerous, Lhelr properLy relaLlons durlng Lhose
36 years were noL governed by ArL. 144 of Lhe Clvll
Code whlch applles only lf Lhe couple llvlng
LogeLher ls noL ln any way lncapaclLaLed from
geLLlng marrled. Accordlng Lo Lhe docLrlne lald
down by !uanlza v. !ose, no co-ownershlp exlsLs
beLween parLles Lo an adulLerous relaLlonshlp. ln
Agapay v. alang, Lhe CourL expounded on Lhls
docLrlne by declarlng LhaL ln such a relaLlonshlp
(adulLerous), lL ls necessary for each of Lhe
parLners Lo prove hls or her acLual conLrlbuLlon Lo
Lhe acqulslLlon of properLy ln order Lo be able Lo
lay clalm Lo any porLlon of lL. resumpLlons of co-
ownershlp and equal conLrlbuLlon do noL apply.
1he only properLy acqulred afLer Amanda's deaLh
ln 1963 and reglsLered ln Lhe names of boLh
vlllanueva and Conzales was only one properLy.
1hls ls governed by Lhe rules on co-ownershlp
pursuanL Lo ArL. 144 of Lhe Clvll Code. Palf of lL
should perLaln Lo aclLa's helrs and Lhe oLher half,
Lo 8omualdo. 1he resL of Lhe properLles
reglsLered solely ln aclLa's name were also
acqulred afLer Lhe deaLh of Amanda ln 1963. 1hese
properLles are governed by co-ownershlp under
ArL. 144 of Lhe Clvll Code. Agaln, half should accrue
Lo aclLa's helrs and Lhe oLher half, Lo 8omualdo.
roperLles reglsLered solely under aclLa's name,
alLhough acqulred durlng Lhelr cohablLaLlon,
accrue Lo Lhe peLlLloners. roperLles acqulred afLer
Amanda's deaLh ln 1963, boLh Lhose reglsLered
under Lhelr names and Lhose reglsLered ln aclLa's
name, wlll be Lhe only ones governed by Lhe rules
on co-ownershlp pursuanL Lo ArL. 144 of Lhe Clvll
Code.

l8AnClSCC vS. MAS1L8 l8Cn
(2003)
lAC1S:
CredlLor levled on Lhe properLy, whlch were
alleged by wlfe Lo be solely owned by her, for Lhe
debL of Mr. lranclsco (husband). She laLer flled a
case for Lhe annulmenL of Lhelr marrlage on Lhe
ground LhaL Mr. lranclsco was already marrled.
PLLu:
lor ArLlcle 148 of Lhe lamlly Code Lo glve rlse Lo a
co-ownershlp relaLlon beLween parLles, Lhere musL
be proof of acLual [olnL conLrlbuLlon of money,
properLy or lndusLry and only Lo Lhe exLenL of Lhelr
proporLlonaLe share. Co-ownershlp may ensue ln
case of cohablLaLlon where one parLy has pre-
exlsLlng valld marrlage provlded LhaL Lhe parLles
prove Lhelr acLual [olnL conLrlbuLlon of money,
properLy. Mrs. lranclsco ln Lhls case falled Lo
adduce preponderance of evldence LhaL she
conLrlbuLed ln Lhe acqulslLlon of Lhe properLy and
hence ls noL a co-owner.

PCMLCWnL8 SAvlnC & LCAn 8Ank vS. MlCuLLA
uAlLC (2003)
Lncumbrance or dlsposlLlon of Lhe communlLy
properLy wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe oLher spouse
ls LoLally vold. 1o say LhaL lL ls vold only as Lo Lhe
share of Lhe spouse who dld noL glve hls consenL
and valld as Lo Lhe share of Lhe spouse who
conLracLed Lhe encumbrance ls erroneous.
8eneflL Lo Lhe famlly musL always be proven.


JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018




DIS1INC1ICN 8L1WLLN 1nL 1nkLL kCLk1 kLGIMLS

























JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
A1LkNI1, IILIA1ICN, AND
LLGI1IMA1L CnILDkLN
Note: Art|c|es 163 up to 174 of the Iam||y
Code dea| w|th the |ssues of patern|ty, f|||at|on,
and |eg|t|mate ch||dren.

What are the k|nds of f|||at|on of ch||dren?
1he flllaLlon of chlldren may be by:
-naLure
-or by adopLlon.
-naLural flllaLlon may be:
- leglLlmaLe
-or llleglLlmaLe

What |s the status of a ch||d born dur|ng the
marr|age of |ts parents?
Chlldren concelved or born durlng Lhe marrlage of
Lhe parenLs are leglLlmaLe.

What about ch||dren conce|ved by art|f|c|a|
|nsem|nat|on?
Chlldren concelved as a resulL of arLlflclal
lnsemlnaLlon of Lhe wlfe wlLh Lhe sperm of Lhe
husband or LhaL of a donor or boLh are llkewlse
leglLlmaLe chlldren of Lhe husband and hls wlfe,
provlded, LhaL boLh of Lhem auLhorlzed or raLlfled
such lnsemlnaLlon ln a wrlLLen lnsLrumenL
execuLed and slgned by Lhem before Lhe blrLh of
Lhe chlld. 1he lnsLrumenL shall be recorded ln Lhe
clvll reglsLry LogeLher wlLh Lhe blrLh cerLlflcaLe of
Lhe chlld.
What |f the mother states that her ch||d |s |n fact
|||eg|t|mate? What |f the mother was sentenced
by a court as be|ng an adu|teress?
1he chlld ls consldered leglLlmaLe alLhough Lhe
moLher may have declared agalnsL lLs leglLlmacy or
may have been senLenced as an adulLeress.

now can the |eg|t|macy of a ch||d be |mpugned or
quest|oned?
LeglLlmacy of a chlld may be lmpugned only on Lhe
followlng grounds:
[1] 1haL lL was physlcally lmposslble for Lhe
husband Lo have sexual lnLercourse wlLh hls wlfe
wlLhln Lhe flrsL 120 days of Lhe 300 days whlch
lmmedlaLely preceded Lhe blrLh of Lhe chlld
because of:
[a] Lhe physlcal lncapaclLy of Lhe husband Lo
have sexual lnLercourse wlLh hls wlfe,
[b] Lhe facL LhaL Lhe husband and wlfe were
llvlng separaLely ln such a way LhaL sexual
lnLercourse was noL posslble, or
[c] serlous lllness of Lhe husband, whlch
absoluLely prevenLed sexual lnLercourse,
[2] 1haL lL ls proved LhaL for blologlcal or oLher
sclenLlflc reasons, Lhe chlld could noL have been
LhaL of Lhe husband, excepL ln Lhe lnsLance
provlded ln Lhe second paragraph of ArLlcle 164, or
[3] 1haL ln case of chlldren concelved Lhrough
arLlflclal lnsemlnaLlon, Lhe wrlLLen auLhorlzaLlon or
raLlflcaLlon of elLher parenL was obLalned Lhrough
mlsLake, fraud, vlolence, lnLlmldaLlon, or undue
lnfluence.
When shou|d the act|on to |mpugn or quest|on
the |eg|t|macy of a ch||d be f||ed |n court?
[1] 1he acLlon Lo lmpugn Lhe leglLlmacy of Lhe chlld
musL be broughL wlLhln one year from Lhe
knowledge of Lhe blrLh or lLs recordlng ln Lhe clvll
reglsLer, lf Lhe husband or, ln a proper case, any of
hls helrs, should reslde ln Lhe clLy or munlclpallLy
where Lhe blrLh Look place or was recorded.
[2] lf Lhe husband or, ln hls defaulL, all of hls helrs
do noL reslde aL Lhe place of blrLh as deflned ln Lhe
paragraph above or where lL was recorded, Lhe
perlod shall be Lwo years lf Lhey should reslde ln
Lhe hlllpplnes, and Lhree years lf abroad. lf Lhe
blrLh of Lhe chlld has been concealed from or was
unknown Lo Lhe husband or hls helrs, Lhe perlod
musL be counLed from Lhe dlscovery or knowledge
of Lhe blrLh of Lhe chlld or of Lhe facL of reglsLraLlon
of sald blrLh, whlchever ls earller.

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
When can the patern|ty of the husband be
re[ected?
1he law esLabllshes Lhe leglLlmacy of chlldren
concelved or born durlng Lhe marrlage of Lhe
parenLs. 1he presumpLlon of leglLlmacy flxes a
sLaLus for Lhe chlld born ln wedlock, and only Lhe
faLher, or ln excepLlonal cases, Lhe laLLer's helrs,
can conLesL ln an approprlaLe acLlon Lhe leglLlmacy
of a chlld born Lo hls wlfe. 1hus lL ls only when Lhe
leglLlmacy of a chlld has been successfully
lmpugned LhaL Lhe paLernlLy of Lhe husband can be
re[ecLed.
What ru|es govern when the marr|age |s
term|nated and the mother marr|es w|th|n 3oo
days after the former marr|age |s term|nated?
lf Lhe marrlage ls LermlnaLed and Lhe moLher
conLracLed anoLher marrlage wlLhln Lhree hundred
days afLer such LermlnaLlon of Lhe former
marrlage, Lhese rules govern ln Lhe absence of
proof Lo Lhe conLrary:
[1] A chlld born before one hundred elghLy days
afLer Lhe solemnlzaLlon of Lhe subsequenL
marrlage ls consldered Lo have been concelved
durlng Lhe former marrlage, provlded lL be born
wlLhln Lhree hundred days afLer Lhe LermlnaLlon of
Lhe former marrlage,
[2] A chlld born afLer one hundred elghLy days
followlng Lhe celebraLlon of Lhe subsequenL
marrlage ls consldered Lo have been concelved
durlng such marrlage, even Lhough lL be born
wlLhln Lhe Lhree hundred days afLer Lhe
LermlnaLlon of Lhe former marrlage.

Who has the burden of proof |n prov|ng or
d|sprov|ng the f|||at|on of a ch||d born after 300
days fo||ow|ng the term|nat|on of the former
marr|age?
1he leglLlmacy or llleglLlmacy of a chlld born afLer
Lhree hundred days followlng Lhe LermlnaLlon of
Lhe marrlage musL be proved by whoever alleges
such leglLlmacy or llleglLlmacy.
In what |nstances can the he|rs of a husband
|mpugn or quest|on the f|||at|on of an a||eged
ch||d?
1he helrs of Lhe husband may lmpugn Lhe flllaLlon
of Lhe chlld wlLhln Lhe perlod prescrlbed ln Lhe
precedlng arLlcle only ln Lhe followlng cases:
[1] lf Lhe husband should dle before Lhe explraLlon
of Lhe perlod flxed for brlnglng hls acLlon,
[2] lf he should dle afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL
wlLhouL havlng deslsLed Lherefrom, or
[3] lf Lhe chlld was born afLer Lhe deaLh of Lhe
husband.
now can the f|||at|on of |eg|t|mate ch||dren be
proved?
1he flllaLlon of leglLlmaLe chlldren ls esLabllshed by
any of Lhe followlng:
[1] 1he record of blrLh appearlng ln Lhe clvll
reglsLer or a flnal [udgmenL, or
[2] An admlsslon of leglLlmaLe flllaLlon ln a publlc
documenL or a prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL and
slgned by Lhe parenL concerned.
In the absence of the forego|ng ev|dence, the
|eg|t|mate f|||at|on must be proved by:
[1] 1he open and conLlnuous possesslon of Lhe
sLaLus of a leglLlmaLe chlld, or
[2] Any oLher means allowed by Lhe 8ules of CourL
and speclal laws.
W|th|n what per|ods shou|d the c|a|m for
|eg|t|macy be pursued?
1he acLlon Lo clalm leglLlmacy may be broughL by
Lhe chlld durlng hls or her llfeLlme and wlll be
LransmlLLed Lo Lhe helrs should Lhe chlld dle durlng
mlnorlLy or ln a sLaLe of lnsanlLy. ln Lhese cases, Lhe
helrs have a perlod of flve years wlLhln whlch Lo
lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon.

What are the r|ghts of |eg|t|mate ch||dren?
LeglLlmaLe chlldren have Lhe rlghL:
[1] 1o bear Lhe surnames of Lhe faLher and Lhe
moLher, ln conformlLy wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhe
Clvll Code on Surnames,
[2] 1o recelve supporL from Lhelr parenLs, Lhelr
ascendanLs, and ln proper cases, Lhelr broLhers and
slsLers, ln conformlLy wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhls
Code on SupporL, and
[3] 1o be enLlLled Lo Lhe leglLlme and oLher
successlonal rlghLs granLed Lo Lhem by Lhe Clvll
Code.

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
CASL: Concepc|on vs. CA
- A (husband) and 8 (wlfe) were marrled ln 1989. A
year laLer (1990), 8 gave blrLh Lo C. ln 1991, A flled
a peLlLlon Lo have Lhelr marrlage annulled on Lhe
ground of blgamy, alleglng LhaL 8's marrlage wlLh u
(8's prevlous husband) was never annulled. 1he
CourL ruled LhaL A and 8's marrlage was vold ab
lnlLlo because 8 and u's marrlage was sLlll
subslsLlng.

- Is C the |||eg|t|mate ch||d of A and 8, or the
|eg|t|mate ch||d of 8 and D?
- C ls Lhe leglLlmaLe chlld of 8 and u.
- Slnce Lhe marrlage of A and 8 was vold from Lhe
very beglnnlng, he never became her husband and
Lhus never acqulred any rlghL Lo lmpugn Lhe
leglLlmacy of her chlld. 1he mlnor cannoL be
deprlved of hls/her leglLlmaLe sLaLus on Lhe bare
declaraLlon of Lhe moLher and/or even much less,
Lhe supposed faLher.

Case: Macadangdang vs. CA
- A (husband) was marrled Lo 8 (wlfe). ln 1967, 8
allegedly had sex wlLh C. 8ecause of Lhls, A and 8
separaLed LhaL same year. 210 days (7 monLhs)
afLer, 8 gave blrLh Lo u. 8 flled for recognlLlon and
supporL of u by C. CourL ruled LhaL u ls an
llleglLlmaLe son of C.
- Is D conc|us|ve|y presumed the |eg|t|mate ch||d
of A and 8?
- ?LS.
- ArL. 233 of Lhe nCC provldes: Chlldren born afLer
180 days followlng Lhe celebraLlon of Lhe marrlage,
and before 300 days followlng lLs dlssoluLlon or Lhe
separaLlon of Lhe spouses shall be presumed Lo be
leglLlmaLe. AgalnsL Lhls presumpLlon no evldence
shall be admlLLed oLher Lhan LhaL of Lhe physlcal
lmposslblllLy of Lhe husband's havlng access Lo hls
wlfe wlLhln Lhe flrsL 120 days of 300 whlch
preceded Lhe blrLh of Lhe chlld. uurlng Lhe lnlLlal
120 days of Lhe 300 whlch preceded Lhe blrLh of
Lhe chlld, Lhere was no concreLe or subsLanLlal
proof LhaL was presenLed Lo esLabllsh physlcal
lmposslblllLy of access beLween A and 8.
Case: Anda| vs. Macara|g
- A (husband) and C (wlfe) were marrled. A was
sufferlng from Luberculosls. Pls broLher, 8, Lhen
llved wlLh Lhem Lo work hls house and farm. A
became so weak LhaL he could hardly move and geL
up from hls bed. SomeLlme laLer, A's wlfe C eloped
wlLh 8. A dled. LaLer on, C gave blrLh Lo a boy u.
Much laLer on, u, asslsLed by hls moLher C, flled a
complalnL for Lhe recovery of Lhe ownershlp and
possesslon of a parcel of land owned by A and C.
Sald land was donaLed by L by vlrLue of donaLlon
propLer nupLlas ln favour of C.
- Is D a |eg|t|mate ch||d of A?
- ?LS. u was born wlLhln 300 days followlng Lhe
dlssoluLlon of Lhe marrlage (when A dled). 1he facL
LhaL Lhe husband was serlously slck ls noL sufflclenL
Lo overcome Lhe presumpLlon of leglLlmacy. (Llke
Slr LsLo sald, Lhere are alLernaLlve love" poslLlons
for slck persons.) 1hls presumpLlon can only be
rebuLLed by proof LhaL lL was physlcally lmposslble
for Lhe husband Lo have had access Lo hls wlfe
durlng Lhe flrsL 120 days of Lhe 300 days nexL
precedlng Lhe blrLh of Lhe chlld. C's llllclL
lnLercourse wlLh a man oLher Lhan Lhe husband
durlng Lhe lnlLlal perlod does noL preclude
cohablLaLlon beLween husband and wlfe.
- 1herefore, u, belng a leglLlmaLe son of Lhe
deceased, becomes an owner of Lhe parcel of land.

Case: De Iesus vs. Lstate of D|zon
- C and u are Lhe leglLlmaLe chlldren of spouses A
and 8. Powever, Lhey were acknowledged as
llleglLlmaLe chlldren by L (Lhe person whose esLaLe
ls hereln dlscussed and Lhelr alleged llleglLlmaLe
faLher) ln a noLarlzed documenL. L dled.
- Are C and D |||eg|t|mate ch||dren of L for the
purpose of |nher|t|ng from h|m?
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
- no, Lhey are noL. 1he lssue wheLher C and u are
lndeed Lhe acknowledged llleglLlmaLe chlldren of L
cannoL be ad[udlcaLed wlLhouL an acLlon havlng
been flrsL lnsLlLuLed Lo lmpugn Lhelr leglLlmacy as
belng Lhe chlldren of A and C ln a valld marrlage.
Case: L|yao vs. L|yao
A, Lhe alleged llleglLlmaLe son of Lhe deceased 8,
flled a peLlLlon Lo be recognlzed and acknowledged
as a compulsory helr of 8 and Lo be enLlLled Lo all
successlonal rlghLs. A was ln conLlnuous possesslon
and en[oymenL of Lhe sLaLus as Lhe chlld of 8,
havlng been recognlzed and acknowledged as such
by Lhe decedenL 8 durlng hls llfeLlme.
A's moLher C also malnLalned LhaL she and Lhe
deceased 8 were legally marrled buL llved
separaLely for more Lhan 10 years and LhaL Lhey
cohablLed agaln unLll Lhe deaLh of 8. Cn Lhe oLher
hand, u, one of Lhe chlldren of 8 from anoLher
woman, sLaLed LhaL PL8 mom and 8 were legally
marrled and LhaL her parenLs were noL separaLely
legally or ln facL.
Can A |mpugn h|s own |eg|t|macy to be ab|e to
c|a|m from the estate of the deceased?
nC.
lmpugnlng Lhe leglLlmacy of Lhe chlld ls a sLrlcLly
personal rlghL of Lhe husband, or ln excepLlonal
cases, hls helrs, for Lhe reason LhaL he was Lhe one
dlrecLly confronLed wlLh Lhe scandal and rldlcule
whlch Lhe lnfldellLy of hls wlfe produced and he
should be Lhe one Lo declde wheLher Lo conceal
LhaL lnfldellLy or expose lL ln vlew of Lhe moral and
economlc lnLeresL lnvolved. Pence, lL was Lhen
seLLled LhaL Lhe leglLlmacy of Lhe chlld can only be
lmpugned ln a dlrecL acLlon broughL for LhaL
purpose, by Lhe proper parLles and wlLhln Lhe
perlod llmlLed by law.
lurLhermore, Lhe courL held LhaL Lhere was no
clear, compeLenL and poslLlve evldence presenLed
by A LhaL hls a||eged father 8 had admlLLed or
recognlzed hls paLernlLy.

CN 8Ik1n CLk1IIICA1LS AS kIMA IACIL
LVIDLNCL CI LLGI1IMAC:
A blrLh cerLlflcaLe ls a formldable plece of evldence
prescrlbed by boLh Lhe Clvll Code and ArLlcle 172 of
Lhe lamlly Code for purposes of recognlLlon and
flllaLlon. Powever, blrLh cerLlflcaLe offers only
prlma facle evldence of flllaLlon and may be
refuLed by conLrary evldence. lLs evldenLlary worLh
cannoL be susLalned where Lhere exlsLs sLrong,
compleLe and concluslve proof of lLs falslLy or
nulllLy.
CASL: er|a vs 8ar|ng
Iacts: Mlrasol 8arlng and 8andy erla (chlld) flled
before Lhe 81C a ComplalnL for supporL agalnsL
AnLonlo. Accordlng Lo 8arlng, she and AnLonlo had
a common law relaLlonshlp for 2 years, and LhaL
8andy was Lhe resulL of Lhelr affalr. 8andy was
made Lo LesLlfy ln CourL, he sald LhaL he has
been ln Lhe house of hls AunL LellLa (slsLer of
AnLonlo), and LhaL Lhe erla famlly LreaLed hlm as a
member of Lhelr famlly. AnLonlo denled 8arlng's
allegaLlons, saylng LhaL 8andy lsn'L hls and clalmed
LhaL he had sexual lnLercourse wlLh 8arlng only
once whlch happened ln Lhe monLh of SepLember
or CcLober of 1981. Pe also sald LhaL 8andy's blrLh
cerLlflcaLe has a loL of lnaccuracles.
ne|d:8espondenLs presenLed Lhe CerLlflcaLe of Llve
8lrLh of 8andy ldenLlfylng AnLonlo as Lhe faLher.
Powever, sald cerLlflcaLe has no probaLlve value Lo
esLabllsh 8andy's flllaLlon Lo AnLonlo slnce Lhe
laLLer had noL slgned Lhe same. lL ls seLLled
LhaL [a]cerLlflcaLe of llve blrLh purporLedly
ldenLlfylng Lhe puLaLlve faLher ls noL compeLenL
evldence of paLernlLy when Lhere ls no showlng
LhaL Lhe puLaLlve faLher had a hand ln Lhe
preparaLlon of sald cerLlflcaLe." We also cannoL
lend credence Lo 8arlng's clalm LhaL AnLonlo
supplled cerLaln lnformaLlon Lhrough Lrllnda (Lhe
hlloL who asslsLed ln 8arlng's dellvery of 8andy).
Aslde from AnLonlo's denlal ln havlng any
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe documenL as
well as Lhe absence of hls slgnaLure Lhereon,
respondenLs dld noL presenL Lrllnda Lo conflrm
LhaL AnLonlo lndeed supplled cerLaln enLrles ln
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
8andy's blrLh cerLlflcaLe. 8esldes, Lhe several
unexplalned dlscrepancles ln AnLonlo's
personal clrcumsLances as reflecLed ln Lhe sub[ecL
blrLh cerLlflcaLe are manlfesLaLlons of AnLonlo's
non-parLlclpaLlon ln lLs preparaLlon. MosL
lmporLanL, lL was 8arlng who slgned as lnformanL
Lhereon whlch she conflrmed on Lhe wlLness sLand.
ILLLGI1IMA1L CnILDkLN
NC1L: Art|c|es 17S and 176 of the Iam||y Code
prov|de for the ways by wh|ch |||eg|t|mate
ch||dren can estab||sh the|r f|||at|on, and the|r
r|ghts as to the|r surname and |nher|tance.

Who are |||eg|t|mate ch||dren?
Chlldren concelved and born ouLslde a valld
marrlage are llleglLlmaLe, unless oLherwlse
provlded ln Lhe lamlly Code.

now can |||eg|t|mate ch||dren estab||sh the|r
f|||at|on?
llleglLlmaLe chlldren may esLabllsh Lhelr flllaLlon (or
relaLlonshlp wlLh Lhelr blologlcal parenL) ln Lhe
same way and on Lhe same evldence as leglLlmaLe
chlldren.

1he f|||at|on of |||eg|t|mate ch||dren |s estab||shed
by:
1. Lhe record of blrLh appearlng ln Lhe clvll
reglsLer or a flnal [udgmenL
2. or an admlsslon of leglLlmaLe flllaLlon ln a
publlc documenL or a prlvaLe handwrlLLen
lnsLrumenL and slgned by Lhe parenL
concerned

In the absence thereof, f|||at|on sha|| be proved
by:
1. Lhe open and conLlnuous possesslon of Lhe
sLaLus of a leglLlmaLe chlld
CASL: Mendoza vs CA
1he possesslon of such sLaLus means LhaL Lhe
faLher has LreaLed Lhe chlld as hls own, dlrecLly
and noL Lhrough oLhers, sponLaneously and
wlLhouL concealmenL Lhough wlLhouL publlclLy x x
x. 1here musL be a showlng of Lhe permanenL
lnLenLlon of Lhe supposed faLher Lo conslder Lhe
chlld as hls own, by conLlnuous and clear
manlfesLaLlon of paLernal affecLlon and care.
2. or any oLher means allowed by Lhe 8ules of
CourL and speclal laws.
No further act|on |s requ|red when proof of a
consummated act of acknow|edgment of an
I||eg|t|mate ch||d |s present, such as:
1. ln a record of blrLh
2. a wlll
3. a sLaLemenL before a courL of record
4. ln any auLhenLlc wrlLlng
-1reaLed noL [usL as a ground for compulsory
recognlLlon buL also a volunLary recognlLlon LhaL
does noL requlre a separaLe acLlon for [udlclal
approval.
CASL: Verce|es vs osada
Iacts: verceles, Mayor of andan, ordered osada
Lo go Lo vlrac Lo follow up funds for barangay
pro[ecLs and sLayed ln CaLanduanes PoLel.
verceles asked her Lo brlef hlm on Lhe sLaLus of her
Lask. osada followed verceles upsLalrs under Lhe
assumpLlon LhaL Lhe brleflng wlll be done ln Lhe
resLauranL of Lhe hoLel. Powever, he led her Lo a
room and suddenly embraced her and Lold her LhaL
he was unhappy w/hls wlfe and LhaL he would
dlvorce" her anyLlme and promlsed her LhaL he
would glve her Lhe poslLlon of munlclpal
developmenL coordlnaLor. osada succumbed and
became pregnanL. She Lold verceles of her
condlLlon ln a leLLer of whlch he responded ln Lhe
same manner, ln hls handwrlLlng, LhaL he would
have no regreLs lf she became pregnanL
unexpecLedly and LhaL Lhey would boLh Lake care
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
of Lhe chlld. Allases were used ln verceles reply
referrlng Lo hlmself as nlnoy" and Lo osada as
Chrls."
ne|d: 1he due recognlLlon of an llleglLlmaLe chlld ln
a record of blrLh, a wlll, a sLaLemenL before a courL
record, or ln any auLhenLlc wrlLlng, ls, ln lLself, a
consummaLed acL of acknowledgmenL of a chlld,
and no furLher acLlon ls requlred. ln facL, any
auLhenLlc wrlLlng ls LreaLed noL [usL a ground for
compulsory recognlLlon, lL ls, ln lLself a volunLary
recognlLlon LhaL does noL requlre a separaLe acLlon
for [udlclal approval. 1he leLLers are prlvaLe
handwrlLLen lnsLrumenLs of verceles whlch
esLabllsh verna Alza's (name of Lhe chlld of
verceles and osada) flllaLlon under ArL. 172 (2) of
Lhe lamlly Code. ln addlLlon, Lhe array of evldence
presenLed by respondenLs, Lhe daLes, leLLers,
plcLures, and LesLlmonles, are convlnclng and
lrrefuLable evldence LhaL she ls verceles'
llleglLlmaLe chlld. verceles noL only falled Lo rebuL
Lhe evldence presenLed, he hlmself presenLed no
evldence of hls own.
What |s a c|a|m for recogn|t|on?
A clalm for recognlLlon ls predlcaLed on oLher
evldence merely Lendlng Lo prove paLernlLy, l.e.,
ouLslde of a record of blrLh, a wlll, a sLaLemenL
before a courL of record or an auLhenLlc wrlLlng,
[udlclal acLlon wlLhln Lhe appllcable sLaLuLe of
llmlLaLlons ls essenLlal ln order Lo esLabllsh Lhe
chlld's acknowledgmenL.

What |s the d|fference between vo|untary
recogn|t|on and compu|sory recogn|t|on of an
|||eg|t|mate ch||d?
Vo|untary recogn|t|on musL be express such as
LhaL ln a record of blrLh appearlng ln Lhe clvll
reglsLer, a flnal [udgmenL, a publlc lnsLrumenL or
prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL slgned by Lhe
parenL concerned. 1he volunLary recognlLlon of
an llleglLlmaLe chlld by hls or her parenL needs
no furLher courL acLlon and ls, Lherefore, noL
sub[ecL Lo Lhe llmlLaLlon LhaL Lhe acLlon for
recognlLlon be broughL durlng Lhe llfeLlme of
Lhe puLaLlve parenL. Iud|c|a| or
compu|sory recogn|t|on, on Lhe oLher hand,
may be demanded by Lhe llleglLlmaLe chlld of
hls parenLs and musL be broughL durlng Lhe
llfeLlme of Lhe presumed parenLs.
Who shou|d f||e the act|on to c|a|m the status of
an |||eg|t|mate ch||d? When shou|d |t be f||ed?
8ased on ArLlcle 173, Lhe acLlon Lo clalm Lhe sLaLus
of an llleglLlmaLe chlld musL be flled:
by Lhe guardlan of a chlld who ls a mlnor, or
ls lncapaclLaLed or lnsane, durlng Lhe chlld's
llfeLlme,
by Lhe chlld, upon reachlng Lhe age of
ma[orlLy,
by Lhe chlld's helrs lf Lhe chlld dles durlng
mlnorlLy or lnsanlLy, wlLhln flve years from
Lhe deaLh.
! lf Lhe chlld dles afLer reachlng Lhe age of
ma[orlLy wlLhouL flllng Lhe acLlon, Lhe helrs
cannoL flle lL.
! lf Lhe ground for flllng Lhe acLlon ls open and
conLlnuous possesslon of Lhe sLaLus of a
llleglLlmaLe chlld, lL musL be flled durlng Lhe
llfeLlme of Lhe alleged parenL. (ArLlcle 173, 2nd
paragraph).

CASL: Nepomuceno vs Lopez
Iacts: Lopez, Lhrough her moLher ,flled a
complalnL for recognlLlon, supporL of flllaLlon, and
flnanclal supporL, agalnsL nepomuceno submlLLlng
as evldence a handwrlLLen noLe allegedly wrlLLen
and slgned by nepomuceno .
Issue: Whether or not the f|||at|on of Lopez as
|||eg|t|mate daughter of Nepomuceno |s
estab||shed by handwr|tten note subm|tted as
documentary ev|dence.
ne|d: Lopez relles malnly on Lhe handwrlLLen noLe
execuLed by peLlLloner. 1he noLe does noL
conLaln any sLaLemenL whaLsoever abouL
Lopez's flllaLlon Lo nepomuceno. lL ls
Lherefore noL a compeLenL evldence of
llleglLlmaLe flllaLlon. lL ls noL Lherefore
wlLhln Lhe amblL of ArL. 172 (2) vls-a-vls ArL.
173 of Lhe lamlly Code sLaLes LhaL an
admlsslon of flllaLlon ln a prlvaLe
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL slgned by Lhe
parenL concerned. All LhaL Lopez has ls
peLlLloner's handwrlLLen underLaklng Lo
provlde flnanclal supporL Lo her whlch falls
Lo esLabllsh her clalm of flllaLlon. 1he CourL
ls mlndful LhaL Lhe besL lnLeresLs of Lhe
chlld ln cases lnvolvlng paLernlLy and
flllaLlon should be advanced. lL ls, however,
[usL as mlndful of Lhe dlsLurbance LhaL
unfounded paLernlLy sulLs cause Lo Lhe
prlvacy and peace of Lhe puLaLlve faLher's
leglLlmaLe famlly.

What surname shou|d |||eg|t|mate ch||dren use?
llleglLlmaLe chlldren should use Lhe surname and
be under Lhe parenLal auLhorlLy of Lhelr moLher.
1hey are enLlLled Lo supporL ln conformlLy wlLh Lhe
lamlly Code. (ArLlcle 176, lamlly Code)

8epubllc AcL 9233, approved on lebruary 24, 2004,
amended ArLlcle 176. under 8A 9233, llleglLlmaLe
chlldren may:
" use surname of Lhelr faLher lf Lhelr flllaLlon has
been expressly recognlzed by Lhe faLher
Lhrough Lhe record of blrLh appearlng ln Lhe
clvll reglsLer,
" or when an admlsslon ln a publlc documenL or
prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL ls made by Lhe
faLher.
1he faLher, however, has Lhe rlghL Lo flle an acLlon
before Lhe regular courLs Lo prove non-flllaLlon.
What surname shou|d |||eg|t|mate ch||dren use |f
the father does not recogn|ze the ch||d?
CASL: Wang vs Cebu C|ty C|v|| keg|strar
Cur laws on Lhe use of surnames sLaLe LhaL
leglLlmaLe and leglLlmaLed chlldren shall prlnclpally
use Lhe surname of Lhe faLher. 1he lamlly Code
glves leglLlmaLe chlldren Lhe rlghL Lo bear Lhe
surnames of Lhe faLher and Lhe moLher, whlle
llleglLlmaLe chlldren shall use Lhe surname of Lhelr
moLher, unless Lhelr faLher recognlzes Lhelr
flllaLlon, ln whlch case Lhey may bear Lhe
faLher's surname. An |||eg|t|mate ch||d whose
f|||at|on |s not recogn|zed by the father bears on|y
a g|ven name and h|s mother' surname, and does
not have a m|dd|e name. 1he name of Lhe
unrecognlzed llleglLlmaLe chlld Lherefore ldenLlfles
hlm as such. lL ls only when Lhe llleglLlmaLe chlld ls
leglLlmaLed by Lhe subsequenL marrlage of hls
parenLs or acknowledged by Lhe faLher ln a publlc
documenL or prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL LhaL
he bears boLh hls moLher's surname as hls mlddle
name and hls faLher's surname as hls surname,
reflecLlng hls sLaLus as a leglLlmaLed chlld or an
acknowledged chlld.
CASL: De|a Cruz vs Grac|a
Iacts: !enle and ChrlsLlan llved LogeLher as
husband and wlfe w/o Lhe beneflL of a marrlage,
and llved under Lhe house of ChrlsLlan's parenLs.
Cn nov. ChrlsLlan dled, buL !enle conLlnued Lo llve
w/hls parenLs and evenLually gave blrLh Lo Lhelr
chlld also named ChrlsLlan, who ls a co-peLlLloner
ln Lhe case. !enle applled for reglsLraLlon of Lhe
Chlld's blrLh uslng Lhe faLher's surname, Lo whlch
she aLLached an AuSl whlch she execuLed and
slgned and aLLached her laLe husband's
auLoblography whlch sLaLed hls recognlLlon of her
and Lhelr unborn chlld, and affldavlL of
acknowledgmenL execuLed by ChrlsLlan's faLher,
uomlngo Aqulno. 8oLh affldavlLs were proof LhaL
Lhe laLe ChrlsLlan conLlnuously acknowledged hls
unborn son and LhaL hls paLernlLy was never a
quesLlon. Powever, AnLlpolo clvll reglsLrar, Cracla
denled !enle's peLlLlon sLaLlng LhaL Lhe chlld was
born ouL of wedlock and LhaL Lhe faLher dled prlor
Lo hls blrLh and no longer has Lhe capaclLy Lo
acknowledge hls paLernlLy Lo Lhe chlld.
ne|d: under ArL. 278 of Lhe new Clvll Code,
volunLary recognlLlon by a parenL shall be made ln
Lhe record of blrLh, a wlll, a sLaLemenL before a
courL of record, or ln any auLhenLlc wrlLlng. 1o be
effecLlve, Lhe clalm of flllaLlon musL be made by
Lhe puLaLlve faLher hlmself and Lhe wrlLlng musL be
Lhe wrlLlng of Lhe puLaLlve faLher.xxx. 1here ls no
dlspuLe LhaL Lhe quoLed sLaLemenLs ln Lhe laLe
ChrlsLlan's auLoblography have been made and
wrlLLen by hlm. 1aken LogeLher wlLh relevanL facLs
of Lhelr llvlng LogeLher as husband and wlfe under
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Lhe laLe ChrlsLlan's parenLs and !enle's pregnancy
prlor Lo ChrlsLlan's deaLh-sufflclenLly esLabllsh LhaL
Lhe chlld of !enle ls hls as well. ln vlew of Lhe
pronouncemenLs Lhereln, Lhe CourL sees lL flL Lo
adopL Lhe followlng rules respecLlng Lhe
requlremenL of afflxlng Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe
acknowledglng parenL ln any prlvaLe handwrlLLen
lnsLrumenL whereln an admlsslon of flllaLlon of a
leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe chlld ls made:
1) Where Lhe prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL ls
Lhe lone plece of evldence submlLLed Lo prove
flllaLlon, Lhere should be sLrlcL compllance wlLh Lhe
requlremenL LhaL Lhe same musL be slgned by Lhe
acknowledglng parenL, and
2) Where Lhe prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL
ls accompanled by oLher relevanL and compeLenL
evldence, lL sufflces LhaL Lhe clalm of flllaLlon
Lhereln be shown Lo have been made and
handwrlLLen by Lhe acknowledglng parenL as lL ls
merely corroboraLlve of such oLher evldence.
Cur laws lnsLrucL LhaL Lhe welfare of Lhe chlld shall
be Lhe "paramounL conslderaLlon" ln resolvlng
quesLlons affecLlng hlm. ArLlcle 3(1) of Lhe unlLed
naLlons ConvenLlon on Lhe 8lghLs of a Chlld of
whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls a slgnaLory ls slmllarly
emphaLlc:
ArLlcle 3
1. ln all acLlons concernlng chlldren, wheLher
underLaken by publlc or prlvaLe soclal welfare
lnsLlLuLlons, courLs of law, admlnlsLraLlve
auLhorlLles or leglslaLlve bodles, Lhe besL lnLeresLs
of Lhe chlld shall be a prlmary conslderaLlon.lL ls
Lhus "(L)he pollcy of Lhe lamlly Code
Lo llberallze Lhe rule on Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon of
Lhe paLernlLy and flllaLlon of chlldren,especlally of
llleglLlmaLe chlldren x x x."
24
1oo, "(L)he SLaLe as
parens paLrlae affords speclal proLecLlon Lo
chlldren from abuse, explolLaLlon and oLher
condlLlons pre[udlclal Lo Lhelr developmenL."
23

ln Lhe eyes of socleLy, a chlld wlLh an unknown
faLher bears Lhe sLlgma of dlshonor. lL ls Lo
peLlLloner mlnor chlld's besL lnLeresLs Lo allow hlm
Lo bear Lhe surname of Lhe now deceased
uomlnlque and enLer lL ln hls blrLh cerLlflcaLe.
WnLkLICkL, Lhe peLlLlon ls GkAN1LD. 1he ClLy
Clvll 8eglsLrar of AnLlpolo ClLy ls ul8LC1Lu Lo
lmmedlaLely enter Lhe surname of Lhe laLe
ChrlsLlan uomlnlque SLo. 1omas Aqulno as Lhe
surname of peLlLloner mlnor ChrlsLlan dela Cruz ln
hls CerLlflcaLe of Llve 8lrLh and record Lhe same ln
Lhe 8eglsLer of 8lrLhs.
Is |t poss|b|e for a |eg|t|mate ch||d to change h|s
status to that of be|ng an |||eg|t|mate ch||d, by
de|et|ng h|s father's surname?
CASL: kepub||c vs Coseteng-Magpayo
Iacts: !ullan Ldward Lmereson CoseLeng-Magpayo
clalmed LhaL hls parenLs were never marrled and
flled a peLlLlon ln Cuezon ClLy Lo change hls name
Lo !ullan CoseLeng, uslng hls moLher's malden
name. Pe submlLLed proof LhaL hls moLher has no
record of a marrlage ln Lhe nSC, and LhaL he has
been uslng [usL CoseLeng slnce chlldhood as shown
ln hls academlc records. !ullan submlLLed hls
peLlLlon Lhrough 8ule 103 of Lhe 8ules of CourL
whlch enumeraLed Lhe followlng grounds whlch a
person can effecL change of name:
a. when Lhe name ls rldlculous, dlshonorable or
exLremely dlfflculL Lo wrlLe or pronounce
b. when Lhe change resulLs as a legal
consequence such as leglLlmaLlon
c. when Lhe change wlll avold confuslon
d. when one has conLlnuously used and been
known slnce chlldhood by a llllplno name,and
was unaware of allen parenLage
e. a slncere deslre Lo adopL a llllplno name Lo
erase slgns of former allenage, all ln good falLh
and wlLhouL pre[udlclng anybody
f. when Lhe surname causes embarrassmenL and
Lhere ls no showlng LhaL Lhe deslred change of
name was for a fraudulenL purpose or LhaL Lhe
change of name would pre[udlce publlc
lnLeresL.
nLLD: 1he change belng soughL ln respondenL's
peLlLlon goes so far as Lo affecL hls leqol stotos lo
telotloo to bls poteots. lL seeks Lo change hls
leglLlmacy Lo LhaL of llleglLlmacy. 8ule 103 Lhen
would noL sufflce Lo granL respondenL's deslred
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
change affecLs hls clvll sLaLus from leglLlmaLe Lo
llleglLlmaLe,8ule 108 applles. ln llnL, when a
peLlLlon for cancellaLlon or correcLlon of an enLry ln
Lhe clvll reglsLer lnvolves subsLanLlal and
conLroverslal alLeraLlons lncludlng Lhose on
clLlzenshlp, leglLlmacy of paLernlLy or flllaLlon, or
leglLlmacy of marrlage, a sLrlcL compllance wlLh Lhe
requlremenLs of 8ule 108 of Lhe 8ules of CourL ls
mandaLed. 1herefore Lhe followlng should be
complled wlLh:
-peLlLlon should be flled wlLh Lhe 81C of Lhe
provlnce where Lhe correspondlng clvll reglsLry ls
loaLed.
-Lhe clvll reglsLrar ooJ all persons who have or
clalm any lnLeresL whlch would be affecLed
Lhereby sboll be made parLles Lo Lhe proceedlng.
-upon Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon, Lhe courL shall,
by an order, flx Lhe Llme and place for Lhe hearlng
of Lhe same, and cause reasonable noLlce Lhereof
Lo be glven Lo Lhe persons named ln Lhe peLlLlon,
Lo be publlshed once a week for 3 consecuLlve
weeks ln a newspaper of general clrculaLlon ln Lhe
provlnce.

IMCk1AN1 CIN1S CN 1nL USL CI 1nL
SUkNAML:

1. ArLlcle 176 of Lhe lamlly Code sLaLes:
llleglLlmaLe chlldren shall use Lhe surname
and shall be under Lhe parenLal auLhorlLy of
Lhelr moLher, and shall be enLlLled Lo supporL
ln conformlLy wlLh Lhls Code. Powever,
llleglLlmaLe chlldren may use Lhe surname of
Lhelr faLher lf Lhelr flllaLlon has been
expressly recognlzed by Lhe faLher Lhrough
Lhe record of blrLh appearlng ln Lhe clvll
reglsLer, or when an admlsslon ln a publlc
documenL or prlvaLe handwrlLLen lnsLrumenL
ls made by Lhe faLher. rovlded, Lhe faLher
has Lhe rlghL Lo lnsLlLuLe an acLlon before Lhe
regular courLs Lo prove non-flllaLlon durlng
hls llfeLlme. 1he leglLlme of each
llleglLlmaLe chlld shall conslsL of one-half of
Lhe leglLlme of a leglLlmaLe chlld."
2. lf Lhe faLher does noL recognlze Lhe chlld, Lhe
enLry for mlddle name ln Lhe blrLh cerLlflcaLe
musL be lefL blank.
3. 1he chlld ls sLlll llleglLlmaLe even lf Lhe
blologlcal faLher's surname ls used under 8A
9233. 1he moLher sLlll has excluslve parenLal
auLhorlLy over Lhe chlld.
4. kA 92SS's Ikk makes the use of the father's
surname automat|c and mandatory. 1he
llleglLlmaLe chlld shall use Lhe surname of Lhe
faLher lf a publlc documenL ls execuLed by Lhe
faLher, elLher aL Lhe back of Lhe CerLlflcaLe of
Llve 8lrLh or ln a separaLe documenL. Under the
Ikk, |f the father s|gns the b|rth cert|f|cate,
then AU1CMA1ICALL the ch||d w||| carry h|s
surname. ku|e 8.2 a|so prov|des that "for b|rths
prev|ous|y reg|stered under the surname of the
mother," the fo||ow|ng ru|e sha|| be fo||owed:
ku|e 8.2.1 lf admlsslon of paLernlLy was made
elLher aL Lhe back of Lhe CerLlflcaLe of Llve 8lrLh
or ln a separaLe publlc documenL or ln a prlvaLe
handwrlLLen documenL, Lhe publlc documenL or
AuSl (AffldavlL 1o use Surname of Lhe laLher)
shall be recorded ln Lhe 8eglsLer of Legal
lnsLrumenLs. roper annoLaLlon shall be made
ln Lhe CerLlflcaLe of Llve 8lrLh and Lhe 8eglsLer
of 8lrLhs as follows: "1he surname of Lhe chlld ls
hereby changed from (orlglnal surname) Lo
(new surname) pursuanL Lo 8A 9233." 1he
orlglnal surname of Lhe chlld appearlng ln Lhe
CerLlflcaLe of Llve 8lrLh and 8eglsLer of 8lrLhs
shall noL be changed or deleLed.
now much |s the |eg|t|me of an |||eg|t|mate ch||d?
1he leglLlme of each llleglLlmaLe chlld ls one-half of
Lhe leglLlme of a leglLlmaLe chlld.
Are |||eg|t|mate ch||dren ent|t|ed to f|nanc|a|
support?
[1] lf Lhe llleglLlmaLe chlldren have noL been
recognlzed by Lhelr blologlcal faLher, Lhey can flle a
peLlLlon for compulsory recognlLlon and flnanclal
supporL. 1hey can ask Lhe courL Lo compel Lhe
faLher Lo undergo unA LesLlng.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
[2] lf Lhe faLher has recognlzed Lhe llleglLlmaLe
chlldren by slgnlng Lhe blrLh cerLlflcaLe or Lhrough
a wrlLLen documenL, Lhey can flle a peLlLlon for
roLecLlon Crder for supporL under SecLlon 8,
paragraph (g) of 8A 9262. lf Lhe faLher clalms LhaL
hls slgnaLure or Lhe documenL was forged, Lhey can
ask Lhe courL Lo compel hlm Lo undergo unA
LesLlng.

NC1L: 1hrough a rotect|on Crder, the court w|||
order the father and h|s emp|oyer to set as|de a
certa|n percentage of h|s sa|ary to be rem|tted
d|rect|y to the ch||dren on a month|y bas|s. lf Lhe
faLher or hls employer, or boLh fall Lo do so, Lhey
can be charged wlLh conLempL of courL.

NC1L: 1he lamlly Code does noL provlde a speclflc
percenLage of Lhe monLhly salary for Lhe supporL. lL
only provldes LhaL amounL of supporL ls balanced
beLween Lhe necesslLles of Lhe person asklng for
supporL and Lhe flnanclal capablllLy of Lhe person
from whom supporL ls belng asked. SupporL can be
reduced or lncreased proporLlonaLely, accordlng Lo
Lhe reducLlon or lncrease of Lhe necesslLles of Lhe
reclplenL and Lhe resources or means of Lhe person
obllged Lo furnlsh Lhe same.

LLGI1IMA1ICN
NC1L: Art|c|es 177 up to 182 of the Iam||y Code
are the ru|es |n the |eg|t|mat|on of ch||dren born
outs|de of wed|ock but whose b|o|og|ca| parents
eventua||y enter |nto a va||d marr|age.

Who can be |eg|t|mated?
Cnly chlldren concelved and born ouLslde of
wedlock of parenLs who, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
concepLlon of Lhe former, were noL dlsquallfled by
any lmpedlmenL Lo marry each oLher may be
leglLlmaLed.
now does |eg|t|mat|on take p|ace?
LeglLlmaLlon Lakes place by a subsequenL valld
marrlage beLween parenLs. 1he annulmenL of a
voldable marrlage does noL affecL Lhe leglLlmaLlon.
What are the effects of |eg|t|mat|on?
[1] LeglLlmaLed chlldren en[oy Lhe same rlghLs as
leglLlmaLe chlldren.
[2] 1he effecLs of leglLlmaLlon reLroacL Lo Lhe Llme
of Lhe chlld's blrLh.
[3] 1he leglLlmaLlon of chlldren who dled before
Lhe celebraLlon of Lhe marrlage beneflL Lhelr
descendanLs.
Who can |mpugn or quest|on a ch||d's
|eg|t|mat|on?
LeglLlmaLlon may be quesLloned only by Lhose who
are pre[udlced ln Lhelr rlghLs, wlLhln flve (3) years
from Lhe Llme Lhelr cause of acLlon accrues.
Lega| |mped|ments or obstac|es to |eg|t|mat|on
As lL now sLands, ArLlcle 177 sLaLes: Cnly chlldren
concelved and born ouLslde of wedlock of parenLs
who, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe concepLlon of Lhe former,
were noL dlsquallfled by any lmpedlmenL Lo marry
each oLher may be leglLlmaLed." 1hls means LhaL lf
aL Lhe Llme of Lhe chlld's concepLlon, Lhere ls a
legal lmpedlmenL Lo Lhe marrlage of Lhe blologlcal
parenLs, Lhe chlld cannoL be leglLlmaLed under
ArLlcle 177.
lor example, lf any of Lhe blologlcal parenLs was
valldly marrled Lo anoLher person aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe concepLlon of Lhe chlld ln quesLlon, Lhe chlld
cannoL be leglLlmaLed.
ADC1ICN
- ls a [urldlcal acL, whlch creaLes beLween Lwo
persons a relaLlonshlp slmllar Lo LhaL whlch
resulLs from leglLlmaLe paLernlLy and flllaLlon
nC1L- LllLC1 Cl AuC1lCn:
- 1he effecL of adopLlon reLroacLs Lo Lhe Llme
of Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon. Cn Lhe oLher
hand, adopLlon severs all relaLlonshlp
beLween Lhe adopLed chlld and hls/her
naLural or blologlcal parenLs. lor purposes
of llablllLy, whaL ls maLerlal ls: AL Lhe Llme
Lhe llablllLy ls lncurred by Lhe chlld, Lhe one
who has acLual cusLody and has parenLal
auLhorlLy over Lhe chlld ls Lhe one
responslble.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
- 1he effecL of adopLlon ls llmlLed only
beLween Lhe adopLer and Lhe adopLed
chlld. lL does noL go beyond Lhelr
relaLlonshlp, so LhaL whlle Lhe adopLed ls
deemed Lo be a chlld of Lhe adopLer, Lhe
adopLed cannoL be consldered as Lhe
grandchlld of Lhe adopLer's parenLs and vlce
versa.
CASL: SASCN V. CA
Whlle lL ls Lrue LhaL Lhe adopLed chlld shall be
deemed Lo be a leglLlmaLe chlld and have Lhe same
rlghL as Lhe laLLer, Lhese rlghLs do noL lnclude Lhe
rlghL of represenLaLlon. 1he relaLlonshlp creaLed by
Lhe adopLlon ls beLween only Lhe adopLlng parenLs
and Lhe adopLed chlld and does noL exLend Lo Lhe
blood relaLlves of elLher parLy.

CASL: CANG V. CA
ueprlvaLlon of parenLal auLhorlLy ls one of Lhe
effecLs of a decree of adopLlon ln Lhls case
preclsely because, as Lhls CourL has demonsLraLed
earller, Lhe flndlng of Lhe courLs below on Lhe lssue
of peLlLloner's abandonmenL of hls famlly was
based on mlsappreclaLlon LhaL was LanLamounL Lo
non-appreclaLlon of facLs on record.
-proof of abandonmenL musL be esLabllshed ln
order for Lhem Lo sLrlp-off parenLal auLhorlLy from
Lhe faLher.

CASL: CLkVAN1LS V. IAIAkDC
Adecree of adopLlon has Lhe effecL, among oLhers,
of dlssolvlng Lhe auLhorlLy vesLed ln naLural
parenLs over Lhe adopLed chlld, excepL where Lhe
adopLlng parenL ls Lhe spouse of Lhe naLural parenL
of Lhe adopLed, ln whlch case, parenLal auLhorlLy
over Lhe adopLed shall be exerclsed [olnLly by boLh
spouses.
noLe: chlld was 3 yrs. Cf age, and moLher was
[obless and ls malnLalnlng an llllclL relaLlon wlLh a
marrled man. Slnce peLlLloner were more capable
and was able Lo flle for a decree of adopLlon, Lhe
courL ruled ln Lhelr favour.
kA 8SS2 DCMLS1IC ADC1ICN LAW
WnC CAN ADC1?
IILIINC CI1I2LN
a. Cf legal age
b. WlLh full clvll capaclLy and legal rlghLs
c. Cf good moral characLer
d. Pas noL been convlcLed of any crlme
lnvolvlng moral LurplLude
e. LmoLlonally and psychologlcally
capable of carlng for chlldren
f. AL leasL 16 years old Lhan Lhe adopLee,
except when Lhe adopLer ls blologlcal
parenL of Lhe adopLee or ls Lhe spouse
of Lhe adopLee's parenL
g. ln a poslLlon Lo supporL and care for
hls/her chlldren ln keeplng wlLh Lhe
means of Lhe famlly
nC1L: Conv|ct|on of cr|me |nvo|v|ng mora|
turp|tude
- 1here musL be a flnal [udgmenL of
convlcLlon. A person convlcLed ln Lhe flrsL
lnsLance may afLer all be evenLually
acqulLLed.
nC1L: Adopter may be |ess than 16 years o|d than
Adopted:
- When Lhe adopLer ls Lhe parenL by ootote
of Lhe adopLed,
- When Lhe adopLer ls Lhe spouse of Lhe
leglLlmaLe parenL of Lhe person Lo be
adopLed
ALILN
Same for llllplnos provlded furLher LhaL:
a. AL leasL 27 years old
b. Pls/her counLry dlplomaLlc relaLlons
wlLh Lhe hlllpplnes
c. Pas been llvlng conLlnuously for 3
years (provlded LhaL absence noL
exceedlng 60 days per 1 year for
professlonal, buslness, or emergency
reasons are allowed) ln 8 prlor Lo Lhe
flllng of appllcaLlon and malnLalns such
resldence unLll Lhe decrees ls enLered
d. Pas been cerLlfled by hls/her
dlplomaLlc or consular offlce or any
approprlaLe governmenL agency LhaL
he/she has Lhe legal capaclLy Lo adopL
ln hls her counLry
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
e. Pls/her governmenL allows Lhe
adopLee Lo enLer hls/her counLry
f. Pas submlLLed all Lhe necessary
clearances of such cerLlflcaLlon as may
be requlred
nC1L: An a||en may not adopt except:
- A former llllplno clLlzen who seeks Lo adopL
a relaLlve by consangulnlLy
- Cne who seeks Lo adopL Lhe leglLlmaLe chlld
of hls or her llllplno spouse
- Cne who ls marrled Lo a llllplno ClLlzen and
seeks Lo adopL [olnLly wlLh hls or her spouse
a relaLlve by consangulnlLy of Lhe laLLer
A||ens not |nc|uded |n the forego|ng
except|ons may adopt I|||p|no ch||dren |n
accordance w|th the ru|es on |nter-country
adopt|on as may be prov|ded by |aw.
GUAkDIAN -wlLh respecL Lo Lhelr ward afLer
Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhe guardlanshlp and
clearance of hls or her accounLablllLles
nC1L: Guard|ans may adopt the|r wards on|y:
- AfLer approval of Lhelr flnal accounL
- 1he flnal accounLs musL have been
rendered upon Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhe
guardlanshlp relaLlon
nUS8AND AND WIIL SnALL ADC1 ICIN1L,
LkCL1:
- lf one spouse seeks Lo adopL Lhe leglLlmaLe
chlld of Lhe oLher
- lf one of Lhe spouse seeks Lo adopL hls/her
llleglLlmaLe chlld provlded LhaL oLher
spouse has slgnlfled hls/her consenL
- lf spouse are legally separaLed from each
oLher
\AMll. A husband ls marrled Lo a glrl who has
an llleqltlmote chlld. lf Lhe wlfe wanLs Lo adopL sald
chlld, musL her husband also adopL Lhe chlld? no,
because Lhe chlld ls llleqltlmote. Powever, lf Lhe
husband wanLs Lo do so, he may [oln ln Lhe
adopLlon.
CASL: IN kL LIM
eLlLloner, havlng remarrled aL Lhe Llme Lhe
peLlLlons for adopLlon were flled, MuS1 [olnLly
adopL. Slnce Lhe peLlLlons for adopLlon were flled
only by peLlLloner herself, wlLhouL [olnlng her
husband, Clarlo, Lhe Lrlal courL was correcL ln
denylng Lhe peLlLlons for adopLlon on Lhls ground.
(Sec. 7, adopLlon, lamlly Code)
nC1L:
- lf boLh spouses adopL, parenLal auLhorlLy
shall be exerclsed [olnLly. ln cases of
dlsagreemenL, Lhe faLher's declslon shall
prevall, unless, Lhere ls [udlclal order Lo Lhe
conLrary
- 1he parenL of Lhe chlld cannoL adopL
anymore hls own leglLlmaLe chlld, for Lhe
chlld ls already leglLlmaLe, and noLhlng ls
galned by adopLlng hls own leglLlmaLe chlld.
WnC CAN 8L ADC1LD?
a. Mlnor who has been admlnlsLraLlvely or
[udlclally declared avallable for adopLlon
b. LeglLlmaLe chlld of one spouse by anoLher
c. llleglLlmaLe chlld by a quallfled adopLer Lo
lmprove Lhe chlld's sLaLus Lo LhaL of
leglLlmacy
d. A person of legal age lf, prlor Lo Lhe
adopLlon, sald person has been conslsLenLly
consldered and LreaLed by adopLer(s) as
hls/her chlld slnce mlnorlLy.
e. A chlld whose prevlous adopLlon has been
resclnded
f. A chlld whose blologlcal or adopLlve
parenL(s) has dled, provlded LhaL no
proceedlngs shall be lnlLlaLed wlLhln 6
monLhs from Lhe Llme of deaLh of sald
parenL(s)
nC1L: ./0/"12234 on|y m|nors can be adopted.
LkLM1ICN A person of legal age can be adopLed,
provlded:
- 1he adopLed musL be a chlld by ootote of
Lhe adopLer or Lhe adopLer's spouse
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
- 1he chlld prlor Lo Lhe adopLlon had been
conslsLenLly consldered and LreaLed by Lhe
adopLer as hls or her own chlld durlng
mlnorlLy
SLC.9 WnCSL WkI11LN CCNSLN1 IS NLCLSSAk
ICk ADC1ICN
a. 1he prospecLlve adopLee lf 10 years or
older
b. 1he prospecLlve adopLee's blologlcal
parenLs, legal guardlan or Lhe
governmenL lnsLrumenLallLy or
lnsLlLuLlon LhaL had cusLody of Lhe chlld
c. 1he prospecLlve adopLer's leglLlmaLe
and adopLed chlldren who are 10 years
or older
d. 1he prospecLlve adopLer's llleglLlmaLe
chlldren, lf any, who are 10 years or
older and llvlng wlLh Lhem
e. 1he spouse, lf any, of Lhe person
adopLlng or Lo be adopLed
nC1L: A decree of adopLlon shall be effecLlve as of
Lhe daLe Lhe orlglnal peLlLlon was flled. lL also
applles ln case Lhe peLlLloner dles before Lhe
lssuance of Lhe decree of adopLlon Lo proLecL Lhe
lnLeresL of Lhe adopLee.
CASL: Duncan vs CII
Cne Lo whom a 3-day old chlld was glven by lLs
moLher who does noL wlsh Lo ldenLlfled may be
consldered as Lhe guardlan exerclslng pottlo
potesto sover such abandoned chlld and
compeLenL Lo glve consenL Lo Lhe adopLlon of Lhe
laLLer.
1he rule uura lexsedlex" should noL be glven
applled Lo acLs deslgned Lo prove homes, love and
care Lo unforLunaLe, abandoned chlldren, Lhe
wldesL laLlLude of sympaLhy ad asslsLance should
be exLended by courLs Lo such acLs.
kIGn1S CI AN ADC1LD CnILD
a. arenLal AuLhorlLy
b. LeglLlmacy
c. Successlon
ArL. 363, nCC. An adopLed chlld shall bear Lhe
surname of Lhe adopLer.
CASL: IN kL: AS1CkGA
1here ls no law prohlblLlng an llleglLlmaLe chlld
adopLed by her naLural faLher, llke SLephanle, Lo
use, as mlddle name her moLher's surname. WhaL
Lhe law does noL provlde, lL allows

ku|es on |ega| or |ntestate success|on to the
estate of the adoptee5
a. LeglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe chlldren,
descendanLs and Lhe survlvlng spouse of
Lhe adopLee shall lnherlL ln accordance wlLh
Lhe ordlnary rules of legal/lnLesLaLe
successlon
b. When Lhe survlvlng spouse C8 llleglLlmaLe
chlldrenAnu adopLers concur, Lhey shall
lnherlL on a 30-30basls
c. When Lhe survlvlng spouse Anu llleglLlmaLe
chlldren Anu adopLers concur, Lhey shall
lnherlL on a1/3-/1/3-1/3 basls
d. When only adopLers survlve, Lhey shall
lnherlL100 of Lhe esLaLe
e. When only collaLeral blood relaLlves
survlve, ordlnary rules of legal or lnLesLaLe
successlon shall apply
Lxamp|e of par a. An adopLed chlld dled lnLesLaLe
survlved by hls wlfe andby flve (3) leglLlmaLe
chlldren. lf Lhe esLaLe ls 12 mllllon, howshould lL
be dlsLrlbuLed?AN5wk. 1he wlfe shall have Lhe
same rlghL as each ofLhe 3 leglLlmaLe chlldren.
Pence, Lhe esLaLe wlll be dlvlded lnLo6 equal
shares wlLh each chlld lnherlLlng 2 mllllon. 1he
wlfeshall also lnherlL 2 mllllon.
Lxamp|e of par b. x and ? are Lhe parenLs by
naLure of Z, who ls evenLuallyadopLed by A. lf Z
dles wlLh an lnLesLaLe esLaLe of 18 mllllon, how
wlll Lhe esLaLe be dlvlded? AN5wk. Palf wlll go Lo
Lhe leglLlmaLe parenLs, so \ and wlll geL a LoLal of
9 mllllon (l.e., half of Lhe esLaLe). So \ and wlll
geL 4.3 mllllon each, A Lhe adopLer, wlll lnherlL 9
mllllon.



JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
kLSCISSICN CI ADC1ICN
AdopLee may requesL for resclsslon, wlLh Lhe
asslsLance of uSWu lf he/she ls a mlnor or over 18
buL lncapaclLaLed, based on Lhe ff. grounds:
a. 8epeaLed physlcal and verbal malLreaLmenL
by adopLers desplLe havlng undergone
counselllng
b. ALLempL on llfe of adopLee
c. Sexual assaulL or vlolence
d. AbandonmenL or fallure Lo comply wlLh
parenLal obllgaLlons

nC1L: AdopLlon, belng ln Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe
chlld, shall noL be sub[ecL Lo resclsslon by Lhe
adopLer(s). Powever, Lhe adopLer(s) may dlslnherlL
Lhe adopLed based on causes enumeraLed ln ArL.
919of Lhe nCC:
a. ConvlcLlon of an aLLempL on Lhe llfe of Lhe
adopLer
b. Pavlng accused, wlLhouL grounds, Lhe
adopLer of a crlme punlshable by
lmprlsonmenL for more Lhan 6 years
c. ConvlcLlon of adulLery/concublnage wlLh
Lhe adopLer's spouse
d. Pavlng caused Lhe adopLer Lo make or
change a wlll by force, lnLlmldaLlon or
undue lnfluence
e. 8efusal wlLhouL [usL cause Lo supporL Lhe
adopLer
f. MalLreaLmenL of Lhe adopLer by word/deed
g. Llvlng a dlshonorable/dlsgraceful llfe
h. ConvlcLlon of a crlme whlch carrles wlLh lL
Lhe penalLy of clvll lnLerdlcLlon
Lffects of kesc|ss|on [Sec. 20]
(1) arenLal auLhorlLy of Lhe adopLee's blologlcal
parenLs, lf known, C8 Lhe legal cusLody of Lhe
uSWu shall be resLored lf Lhe adopLee ls sLlll a
mlnor or lncapaclLaLed
(2) 8eclprocal rlghLs and obllgaLlons of Lhe
adopLers and Lhe adopLee shall be exLlngulshed
(3) CourL shall order Lhe Clvll 8eglsLrar Lo cancel
Lhe amended cerLlflcaLe of blrLh of Lhe adopLee
and resLore hls/her orlglnal blrLh cerLlflcaLe
(4) Successlon rlghLs shall reverL Lo lLs sLaLus prlor
Lo adopLlon, buL only as of Lhe daLe of [udgmenL of
[udlclal resclsslon
(3) vesLed rlghLs prlor Lo [udlclal resclsslon shall be
respecLed

nC1L. 8esclsslon conLemplaLes a slLuaLlon where
Lhe adopLlon decree remalns valld unLll lLs
LermlnaLlon

CASL: LAnCM VS. SI8ULC
1be octloo fot teclssloo of tbe oJoptloo Jectee,
bovloq beeo loltloteJ by petltlooet oftet k.A 8522
boJ come loto fotce, oo looqet, coolJ be potsoeJ.-
lL was 2 monLhs afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy of 8.A 8322
LhaL hereln peLlLloner flled an acLlon Lo revoke Lhe
decree of adopLlon granLed l 1973. 8y Lhen, Lhe
new law had already abrogaLed and repealed Lhe
rlghL of an adopLer under Lhe Clvll Code and Lhe
lamlly Code Lo resclnd a decree of adopLlon.
Ao oJoptet wblle botteJ ftom sevetloq tbe leqol
tles of oJoptloo, coo olwoys fot vollJ teosoo coose
tbe fotfeltote of cettolo beoeflts otbetwlse occtoloq
to oo ooJesetvloq cbllJ.- whlle 8.A 8322 has
unquallfledly wlLhdrawn from an adopLer a
consequenLlal rlghL Lo resclnd Lhe adopLlon decree
even ln cases where Lhe adopLlon mlghL clearly
Lurn ouL Lo be undeslrable., lL remalns, Lhe
bounded duLy of Lhe courL Lo apply Lhe law (uura
lex sed lex).
kLC1IIICA1ICN CI SIMULA1LD 8Ik1n
SlmulaLlon of blrLh ls Lhe Lamperlng of LC8 records
Lo make lL appear LhaL a cerLaln chlld was born Lo a
person who ls noL hls/her blologlcal parenL,
causlng sald chlld Lo lose hls Lrue ldenLlLy/sLaLus

SLC. 21-8 (kA 8SS2)
Any person who shall cause Lhe flcLlLlous
reglsLraLlon of Lhe blrLh of a chlld under Lhe
name(s) of a person(s) who ls noL hls/her blologlcal
parenL(s) shall be gullLy of slmulaLlon of blrLh, and
shall be punlshed by prlslon mayor ln lLs medlum
perlod and a flne noL exceedlng llfLy Lhousand
pesos (30,000.00).

SLC. 22 (kA 8SS2)
A person who has, prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLy of 8A
8332, slmulaLed Lhe blrLh of a chlld shall noL be
punlshed for such acL, 8CvluLu:
(a) 1he slmulaLlon was for Lhe chlld's besL lnLeresL
(b) Chlld has been LreaLed conslsLenLly as hls own
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(c) eLlLlon flled wlLhln 3 years of 8A 8332's
effecLlvlLy (2003)

kA 8043 - 1nL LAW CN IN1Lk-CCUN1k
ADC1ICN IN1Lk-CCUN1k ADC1ICN
-refers Lo Lhe soclo-legal process of adopLlng a
llllplno chlld by a forelgner or a llllplno clLlzen
permanenLly resldlng abroad where Lhe peLlLlon ls
flled, Lhe supervlsed Lrlal cusLody ls underLaken,
and Lhe decree of adopLlon ls lssued ouLslde Lhe
hlllpplnes

WnC CAN ADC1?
Any forelgn naLlonal or a llllplno clLlzen
permanenLly resldlng abroad who has Lhe
quallflcaLlons and none of Lhe dlsquallflcaLlons
under Lhe AcL may flle an appllcaLlon lf he/she:
a. ls aL leasL 27 years of age and aL leasL 16
years older Lhan Lhe chlld Lo be
adopLed, aL Lhe Llme of appllcaLlon
unless Lhe adopLer ls Lhe parenL by
naLure of Lhe chlld Lo be adopLed or Lhe
spouse of such parenL
lf marrled, hls/her spouse musL [olnLly
flle for Lhe adopLlon
b. Pas Lhe capaclLy Lo acL and assume all
rlghLs and responslblllLles of parenLal
auLhorlLy under hls naLlonal laws, and
has undergone Lhe approprlaLe
counsellng from an accredlLed
counselor ln hls/her counLry
c. Pas noL been convlcLed of a crlme
lnvolvlng moral LurplLude (e) ls ellglble
Lo adopL under hls/her naLlonal law (f)
ls ln a poslLlon Lo provlde Lhe proper
care and supporL and Lo glve Lhe
necessary moral values and example Lo
all hls chlldren, lncludlng Lhe chlld Lo be
adopLed
d. Agrees Lo uphold Lhe baslc rlghLs of Lhe
chlld as embodled under hlllpplne
laws, Lhe u.n. ConvenLlon on Lhe 8lghLs
of Lhe Chlld, and Lo ablde by Lhe rules
and regulaLlons lssued Lo lmplemenL Lhe
provlslons of Lhls AcL
e. Comes from a counLry wlLh whom Lhe
hlllpplnes has dlplomaLlc relaLlons and
whose governmenL malnLalns a
slmllarly auLhorlzed and accredlLed
agency and LhaL adopLlon ls allowed
under hls/her naLlonal laws

WnC CAN 8L ADC1LD
a. Cnly a legally-free chlld may be Lhe
sub[ecL of lnLer-counLry adopLlon.
b. A legally-free chlld ls one who has been
volunLarlly or lnvolunLarlly commlLLed
Lo Lhe uSWu of Lhe hlllpplnes, ln
accordance wlLh Lhe Chlld and ?ouLh
Welfare Code.
c. no chlld shall be maLched Lo a forelgn
adopLlve famlly unless lL ls saLlsfacLorlly
shown LhaL Lhe chlld cannoL be adopLed
locally.
d. ln order LhaL such chlld may be
consldered for placemenL, Lhe followlng
documenLs musL be submlLLed Lo Lhe
8oard:
- Chlld sLudy
- 8lrLh CerLlflcaLe / loundllng
CerLlflcaLe
- ueed of volunLary CommlLmenL/
uecree of AbandonmenL/
- ueaLh CerLlflcaLe of parenLs
- Medlcal LvaluaLlon / PlsLory
- sychologlcal LvaluaLlon, as
necessary
- 8ecenL phoLo of Lhe chlld

CASL: kLU8LIC VS. 1CLLDANC
ln cases where Lhe husband ls a naLural born
Amerlcan clLlzen (allen) and Lhe wlfe ls a llllplna
Lurned allen Lhrough naLurallzaLlon, adopLlon of a
chlld musL be read wlLh arLlcle 184 ln llne wlLh
arLlcle 183. AlLhough Lhe naLurallzed llllplna may
adopL accordlng Lo arLlcle 184(a) lL musL be read ln
llne wlLh arLlcle 183 LhaL a [olnL adopLlon musL be
flled by spouses.
Iolot oJoptloo by bosbooJ ooJ wlfe ls mooJototy.-
under Lhe lamlly Code, [olnL adopLlon by husband
and wlfe ls mandaLory. 1hls ls ln consonance wlLh
Lhe concepL of [olnL parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe
chlld whlch ls Lhe ldeal slLuaLlon. As Lhe chlld Lo be
adopLed ls elevaLed Lo Lhe level of leglLlmaLe chlld,
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
lL ls buL naLural Lo requlre Lhe spouses Lo adopL
[olnLly.
AJoptloo ls qeoteJ mote towotJs tbe ptomotloo of
tbe welfote of tbe cbllJ ooJ eoboocemeot of bls
oppottooltles fot o osefol ooJ boppy llfe.- lL ls noL
Lhe bureaucraLlc LechnlcallLles buL Lhe lnLeresL of
Lhe chlld LhaL should be Lhe prlnclpal crlLerlon ln
adopLlon cases.

SUCk1

WnA1 I1 CCMkISLS:
ConslsLs of everyLhlng lndlspensable for
susLenance, dwelllng, cloLhlng, medlcal
aLLendance, educaLlon and LransporLaLlon, ln
keeplng wlLh Lhe flnanclal capaclLy of Lhe famlly.
[Art. 194]
(a) LducaLlon lncludes a person's schoollng or
Lralnlng for some professlon, Lrade or vocaLlon.
(b) 1ransporLaLlon lncludes expenses ln golng Lo
and from school, or Lo and from place of work.
(c) 1he rlghL and duLy Lo supporL, especlally Lhe
rlghL Lo educaLlon, subslsLs even beyond Lhe age of
ma[orlLy.

WnC AkL C8LIGLD 1C SUCk1 LACn C1nLk:
(a) Spouses,
(b) LeglLlmaLe ascendanLs and descendanLs,
(c) arenLs and Lhelr chlldren (leglLlmaLe and
llleglLlmaLe) and Lhe chlldren of Lhe laLLer
(leglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe),
(d) LeglLlmaLe broLhers and slsLers, wheLher of full
or half-blood, [Art. 19S]
(e) llleglLlmaLe broLhers and slsLers, wheLher of full
or half-blood, LxCL1 when Lhe need for supporL
of one (of age) ls due Lo a cause lmpuLable Lo
hls/her faulL or negllgence. [Art. 196]
noLe: 8oLh leglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe chlldren are
enLlLled Lo supporL.

kCLk1ILS ANSWLkA8LL ICk SUCk1
lrom Lhe separaLe properLy of Lhe obllgor.
lf no separaLe properLy, Lhe AC/CC (lf flnanclally
capable) shall advance Lhe supporL, Lo be deducLed
from Lhe obllgor's share upon llquldaLlon of such
reglme. [Art. 197]
CkDLk CI SUCk1
lf Lhere are mulLlple obllgors (SDA8)
(1) Spouses
(2) uescendanLs, nearesL ln degree
(3) AscendanLs, nearesL ln degree
(4) 8roLhers and SlsLers [Art. 199]

When Lwo or more are obllged Lo glve supporL, Lhe
paymenL shall be dlvlded beLween Lhem ln
8CC81lCn Lo Lhelr resources, Also, ln case of
u8CLn1 nLLu and by speclal clrcumsLances, [udge
may order only one obllgor Lo furnlsh supporL
wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo relmbursemenL from oLher
obllgors of Lhe share due from Lhem (Art. 200).

lf Lhere are mulLlple reclplenLs and only one
obllgor, and Lhe laLLer has no sufflclenL means Lo
saLlsfy all clalms:
(1) Cbserve order ln ArLlcle 199 (SuA8) as Lo whose
clalm shall be saLlsfled flrsL,
(2) 8uL lf Lhe concurrenL obllgees are Lhe spouse
and a chlld sub[ecL Lo parenLal auLhorlLy, Lhe chlld
shall be preferred. [ArL. 200]

S1kANGLk GIVLS SUCk1
When, Wl1PCu1 1PL knCWLLuCL of Lhe person
obllged Lo glve supporL, lL ls glven by a sLranger,
Lhe sLranger has Lhe rlghL Lo clalm Lhe same from
Lhe person obllged, unless lL appears LhaL he gave
lL wlLhouL lnLenLlon of belng relmbursed. [Art. 206]

LkSCN C8LIGLD kLIUSLS Ck IAILS 1C GIVL
SUCk1
When Lhe person obllged Lo glve supporL
un!uS1L? 8LluSLS C8 lAlLS Lo glve supporL when
urgenLly needed, any Lhlrd person may furnlsh
supporL Lo Lhe needy lndlvldual, wlLh rlghL of
relmbursemenL from Lhe person obllged Lo glve
supporL. 1hls parLlcularly applles when Lhe faLher
or moLher of a mlnor chlld un[usLly refuses Lo
supporL or falls Lo glve supporL Lo Lhe chlld when
urgenLly needed. [Art. 207]

CCN1kAC1UAL SUCk1 Ck 1nA1 GIVLN 8 WILL
1he excess ln amounL beyond LhaL requlred for
legal supporL shall be sub[ecL Lo levy on
aLLachmenL or execuLlon. [Art. 208]
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
8eason: 1he amounL of supporL agreed upon ln
Lhe conLracL or glven ln Lhe wlll can be more Lhan
whaL Lhe reclplenL needs (Semplo-uly).
lurLhermore, conLracLual supporL shall be sub[ecL
Lo ad[usLmenL whenever modlflcaLlon ls necessary
due Lo changes ln clrcumsLances manlfesLly beyond
Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhe parLles. [Art. 208]

SUCk1 DUkING MAkkIAGL LI1IGA1ICN
endlng legal separaLlon or annulmenL, and for
declaraLlon of nulllLy, supporL (peoJeote llte) for
spouses and chlldren wlll come from Lhe AC/CC.
AfLer flnal [udgmenL granLlng Lhe peLlLlon, muLual
supporL obllgaLlon beLween spouses ceases. (8uL ln
legal separaLlon courL may order gullLy spouse Lo
glve supporL Lo lnnocenL spouse.) [Art. 198]
noLe: ue facLo separaLlon does noL affecL Lhe AC,
excepL LhaL Lhe spouse who leaves Lhe con[ugal
home wlLhouL [usL cause shall noL be enLlLled Lo
supporL. [Art. 100]

AMCUN1
1he amounL of supporL ls ln proporLlon Lo Lhe
means of Lhe provlder and Lhe needs of Lhe
recelver, and can be reduced or lncreased lf such
clrcumsLances change. [Arts. 201, 202]

WnLN DLMANDA8LL
(a) 1he obllgaLlon Lo glve supporL shall be
uLMAnuA8LL from Lhe Llme Lhe person who has a
rlghL Lo recelve Lhe same needs lL for malnLenance,
buL lL shall noL be A?A8LL excepL from Lhe daLe of
[udlclal or exLra-[udlclal demand. [Art. 203]
(b) SupporL pendenLe llLe may be clalmed ln
accordance wlLh Lhe 8ules of CourL. [Art. 203]
(c) aymenL shall be made wlLhln Lhe flrsL flve days
of each correspondlng monLh. When Lhe reclplenL
dles, hls helrs shall noL be obllged Lo reLurn whaL
he has recelved ln advance. [Art. 203]

C1ICNS
(a) aymenL of Lhe amounL, or
(b) 8ecelvlng and malnLalnlng Lhe reclplenL ln Lhe
home of Lhe provlder, unless Lhere ls a legal or
moral obsLacle for dolng so.
A11ACnMLN1
1he rlghL Lo recelve supporL as well as any money
or properLy obLalned as such supporL shall
noL be levled upon on aLLachmenL or execuLlon.
(Art. 20S)


AkLN1AL AU1nCkI1

GLNLkAL kCVISICNS

: WhaL do you mean by parenLal auLhorlLy (and
responslblllLy)?
arenLal auLhorlLy and responslblllLy
lncludes (1) Lhe carlng for and rearlng of Lhe
chlldren for clvlc consclousness and (2) Lhe
developmenL of Lhelr moral, menLal and physlcal
characLer and well-belng. (ArL. 209)

: WhaL ls 61#"71 6)#/8#18?
91#"71 6)#/8#18 ls Lhe mass of rlghLs and
obllgaLlons whlch parenLs have ln relaLlon Lo Lhe
person and properLy of Lhelr chlldren unLll Lhelr
emanclpaLlon, and even under Lhls under cerLaln
clrcumsLances.

: Can parenLal auLhorlLy and responslblllLy be
renounced or Lransferred?
arenLal auLhorlLy and responslblllLy may
noL be renounced or Lransferred except |n the
cases author|zed by |aw because Lhe upbrlnglng of
Lhe chlldren ls a sacred duLy enLrusLed Lo Lhe
parenLs. (ArL. 210)

: 8eLween Lhe moLher and Lhe faLher, who can
exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy over common chlldren?
1he father and the mother can :)70#23
exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhelr common
chlldren. Powever, ln case of dlsagreemenL, Lhe
fotbets Jeclsloo shall prevall, unless Lhere ls a
[udlclal order Lo Lhe conLrary. (ArLlcle 211)

: uoes ArLlcle 211 apply only Lo leglLlmaLe
chlldren?
No. ArLlcle 211 applles also Lo llleqltlmote
cbllJteo provlded LhaL Lhe followlng requlslLes
concur: (1) Lhe faLher ls cerLaln, and (2) Lhe
llleglLlmaLe chlldren are llvlng wlLh Lhe sald faLher
and Lhe moLher, who are cohablLlng wlLhouL Lhe
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
beneflL of marrlage or under a vold marrlage noL
falllng under ArLlcle 36 and 33.

: WhaL are Lhe ru|es as Lo Lhe exerclse of parenLal
auLhorlLy?
8uLL # 1: 1he father and the mother can
:)70#23 exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhelr
common chlldren. Powever, ln case of
dlsagreemenL, Lhe fotbets Jeclsloo shall prevall,
unless Lhere ls a [udlclal order Lo Lhe conLrary.

8uLL # 2: lf Lhe chlld ls llleglLlmaLe, parenLal
auLhorlLy ls wlLh Lhe moLher. (ArLlcle 176, lamlly
Code)

: WhaL are Lhe general characLerlsLlcs of parenLal
auLhorlLy?
arenLal auLhorlLy ls a (a) naLural rlghL and
duLy of Lhe parenLs. lL (b) cannoL be renounced,
Lransferred or walved excepL ln cases auLhorlzed
by law. lL ls (c) [olnLly exerclsed by Lhe faLher and
Lhe moLher. lL ls (d) Lemporary and ls (e) purely
personal and cannoL be exerclsed Lhrough agenLs.

: WlLh regard Lo Lhe cusLody of Lhe chlldren, whaL
ls Lhe general rule on parenLal preference?
1he naLural parenLs, who are of good
characLer and who can reasonably provlde for Lhe
chlld, are ordlnarlly enLlLled Lo cusLody agalnsL all
persons.

: Wlll deaLh of one of Lhe parenLs LermlnaLe Lhe
parenLal auLhorlLy of Lhe survlvlng parenL over
Lhelr chlldren?
no. 1he deaLh of one of Lhe parenLs wlll noL
LermlnaLe Lhe parenLal auLhorlLy of Lhe survlvlng
parenL over Lhelr chlldren. upon remarrlage of Lhe
survlvlng parenL, Lhe parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe
chlldren wlll noL be affecLed (ArLlcle 212).
Moreover, Lhe new spouse, by vlrLue of hls or her
remarrylng Lhe survlvlng parenL, does noL
auLomaLlcally possess parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe
chlldren of Lhe survlvlng parenL unless such new
spouse adopts the ch||dren.

: ln case of separaLlon of Lhe parenLs, who can
exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy?
ln case of separaLlon of Lhe parenLs,
parenLal auLhorlLy wlll be exerclsed by Lhe parenL
JeslqooteJ by tbe coott. 1he CourL shall Lake lnLo
accounL all relevanL conslderaLlons, especlally Lhe
cholce of Lhe chlld over even years of age, unless
Lhe parenL chosen ls unflL (ArLlcle 213). Powever,
Lhls deslgnaLlon does noL mean LhaL parenLal
auLhorlLy of Lhe oLher parenL ls LermlnaLed or
suspended. arenLal auLhorlLy shall only be
LermlnaLed CnL? lf Lhe courL so decrees on Lhe
basls of Lhe causes provlded by law.

: ln case of separaLlon of Lhe parenLs, who can
exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy Lo chlldren under seven
(7) years of age?
As a general rule, no chlld under seven (7)
years of age shall be separaLed from Lhe moLher,
unless Lhe courL flnds compelllng reasons Lo order
oLherwlse. (ArLlcle 213) Some of Lhe compelllng
reasons are: (a) when Lhe moLher ls lnsane, (b)
when she suffers from a communlcable dlsease
LhaL mlghL endanger Lhe llfe or healLh of Lhe chlld,
(c) when ls malLreaLlng Lhe chlld, or (d) has anoLher
chlld by anoLher man who llves wlLh her. [NC1L:
rosLlLuLlon and lnfldellLy Lo husband does noL
make a moLher unflL as parenL].

: ln case of separaLlon of Lhe parenLs, who geLs
cusLody of mlnor chlldren ln legal separaLlon?
ln case of separaLlon of Lhe parenLs, Lhe
|nnocent spouse geLs cusLody of mlnor chlldren ln
legal separaLlon.

: ln case of deaLh, absence or unsulLablllLy of Lhe
parenLs, who can exerclse subsLlLuLe parenLal
auLhorlLy over Lhe chlldren?

ln case of deaLh, absence or unsulLablllLy of
Lhe parenLs, subsLlLuLe parenLal auLhorlLy wlll be
exerclsed by Lhe surv|v|ng grandparents.
CrandparenLs are Lhe mosL naLural, sulLable, and
loglcal persons Lo exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy.
Pence, Lhe grandparenLs have Lhe legal preference
ln Lhe maLLer of subsLlLuLe parenLal auLhorlLy.

: WhaL are Lhe kIGn1S of parents upon the|r
ch||dren?
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
1he followlng are Lhe rlghLs of parenLs upon
Lhelr chlldren: (1) Lo have Lhem ln Lhelr cusLody, (2)
Lo represenL Lhem ln all maLLers affecLlng Lhelr
lnLeresLs, (3) Lo demand respecL and obedlence
and lmpose dlsclpllne on Lhem, (4) admlnlsLer Lhe
properLy of a chlld for hls/her supporL and
educaLlon, unless LlLle/Lransfer provldes oLherwlse,
admlnlsLer Lhe frulLs and lncome (CnL?) of Lhe
chlldren's properLy prlmarlly Lo supporL Lhe chlld
and secondarlly Lo use for Lhe dally needs of Lhe
famlly, (3) Lo glve or wlLhhold consenL on marrlage,
pre-nupLlal, donaLlon ptoptet ooptlos, adopLlon,
and employmenL, and (6) Lo dlslnherlL Lhem for
[usL cause.

: WhaL are Lhe DU1ILS of parents upon the|r
ch||dren?
1he followlng are Lhe duLles of parenLs
upon Lhelr chlldren: (1) supporL and upbrlnglng ln
accordance Lo Lhelr means, (2) educaLe, lnsLrucL,
and provlde Lhem wlLh moral and splrlLual
guldance, and love and undersLandlng, (3) defend
Lhem agalnsL unlawful aggresslon, (4) answer for
damages caused by Lhelr faulL or negllgence, and
for clvll llablllLy for crlmes commlLLed by Lhem, and
glve Lhelr lawful lnherlLance.

: WhaL ls Lhe llablllLy of parenLs for LorLs
commlLLed by Lhelr mlnor chlldren?
arenLs and oLher persons exerclslng
parenLal auLhorlLy are c|v|||y ||ab|e for Lhe LorLs of
Lhelr unemanclpaLed chlldren provlded LhaL: (1)
tbey ote llvloq lo tbelt compooy, and (2) be/sbe
obsetves tbe Jlllqeoce of o qooJ fotbet of o
fomlly (booos potetfomlllos) to pteveot tbe
Jomoqe. ln addlLlon, Lhls llablllLy of Lhe parenLs
and Lhose exerclslng parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe
chlld ls so||dar||y, pr|mar||y and d|rect|y ||ab|e, noL
subsldlary.

: lf Lhe mlnor ls noL llvlng wlLh Lhe parenLs buL
has been enLrusLed Lo Lhe care of oLher persons, or
ls an lnLern ln school, does llablllLy apply Lo Lhem?
No. lL does noL apply. (nC1L: Always go
back Lo Lhe kLUISI1LS Lo check wheLher or noL
parenLs or oLher persons exerclslng parenLal
auLhorlLy are llable for LorLs commlLLed by Lhelr
chlldren.)
SU8S1I1U1L AND SLCIAL AkLN1AL AU1nCkI1

: ln defaulL of parenLs or a [udlclally appolnLed
guardlan, whaL ls Lhe )";/" )( 6"/(/"/0</ as Lo Lhe
persons who shall exerclse subsLlLuLe parenLal
auLhorlLy over Lhe chlld?
ln defaulL of parenLs or a [udlclally
appolnLed guardlan, Lhe followlng persons shall
exerclse subsLlLuLe parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe
chlld ln Lhe order lndlcaLed: (1) Lhe surv|v|ng
grandparent (as provlded ln ArLlcle 214), (2) Lhe
o|dest brother or s|ster, over LwenLy-one years of
age, (unless unflL or dlsquallfled), and (3) Lhe
ch||d's actua| custod|an, over LwenLy-one years of
age, (unless unflL or dlsquallfled).

Whenever Lhe appolnLmenL of a joJlclol
qootJloosblp over Lhe properLy of Lhe chlld
becomes necessary, Lhe same order of preference
shall be served. (ArLlcle 216)

: WhaL consLlLuLes subsLlLuLe parenLal auLhorlLy?
ersons who have subsLlLuLe parenLal
auLhorlLy over a chlld wlll have Lhe same rlghLs and
auLhorlLy of Lhe parenLs (enumeraLed ln ArLlcle
220). ln addlLlon, Lhey wlll also be clvllly llable for
Lhe ln[urles and damages caused by acLs and
omlsslons of Lhe unemanclpaLed chlldren llvlng ln
Lhelr company and under Lhelr parenLal auLhorlLy.

: ls Lhe order of preference enumeraLed ln ArLlcle
216 mandaLory?
no. 1he order of preference enumeraLed ln
ArLlcle 216 ls NC1 mandaLory. Always, Lhe
paramounL lnLeresL of Lhe chlld musL be Lhe basls
of cusLody and care.

: ln case of foundllngs, abandoned, neglecLed or
abused chlldren and oLher chlldren slmllarly
slLuaLed, who can exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy over
Lhem?
ln case of foundllngs, abandoned, neglecLed
or abused chlldren and oLher chlldren slmllarly
slLuaLed, parenLal auLhorlLy shall be enLrusLed ln
summary proceedlngs Lo heads of chlldren's
homes, orphanages and slmllar lnsLlLuLlons duly
accredlLed by Lhe proper governmenL agency.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
: ulfferenLlaLe one form Lhe oLher: ()=0;270>,
1?10;)0/; <@72;, 0/>2/<#/; <@72;, 1?=8/; <@72;
and ;/6/0;/0# <@72;.
A ()=0;270> ls a newborn chlld abandoned
by lLs parenLs who are unknown. An 1?10;)0/;
<@72; ls one who has no proper parenLal care or
guardlanshlp, or whose parenLs or guardlans have
desserLed hlm for a perlod of aL leasL slx
conLlnuous monLhs. A 0/>2/<#/; <@72; ls one whose
baslc needs have been dellberaLely unaLLended or
lnadequaLely aLLended. An 1?=8/; <@72;, on Lhe
oLher hand, are Lhose who are malLreaLed, raped,
or seduced, explolLed, overworked or made Lo
work under condlLlons noL conduclve Lo good
healLh, made Lo beg ln Lhe sLreeLs or publlc places,
Lhose who are ln moral danger, exposed Lo
gambllng, prosLlLuLlon and oLher vlces- ln shorL,
Lhose who suffer emoLlonal neglecL. LasLly, a
;/6/0;/0# <@72; ls one who ls wlLhouL a parenL, a
guardlan or cusLodlan, or one whose parenL,
guardlan, or oLher cusLodlan for good cause deslres
Lo be relleved of hls case and cusLody, and ls
dependenL upon publlc for supporL.

: Who may exerclse SLCIAL AkLN1AL
AU1nCkI1?
Speclal parenLal auLhorlLy may be exerclsed
by (1) Lhe school, lLs admlnlsLraLors and Leachers,
or (2) lndlvldual, enLlLy, or lnsLlLuLlon engaged ln
chlld care whlle under Lhelr supervlslon, lnsLrucLlon
or cusLody.

AuLhorlLy and responslblllLy shall apply Lo
all auLhorlzed acLlvlLles wheLher lnslde or ouLslde
Lhe premlses of school, enLlLy or lnsLlLuLlon.
(ArLlcle 218)

: ulfferenLlaLe SU8S1I1U1L parenta| author|ty
from SLCIAL parenta| author|ty.
5obstltote poteotol ootbotlty ls exerclsed ln
case of deaLh, absence, or ln case of unsulLablllLy
of parenLs. Cn Lhe oLher hand, a speclol poteotol
ootbotlty ls exerclsed concurrenLly wlLh Lhe
parenLal auLhorlLy of Lhe parenLs and resLs on Lhe
Lheory LhaL whlle Lhe chlld of Lhe person exerclslng
speclal parenLal auLhorlLy, Lhe parenLs Lemporarlly
rellnqulsh parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe chlld Lo Lhe
laLLer.

: WhaL ls Lhe llablllLy of Lhelr exerclslng speclal
parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe chlld?
ersons exerclslng speclal parenLal
auLhorlLy are 6"70<761223 10; 8)27;1"723 271?2/ for
damages caused by Lhe acLs or omlsslons of Lhe
mlnor chlld whlle under Lhelr supervlslon,
lnsLrucLlon, or cusLody. PCWLvL8, Lhe llablllLy ls
sub[ecL Lo Lhe defense LhaL Lhe person exerclslng
parenLal auLhorlLy exerclsed proper dlllgence. Cn
Lhe oLher hand, Lhe parenLs and persons [udlclal
guardlans are only subs|d|ar||y ||ab|e for sald acLs
and omlsslons of Lhe mlnor.

LIILC1 CI AkLN1AL AU1nCkI1 UCN 1nL
LkSCNS CI 1nL CnILDkLN

ChapLer 3 [baslcally] only enumeraLes Lhe
rlghLs and duLles of Lhe parenLs Lo Lhelr chlldren
and Lhe duLles of chlldren Lo Lhelr parenLs.
ulscusslons on Lhe llablllLles are already dlscussed
ln Lhe preceedlng chapLers.

LIILC1 CI AkLN1AL AU1nCkI1 UCN 1nL
kCLk1 CI 1nL CnILDkLN

a) 1he faLher and Lhe moLher shall, [olnLly
exerclse legal guardlanshlp over Lhe
properLy of Lhelr unemanclpaLed common
chlld wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of a courL
appolnLmenL. [ArLlcle 223]
b) ln case of dlsagreemenL, Lhe faLher's
declslon shall prevall, unless Lhere ls a
[udlclal order Lo Lhe conLrary. [ArLlcle 223]
c) Where Lhe markeL value of Lhe properLy or
Lhe annual lncome of Lhe chlld exceeds
30,000.00, Lhe parenL concerned shall be
requlred Lo furnlsh a bond ln such amounL
as Lhe courL may deLermlne, buL noL less
Lhan Len pet ceotom (10) of Lhe value of
Lhe properLy or annual lncome, Lo
guaranLee Lhe performance of Lhe
obllgaLlons prescrlbed for general
guardlans. [ArLlcle 223]
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
d) 1he ordlnary rules on guardlanshlp shall be
merely suppleLory excepL when Lhe chlld ls
under speclal parenLal auLhorlLy, or Lhe
guardlan ls a sLranger, or a parenL has
remarrled, ln whlch case Lhe ordlnary rules
on guardlanshlp shall apply.

1wo cases where Lhe parenL cannoL be Lhe
admlnlsLraLor of Lhe properLy of hls or her chlldren:
a. When he ls a dlslnherlLed parenL (e.g. A
dlslnherlLs 8 (son of A) Lhus, C (son of 8)
lnherlLs A's properLles) [ArL. 923, Clvll Code]
b. When he ls lncapaclLaLed (e.g. 8 accused hls
faLher A of murder maklng 8 lncapaclLaLed
due Lo unworLhlness.) [ArL. 1033, Clvll
Code]
noLe: 8 wlll noL en[oy Lhe usufrucL
and admlnlsLraLlon of hls chlldren's
lnherlLance.

8CCLuu8L ln 1PL A8CvAL Cl 1PL A8Ln1'S
8Cnu [A81. 223]
a) A verlfled peLlLlon for approval of Lhe bond
shall be flled ln Lhe proper courL of Lhe
place wbete tbe cbllJ teslJes.
b) lf Lhe chlld resldes ln a fotelqo coootty, Lhe
peLlLlon shall be flled ln Lhe proper courL of
Lhe place wbete tbe ptopetty ot ooy pott
tbeteof ls sltooteJ.
c) 1he peLlLlon shall be dockeLed as a
summary speclal proceedlng. 1he courL
shall deLermlne Lhe amounL of Lhe bond,
buL shall noL be less Lhan 10 of Lhe markeL
value of Lhe chlld's properLy or of hls annual
lncome.

CWnL8SPl Cl CPlLu'S ACCulSl1lCnS [A81. 226]
1he properLy of Lhe unemanclpaLed chlld earned or
acqulred wlLh hls work or lndusLry or by onerous or
graLulLous LlLle shall belong Lo Lhe chlld ln
ownershlp and shall be devoLed excluslvely Lo Lhe
laLLer's supporL and educaLlon, unless Lhe LlLle or
Lransfer provldes oLherwlse.

A8Ln1'S uSul8uC1 [A81. 226]
1he rlghL of Lhe parenLs over Lhe ftolts ooJ locome
(noL Lhe properLy lLself) of Lhe chlld's properLy shall
be llmlLed ptlmotlly Lo Lhe chlld's supporL and
secooJotlly Lo Lhe collecLlve dally needs of Lhe
famlly.

noLe: lf tbe cbllJs ptopetty ls mote tboo sofflcleot
to molotolo tbe solJ cbllJ, tbe solJ ptopettles moy
be oseJ to Jeftoy tbe collectlve Jolly oeeJs of tbe
fomlly. lt most llkewlse be empboslzeJ tbot o cbllJ
ls obllqeJ to soppott bls ot bet poteots lo
occotJooce wltb Attlcle 195 of tbe lomlly coJe ooJ
ftom bls ot bet sepotote ptopetty coo be tokeo tbe
soppott to be qlveo to tbe poteots lf tbe some
oeeJs lt ooJ lf tbe cbllJ coo offotJ lt.

WPLn A8Ln1S Ln18uS1 1PL MAnACLMLn1 Cl
1PLl8 8CL81lLS 1C A CPlLu [A81. 227]
a) lf Lhe parenLs enLrusL Lhe managemenL or
admlnlsLraLlon of ooy of tbelt ptopettles Lo
an unemanclpaLed chlld, Lhe neL proceeds
of such properLy shall belong Lo Lhe owner.
noLe: 1be ooemooclpoteJ cbllJ sboll
fltst be qlveo o mootbly teosoooble
ollowooce tokeo ftom tbe qtoss
ptoceeJs of tbe ptopetty fot tbe solJ
mootb.
LxcepLlon: wbeo tbe poteot-owoet
jost JeclJes to qtoot tbe eotlte
ptoceeJs to tbe cbllJ
b) 1he chlld shall be glven a reasonable
monLhly allowance ln an amounL noL less
Lhan LhaL whlch Lhe owner would have pald
lf Lhe admlnlsLraLor were a sLranger, unless
Lhe owner granLs Lhe enLlre proceeds Lo Lhe
chlld.
c) ln any case, Lhe proceeds Lhus glven ln
whole or ln parL sboll oot be charged Lo Lhe
chlld's leglLlme.





JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
SUSLNSICN Ck 1LkMINA1ICN CI AkLN1AL
AU1nCkI1

A8Ln1AL Au1PC8l1? 1L8MlnA1LS
L8MAnLn1L?:
1. upon Lhe deaLh of Lhe parenLs, [ArLlcle 228]
2. upon Lhe deaLh of Lhe chlld, [ArLlcle 228]
3. upon emanclpaLlon of Lhe chlld, [ArLlcle
228]
4. lf Lhe person exerclslng parenLal auLhorlLy
has sub[ecLed Lhe chlld or allowed hlm Lo
be sub[ecLed Lo sexual abuse, such person
shall be permanenLly deprlved by Lhe courL
of such auLhorlLy. [ArLlcle 232]
noLe: loteotol ootbotlty coooot be
tevlveJ lf tbe poteots ot tbe petsoos
exetclsloq poteotol ootbotlty ote
foooJ to bove sobjecteJ tbe cbllJ ot
olloweJ blm ot bet to be sobjecteJ
to sexool obose. neoce, lf o fotbet
sobjects bls Jooqbtet to sexool
obose, be coo be petmooeotly
JeptlveJ of bls poteotol ootbotlty
ovet tbe solJ oboseJ Jooqbtet. lf tbe
fotbet tefotms fot tbe bettet ooJ
tbete ote loJlcotloos tbot be mlqbt
oot Jo tbe some oboslve oct oqolo,
bls poteotol ootbotlty coooot be
tevlveJ eveo lf tbe tefotmotloo of
tbe fotbet ls ootbeotlc.

Note: ln Lhe case of deaLh of parenLs, Lhere ls no absoluLe
LermlnaLlon of parenLal auLhorlLy because whlle Lhe chlld ls
sLlll a mlnor, Lhe grandparenLs, broLhers and slsLers, or a
guardlan may exerclse subsLlLuLe parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe
chlld [ArL. 216]

1L8MlnA1lCn Cl A8Ln1AL Au1PC8l1? WPlCP
CAn 8L 8LvlvLu 8? llnAL !uuCMLn1
ArLlcle 229. unless subsequenLly revlved by a flnal
[udgmenL, parenLal auLhorlLy also LermlnaLes:
1. upon adopLlon of Lhe chlld,
noLe: lo cose tbe oJoptloo Jectee ls
tescloJeJ, socb tesclssloo of tbe
oJoptloo sboll extloqolsb oll
teclptocol tlqbts ooJ obllqotloos
betweeo tbe oJoptets ooJ
tbe oJopteJ otlsloq ftom tbe
telotloosblp of poteot ooJ cbllJ.
2. upon appolnLmenL of a general guardlan,
noLe: A qootJloo oppoloteJ by tbe
coott sboll qeoetolly bove tbe cote
ooJ costoJy of tbe petsoo of bls ot
bet wotJ ooJ tbe moooqemeot of
bls ot bet estote (5ectloo 1, kole 96
of tbe koles of coott of tbe
lblllpploes).
3. upon [udlclal declaraLlon of
a. AbandonmenL of Lhe chlld ln a case
flled for Lhe purpose,
b. Absence or lncapaclLy of Lhe person
exerclslng parenLal auLhorlLy.
4. upon flnal [udgmenL of a compeLenL courL
dlvesLlng Lhe parLy concerned of parenLal
auLhorlLy,

A8Ln1AL Au1PC8l1? lS SuSLnuLu:
1. upon convlcLlon of Lhe parenL or Lhe
person exerclslng Lhe same of a crlme
whlch carrles wlLh lL Lhe penalLy of clvll
lotetJlctloo. 1he auLhorlLy ls auLomaLlcally
relnsLaLed upon servlce of Lhe penalLy or
upon pardon or amnesLy of Lhe offender.
[ArLlcle 230]
2. 1reaLs Lhe chlld wlLh excesslve harshness or
cruelLy, [ArLlcle 231]
3. Clves Lhe chlld corrupLlng orders, counsel
or example, [ArLlcle 231]
4. Compels Lhe chlld Lo beg, [ArLlcle 231]
3. Sub[ecLs Lhe chlld or allows hlm Lo be
sub[ecLed Lo acLs of lasclvlousness. [ArLlcle
231]

Culpable negllgence
1he grounds enumeraLed above are deemed Lo
lnclude cases whlch have resulLed from culpable
negllgence of Lhe parenL or Lhe person exerclslng
parenLal auLhorlLy.

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Lxample: lf o stepfotbet fotces bls stepsoo to beq
ooJ tbe motbet octs loJlffeteotly ot Joes oot cote
oboot socb oct of tbe stepfotbet, sbe coo be
cooslJeteJ colpobly oeqllqeot, wottootloq tbe
sospeosloo of poteotol ootbotlty.

lf Lhe degree of serlousness so warranLs, or Lhe
welfare of Lhe chlld so demands, Lhe courL shall
deprlve Lhe gullLy parLy of parenLal auLhorlLy or
adopL such oLher measures as may be proper
under Lhe clrcumsLances. 1he suspenslon or
deprlvaLlon may be revoked and Lhe parenLal
auLhorlLy revlved ln a case flled for Lhe purpose or
ln Lhe same proceedlng lf Lhe courL flnds LhaL Lhe
cause Lherefor has ceased and wlll noL be
repeaLed. [ArL. 231]

SCCL Cl Su8S1l1u1L Anu SLClAL A8Ln1AL
Au1PC8l1?
ArLlcle 233. 1he person exerclslng subsLlLuLe
parenLal auLhorlLy shall have Lhe same auLhorlLy
over Lhe person of Lhe chlld as Lhe parenLs. ln no
case shall Lhe school admlnlsLraLor, Leacher or
lndlvldual engaged ln chlld care and exerclslng
speclol poteotol ootbotlty, lnfllcL cotpotol
poolsbmeot upon Lhe chlld.

Whlle a Leacher may be admlnlsLraLlvely or clvllly
llable ln Lhe evenL LhaL he or she lnfllcLs corporal
punlshmenL Lo a sLudenL, lL has been held LhaL
where Lhere was no crlmlnal lnLenL on Lhe parL of
Lhe Leacher xxx and where Lhe purpose of Lhe
Leacher was Lo dlsclpllne a sLudenL, Lhe sald
Leacher cannoL be held felonlously llable for Lhe
crlmlnal offense of sllghL physlcal ln[urles. (8oqojo
v. Motove, 86 SC8A 389).

8A 7610 - CPlLu A8uSL LAW
Ch||dren - persons below elghLeen (18) years of
age or Lhose buL are unable Lo fully Lake care of
Lhemselves or proLecL Lhemselves from abuse,
neglecL, cruelLy, explolLaLlon or dlscrlmlnaLlon
because of a physlcal or menLal dlsablllLy or
condlLlon,

lC8MS Cl A8uSL:
1. Chlld prosLlLuLlon and oLher sexual abuse,
2. Chlld Lrafflcklng,
3. Cbscene publlcaLlons and lndecenL shows,
4. CLher acLs of abuse,
a. An ascendanL, sLepparenL or
guardlan of a mlnor who shall
lnduce, dellver or offer Lhe mlnor Lo:
l. Any one prohlblLed Lo keep Lhe
mlnor or
ll. Any one prohlblLed Lo have ln
hls company a mlnor, Lwelve
(12) years or under or who ls Len
(10) years or more hls [unlor ln
any publlc or prlvaLe place,
hoLel, moLel, beer [olnL,
dlscoLheque, cabareL, penslon
house, sauna or massage parlor,
beach and/or oLher LourlsL
resorL or slmllar places shall
suffer penalLles and
lmprlsonmenL.

noLe: 1hose oot ptoblblteJ Lo
have ln hls company such mlnor
ln any of Lhe menLloned places:
anyone who ls relaLed wlLhln Lhe
fourLh degree of consangulnlLy
or afflnlLy or any bond
recognlzed by law, local cusLom
and LradlLlon or acLs ln Lhe
performance of a soclal, moral
or legal duLy.
3. ClrcumsLances whlch endanger chlld
survlval and normal developmenL.

CASLS
LLCULL SAN1CS, Sk. vs. CA and LLCCLDC and
CILLIA 8LDIA
(G.k. No. 1130S4 March 16, 199S)

IAC1S:
eLlLloner Leouel SanLos, Sr., an army lleuLenanL,
and !ulla 8edla a nurse by professlon, were
marrled ln llollo ClLy ln 1986. 1helr unlon begeL
only one chlld, Leouel SanLos, !r. who was born !uly
18, 1987.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
eLlLloner and wlfe !ulla agreed Lo place Leouel !r.
ln Lhe Lemporary cusLody of Lhe laLLer's parenLs,
Lhe respondenL spouses 8edla. 1he laLLer alleged
LhaL Lhey pald for all Lhe hosplLal bllls, as well as
Lhe subsequenL supporL of Lhe boy because
peLlLloner could noL afford Lo do so.
1he boy's moLher, !ulla 8edla-SanLos, lefL for
Lhe unlLed SLaLes ln May 1988 Lo work. eLlLloner
alleged LhaL he ls noL aware of her whereabouLs
and hls efforLs Lo locaLe her ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes
proved fuLlle.
rlvaLe respondenLs conLend LhaL Lhrough decelL
and false preLenslons, peLlLloner abducLed Lhe boy
and clandesLlnely splrlLed hlm away Lo hls
homeLown ln 8acong, negros CrlenLal.

ISSUL: Who should properly be awarded cusLody of
Lhe mlnor Leouel SanLos, !r.?

kULING: We flnd Lhe aforemenLloned
conslderaLlons lnsufflclenL Lo defeaL peLlLloner's
parenLal auLhorlLy and Lhe concomlLanL rlghL Lo
have cusLody over Lhe mlnor Leouel SanLos, !r.,
parLlcularly slnce he has noL been shown Lo be an
unsulLable and unflL parenL. rlvaLe respondenLs'
demonsLraLed love and affecLlon for Lhe boy,
noLwlLhsLandlng, Lhe leglLlmaLe faLher ls sLlll
preferred over Lhe grandparenLs.
rlvaLe respondenLs' aLLachmenL Lo Lhe young boy
whom Lhey have reared for Lhe pasL Lhree years ls
undersLandable. SLlll and all, Lhe law conslders Lhe
naLural love of a parenL Lo ouLwelgh LhaL of Lhe
grandparenLs, such LhaL only when Lhe parenL
presenL ls shown Lo be unflL or unsulLable may Lhe
grandparenLs exerclse subsLlLuLe parenLal
auLhorlLy, a facL whlch has noL been proven here.
CusLody over Lhe mlnor Leouel SanLos !r. ls
awarded Lo hls leglLlmaLe faLher, hereln peLlLloner
Leouel SanLos, Sr.

LSIkI1U VS CA (242 SCkA 362)

IAC1S:
AL lLLsburgh, peLlLloner 8eynaldo LsplrlLu and
respondenL 1ereslLa Masaudlng began wlLh a
common law relaLlonshlp. 1helr relaLlonshlp
resulLed Lo 8osallnd, Lhelr daughLer who was born
on AugusL 16, 1986. When Lhey were on
brlef vacaLlon ln Lhe hlllpplnes, Lhey goL marrled.
upon reLurnlng Lo unlLed SLaLes, Lhelr second chlld
8eglnald vlnce was born.
Cn !anuary 1, 1988, Lhelr relaLlonshlp wenL sour
and Lhey declded Lo separaLe someLlme on 1990.
lnsLead of glvlng Lhelr marrlage a chance as
allegedly pleaded by 8eynaldo, 1ereslLa lefL
8eynaldo and Lhe chlldren and wenL back Lo
Callfornla. 8eynaldo broughL hls chlldren home Lo
Lhe hlllpplnes, buL he was senL back by hls
company Lo lLLsburg. Pe had Lo leave hls chlldren
wlLh hls slsLer, co peLlLloner Culllerma Layug.
1ereslLa clalms LhaL she dld noL lmmedlaLely follow
her chlldren because she was afrald of belng
arresLed slnce 8eynaldo had flled a crlmlnal case
for blgamy agalnsL her. Cn 1992, she reLurned Lo
Lhe hlllpplnes and flled Lhe peLlLlon of wrlL of
habeas corpus Lo galn cusLody over her chlldren.
1he Lrlal courL favored 8eynaldo for Lhe chlldren
chose hlm over her chlldren. Powever, Lhe CourL of
Appeals reversed Lhe Lrlal courL's declslon.
eLlLloner flled for revlew Lo Lhe SC conLendlng
LhaL Lhe CourL of Appeals awarded Lhe cusLody of
Lhe chlldren Lo Lhe moLher Lhrough an auLomaLlc
and bllnd appllcaLlon of Lhe age provlso LhaL
chlldren below 7 shall noL be separaLed from Lhelr
moLhers.

ISSUL: 8eLween Lhe faLher and Lhe moLher, who ls
more sulLable and beLLer quallfled ln helplng Lhe
chlldren grow lnLo responslble, well-ad[usLed, and
happy young adulLhood?

nLLD:
ln ascerLalnlng Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe chlld, courLs
are mandaLed by Lhe lamlly Code Lo Lake lnLo
accounL all relevanL conslderaLlons. lf a chlld ls
under 7 years old, Lhe law presumes Lhe moLher ls
Lhe besL cusLodlan. Powever, lL ls noL concluslve. lL
can be overcome by compelllng reason". lf a chlld
ls over seven, hls cholce ls paramounL buL Lhe courL
ls noL bound by LhaL cholce. ln lLs dlscreLlon Lhe
courL may flnd Lhe chosen parenL unflL and award
cusLody Lo Lhe oLher parenL, or even Lo Lhlrd parLy
as lL deem flL under Lhe clrcumsLances. 8oLh
chlldren 8eglnald vlnce and 8osallnd are now over
7 years old, capable of falr and lnLelllgenL declslon.
1helr besL lnLeresL would be beLLer served ln an
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
envlronmenL characLerlzed by emoLlonal sLablllLy
and a cerLaln degree of maLerlal sufflclency for
whlch Lhe moLher 1ereslLa solely ls lncapable or
lacklng. 1here ls noLhlng ln Lhe records Lo show
LhaL 8eynaldo ls unflL" under Lhe lamlly Code.
Moreover, Lhe chlldren's clear cholce ls Lhelr
faLher.


SAGALA-LSLAC VS CA
C.8. no. 116773 !anuary 16 1997 [arenLal
AuLhorlLy]

IAC1S:
When Marla az's husband 8eynaldo Lslao dled,
she enLrusLed cusLody of heryoungesL
chlld Angellca Lo her grlevlng moLher-ln-law. She
Lhen reLurned Lo her moLher's house wlLh Leslle.
?ears laLer, Marla az goL marrled Lo a !apanese-
Amerlcan and llve wlLh hlm ln Lhe uS. AfLer Lhls
she reLurned Lo Lhe hlllpplnes Lo be reunlLed wlLh
her chlldren and brlng Lhem Lo Lhe uS. She Lhen
lnformed 1ereslLa abouL her deslre Lo Lake cusLody
of Angellca her new husband's wllllngness Lo adopL
her chlldren. 1ereslLa refused, and accused Marla
of havlng abandoned Angellca when she was 10
days old. Marla lnsLlLuLed an acLlon agalnsL
1ereslLa over Lhe reLurn of Lhe cusLody of Angellca
Lo her. AfLer Lhe Lrlal on Lhe merlLs, Lhe Lrlal courL
granLed Lhe peLlLlon. CA afflrmed ln Lhe full
declslon of Lhe Lrlal courL.

ISSUL:
WheLher or noL 1ereslLa Sagala-Lslao should be
glven Lhe cusLody of Lhe chlld?

kULING:
no. 1he rlghL of parenLs Lo Lhe cusLody of Lhelr
mlnor chlldren ls one of Lhe naLural rlghLs lncldenL
Lo parenLhood, a rlghL supporLed by law and
sound publlc pollcy. 1he rlghL ls an lnherenL one,
whlch ls noL creaLed by Lhe sLaLe or declslons of
Lhe courLs, buL derlves from Lhe naLure of Lhe
parenLal relaLlonshlp.

1hus, when Marla enLrusLed Lhe cusLody of
Angellca Lo 1ereslLa, whaL she gave Lo Lhe laLLer
was merely Lemporary cusLody and lL dld
noL consLlLuLe abandonmenL or renunclaLlon of
parenLal auLhorlLy. 1he law allows a walver of
parenLal auLhorlLy only ln cases of adopLlon,
guardlanshlp and surrender Lo a chlldren's home or
an orphan lnsLlLuLlon.


nLkALD 8LACk DACASIN v. SnAkCN DLL MUNDC
DACASIN (G.k. No. 16878S : Iebruary S, 2010)


Iacts:

! Perald, Amerlcan, and Sharon, llllplno,
were marr|ed |n Man||a |n Apr|| 1994.
! 1hey have one daughLer, SLephanle, born
on SepLember 21, 1993.
! In Iune 1999, Sharon sought and obta|ned
a d|vorce decree from Lhe ClrculL CourL,
19Lh !udlclal ClrculL, Lake CounLy, llllnols
(llllnols courL). ln lLs rullng, Lhe llllnols courL
dlssolved Lhe marrlage of peLlLloner and
respondenL, awarded Lo respondenL sole
cusLody of SLephanle and reLalned
[urlsdlcLlon over Lhe case for enforcemenL
purposes.
! Cn Ianuary 28, 2002, boLh execuLed ln
Manlla a conLracL for [olnL cusLody over
SLephanle.
! In 2004, Perald flled a case agalnsL Sharon
alleglng LhaL Sharon had exerclsed sole cusLody
over SLephanle conLrary Lo Lhelr
agreemenL.
! 1he Lrlal courL held LhaL (1) lL ls precluded
from Laklng cognlzance over Lhe sulL
conslderlng Lhe llllnols courL's reLenLlon of
[urlsdlcLlon Lo enforce lLs dlvorce decree,
lncludlng lLs order awardlng sole cusLody of
SLephanle Lo respondenL, (2) Lhe dlvorce
decree ls blndlng on peLlLloner followlng
Lhe naLlonallLy rule" prevalllng ln Lhls
[urlsdlcLlon, and (3) Lhe AgreemenL ls vold
for conLravenlng ArLlcle 2033, paragraph 3
of Lhe Clvll Code prohlblLlng compromlse
agreemenLs on [urlsdlcLlon and dlsmlssed
Lhe case.
Issue:
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
WCn Lhe Lrlal courL has [urlsdlcLlon Lo Lake
cognlzance of peLlLloner's sulL and enforce Lhe
AgreemenL on Lhe [olnL cusLody of Lhe parLles chlld

ne|d] kat|ona|e:
1he Lrlal courL's refusal Lo enLerLaln peLlLloner's
sulL was grounded noL on lLs lack of power Lo do so
buL on lLs Lhlnklng LhaL Lhe llllnols courL's dlvorce
decree sLrlpped lL of [urlsdlcLlon. 1hls concluslon ls
unfounded. WhaL Lhe llllnols courL reLalned was
[urlsdlcLlon x x x for Lhe purpose of enforclng all
and sundry Lhe varlous provlslons of [lLs] !udgmenL
for ulssoluLlon." eLlLloner's sulL seeks
Lhe enforcemenL noL of Lhe varlous provlslons" of
Lhe dlvorce decree buL of Lhe posL-dlvorce
AgreemenL on [olnL chlld cusLody. 1hus, Lhe acLlon
lles beyond Lhe zone of Lhe llllnols courL's so-called
reLalned [urlsdlcLlon."


nCkACIC& LI8Lk1 LUNA VS IN1LkMLDIA1L
ALLLA1L CCUk1 L1 AL

Iacts: Legal baLLle over Lhe cusLody of Shlrley, a 9-
year old and daughLer of Spouses Marla Lourdes
SanLos and SlxLoSalumbldes (prlvaLe respondenLs)
buL who grew up ln Lhe comforLs of luxury
provlded by her grandparenLs Spouses Poraclo and
LlberLy Luna (peLlLloners).

ne|d: Shlrley was awarded back Lo her
grandparenLs. Per manlfesLaLlon LhaL she would klll
herself or run away from home lf she should be
Laken away from her grandparenLs ls a
clrcumsLance LhaL would make Lhe execuLlon of
Lhe [udgmenL rendered, whlch ls awardlng her Lo
her blologlcal parenLs, lnequlLable, unfalr and
un[usL, lf noL lllegal. She deplcLed her blologlcal
parenLs as selflsh and cruel and who beaL her
ofLen, and LhaL Lhey do noL love her. As polnLed
ouL by Lhe chlld psychologlsL, she has become
emblLLered, cauLlous and dlsLrusLlng of Lhem and
Lo reLurn her Lo her cusLody would be lndeed
LraumaLlc and cause lrreparable damage.

r|nc|p|e: ArLlcle 363 of Lhe Clvll Code
provldes LhaLln all quesLlons relaLlng Lo Lhe care,
cusLody, educaLlon and properLy of Lhe
chlldren, Lhe laLLer's welfare ls paramounL. 1hls
means LhaL Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe mlnor can
overrlde procedural rules and even Lhe rlghLs of
parenLs Lo Lhe cusLody of Lhelr chlldren. Slnce, ln
Lhls case, Lhe very llfe and exlsLence of Lhe mlnor ls
aL sLake and Lhe chlld ls ln an age when she can
exerclse an lnLelllgenL cholce, Lhe courLs can do no
less Lhan respecL, enforce and glve meanlng and
subsLance Lo LhaL cholce and uphold her rlghL Lo
llve ln an aLmosphere conduclve Lo her physlcal,
moral and lnLellecLual developmenL.

D|ssent|ng: 1he rlghL of Lhe parenLs Lo Lhe
cusLody of Lhelr mlnor chlldren ls one of Lhe
naLural rlghLs lncldenL Lo parenLhood, a rlghL
supporLed by law and sound publlc pollcy. 1he
rlghL ls an lnherenL one, whlch ls noL creaLed by
Lhe sLaLe or by Lhe declslons of Lhe courLs, buL
derlves from Lhe naLure of parenLal relaLlonshlp.
Slnce Lhe rlghLs of parenLs Lo Lhe cusLody of Lhelr
mlnor chlldren ls boLh a naLural and a legal rlghL,
Lhe law should noL dlsLurb Lhe parenL-chlld
relaLlonshlp excepL for Lhe sLrongesL reasons, and
only upon a clear showlng of a parenL's gross
mlsconducL or unflLness, or of oLher exLraordlnary
clrcumsLances affecLlng Lhe welfare of Lhe chlld.

2LNAIDA MLDINA VS DkA.VLNANCIA MAkA8ALI

Iacts:
eLlLloner's clalm for cusLody of a mlnor
boy named !oseph Casero. Zenalda Medlna
(peLlLloner) gave blrLh Lo !oseph Casero ln Lhe
Makaball Cllnlc asslsLed by ura. venanclaMakaball
(respondenL). 1he baby (!oseph) was Zenalda's 3
rd

wlLh lellclano Casero, a marrled man. Zenalda lefL
her baby wlLh ura. Makaball who Look care and
reared Lhe same llke her own son.lrom blrLh unLll
AugusL 1966, !oseph was lefL unvlslLed by hls real
and moLher.

ne|d: 1he courL awarded Lhe cusLody of !oseph
Casero Lo ura. venanclaMakaball because Lhe
peLlLloner proved remlss ln Lhe sacred duLles Lo
provlde adequaLe supporL, educaLlon, moral,
lnLellecLual and clvlc Lralnlng and developmenL.

r|nc|p|e:
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Whlle Lhe law recognlzes Lhe rlghL of a
parenL Lo Lhe cusLody of her chlld, CourLs musL noL
lose slghL of Lhe baslc prlnclple LhaL ln all quesLlons
on Lhe care, cusLody, educaLlon and properLy of
Lhe chlldren, Lhe laLLer's welfare shall be
paramounL (Clvll Code, ArLlcle 363), and LhaL for
compelllng reasons, even a chlld under seven may
be ordered separaLed from Lhe moLher. 1hls ls as lL
should be, for ln Lhe conLlnual evoluLlon of legal
lnsLlLuLlons, Lhe paLrla poLesLas has been
Lransformed from Lhe [us vlLae ac necls (rlghL of llfe
and deaLh) of Lhe 8oman law, under whlch Lhe
offsprlng was vlrLually a chaLLel of hls parenLs, lnLo
a radlcally dlfferenL lnsLlLuLlon, due Lo Lhe
lnfluence of ChrlsLlan falLh and docLrlnes. 1he
obllgaLlonal aspecL ls now supreme. As polnLed ouL
by ulg ena, now Lhere ls no power buL a Lask,
no complex of rlghLs of parenLs buL a, buL a sum of
duLles: no soverelgnLy buL a sacred LrusL for Lhe
welfare of Lhe mlnor.

1he rlghL of parenLs Lo Lhe company and
cusLody of Lhelr chlldren ls buL anclllary Lo Lhe
proper dlscharge of parenLal duLles Lo provlde Lhe
chlldren wlLh adequaLe supporL, educaLlon, moral,
lnLellecLual and clvlc Lralnlng and developmenL.


MIGULL UNSCN III VS nCN. LDkC NAVAkkC
AND LDI1AAkANL1A

Iacts:
Legal acLlons over Lhe cusLody of 1eresa,
elghL-year old chlld.
eLlLloner and prlvaLe respondenL were
marrled ln 1971 and ouL of LhaL marrlage, 1eresa
was born. Powever, Lhey execuLed an agreemenL,
whlch was approved by Lhe CourL, for Lhe
separaLlon of Lhelr properLles and Lo llve
separaLely. no provlslons were made as Lo Lhe
cusLody of Lhelr chlld.

ne|d: CusLody of Lhe mlnor chlld awarded Lo Lhe
wlfe who has lmmoral lnfluence over Lhe chlld. 1he
CourL flnds no dlfflculLy ln seelng LhaL lL ls ln Lhe
besL lnLeresL of Lhe chlld Lo be freed from Lhe
obvlously unwholesome, noL Lo say lmmoral
lnfluence, LhaL Lhe slLuaLlon ln whlch prlvaLe
respondenL has placed herself.

r|nc|p|e: lL ls axlomaLlc ln our [urlsprudence
LhaL ln all conLroversles regardlng Lhe cusLody of
mlnors, Lhe sole and foremosL conslderaLlon ls Lhe
physlcal, educaLlon, soclal and moral welfare of Lhe
chlld concerned, Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe respecLlve
resources and soclal and moral slLuaLlons of Lhe
conLendlng parenLs.


ICCLLN A8LC-GUAL8Lk1C VS CkISAN1C
kAIALLI1C GUAL8Lk1C

Iacts: rlvaLe respondenL flled a peLlLlon for
declaraLlon of nulllLy of hls marrlage Lo !oycelyn,
wlLh an anclllary prayer for cusLody pendenLe llLe
of Lhelr almosL 4 year old son, 8afaello, whom hls
wlfe Look away from Lhelr con[ugal home.
ne|d: no chlld under seven years of age shall be
separaLed from Lhe moLher unless Lhe courL flnds
compelllng reasons Lo order oLherwlse. 8ased on
Lhe above [urlsprudence, lL ls Lherefore noL enough
for CrlsanLo Lo show merely LhaL !oycelyn was a
lesblan. Pe musL also demonsLraLe LhaL she carrled
on her purporLed relaLlonshlp wlLh a person of Lhe
same sex ln Lhe presence of Lhelr son or under
clrcumsLances noL conduclve Lo Lhe chlld's proper
moral developmenL.
r|nc|p|e: 1he general rule LhaL chlldren less
Lhan seven years of age shall noL be separaLed
from Lhelr moLher flnds lLs ralson d'eLre ln Lhe
baslc need of mlnor chlldren for Lhelr moLher's
lovlng care. ln explalnlng Lhe raLlonale for ArLlcle
363 of Lhe Clvll Code, Lhe general rule ls
recommended ln order Lo avold a Lragedy where a
moLher has seen her baby Lorn away from her. no
man can sound Lhe deep sorrows of a moLher who
ls deprlved of her chlld of Lender age. 1he
excepLlon allowed by Lhe rule has Lo be for
compelllng reasons for Lhe good of Lhe chlld: Lhose
cases musL lndeed be rare, lf Lhe moLher's hearL ls
noL Lo be unduly hurL. lf she has erred, as ln cases
of adulLery, Lhe penalLy of lmprlsonmenL and Lhe
relaLlve dlvorce decree wlll ordlnarlly be sufflclenL
punlshmenL for her. Moreover, her moral
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
derellcLlon wlll noL have any effecL upon Lhe baby
who ls as yeL unable Lo undersLand Lhe slLuaLlon.

MAkIA 1LkLSA CUADkA, kLkLSLN1LD 8 nLk
IA1nLk, L1AL VS ALICNSC MCNICk1

Iacts: Marla 1eresa Cuadra and Marla 1eresa
MonforL were boLh classmaLes ln Mablnl
LlemenLary School 8acolod ClLy. Whlle Lhey were
weedlng, MonforL found a headband and she
[oklngly shouLed lL as an earLhworm and LhereafLer
Lossed lL aL Cuadra, hlLLlng ln her eye. Cuadra's eye
goL lnfecLed, was aLLempLed Lo be surglcally
repalred buL neverLheless goL bllnd. Cuadra's
parenLs sued Alfonso MonforL , Lhe dad, based on
ArLlcle 2180 of Lhe Clvll Code. 1he lower courL
ruled LhaL MonforL should pay for acLual damages
(cosL of hosplLallzaLlon), moral damages and
aLLorney's fees.
ne|d: ArLlcle 2180 provldes LhaL Lhe faLher, ln
case of hls lncapaclLy or deaLh, Lhe moLher, ls
responslble for Lhe damages caused by Lhe mlnor
chlldren who llve ln Lhelr company. 1he basls of
Lhls vlcarlous, alLhough prlmary, llablllLy ls faulL or
negllgence, whlch ls presumed from LhaL whlch
accompanled Lhe causaLlve acL or omlsslon. 1he
presumpLlon ls merely prlma facle and may
Lherefore be rebuLLed. 1hls ls Lhe clear and loglcal
lnference LhaL may be drawn from Lhe lasL
paragraph of ArLlcle 2180, whlch sLaLes LhaL Lhe
responslblllLy LreaLed of ln Lhls ArLlcle shall cease
when Lhe persons hereln menLloned prove LhaL
Lhey observed all Lhe dlllgence of a good faLher of a
famlly Lo prevenL damage."
r|nc|p|e: 1here ls noLhlng from whlch lL may
be lnferred LhaL Lhe defendanL could have
prevenLed Lhe damage by Lhe observance of due
care or LhaL he was ln any way remlss ln Lhe
exerclse of hls parenLal auLhorlLy ln falllng Lo
foresee such damage, or Lhe acL whlch caused lL.
Cn Lhe conLrary, hls chlld was aL school where lL
was hls duLy Lo send her and where she was, as he
had Lhe rlghL Lo expecL her Lo be, under Lhe care
and supervlslon of Lhe Leacher. And as far as Lhe
acL whlch caused Lhe ln[ury was concerned, lL was
an lnnocenL prank noL unusual among chlldren aL
play and whlch no parenL, however careful, would
have any speclal reason Lo anLlclpaLe,
much less guard agalnsL. nor dld lL reveal any
mlschlevous propenslLy, or lndeed any LralL ln Lhe
chlld's characLer whlch would reflecL unfavorably
or her upbrlnglng and for whlch Lhe blame would
be aLLrlbuLed Lo her parenLs.

AMADCkA V. CA
Gk No. L4774S, Apr|| 1S, 1988
lAc15.

A 17-year old Alfredo Amadora, whlle ln Lhe
audlLorlum of Lhe school, was shoL Lo deaLh by
abllLo uaffon on Aprll 13, 1972, Lhree days before
Lhelr hlgh school graduaLlon. 1he laLLer was
convlcLed of homlclde Lhrough reckless
lmprudence. 1he peLlLloners flled a clvll acLlon for
damages under ArLlcle 2180 of Lhe Clvll Code
agalnsL Lhe prlvaLe respondenLs. 1he complalnL
agalnsL Lhe sLudenLs was laLer dropped. AfLer Lrlal,
Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance of Cebu held Lhe
remalnlng respondenLs llable Lo Lhe plalnLlffs ln Lhe
sum of h294,984.00, represenLlng deaLh
compensaLlon, moral damages and aLLorney's fees
among oLhers.

Cn appeal Lo Lhe respondenL courL,
however, Lhe declslon was reversed and all Lhe
defendanLs were compleLely absolved. eLlLloners
conLended LhaL slnce Alfredo Amadora wenL Lo
school on LhaL day Lo submlL hls physlcs
experlmenL as a prerequlslLe Lo hls graduaLlon,
Lhen he was, aL LhaL very momenL, under Lhe
cusLody of Lhe prlvaLe respondenLs. ln addlLlon,
peLlLloners argued LhaL Lhere was negllgence on
Lhe parL of Lhe prlvaLe respondenLs as Lhere was an
earller lncldenL on a conflscaLlon of a gun from a
sLudenL of Lhe school whlch was laLer on reLurned
wlLhouL any dlsclpllnary acLlon. 8uL Lhe prlvaLe
respondenLs malnLalned LhaL Alfredo Amadora
wenL Lo school on LhaL day only for Lhe purpose of
submlLLlng hls physlcs reporL and LhaL he was no
longer ln Lhe school's cusLody because Lhe
semesLer had already ended. Moreover, prlvaLe
respondenLs conLended LhaL Lhey had exerclsed
due dlllgence ln Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe school's
regulaLlons.

l55u5.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018

1. WheLher Alfredo Amadora was under Lhe
cusLody of Lhe prlvaLe respondenLs (l.e., Lhe
school, head of school, dean of boys,
physlcs Leacher, eLc.) aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
lncldenL?

2. WheLher Lhe prlvaLe respondenLs are llable
for Lhe deaLh of Alfredo Amadora?

nlu.

Conslderlng Lhe facL LhaL Alfredo Amadora
wenL Lo school Lo submlL a pro[ecL, whlch was held
a leglLlmaLe purpose, Lhe CourL ruled LhaL he was
sLlll under Lhe cusLody of Lhe auLhorlLles of Coleglo
de San !ose-8ecoleLos, noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL
classes had formally ended. Powever, Lhe recLor,
Lhe hlgh school prlnclpal and Lhe dean of boys
cannoL be held llable because none of Lhem was
Lhe Leacher-ln-charge. 1hey merely exerclse Lhelr
auLhorlLy over Lhe sLudenL body. 1hey were noL
dlrecLly lnvolved wlLh Lhe sLudenLs.

Moreover, Lhe peLlLloners weren'L able Lo
dlsclose who Lhe Leacher-ln-charge of abllLo
uaffon was. 1he dean of boys cannoL also be held
llable for Lhe shooLlng lncldenL slnce Lhere was no
concreLe proof and evldence LhaL Lhe gun he
conflscaLed and reLurned and Lhe gun LhaL kllled
Alfredo Amadora was one and Lhe same. llnally,
Coleglo de San !ose-8ecoleLos cannoL be held
dlrecLly llable because lL ls an academlc lnsLlLuLlon
of learnlng and noL a school of arLs and Lrades.
Cnly Lhe Leacher or Lhe head of Lhe laLLer ls made
responslble for Lhe damage caused by a sLudenL or
apprenLlce under ArLlcle 2180 of Lhe Clvll Code.
1he prlvaLe respondenLs were also able Lo prove
LhaL Lhey exerclsed due dlllgence ln Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhe school regulaLlons.

Pence, Lhe peLlLlon was uLnlLu.

S1. MAk'S ACADLM V. CAkI1ANCS
lAc15.
eLlLloner conducLed an enrollmenL drlve
for Lhe school year 1993-1996. 1hey vlslLed schools
from where prospecLlve enrollees were
sLudylng. Sherwln CarplLanos [olned Lhe campalgn.
Along wlLh Lhe oLher hlgh school sLudenLs, Lhey
rode a MlLsublshl [eep owned by vlvenclo
vlllanueva on Lhelr way Lo Larayan LlemenLary
School. 1he [eep was drlven by !ames uanlel ll, a
13-year old sLudenL of Lhe same school. lL was
alleged LhaL he drove Lhe [eep ln a reckless manner
whlch resulLed for lL Lo Lurned LurLle. Sherwln dled
due Lo Lhls accldenL.

l55u.
WheLher peLlLloner should be held llable for
damages?
nlu.

CA held peLlLloner llable for Lhe deaLh of
Sherwln under ArLlcle 218 and 219 of Lhe lamlly
Code where lL was polnLed LhaL Lhey were
negllgenL ln allowlng a mlnor Lo drlve and noL
havlng a Leacher accompany Lhe mlnor sLudenLs ln
Lhe [eep. Powever, for Lhem Lo be held llable, Lhe
acL or omlsslon Lo be consldered negllgenL musL be
Lhe proxlmaLe cause of Lhe ln[ury caused Lhus,
negllgence needs Lo have a causal connecLlon Lo
Lhe accldenL. lL musL be dlrecL and naLural
sequence of evenLs, unbroken by any efflclenL
lnLervenlng causes. 1he parenLs of Lhe vlcLlm falled
Lo show such negllgence on Lhe parL of Lhe
peLlLloner. 1he spouses vlllanueva admlLLed LhaL
Lhe lmmedlaLe cause of Lhe accldenL was noL Lhe
reckless drlvlng of !ames buL Lhe deLachmenL of
Lhe sLeerlng wheel gulde of Lhe [eep. lurLhermore,
Lhere was no evldence LhaL peLlLloner allowed Lhe
mlnor Lo drlve Lhe [eep of vlllanueva. 1he
mechanlcal defecL was an evenL over whlch Lhe
school has no conLrol hence Lhey may noL be held
llable for Lhe deaLh resulLlng from such accldenL.

1he reglsLered owner of any vehlcle, even lf
noL used for publlc servlce, would prlmarlly be
responslble Lo Lhe publlc or Lo Lhlrd persons for
ln[urles caused whlle lL ls belng drlven on Lhe road.
lL ls noL Lhe school, buL Lhe reglsLered owner of Lhe
vehlcle who shall be held responslble for damages
for Lhe deaLh of Sherwln. Case was remanded Lo
Lhe Lrlal courL for deLermlnaLlon of Lhe llablllLy of
Lhe defendanLs excludlng hereln peLlLloner.

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
LI8I V. IAC

lAc15.
!ulle Ann CoLlong and Wendell Llbl were
sweeLhearLs unLll Lhe former broke up wlLh Lhe
laLLer afLer she found ouL LhaL Wendell was
lrresponslble and sadlsLlc. Wendell wanLed
reconclllaLlon buL was noL granLed by !ulle so lL
prompLed hlm Lo resorL Lo LhreaLs. Cne day, Lhey
were found dead from a slngle gunshoL wound
each comlng from Lhe same gun. 1he parenLs of
!ulle hereln prlvaLe respondenLs flled a clvll case
agalnsL Lhe parenLs of Wendell Lo recover
damages. 1he Lrlal courL dlsmlssed Lhe complalnL
for lnsufflclency of evldence buL was seL aslde by
CA.

l55u.
WheLher Lhe parenLs should be held llable
for damages?

nlu.
1he subsldlary llablllLy of parenLs for
damages caused by Lhelr mlnor chlldren lmposed
under ArLlcle 2180 of Lhe Clvll Code and ArLlcle 101
of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code covers obllgaLlons
arlslng from boLh quasl-dellcLs and crlmlnal
offenses. 1he courL held LhaL Lhe clvll llablllLy of Lhe
parenLs for a quasl-dellcL of Lhelr mlnor chlldren ls
prlmary and noL subsldlary and LhaL responslblllLy
shall cease when Lhe persons can prove LhaL Lhey
observe all Lhe dlllgence of a good faLher of a
famlly Lo prevenL damage. Powever, Wendell's
moLher LesLlfled LhaL her husband owns a gun
whlch he kepL ln a safeLy deposlL box lnslde a
drawer ln Lhelr bedroom. Lach of Lhe spouses had
Lhelr own key. She llkewlse admlLLed LhaL durlng
Lhe lncldenL, Lhe gun was no longer ln Lhe safeLy
deposlL box. Wendell could noL have goLLen hold of
Lhe gun unless Lhe key was lefL negllgenLly lylng
around and LhaL he has free access of Lhe moLher's
bag where Lhe key was kepL. 1he spouses falled Lo
observe and exerclse Lhe requlred dlllgence of a
good faLher Lo prevenL such damage.

LAkDL V. AUINC
lAc15.
rlvaLe respondenL Marlano Sorlano was
Lhe prlnclpal of Lhe Cabaldon rlmary School ln
angaslnan. uefendanL Ldgardo Aqulno was a
Leacher Lhereln. uurlng LhaL Llme, Lhe school had
several concreLe blocks whlch were remnanLs of
Lhe old school shop desLroyed ln World War ll.
uefendanL declded Lo help clear Lhe area so he
gaLhered 18 of hls male sLudenLs and ordered
Lhem Lo dlg beslde a one-Lon concreLe block ln
order Lo make a hole where Lhe sLone can be
burled. lL was lefL unflnlshed so Lhe followlng day
he called 4 of Lhe 18 sLudenLs lncludlng novellLo
?larde Lo compleLe Lhe excavaLlon. uefendanL lefL
Lhe chlldren Lo level Lhe loose soll whlle he wenL Lo
see 8anez for Lhe key Lo Lhe school workroom
where he can geL some rope. lL was alleged LhaL
before leavlng, he Lold Lhe chlldren noL Lo Louch
Lhe sLone. AfLer he lefL, Lhe chlldren playfully
[umped lnLo Lhe plL when suddenly Lhe concreLe
block sllde down. unforLunaLely, novellLo ?larde
was plnned Lo Lhe wall causlng serlous physlcal
ln[urles whlch as a consequence led Lo hls deaLh, 3
days LhereafLer. 1he parenLs of Lhe vlcLlm, hereln
peLlLloners, flled a sulL for damages agalnsL boLh
Aqulno and Sorlano.

l55u.
WheLher boLh Sorlano and Aqulno can be
held llable for damages?

nlu.
As held ln Amadora v. CA, lL ls only Lhe
Leacher and noL Lhe head of an academlc school
who should be answerable for LorLs commlLLed by
Lhelr sLudenLs". Where Lhe school ls academlc
raLher Lhan Lechnlcal or vocaLlonal ln naLure,
responslblllLy for Lhe LorL commlLLed by Lhe
sLudenL wlll aLLach Lo Lhe Leacher ln charge of such
sLudenL, whlch ls Lhe general rule. Powever, ln
cases of esLabllshmenLs of arLs and Lrades, lL ls Lhe
head Lhereof, and only he, who shall be held llable
as an excepLlon Lo Lhe general rule. ln oLher words,
Leachers ln general shall be llable for Lhe acLs of
Lhelr sLudenLs excepL where Lhe school ls Lechnlcal
ln naLure, ln whlch case lL ls Lhe head Lhereof who
shall be answerable. Pence, Sorlano as prlnclpal
cannoL be held llable for Lhe reason LhaL Lhe school
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
he heads ls an academlc school and he dld noL glve
any lnsLrucLlon regardlng Lhe dlgglng.

A Leacher who sLands ln loco parenLls Lo hls
sLudenLs should make sure LhaL Lhe chlldren are
proLecLed from all harm. 1he excavaLlon lnsLrucLed
clearly exposed Lhe sLudenLs Lo rlsk and should noL
be placed under Lhe caLegory of Work LducaLlon
such as school gardenlng, planLlng Lrees, eLc.
Aqulno acLed wlLh faulL and gross negllgence
where lnsLead of avalllng hlmself of adulL manual
laborers he lnsLead uLlllzed hls sLudenLs.
lurLhermore, Lhe warnlng glven ls noL sufflclenL Lo
casL away all serlous danger LhaL Lhe concreLe
block ad[acenL Lo Lhe excavaLlon would presenL Lo
Lhe chlldren. Pe ls Lherefore ordered Lo pay
damages Lo Lhe peLlLloners.


LMANCIA1ICN

Art. 234. LmanclpaLlon Lakes place by Lhe
aLLalnmenL of ma[orlLy. unless oLherwlse provlded,
ma[orlLy commences aL Lhe age of elghLeen years.

Art. 23S. 8epealed by 8A no. 6809

Art. 236. LmanclpaLlon shall LermlnaLe parenLal
auLhorlLy over Lhe person and properLy of Lhe chlld
who shall Lhen be quallfled and responslble for all
acLs of clvll llfe, save Lhe excepLlons esLabllshed by
exlsLlng laws ln speclal cases.
ConLracLlng marrlage shall requlre parenLal
consenL unLll Lhe age of LwenLy-one.
noLhlng ln Lhls Code shall be consLrued Lo derogaLe
from Lhe duLy or responslblllLy of parenLs and
guardlans for chlldren and wards below LwenLy-
one years of age menLloned ln Lhe second and
Lhlrd paragraphs of ArLlcle 2180 of Lhe Clvll Code.

Art. 23S. 8epealed by 8A no. 6809

Lmanc|pat|on
! aLLalned upon reachlng 18 years of age.

kA 6809:
8y vlrLue of Lhls law, emanclpaLlon can no longer
Lake place by vlrLue of Lhe mlnor's marrlage or by
Lhe concesslon of Lhe parenLs Lo a mlnor ln a
recorded publlc lnsLrumenL.

kL1kCAC1IVL LIILC1

kL1kCAC1IVL LIILC1
1hls Code shall have reLroacLlve effecL lnsofar as lL
does noL pre[udlce or lmpalr vesLed or acqulred
rlghLs ln accordance wlLh Lhe Clvll Code or oLher
laws. [ArL 236]

INVALIDI1 CI C1nLk kCVISICNS
lf any provlslon ls held lnvalld, oLher provlslons noL
affecLed shall remaln valld. [ArL. 233]

IUNLkAL, NCC Ak1S. 30S-310
1he duLy and Lhe rlghL Lo make arrangemenLs for
Lhe funeral of a relaLlve shall be ln accordance wlLh
Lhe order esLabllshed for supporL, under ArLlcle
294 [ArL. 303]:
(1) Spouse
(2) uescendanLs ln Lhe nearesL degree. ln
case of descendanLs of Lhe same degree, or
of broLhers and slsLers, Lhe oldesL shall be
preferred.
(3) 1he ascendanLs ln Lhe nearesL degree.
ln case of ascendanLs, Lhe paLernal shall
have a beLLer rlghL
(4) 1he broLhers and slsLers.
(3) Munlclpal auLhorlLles - lf Lhere are no
persons who are bound Lo supporL or lf
such persons are wlLhouL means

nA1u8L Cl lunL8AL: Lvery funeral shall be ln
keeplng wlLh Lhe soclal poslLlon of Lhe deceased.
[ArL. 306]

1he funeral shall be:
(1) ln accordance wlLh Lhe expressed wlshes of Lhe
deceased.
(2) ln Lhe absence of such expresslon, hls rellglous
bellefs or afflllaLlon shall deLermlne Lhe funeral
rlLes.
(3) ln case of doubL, Lhe form of Lhe funeral shall
be declded upon by Lhe person obllged Lo make
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
arrangemenLs for Lhe same, afLer consulLlng Lhe
oLher members of Lhe famlly [ArL. 307]

noLe: no human remalns shall be reLalned,
lnLerred, dlsposed of or exhumed wlLhouL Lhe
consenL of Lhe persons menLloned ln arLlcles 294
and 303.

uamages: Any person who shows dlsrespecL Lo Lhe
dead, or wrongfully lnLerferes wlLh a funeral shall
be llable Lo Lhe famlly of Lhe deceased for
damages, maLerlal and moral [ArL. 309]

luneral Lxpenses: 1he consLrucLlon of a LombsLone
or mausoleum shall be deemed a parL of Lhe
funeral expenses, and shall be chargeable Lo Lhe
con[ugal parLnershlp properLy, lf Lhe deceased ls
one of Lhe spouses [ArL. 310].

GUIDLLINLS IN MAkING IUNLkAL
AkkANGLMLN1S
(1) 1he persons who are preferred ln Lhe rlghL Lo
make funeral arrangemenLs may walve Lhe rlghL
expressly or lmplledly ln whlch case Lhe rlghL and
duLy lmmedlaLely descend Lo Lhe person nexL ln
Lhe order.
(2) lL musL be ln keeplng wlLh Lhe soclal poslLlon of
Lhe deceased.
(3) Law shall prevall over Lhe wlll of Lhe persons
who have Lhe rlghL Lo conLrol Lhe burlal of
deceased - exhumaLlon, evldenLlal purpose,
dlsposlLlon of corpse by deceased, muLllaLlon of
corpses and auLopsles.
(4) Corpses whlch are Lo be burled aL publlc
expenses may also be used for sclenLlflc purposes
under cerLaln condlLlons.
(3) Lxpressed wlshes of Lhe deceased ls glven
prlorlLy provlded LhaL lL ls noL conLrary Lo law and
musL noL vlolaLe Lhe legal and reglemenLary
provlslons concernlng funerals and dlsposlLlon of
Lhe remalns (Llme, manner, place or ceremony)
(6) ln Lhe absence of expressed wlshes, hls
rellglous bellefs or afflllaLlon shall deLermlne Lhe
funeral rlghLs.
(7) ln case of doubL, Lhe persons ln ArL. 199 shall
declde.
(8) Any person who dlsrespecLs Lhe dead or
lnLerferes wlLh Lhe funeral shall be llable for
maLerlal and moral damages.

USL CI SUkNAMLS, Ak1S. 364-
369, 369-380

SUkNAMLS CI CnILDkLN
(1) LeglLlmaLe and leglLlmaLed chlldren shall
prlnclpally use Lhe surname of Lhe faLher. [ArL. 364]
(2) An adopLed chlld shall bear Lhe surname of Lhe
adopLer. [ArL. 363]
(3) A naLural chlld acknowledged by boLh parenLs
shall prlnclpally use Lhe surname of Lhe faLher. lf
recognlzed by only one of Lhe parenLs, a naLural
chlld shall employ Lhe surname of Lhe recognlzlng
parenL. [ArL 366]
(4) naLural chlldren by legal flcLlon shall prlnclpally
employ Lhe surname of Lhe faLher [ArL. 367]
(3) llleglLlmaLe chlldren referred Lo ln ArLlcle 287
shall bear Lhe surname of Lhe moLher. [ArL 368]
(6) Chlldren concelved before Lhe decree annulllng
a voldable marrlage shall prlnclpally use Lhe
surname of Lhe faLher. [ArL. 369]

WIIL AI1Lk AND DUkING MAkkIAGL
(1) A marrled woman may use [ArL. 370]:
(a) Per malden flrsL name and surname and
add her husband's surname, or
(b) Per malden flrsL name and her
husband's surname or
(c) Per husband's full name, buL preflxlng a
word lndlcaLlng LhaL she ls hls wlfe, such as
"Mrs."
[1olenLlno:] 1he wlfe cannoL clalm an excluslve
rlghL Lo use Lhe husband's surname. She can'L be
prevenLed from uslng lL, buL nelLher can she
resLraln oLhers from uslng lL.
(2) ln case of annulmenL of marrlage, and Lhe wlfe
ls Lhe gullLy parLy, she shall resume her malden
name and surname. lf she ls Lhe lnnocenL spouse,
she may resume her malden name and surname.
Powever, she may choose Lo conLlnue employlng
her former husband's surname, unless [ArL. 371]:
(a) 1he courL decrees oLherwlse, or
(b) She or Lhe former husband ls marrled
agaln Lo anoLher person.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(3) When legal separaLlon has been granLed, Lhe
wlfe shall conLlnue uslng her name and surname
employed before Lhe legal separaLlon. [ArL. 372]
(4) A wldow may use Lhe deceased husband's
surname as Lhough he were sLlll llvlng, ln
accordance wlLh ArLlcle 370. [ArL 373]

CCNIUSICN AND CnANGL CI NAMLS
ln case of ldenLlLy of names and surnames, Lhe
younger person shall be obllged Lo use such
addlLlonal name or surname as wlll avold
confuslon. [ArL. 374]

ln case of ldenLlLy of names and surnames
beLween ascendanLs and descendanLs, Lhe word
"!unlor" can be used only by a son. Crandsons and
oLher dlrecL male descendanLs shall elLher [ArL.
373]:
(a) Add a mlddle name or Lhe moLher's surname, or
(b) Add Lhe 8oman numerals ll, lll, and so on.
no person can change hls name or surname
wlLhouL [udlclal auLhorlLy. [ArL. 376]
usurpaLlon of a name and surname may be Lhe
sub[ecL of an acLlon for damages and oLher rellef.
[ArL. 377]

CIVIL kLGIS1kAk
A81S. 407-413
ArL. 407. AcLs, evenLs and [udlclal decrees
concernlng Lhe clvll sLaLus of persons shall be
recorded ln Lhe clvll reglsLer.
ArL. 408. 1he followlng shall be enLered ln Lhe clvll
reglsLer:
(1) 8lrLhs,
(2) marrlages,
(3) deaLhs,
(4) legal separaLlons,
(3) annulmenLs of marrlage,
(6) [udgmenLs declarlng marrlages vold from Lhe
beglnnlng,
(7) leglLlmaLlons,
(8) adopLlons,
(9) acknowledgmenLs of naLural chlldren,
(10) naLurallzaLlon,
(11) loss, or
(12) recovery of clLlzenshlp,
(13) clvll lnLerdlcLlon,
(14) [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of flllaLlon,
(13) volunLary emanclpaLlon of a mlnor, and
(16) changes of name.

ArL. 409. ln cases of legal separaLlon, adopLlon,
naLurallzaLlon and oLher [udlclal orders menLloned
ln Lhe precedlng arLlcle, lL shall be Lhe duLy of Lhe
clerk of Lhe courL whlch lssued Lhe decree Lo
ascerLaln wheLher Lhe same has been reglsLered,
and lf Lhls has noL been done, Lo send a copy of
sald decree Lo Lhe clvll reglsLry of Lhe clLy or
munlclpallLy where Lhe courL ls funcLlonlng.

ArL. 410. 1he books maklng up Lhe clvll reglsLer and
all documenLs relaLlng LhereLo shall be consldered
publlc documenLs and shall be prlma facle
evldence of Lhe facLs Lhereln conLalned.

ArL. 411. Lvery clvll reglsLrar shall be clvllly
responslble for any unauLhorlzed alLeraLlon made
ln any clvll reglsLer, Lo any person sufferlng damage
Lhereby. Powever, Lhe clvll reglsLrar may exempL
hlmself from such llablllLy lf he proves LhaL he has
Laken every reasonable precauLlon Lo prevenL Lhe
unlawful alLeraLlon.

ArL. 412. no enLry ln a clvll reglsLer shall be
changed or correcLed, wlLhouL a [udlclal order.

ArL. 413. All oLher maLLers perLalnlng Lo Lhe
reglsLraLlon of clvll sLaLus shall be governed by
speclal laws.

kA 9048 AS AMLNDLD 8 kA 10172
AN AC1 AU1nCkI2ING 1nL CI1 Ck MUNICIAL
CIVIL kLGIS1kAk Ck 1nL CCNSUL GLNLkAL 1C
CCkkLC1 A CLLkICAL Ck 1CGkAnICAL LkkCk
IN AN LN1k AND]Ck CnANGL CI IIkS1 NAML
Ck NICkNAML IN 1nL CIVIL kLGIS1Lk WI1nCU1
NLLD CI A IUDICIAL CkDLk, AMLNDING ICk 1nIS
UkCSL Ak1ICLLS 376 AND 412 CI 1nL CIVIL
CCDL CI 1nL nILIINLS

Ceneral rule: no enLry ln a clvll reglsLer shall be
changed or correcLed wlLhouL a [udlclal order
LxcepLlon:
(a) Clerlcal or Lypographlcal errors,
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(b) Change of: flrsL name or nlckname, day and
monLh ln Lhe daLe of blrLh, or sex of a person
1hls excepLlon applles where lL ls paLenLly clear
LhaL Lhere was a clerlcal or Lypographlcal error or
mlsLake ln Lhe enLry, whlch can be correcLed or
changed by Lhe concerned clLy or munlclpal clvll
reglsLrar or consul general ln accordance wlLh Lhe
provlslons of Lhls AcL and lLs lmplemenLlng rules
and regulaLlons

noLes:
(a) Clerlcal or Lypographlcal error refers Lo a
mlsLake commlLLed ln Lhe performance of clerlcal
work ln wrlLlng, copylng, Lranscrlblng or Lyplng an
enLry ln Lhe clvll reglsLer LhaL ls harmless and
lnnocuous (l.e. mlsspelled name, mlsspelled place
of blrLh, mlsLake ln Lhe enLry of day and monLh ln
Lhe daLe of blrLh or Lhe sex of Lhe person or Lhe
llke, whlch ls vlslble Lo Lhe eyes or obvlous Lo Lhe
undersLandlng, and can be correcLed or changed
only by reference Lo oLher exlsLlng record or
records)
(b) 8efore Lhe amendmenL by 8A 10172, no
correcLlon musL lnvolve Lhe change of sex,
naLlonallLy, age or sLaLus of Lhe peLlLloner. AfLer
Lhe amendmenL, change of sex can now be
sub[ecLed Lo correcLlon wlLhouL [udlclal order
under Lhe rules of Lhls AcL.
(c) Clvll 8eglsLer refers Lo Lhe varlous reglsLry books
and relaLed cerLlflcaLes and documenLs kepL ln Lhe
archlves of Lhe local clvll reglsLry offlces, hlllpplne
ConsulaLes and of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Clvll 8eglsLrar
Ceneral.

Sec. 3. Who May llle Lhe eLlLlon and Where. -
Any person havlng dlrecL and personal lnLeresL ln
Lhe correcLlon of a clerlcal or Lypographlcal error ln
an enLry and/or change of flrsL name or nlckname
ln Lhe clvll reglsLer may flle, ln person, a verlfled
peLlLlon wlLh Lhe local clvll reglsLry offlce of Lhe clLy
or munlclpallLy where Lhe record belng soughL Lo
be correcLed or changed ls kepL.
ln case Lhe peLlLloner has already mlgraLed Lo
anoLher place ln Lhe counLry and lL would noL be
pracLlcal for such parLy, ln Lerms of LransporLaLlon
expenses, Llme and efforL Lo appear ln person
before Lhe local clvll reglsLrar keeplng Lhe
documenLs Lo be correcLed or changed, Lhe
peLlLlon may be flled, ln person, wlLh Lhe local clvll
reglsLrar of Lhe place where Lhe lnLeresLed parLy ls
presenLly resldlng or domlclled. 1he Lwo (2) local
clvll reglsLrars concerned wlll Lhen communlcaLe Lo
faclllLaLe Lhe processlng of Lhe peLlLlon.
ClLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes who are presenLly
resldlng or domlclled ln forelgn counLrles may flle
Lhelr peLlLlon, ln person, wlLh Lhe nearesL
hlllpplne ConsulaLes.
1he peLlLlons flled wlLh Lhe clLy or munlclpal clvll
reglsLrar or Lhe consul general shall be processed ln
accordance wlLh Lhls AcL and lLs lmplemenLlng
rules and regulaLlons.
All peLlLlons for Lhe clerlcal or Lypographlcal errors
and/or change of flrsL names or nlcknames may be
avalled of only once.

GkCUNDS
Who may flle Lhe peLlLlon and where?
(1) Any person havlng dlrecL personal lnLeresL ln
Lhe correcLlon of a clerlcal or Lypographlcal error ln
an enLry and/or change of flrsL name or nlckname
ln Lhe clvll reglsLer
(2) verlfled peLlLlon wlLh Lhe local clvll reglsLry
offlce of Lhe clLy or munlclpallLy
(a) where Lhe record belng soughL Lo be
correcLed or changed ls kepL
(b) where Lhe lnLeresLed parLy ls presenLly
resldlng or domlclled, lf lL wlll be lmpracLlcal
Lo submlL ln Lhe place where record ls kepL
(l.e. when parLy has mlgraLed Lo anoLher
place ln Lhe counLry
(c) nearesL hlllpplne ConsulaLes, lf Lhe
peLlLloner ls presenLly resldlng or domlclled
ln forelgn counLrles

noLe: All peLlLlons for Lhe clerlcal or Lypographlcal
errors and/or change of flrsL names or nlcknames
may be avalled of only once.

Sec. 4. Crounds for Change of llrsL name or
nlckname. - 1he peLlLlon for change of flrsL name
or nlckname may be allowed ln any of Lhe
followlng cases:
(1) 1he peLlLloner flnds Lhe flrsL name or nlckname
Lo be rldlculous, LalnLed wlLh dlshonor or
exLremely dlfflculL Lo wrlLe or pronounce.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(2) 1he new flrsL name or nlckname has been
hablLually and conLlnuously used by Lhe peLlLloner
and he has been publlcly known by LhaL by LhaL
flrsL name or nlckname ln Lhe communlLy: or
(3) 1he change wlll avold confuslon.

Sec. 3. lorm and ConLenLs of Lhe eLlLlon. - 1he
peLlLlon for correcLlon of a clerlcal or Lypographlcal
error, or for change of flrsL name or nlckname, as
Lhe case may be, shall be ln Lhe form of an
affldavlL, subscrlbed and sworn Lo before any
person auLhorlzed by Lhe law Lo admlnlsLer oaLhs.
1he affldavlL shall seL forLh facLs necessary Lo
esLabllsh Lhe merlLs of Lhe peLlLlon and shall show
afflrmaLlvely LhaL Lhe peLlLloner ls compeLenL Lo
LesLlfy Lo Lhe maLLers sLaLed. 1he peLlLloner shall
sLaLe Lhe parLlcular erroneous enLry or enLrles,
whlch are soughL Lo be correcLed and/or Lhe
change soughL Lo be made.

1he peLlLlon shall be supporLed wlLh Lhe followlng
documenLs:
(1) A cerLlfled Lrue machlne copy of Lhe cerLlflcaLe
or of Lhe page of Lhe reglsLry book conLalnlng Lhe
enLry or enLrles soughL Lo be correcLed or changed.
(2) AL leasL Lwo (2) publlc or prlvaLe documenLs
showlng Lhe correcL enLry or enLrles upon whlch
Lhe correcLlon or change shall be based, and
(3) CLher documenLs whlch Lhe peLlLloner or Lhe
clLy or munlclpal clvll reglsLrar or Lhe consul
general may conslder relevanL and necessary for
Lhe approval of Lhe peLlLlon.

no peLlLlon for correcLlon of erroneous enLry
concernlng Lhe daLe of blrLh or Lhe sex of a person
shall be enLerLalned excepL lf Lhe peLlLlon ls
accompanled by earllesL school record or earllesL
school documenLs such as, buL noL llmlLed Lo,
medlcal records, bapLlsmal cerLlflcaLe and oLher
documenLs lssued by rellglous auLhorlLles, nor shall
any enLry lnvolvlng change of gender correcLed
excepL lf Lhe peLlLlon ls accompanled by a
cerLlflcaLlon lssued by an accredlLed governmenL
physlclan aLLesLlng Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe peLlLloner
has noL undergone sex change or sex LransplanL.
1he peLlLlon for change of flrsL name or nlckname,
or for correcLlon of erroneous enLry concernlng Lhe
day and monLh ln Lhe daLe of blrLh or Lhe
sex of a person, as Lhe case may be, shall be
publlshed aL leasL once a week for Lwo (2)
consecuLlve weeks ln a newspaper of general
clrculaLlon.
lurLhermore, Lhe peLlLloner shall submlL a
cerLlflcaLlon from Lhe approprlaLe law
enforcemenLs, agencles LhaL he has no pendlng
case or no crlmlnal record.
1he peLlLlon and lLs supporLlng papers shall be flled
ln Lhree (3) coples Lo be dlsLrlbuLed as follows: flrsL
copy Lo Lhe concerned clLy or munlclpal clvll
reglsLrar, or Lhe consul general, second copy Lo Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe Clvll 8eglsLrar Ceneral, and Lhlrd copy
Lo Lhe peLlLloner.

kULL 108, kULLS CI CCUk1
CANCLLLA1ICN Ck CCkkLC1ICN CI LN1kILS IN
1nL CIVIL kLGIS1k
Sec. 1. Who may flle peLlLlon. - Any person
lnLeresLed ln any acL, evenL, order or decree
concernlng Lhe clvll sLaLus of persons whlch has
been recorded ln Lhe clvll reglsLer, may flle a
verlfled peLlLlon for Lhe cancellaLlon or correcLlon
of any enLry relaLlng LhereLo, wlLh Lhe CourL of
llrsL lnsLance of Lhe provlnce where Lhe
correspondlng clvll reglsLry ls locaLed.
Sec. 2. LnLrles sub[ecL Lo cancellaLlon or correcLlon.
- upon good and valld grounds, Lhe followlng
enLrles ln Lhe clvll reglsLer may be cancelled or
correcLed: (a) blrLhs, (b) marrlages, (c) deaLhs, (d)
legal separaLlons, (e) [udgmenLs of annulmenLs of
marrlage, (f) [udgmenLs declarlng marrlages vold
from Lhe beglnnlng, (g) leglLlmaLlons, (h)
adopLlons, (l) acknowledgmenLs of naLural
chlldren, ([) naLurallzaLlon (k) elecLlon, loss or
recovery of clLlzenshlp (l) clvll lnLerdlcLlon, (m)
[udlclal deLermlnaLlon of flllaLlon, (n) volunLary
emanclpaLlon of a mlnor, and (o) changes of name.
Sec. 3. arLles. - When cancellaLlon or correcLlon of
an enLry ln Lhe clvll reglsLer ls soughL, Lhe clvll
reglsLrar and all persons who have or clalm any
lnLeresL whlch would be affecLed Lhereby shall be
made parLles Lo Lhe proceedlng.
Sec. 4. noLlce and publlcaLlon. - upon Lhe flllng of
Lhe peLlLlon, Lhe courL shall, by an order, flx Lhe
Llme and place for Lhe hearlng of Lhe same, and
cause reasonable noLlce Lhereof Lo be glven Lo Lhe
persons named ln Lhe peLlLlon. 1he courL shall also
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
cause Lhe order Lo be publlshed once a week for
Lhree (3) consecuLlve weeks ln a newspaper of
general clrculaLlon ln Lhe provlnce.
Sec. 3. CpposlLlon. - 1he clvll reglsLrar and any
person havlng or clalmlng any lnLeresL under Lhe
enLry whose cancellaLlon or correcLlon ls soughL
may, wlLhln flfLeen (13) days from noLlce of Lhe
peLlLlon, or from Lhe lasL daLe of publlcaLlon of
such noLlce, flle hls opposlLlon LhereLo.
Sec. 6. LxpedlLlng proceedlngs. - 1he courL ln whlch
Lhe proceedlng ls broughL may make orders
expedlLlng Lhe proceedlngs, and may also granL
prellmlnary ln[uncLlon for Lhe preservaLlon of Lhe
rlghLs of Lhe parLles pendlng such proceedlngs.
Sec. 7. Crder. - AfLer hearlng, Lhe courL may elLher
dlsmlss Lhe peLlLlon or lssue an order granLlng Lhe
cancellaLlon or correcLlon prayed for. ln elLher
case, a cerLlfled copy of Lhe [udgmenL shall be
served upon Lhe clvll reglsLrar concerned who shall
annoLaLe Lhe same ln hls record.

WnC MA IILL L1I1ICN?
(1) Any person lnLeresLed
(2) Any acL, evenL, order or decree concernlng Lhe
clvll sLaLus of persons whlch has been recorded ln
Lhe clvll reglsLer
(3) verlfled peLlLlon for Lhe cancellaLlon or
correcLlon of any enLry relaLlng LhereLo wlLh Lhe
CourL of llrsL lnsLance of Lhe provlnce where Lhe
correspondlng clvll reglsLry ls locaLed
Ln18lLS Su8!LC1 1C CAnCLLLA1lCn
(a) 8lrLhs
(b) Marrlages
(c) ueaLhs
(d) Legal separaLlons
(e) !udgmenLs of annulmenLs of marrlage
(f) !udgmenLs declarlng marrlages vold
from Lhe beglnnlng
(g) LeglLlmaLlons
(h) AdopLlons
(l) AcknowledgmenLs of naLural chlldren
([) naLurallzaLlon
(k) LlecLlon, loss or recovery of clLlzenshlp
(l) Clvll lnLerdlcLlon
(m) !udlclal deLermlnaLlon of flllaLlon
(n) volunLary emanclpaLlon of a mlnor
(o) Changes of name

LkSCNS AND LkSCNALI1
Concept of ersons
ersonallLy ls Lhe quallLy derlved from belng a
person, lL ls an aLLrlbuLe of persons.

CharacLerlsLlcs-
1. lL ls noL a belng, buL a quallLy of cerLaln belngs.
# lL ls noL a physlcal elemenL, buL a [urldlcal
concepL.
# lL ls noL an ob[ecL of conLracL, or of
possesslon, and cannoL be lmpalred by
agreemenL.
2. lL ls a maLLer of publlc lnLeresL.

CAACI1 1C AC1

CIVIL LkSCNALI1
ArL. 37. !urldlcal capaclLy, whlch ls Lhe flLness Lo be
Lhe sub[ecL of legal relaLlons, ls lnherenL ln every
naLural person and ls losL only Lhrough deaLh.
CapaclLy Lo acL, whlch ls Lhe power Lo do acLs wlLh
legal effecL, ls acqulred and may be losL



!urldlcal CapaclLy CapaclLy Lo AcL
llLness of man Lo be
sub[ecL of legal relaLlons
ower Lo do acLs wlLh
legal effecL
asslve AcLlve
ApLlLude for Lhe Poldlng
and Ln[oymenL of rlghLs
ApLlLude for Lhe Lxerclse
of rlghLs
lnherenL ln every naLural
person
MusL be acqulred
LosL upon deaLh LosL Lhrough deaLh and
oLher causes
Can exlsL wlLhouL capaclLy
Lo acL
MusL exlsL wlLh [urldlcal
capaclLy
CannoL be llmlLed or
resLrlcLed
May be resLrlcLed or
llmlLed

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018

noLe: !urldlcal capaclLy can exlsL even wlLhouL
capaclLy Lo acL, Lhe exlsLence of Lhe laLLer lmplles
LhaL of Lhe former.

kLS1kIC1ICNS CN CAACI1 1C AC1
ArL. 38. MlnorlLy, lnsanlLy or lmbeclllLy, Lhe sLaLe of
belng a deaf-muLe, prodlgallLy and clvll lnLerdlcLlon
are mere resLrlcLlons on capaclLy Lo acL, and do noL
exempL Lhe lncapaclLaLed person from cerLaln
obllgaLlons, as when Lhe laLLer arlse from hls acLs
or from properLy relaLlons, such as easemenLs.

ArL. 39. 1he followlng clrcumsLances, among
oLhers, modlfy or llmlL capaclLy Lo acL: age,
lnsanlLy, lmbeclllLy, Lhe sLaLe of belng a deaf-muLe,
penalLy, prodlgallLy, famlly relaLlons, allenage,
absence, lnsolvency and LrusLeeshlp. 1he
consequences of Lhese clrcumsLances are governed
ln Lhls Code, oLher codes, Lhe 8ules of CourL, and ln
speclal laws.
CapaclLy Lo acL ls noL llmlLed on accounL of
rellglous bellef or pollLlcal oplnlon.
A marrled woman, LwenLy-one years of age or
over, ls quallfled for all acLs of clvll llfe, excepL ln
cases speclfled by law.

Ceneral rule: lncapaclLaLed persons are noL
exempL from cerLaln obllgaLlons arlslng from hls
acLs or properLy relaLlons.

M|nor|ty
8A 6809 (1989): An acL lowerlng Lhe age of
ma[orlLy from LwenLy-one Lo elghLeen years.
Lffects on Contracts
(1) 1hey cannoL glve consenL Lo a conLracL [ArL.
1327 (1)]
(2) A conLracL where one of Lhe parLles ls a mlnor ls
voldable [ArL. 1390(1)]
(3) A conLracL ls unenforceable when boLh of Lhe
parLles are mlnors (lncapable of glvlng consenL)
[ArL. 1403(3)]
(4) MlnorlLy cannoL be asserLed by Lhe oLher parLy
ln an acLlon for annulmenL [ArL. 1397]
(3) noL obllged Lo make resLlLuLlon excepL lnsofar
as he has been beneflLed [ArL. 1399]
(6) Mlnor has no rlghL Lo demand Lhe Lhlng/prlce
volunLarlly reLurned by hlm [ArL. 1426]
(7) Mlnor has no rlghL Lo recover volunLarlly pald
sum or dellvered Lhlng, lf consumed ln good falLh
[ArL. 1427]
(8)MusL pay reasonable amounL for necessarles
dellvered Lo hlm [ArL. 1489]

Mercado v. LsplrlLu, (1918):
LsLoppel works agalnsL mlnors who mlsrepresenL
Lhelr ages ln a conLracL and are compelled Lo
comply wlLh lLs Lerms. (acLlve mlsrepresenLaLlon
done by mlnors).

8ambalan v. Maramba, (1928):
When a mlnor made no acLlve mlsrepresenLaLlon
as Lo hls mlnorlLy and such mlnorlLy ls known Lo
Lhe oLher parLy, Lhe conLracL ls voldable (ArL. 1403)
as Lo Lhe mlnor.

8raganza v. vllla Abrllle, (1939):
Mlnors are obllged Lo make resLlLuLlon lnsofar as
Lhey have been beneflLed (ArL. 1399).

Lffects on Marr|age
(1) May noL yeL conLracL marrlage [ArL. 3, lC].
(2) Marrlages, where one of Lhe parLles ls below
18, even wlLh Lhe consenL of parenLs/guardlans,
are vClu [ArL. 33, lC]

Insan|ty
lnsanlLy lncludes many forms of menLal dlsease,
elLher lnherlLed or acqulred. A person may noL be
lnsane buL only menLally deflclenL (ldlocy,
lmbeclllLy, feeble-mlndedness).

Lffect on Contracts
(1) lncapaclLy Lo glve consenL Lo a conLracL [ArL.
1327(2)]
(2) ConLracLs enLered lnLo durlng lucld lnLervals are
valld [ArL. 1328]
(3) 8esLlLuLlon of beneflLs [ArL. 1399]
(4) voldable lf one of Lhe parLles ls lnsane [ArL.
1390] (3) unenforceable lf boLh of Lhe parLles are
lnsane (ArL. 1403 (3))

Lffect on Cr|mes
(1) Ceneral rule: LxLM1Lu from crlmlnal llablllLy
(2) LxcepLlon: AcLed durlng lucld lnLerval
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Lffect on Marr|age
(1) May be annulled lf elLher parLy was of unsound
mlnd unless Lhe such parLy afLer comlng Lo reason,
freely cohablLed wlLh Lhe oLher [ArL. 43(2), lC]
(2) AcLlon for annulmenL of marrlage musL be flled
by Lhe sane spouse who had no knowledge of Lhe
oLher's lnsanlLy, or by any relaLlve/guardlan of Lhe
lnsane before Lhe deaLh of elLher parLy, or by Lhe
lnsane spouse durlng a lucld lnLerval or afLer
regalnlng sanlLy [ArL. 47(2), lC]

State of 8e|ng Deaf-Mute
(1) CannoL glve consenL Lo a conLracL lf he/she also
does noL know how Lo wrlLe (ArL. 1327(2), CC)
(2) Can make a valld WlLL, provlded: he musL
personally read Lhe wlll. 1he conLenLs of Lhe same
have elLher been read personally by hlm or
oLherwlse communlcaLed Lo hlm by 2 persons (ArL.
807, CC)
(3) CannoL be a wlLness Lo Lhe execuLlon of a wlll
(ArL. 820, CC)
(4) voldable lf one of Lhe parLles ls deaf-muLe and
does noL know how Lo wrlLe
(3) unenforceable lf boLh of Lhe parLles are deaf-
muLes and does noL know how Lo wrlLe

rod|ga||ty

MarLlnez v. MarLlnez, (1902):
A spendLhrlfL or a prodlgal ls a person, who, by
excesslve drlnklng, gambllng, ldleness or
debauchery of any klnd shall so spend, wasLe or
lessen hls esLaLe as Lo expose hlmself or hls famlly
Lo wanL or sufferlng." 1he acLs of prodlgallLy musL
show a morbld sLaLe of mlnd.

noLe: lL ls noL Lhe clrcumsLance of prodlgallLy, buL
Lhe facL of belng under guardlanshlp LhaL resLrlcLs
capaclLy Lo acL.

C|v|| |nterd|ct|on
(1) lL ls an accessory penalLy lmposed upon
persons who are senLenced Lo a prlnclpal penalLy
noL lower Lhan recluslon Lemporal (ArL. 41, 8C).
(2) Cffender ls deprlved of rlghLs of parenLal
auLhorlLy, or guardlanshlp, of marlLal auLhorlLy, of
Lhe rlghL Lo manage hls properLy and of Lhe rlghL Lo
dlspose of such (ArL. 34, 8C)
(3) lor Lhe valldlLy of marrlage seLLlemenLs, Lhe
parLlclpaLlon of Lhe guardlan shall be lndlspensable
(ArL. 123)

Iam||y re|at|ons
(1) !usLlfylng clrcumsLance lf acLed ln defense of
person/rlghLs of spouse, ascendanLs, descendanLs,
broLhers/slsLers, and oLher relaLlves up Lo Lhe 4
Lh
clvll degree [ArL. 11(2), 8C]
(2) MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance lf acLed ln Lhe
lmmedlaLe vlndlcaLlon of a grave offense/felony
commlLLed agalnsL hls spouse, ascendanLs or
relaLlves of Lhe same clvll degree [ArL. 13(3), 8C]
(3) lncesLuous and vold marrlages:
(a) 8eLween ascendanLs and descendanLs of
any degree,
(b) 8eLween broLhers and slsLers, wheLher
full or half-blood. [ArL. 37, lC]
(4) uonaLlons/granLs of graLulLous advanLage
beLween spouses durlng Lhe marrlage shall be
vClu, excepL moderaLe glfLs durlng famlly
occaslons [ArL. 87, lC]
(3) uescendanLs cannoL be compelled Lo LesLlfy ln
a crlmlnal case, agalnsL hls parenLs and
grandparenLs
(a) unLLSS: crlme was agalnsL Lhe
descendanL
C8 by one parenL agalnsL Lhe oLher [ArL.
213,
lC]
(6) Spouses cannoL sell properLy Lo each oLher,
excepL:
(a) AbsoluLe separaLlon ls agreed upon ln
Lhe marrlage seLLlemenLs
(b) !udlclal separaLlon of properLy [ArL.
1490]

Absence
ArL. 390. AfLer an absence of seven years, lL belng
unknown wheLher or noL Lhe absenLee sLlll llves, he
shall be presumed dead for all purposes, excepL for
Lhose of successlon.
1he absenLee shall noL be presumed dead for Lhe
purpose of openlng hls successlon Llll afLer an
absence of Len years. lf he dlsappeared afLer Lhe
age of sevenLy-flve years, an absence of flve years
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
shall be sufflclenL ln order LhaL hls successlon may
be opened. (n)

ArL. 391. 1he followlng shall be presumed dead for
all purposes, lncludlng Lhe dlvlslon of Lhe esLaLe
among Lhe helrs:
1. A person on board a vessel losL durlng a sea
voyage, or an aeroplane whlch ls mlsslng, who has
noL been heard of for four years slnce Lhe loss of
Lhe vessel or aeroplane,
2. A person ln Lhe armed forces who has Laken parL
ln war, and has been mlsslng for four years,
3. A person who has been ln danger of deaLh under
oLher clrcumsLances and hls exlsLence has noL been
known for four years.
ArLlcle 124, lC:
(1) AdmlnlsLraLlon and en[oymenL of Lhe CC shall
belong Lo boLh spouses [olnLly.
(2) ln case of dlsagreemenL, husband's declslon
shall prevall, sub[ecL Lo recourse Lo Lhe courL by
Lhe wlfe for proper remedy (wlLhln 3 years from
daLe of conLracL lmplemenLlng such declslon)
(3) lf one spouse ls lncapaclLaLed/unable Lo
admlnlsLer, sole powers of admlnlsLraLlon may be
assumed by Lhe oLher spouse.
(4) Ceneral 8ule: 1hls power
dlsposlLlon/encumbrance.

LxcepLlon: !udlclal auLhorlLy or wrlLLen consenL of
oLher spouse.

8|rth

Ceneral 8ule: 8lrLh deLermlnes personallLy [ArL.
40]. ueaLh exLlngulshes clvll personallLy [ArL. 42].
LxcepLlon: A concelved chlld shall be consldered
born for all purposes LhaL are lAvC8A8LL Lo lL,
provlded lL be born laLer" [ArL. 40, 2nd clause] wlLh
Lhe followlng clrcumsLances:


8lrLh = compleLe removal of Lhe feLus from Lhe
moLher's womb, before blrLh, a feLus ls merely parL
of Lhe moLher's lnLernal organs.

ersonallLy of Concelved Chlld
(1) LlmlLed = only for purposes lAvC8A8LL Lo lL.
(2) CondlLlonal = lL depends upon Lhe chlld
belng born allve laLer.

erlod of ConcepLlon = Lhe flrsL 120 days of Lhe 300
days precedlng Lhe blrLh of Lhe chlld.
A concelved chlld can acqulre rlghLs whlle sLlll ln
Lhe moLher's womb. lL can lnherlL by wlll or by
lnLesLacy.

Celuz v CA, (1961):
An aborLed feLus had condlLlonal personallLy buL
never acqulred legal rlghLs/clvll personallLy
because lL was noL allve aL Lhe Llme of dellvery
from Lhe moLher's womb. no damages can be
clalmed ln behalf of Lhe unborn chlld.

CompleLe resplraLlon = LesL/slgn of lndependenL
llfe

Death

ArL. 42. Clvll personallLy ls exLlngulshed by deaLh.
1he effecL of deaLh upon Lhe rlghLs and obllgaLlons
of Lhe deceased ls deLermlned by law, by conLracL
and by wlll
Crlmlnal llablllLy ends wlLh deaLh 8u1 clvll llablllLy
may be charged agalnsL Lhe esLaLe [eople v. 1lrol,
(1981)].

ArL. 43. lf Lhere ls a doubL, as beLween Lwo or more
persons who are called Lo succeed each oLher, as
Lo whlch of Lhem dled flrsL, whoever alleges Lhe
deaLh of one prlor Lo Lhe oLher, shall prove Lhe
same, ln Lhe absence of proof, lL ls presumed LhaL
Lhey dled aL Lhe same Llme and Lhere shall be no
Lransmlsslon of rlghLs from one Lo Lhe oLher.

noLe: ArLlcle 43 provldes a sLaLuLory presumpLlon
when Lhere ls doubL on Lhe order of deaLh
beLween persons who are called Lo succeed each
oLher (only).
lnLra-
uLerlne Llfe
When Consldered 8orn
7 monLhs
or more
Allve upon dellvery
Less Lhan 7
monLhs
Allve only afLer compleLlon of 24
hours from dellvery
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
1he sLaLuLory presumpLlon of ArLlcle 43 was noL
applled due Lo Lhe presence of a credlble
eyewlLness as Lo who dled flrsL [!oaquln v. navarro,
(1948)]

compote Att. 4J wltb kole 1J1, 5ec. J (jj),
ptesomptloo of 5otvlvotsblp.

ArLlcle 43 8ule 131, SecLlon 3 ([[)
Cnly use Lhe presumpLlons when Lhere are no facLs Lo
geL lnferences from
Cnly use for successlon
purposes
CannoL be used for
successlon purposes
ln any clrcumsLance Cnly durlng deaLh ln
calamlLles, wreck, baLLle
or conflagraLlon

9"/8=A6#7)0 )( *="B7B)"8@76 70 #@/ C=2/8 )( D)="#
EC=2/ FGF4 8/<$ G4 E::$H
Age resumed Survlvor
8oLh under 13 Clder
8oLh above 60 ?ounger
Cne under 13, Lhe oLher
above 60
Cne under 13
8oLh over 13 and under
60, dlfferenL sexes
Male
8oLh over 13 and under
60, same sex
Clder
Cne under 13 or over 60,
Lhe oLher beLween Lhose
ages
Cne beLween 13 and 60

Iur|d|ca| ersons
Iur|d|ca| ersons (Art 44, C|v|| Code)
1. 1he SLaLe and lLs ollLlcal subdlvlslons,
2. CLher CorporaLlons, lnsLlLuLlons and
LnLlLles for publlc lnLeresL or purpose,
creaLed by law,
3. CorporaLlons, arLnershlps, and
AssoclaLlons for prlvaLe lnLeresL or purpose
Lo whlch Lhe law granLs a [urldlcal
personallLy.
Covernlng Laws (ArL 43, Clvll Code)-
!urldlcal
erson
Coverned by
1. SLaLe
ConsLlLuLlon (deflnes lLs
organlzaLlon and llmlLs lLs rlghLs vls-
a-vls clLlzens)
2. ollLlcal
Subdlvlslon
CharLer creaLlng Lhem
3. ubllc
CorporaLlon
CharLer creaLlng Lhem
4. rlvaLe
CorporaLlon
CorporaLlon Code, ArLlcles of
lncorporaLlon and 8y-Laws
3. arLnershlps
SLlpulaLlons of Lhe parLles and
suppleLorlly by Lhe general
provlslons on parLnershlp of Lhe
Clvll Code

8ules-
1. !urldlcal persons may acqulre and possess
properLy of all klnds, lncur obllgaLlons, and
brlng clvll or crlmlnal acLlons (ArL. 46, CC)
2. upon dlssoluLlon of corporaLlons or
lnsLlLuLlons and oLher enLlLles for publlc
lnLeresL, Lhelr properLy and asseLs shall be
dlsposed of ln pursuance of Lhe law or
charLer creaLlng Lhem. (ArL. 47, CC)


DCMICILL AND kLSIDLNCL CI LkSCN ICk
NA1UkAL LkSCNS:
1he place of Lhelr bobltool teslJeoce [Att. 50]

ICk IUkIDICAL LkSCNS:
1he place where Lhelr legal represenLaLlon ls
esLabllshed, or where Lhey exerclse tbelt ptlmoty
fooctloos, unless Lhere ls o low ot otbet ptovlsloo
LhaL flxes Lhe domlclle [Att. 51]
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018

DCMICILL VS. kLSIDLNCL
Whlle domlclle ls permanenL (Lhere ls lnLenL Lo
remaln), resldence ls Lemporary and may be
changed anyLlme (Lhere ls no necessary lnLenL Lo
remaln).

kLUISI1LS CI DCMICILL [D122/:) B$ I/"1]
(1) lbyslcol lteseoce lo o flxeJ ploce
(2) lnLenL Lo remaln permanenLly (oolmos
mooeoJl)

kINDS CI DCMICILL
(1) uomlclle of Crlgln - domlclle of parenLs of a
person aL Lhe Llme he was born.
(2) uomlclle of Cholce
(a) uomlclle chosen by a person, changlng
hls domlclle of orlgln.
(b) A 3rd requlslLe ls necessary - lnLenLlon
noL Lo reLurn Lo one's domlclle as hls
permanenL place.
(3) uomlclle by CperaLlon of Law (l.e., ArLlcle 69,
domlclle of mlnor)
(a) A marrled woman does noL lose her
domlclle Lo her husband. (8omualdez-
Marcos vs. Comelec (1993))
LIILC1 AND ALICA1ICN CI
LAWS

1he Clvll Code Look effecL on AugusL 30, 1930

WnLN LAWS 1AkL LIILC1
ArL. 2. Laws shall Lake effecL afLer flfLeen days
followlng Lhe compleLlon of Lhelr
publlcaLlon ln Lhe Cfflclal CazeLLe, unless lL ls
oLherwlse provlded. 1hls Code shall Lake effecL one
year afLer such publlcaLlon. (1a)

1anada v. 1uvera (1986):
(a) 1he clause "unless lL ls oLherwlse provlded"
refers Lo Lhe daLe of effecLlvlLy and noL Lo Lhe
requlremenL of publlcaLlon lLself, whlch cannoL ln
any evenL be omlLLed.
(b) ubllcaLlon ls lndlspensable ln every case, buL
Lhe leglslaLure may ln lLs dlscreLlon provlde LhaL
Lhe usual flfLeen-day perlod shall be shorLened or
exLended.
(c) LxCL1lCn: lnLerpreLaLlve regulaLlons and
Lhose lnLernal ln naLure

naLlonal ower CorporaLlon v. lnaLubo
1he equal proLecLlon clause means "no class or
class of persons should be deprlved of Lhe same
proLecLlon of laws should ls en[oyed by oLher
classes ln Lhe same place and ln llke
clrcumsLances." lL ls noL vlolaLed as long as lL ls
based ln a reasonable classlflcaLlon. lL does noL
preclude classlflcaLlon of lndlvlduals who may be
accorded dlfferenL LreaLmenL under Lhe law as long
as Lhe classlflcaLlon ls reasonable and noL arblLrary.

naLlonal LlecLrlflcaLlon v. Conzaga
When lL ls noL a mere lnLernal ln memorandum,
lnLerpreLaLlve ln naLure, or lnsLrucLlons Lo
subordlnaLes, Lhen lL needs Lo be publlshed ln Lhe
Cfflclal CazeLLe. 8ecause LCLC affecLs all elecLrlc
cooperaLlves ln Lhe counLry and Lhe publlc... And
slnce lL dld noL comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of
publlcaLlon, Lhen Lhe Supreme CourL held lL as
lnvalld.


IGNCkANCL CI 1nL LAW

ArL. 3. lgnorance of Lhe law excuses no one from
compllance LherewlLh. (2)
(a) Concluslve resumpLlon - 1haL everyone knows
Lhe law, even lf Lhey have no acLual knowledge of
Lhe law
(b) MlsLake of lacL & ulfflculL CuesLlons of Law -
1hese may excuse a parLy from Lhe legal
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
consequences of hls conducL, buL noL lgnorance of
law.
(c) ln speclflc lnsLances provlded by law, mlsLake as
Lo dlfflculL legal quesLlons has been glven Lhe same
effecL as a mlsLake of facL. (1olenLlno)
(d) 1he laws referred Lo by Lhls arLlcle are Lhose of
Lhe hlllpplnes. 1here ls no concluslve presumpLlon
of knowledge of forelgn laws. (1olenLlno)

ulego v. CasLlllo
Lrror commlLLed by respondenL !udge belng gross
and paLenL, Lhe same consLlLuLes lgnorance of Lhe
law of a naLure sufflclenL Lo warranL dlsclpllnary
acLlon.


kL1kCAC1IVI1 CI LAWS

ArL. 4. Laws shall have no reLroacLlve effecL, unless
Lhe conLrary ls provlded. (3)
Ceneral 8ule: All sLaLuLes are Lo be consLrued as
havlng only prospecLlve operaLlon

LxcepLlons
(1) When Lhe law lLself expressly provldes
LxcepLlons Lo LxcepLlon:
(a) Lx posL facLo law
(b) lmpalrmenL of conLracL
(2) ln case of remedlal sLaLuLes
(3) ln case of curaLlve sLaLuLes
(4) ln case of laws lnLerpreLlng oLhers
(3) ln case of laws creaLlng new rlghLs [8ona v.
8rlones (1918)]
(6) enal Laws favorable Lo Lhe accused

8epubllc v. Mlller
Amerlcan spouses wanLed Lo adopL a llllplno chlld,
submlLLed Lhe peLlLlon for adopLlon on !uly 29,
1988 before AugusL 3, 1988 when Lhe lamlly code
Look effecL prohlblLlng allens Lo adopL llllplno
chlldren. 1he adopLlon peLlLlon can sLlll be
conLlnued slnce lL was submlLLed before Lhe lamlly
Code Look effecL. Slnce Lhey acqulred vesLed rlghLs
whlch could noL be affecLed by Lhe subsequenL
enacLmenL of a law dlsquallfylng Lhem.

valdez v. 8epubllc
AngellLa valdez marrled Soflo ln 1971. ln 1973,
Lhey boLh agreed parL ways and AngellLa haven'L
heard of Soflo slnce Lhen. AngellLa marrled vlrglllo
ln 1983.
vlrglllo's appllcaLlon for naLurallzaLlon ln uS was
denled because peLlLloner's marrlage wlLh Soflo
was subslsLlng. Pence, ln March 2007, peLlLloner
flled a peLlLlon seeklng declaraLlon of presumpLlve
deaLh of Soflo. 1he courL ruled LhaL no decree on
Lhe presumpLlon of Soflo's deaLh ls necessary
because Clvll Code governs durlng 1971 and noL
lamlly Code where aL leasL 7 consecuLlve years of
absence ls only needed. 1hus, peLlLloner was
capaclLaLed Lo marry vlrglllo and Lhelr marrlage ls
legal and valld.


AC1S CCN1kAk 1C LAW

ArL. 3. AcLs execuLed agalnsL Lhe provlslons of
mandaLory or prohlblLory laws shall be vold, excepL
when Lhe law lLself auLhorlzes Lhelr valldlLy. (4a)

WAIVLk CI kIGn1S

ArL. 6. 8lghLs may be walved, unless Lhe walver ls
conLrary Lo law, publlc order, publlc pollcy, morals,
or good cusLoms, or pre[udlclal Lo a Lhlrd person
wlLh a rlghL recognlzed by law. (4a)

Walver - Lhe rellnqulshmenL of a known rlghL wlLh
boLh knowledge of lLs exlsLence and an lnLenLlon Lo
rellnqulsh lL. [orLland v. Splllman]

LxcepLlons:
(1) lf Lhe walver ls conLrary Lo law, publlc order,
publlc pollcy, morals or good cusLoms
(2) lf Lhe walver pre[udlces a Lhlrd person
(3) lf Lhe alleged rlghLs do noL yeL exlsL
(4) lf Lhe rlghL ls a naLural rlghL

kLLAL CI LAWS

ArL. 7. Laws are repealed only by subsequenL ones,
and Lhelr vlolaLlon or non-observance shall noL be
excused by dlsuse, or cusLom or pracLlce Lo Lhe
conLrary.
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
When Lhe courLs declared a law Lo be lnconslsLenL
wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon, Lhe former shall be vold and
Lhe laLLer shall govern.
AdmlnlsLraLlve or execuLlve acLs, orders and
regulaLlons shall be valld only when Lhey are noL
conLrary Lo Lhe laws or Lhe ConsLlLuLlon. (3a)
1WC klnuS Cl 8LLAL Cl LAW [1olenLlno]
(1) Lxpress or ueclared - conLalned ln a speclal
provlslon of a subsequenL law
(2) lmplled or 1aclL - Lakes place when Lhe
provlslons of Lhe subsequenL law are lncompaLlble
or lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhose of an earller law.

IUDICIAL DLCISICNS

ArL. 8. !udlclal declslons applylng or lnLerpreLlng
Lhe laws or Lhe ConsLlLuLlon shall form a parL of Lhe
legal sysLem of Lhe hlllpplnes. (n)
(a) !urlsprudence cannoL be consldered as an
lndependenL source of law, lL cannoL creaLe law. (1
Camus 38 as clLed ln 1olenLlno)
(b) 8uL Lhe CourL's lnLerpreLaLlon of a sLaLuLe
consLlLuLes parL of Lhe law as of Lhe daLe lL was
orlglnally passed slnce Lhe CourL's consLrucLlon
merely esLabllshes conLemporaneous leglslaLlve
lnLenL LhaL Lhe lnLerpreLed law carrled lnLo effecL.
[Senarlllos v. Permoslslma (1936)]

DU1 1C kLNDLk IUDGMLN1

ArL. 9. no [udge or courL shall decllne Lo render
[udgmenL by reason of Lhe sllence, obscurlLy or
lnsufflclency of Lhe laws. (6)

LxcepLlon:
1hls arLlcle does noL apply Lo crlmlnal prosecuLlons
because where Lhere ls no law punlshlng an acL,
Lhe case musL be dlsmlssed. [1olenLlno]

kLSUM1ICN AND ALICA8ILI1 CI CUS1CM

ArL. 10. ln case of doubL ln Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon or
appllcaLlon of laws, lL ls presumed LhaL Lhe
lawmaklng body lnLended rlghL and [usLlce Lo
prevall. (n)

ArL. 11. CusLoms whlch are conLrary Lo law, publlc
order or publlc pollcy shall noL be counLenanced.
(n)

ArL. 12. A cusLom musL be proved as a facL,
accordlng Lo Lhe rules of evldence. (n)

LLGAL LkICDS

ArL. 13. When Lhe laws speak of years, monLhs,
days or nlghLs, lL shall be undersLood LhaL years are
of Lhree hundred slxLy-flve days each, monLhs, of
LhlrLy days, days, of LwenLy-four hours, and nlghLs
from sunseL Lo sunrlse.
lf monLhs are deslgnaLed by Lhelr name, Lhey shall
be compuLed by Lhe number of days whlch Lhey
respecLlvely have.
ln compuLlng a perlod, Lhe flrsL day shall be
excluded, and Lhe lasL day lncluded. (7a)

CLIC CN LAS1 DA 8LING A LLGAL
nCLIDA]SUNDA
(a) lf Lhe perlod arlses by sLaLuLe or orders by Lhe
governmenL, Lhe lasL day wlll auLomaLlcally be
consldered Lhe nexL worklng day
(b) lf Lhe perlod arlses from a conLracLual
relaLlonshlp, Lhe acL wlll sLlll be due on LhaL Legal
Pollday/Sunday

ALICA8ILI1 CI LNAL LAWS
ArL. 14. enal laws and Lhose of publlc securlLy and
safeLy shall be obllgaLory upon all who llve or
so[ourn ln Lhe hlllpplne LerrlLory, sub[ecL Lo Lhe
prlnclples of publlc lnLernaLlonal law and Lo LreaLy
sLlpulaLlons. (8a)

LkLM1ICNS UNDLk IN1LkNA1ICNAL LAW
(1nLCk CI Lk1kA1LkkI1CkIALI1):
(1) When Lhe offense ls commlLLed by a forelgn
soverelgn whlle ln hlllpplne LerrlLory
(2) When Lhe offense ls commlLLed by dlplomaLlc
represenLaLlves
(3) When Lhe offense ls commlLLed ln a publlc or
armed vessel of a forelgn counLry.

CCNILIC1 CI LAWS
CCNILIC1 CI LAWS] kIVA1L IN1LkNA1ICNAL
LAW
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(a) lL ls a branch or parL of hlllpplne Law whlch
regulaLes Lhe appllcaLlon of forelgn law wlLhln
hlllpplne [urlsdlcLlon ln Lhe resoluLlon of cases
lnvolvlng forelgn elemenLs.
(b) lL ls LhaL parL of munlclpal law whlch governs
cases lnvolvlng a forelgn elemenL.
(c) rlvaLe lnLernaLlonal Law ls more commonly
known ln oLher [urlsdlcLlons as confllcL of laws

SCu8CLS
(1) Codes and sLaLuLes
(2) 1reaLles and lnLernaLlonal convenLlons
(3) 1reaLlses, commenLarles, and sLudles of
learned socleLles
(4) !udlclal declslons

LxAMLLS Cl CCnlLlC1 Cl LAW 8uLLS ln 1PL
PlLllnLS
(1) ArL. 13 CC: Lex aLrlae
(2) ArL. 1231 (par. 3) CC: Lex uomlclll
(3) ArL. 16 CC: Lex SlLus/ Lex 8el SlLae
(4) ArL. 17 (par. 1) CC: Lex Locl ConLracLus (3) ArL.
71 CC: Lex Locl CelebraLlonls
(3) ArL. 26 (par. 1) lC: Lex Locl CelebraLlonls (7) ArL.
1306 CC: Lex Locl lnLenLlonls

ArL. 13. Laws relaLlng Lo famlly rlghLs and duLles, or
Lo Lhe sLaLus, condlLlon and legal capaclLy of
persons are blndlng upon clLlzens of Lhe
hlllpplnes, even Lhough llvlng abroad. (9a)
MosL clvll law counLrles such as Lhe hlllpplnes
follow Lhe naLlonal Law 1heory:
lL ls Lhe naLlonallLy or clLlzenshlp of Lhe lndlvldual,
whlch regulaLes Lhe followlng:
(a) Clvll sLaLus
(b) CapaclLy
(c) CondlLlon
(d) lamlly rlghLs and duLles
(e) Laws on Successlon
(f) CapaclLy Lo succeed

Accordlng Lo Lhe Supreme CourL, lL ls a confllcL of
laws Lheory by vlrLue of whlch [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe
parLlcular sub[ecL maLLer affecLlng a person ls
deLermlned by Lhe laLLer's naLlonallLy. [Lllls vs.
8epubllc (1963)]


kULL CN kCLk1
ConLrolllng Law - Lex SlLus/Lex 8el SlLae
Ceneral 8ule: 8eal and ersonal roperLy ls sub[ecL
Lo Lhe law of Lhe counLry where lL ls slLuaLed (ArL.
16)
AppllcaLlon of Lhe uocLrlne of Lex SlLus/Lex 8el
SlLae
(1) 1he capaclLy Lo Lransfer or acqulre properLy ls
governed by Lex SlLus.
noLe: 1ransfer of properLy Lo a forelgner
who subsequenLly became a llllplno clLlzen
shall be recognlzed [LlanLlno v Co Llong
Chong]
(2) 1he formallLles of a conLracL Lo convey
properLy are governed by Lex SlLus

LxcepLlons Lo Lex SlLus
(1) 1ransacLlons noL AffecLlng 1ransfer of 1lLle or
Cwnershlp of Land: Lex lnLenLlonls or Lex
volunLaLls
(2) ConLracLs where 8eal roperLy Cffered as
SecurlLy: 1he prlnclpal conLracL ls Lhe loan whlle
Lhe morLgage of Lhe land ls only an accessory
(a) MorLgage - Lex SlLus
(b) Loan ConLracL - 8ules on ordlnary
conLracLs
(3) lnLesLaLe and 1esLamenLary Successlon:
lnLesLaLe and LesLamenLary successlons shall be
regulaLed by Lhe naLlonal law of Lhe decedenL, wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe followlng [ArL. 16(2), ArL. 1039]
(a) Crder of successlon
(b) AmounL of successlon rlghLs
(c) lnLrlnslc valldlLy of Lhe LesLamenLary
provlslons
(d) CapaclLy Lo succeed
(4) under a ollcy-cenLered Approach:
lorum courL ls noL bound Lo look Lo Lhe law of Lhe
slLus when Lhe slLus of Lhe movable properLy ls
lnslgnlflcanL or accldenLal
(a) CuesLlons relaLlng Lo Lhe valldlLy and
effecL of
Lhe Lransfer of Lhe movable properLy are
governed by Lhe law of Lhe place of
prlnclpal use
(b) Where Lhe lssue lnvolves conslderaLlons
oLher Lhan Lhe valldlLy and effecL of Lhe
Lransfer lLself, governlng law ls Lhe law of
Lhe sLaLe whlchhasreallnLeresL
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
kULL CN SUCCLSSICN

Lxtr|ns|c Va||d|ty [Arts. 17, 81S-817, CC]
lace of execuLlon Appllcable law
hlllpplnes hlllpplne Law
l
l
l
l
p
l
n
o

1
e
s
L
a
L
o
r

lorelgn CounLry (1) Law of Lhe place
where he may be (lex
locl celebraLlonls) [ArL
813]
(2) hlllpplne law [see lll
1olenLlno 117]
hlllpplnes (1) hlllpplneLaw(ArL.17)
(2) Law of Lhe counLry ln
whlch he ls a clLlzen or
sub[ecL (lex naLlonall)
[ArL.
817]

A
l
l
e
n

1
e
s
L
a
L
o
r

lorelgn CounLry
(ArLs 816, 17)
(1) Law of Lhe place ln
whlch he resldes (lex
domlcllll)
(2) Law of hls counLry
(lex naLlonall)
(3) hlllpplne law
(4) Law of Lhe place
where
Lhey were execuLed (lex
locl celebraLlonls)

noLe: 8ule re: !olnL Wllls
(1) !olnL wllls prohlblLed under ArL. 818 execuLed
by llllplnos ln a forelgn counLry shall noL be valld ln
Lhe hlllpplnes even Lhough auLhorlzed by Lhe laws
of Lhe counLry where Lhey were execuLed. (ArL.
819)
(2) Clvll Code ls sllenL as Lo Lhe valldlLy of a [olnL
wlll execuLed by an allen ln Lhe hlllpplnes. lL ls
suggesLed LhaL lL should noL be probaLed lf lL would
affecL Lhe helrs ln Lhe hlllpplnes.

Intr|ns|c Va||d|ty
lnLesLaLe and LesLamenLary successlons shall be
regulaLed by Lhe naLlonal law of Lhe decedenL, wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe followlng (ArL. 16(2), ArL. 1039)
(1) Crder of successlon
(2) AmounL of successlonal rlghLs
(3) lnLrlnslc valldlLy of Lhe LesLamenLary provlslons
(4) CapaclLy Lo succeed

Interpretat|on of W|||s
Coverned by Lhe naLlonal Law of Lhe decedenL.

kevocat|on
1esLaLor
1esLaLor Appllcable Law
hlllpplne
uomlclllary
Wlll ls revoked ln
Lhe hlllpplnes
non-domlclllary
(ArL. 829)
hlllpplne Law
hlllpplne
uomlclllary
(1) hlllpplne
Law
(2) Law of Lhe
place of
revocaLlon (lex
locl
acLus)
Wlll ls revoked ln
a lorelgn
CounLry
non-domlclllary
(ArL. 829)
(1) law of Lhe
place where
Lhe wlll was
made (2) law of
Lhe place ln
whlch Lhe
LesLaLor had hls
domlclle aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe
revocaLlon


Appllcable Law
robate of w|||s

ConLrolllng Law:
1he probaLe of a wlll belng essenLlally procedural
ln characLer, Lhe law of Lhe forum (lex forl)
governs.
Wllls roved and Allowed ln a lorelgn CounLry
(1) A wlll proved and allowed ln a forelgn counLry
ln accordance wlLh Lhe laws of LhaL counLry may be
allowed, flled, and recorded ln Lhe proper 8eglonal
1rlal CourL ln Lhe hlllpplnes (8uLLS Cl CCu81,
8ule 77, Sec.1)
(2) 8equlslLes for 8eprobaLe [vda de erez v
1oleLe, 232 SC8A 722]
1he followlng musL be proved by compeLenL
evldence:
(a) due execuLlon of Lhe wlll ln accordance
wlLh Lhe forelgn laws
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(b) Lhe LesLaLor had hls domlclle ln Lhe
forelgn counLry and noL ln Lhe hlllpplnes
(c) Lhe wlll has been admlLLed Lo probaLe ln
such counLry
(d) Lhe laws of Lhe forelgn counLry on
procedure and allowance of wllls

Adm|n|strat|on of Lstates

1errlLorlal: governed by Lhe law of Lhe place where
Lhe admlnlsLraLlon Lakes place, and LhaL ls Lhe law
of Lhe counLry from whlch Lhe admlnlsLraLor
derlves hls auLhorlLy.

1rusLs
LxLrlnslc valldlLy: 8ule governlng wllls apply
lnLrlnslc valldlLy: lex slLus slnce a LrusL lnvolves
properLy cf ArL. 17

ArL. 17. 1he forms and solemnlLles of conLracLs,
wllls, and oLher publlc lnsLrumenLs shall be
governed by Lhe laws of Lhe counLry ln whlch Lhey
are execuLed.

When Lhe acLs referred Lo are execuLed before Lhe
dlplomaLlc or consular offlclals of Lhe 8epubllc of
Lhe hlllpplnes ln a forelgn counLry, Lhe solemnlLles
esLabllshed by hlllpplne laws shall be observed ln
Lhelr execuLlon.
rohlblLlve laws concernlng persons, Lhelr acLs or
properLy, and Lhose whlch have, for Lhelr ob[ecL,
publlc order, publlc pollcy and good cusLoms shall
noL be rendered lneffecLlve by laws or [udgmenLs
promulgaLed, or by deLermlnaLlons or convenLlons
agreed upon ln a forelgn counLry. (11a)

kULL CN Lk1kINSIC VALIDI1 CI CCN1kAC1S
Ceneral 8ule: Lex Locl CelebraLlonls

1he forms and solemnlLles of conLracLs xxx shall be
governed by Lhe laws of Lhe counLry ln whlch Lhey
are execuLed [ArL. 17]

noLe:
(1) ConLracLs 8efore ulplomaLlc/ Consular Cfflclals:
1he solemnlLles esLabllshed by hlllpplne laws shall
be observed wlLh respecL Lo conLracLs execuLed
before dlplomaLlc or consular offlclals of
Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes ln a forelgn counLry
[ArL. 17(2), lC]
(2) ConLracLs enLered lnLo by LeLLer/ Cablegram,
eLc.: A conLracL accepLed by leLLer or cablegram ls
presumed Lo have been enLered lnLo Lhe place
where Lhe offer was made. [ArL. 1319(2)]

1hree posslble laws:
(1) Lex Locl ConLracLus (Asked ln 93, 02 8A8
LxAMlnA1lCnS)
(a) Law of Lhe place where Lhe conLracL ls
made
(b) MerlLs
(l) 8elaLlve ease ln esLabllshlng
(ll) CerLalnLy and sLablllLy
(c) uemerlL - un[usL resulLs when place of
maklng enLlrely lncldenLal
noLe: 1o deLermlne where Lhe conLracL ls made,
we look Lo Lhe place where Lhe lasL acL ls done
whlch ls necessary Lo brlng Lhe blndlng agreemenL
lnLo belng so far as Lhe acLs of Lhe parLles are
concerned.
(2) Lex Locl SoluLlonls
(a) Law of Lhe place of performance
governs
(b) MerlL - Always connecLed Lo Lhe
conLracL ln a slgnlflcanL way
(c) uemerlL - noL helpful when Lhe conLracL
ls performed ln 2 or more sLaLes wlLh
confllcLlng laws
(3) Lex Locl lnLenLlonls
(a) Law lnLended by Lhe parLles
(b) 8asls:
1he conLracLlng parLles may esLabllsh such
sLlpulaLlons, clauses, Lerms and condlLlons
as Lhey may deem convenlenL, provlded
Lhey are noL conLrary Lo law, morals, good
cusLoms, publlc order, or publlc pollcy [ArL.
1306]
(c) May be express or lmplled
(l) Lxpress - when Lhe parLles
sLlpulaLe LhaL Lhe conLracL be
governed by a speclflc law, such law
wlll be recognlzed unless Lhere are
cogenL reasons for noL dolng so.
(ll) lmplled
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(a) 8ased on Lhe
conLemporaneous and subsequenL
acLs of Lhe parLles
(b) CfLen upheld wlLh
reference Lo Lhe rule of
valldlLy of conLracLs whlch
presumes LhaL Lhe parLles
conLemplaLe Lo enLer lnLo a
valld conLracL
8oehr v. 8odrlguez
1he lssues on Lhls case ls LhaL wheLher or noL Lhe
dlvorce ln Cermany by Lhe Cerman naLlonal Lo hls
llllplna wlfe ls recognlzed. And Lo whom Lhe
cusLody shall be awarded. As a general rule,
dlvorce decrees obLalned by forelgners ln oLher
counLrles are recognlzable ln our [urlsdlcLlon, buL
Lhe legal effecLs Lhereof, e.g. on cusLody, care and
supporL of Lhe chlldren, musL sLlll be deLermlned
by our courLs. 1he CourL declare LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL
has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe lssue beLween Lhe parLles
as Lo who has parenLal cusLody, lncludlng Lhe care,
supporL and educaLlon of Lhe chlldren. 1he case
was referred back Lo Lhe Lrlal courL for furLher
proceedlng regardlng Lhe cusLody, supporL and
approprlaLe proceedlngs.

ArL. 18. ln maLLers whlch are governed by Lhe Code
of Commerce and speclal laws, Lhelr deflclency
shall be supplled by Lhe provlslons of Lhls Code.

SLCIAL CCNILIC1 CI LAW kULLS

MAkkIAGL
ueflnlLlon:
ArL. 1, lC. Marrlage ls a speclal conLracL of
permanenL unlon beLween a man and a woman
enLered lnLo ln accordance wlLh law for Lhe
esLabllshmenL of con[ugal and famlly llfe. lL ls Lhe
foundaLlon of Lhe famlly and an lnvlolable soclal
lnsLlLuLlon whose naLure, consequences, and
lncldenLs are governed by law and noL sub[ecL Lo
sLlpulaLlon, excepL LhaL marrlage seLLlemenLs may
flx Lhe properLy relaLlons durlng Lhe marrlage
wlLhln Lhe llmlLs provlded by Lhls Code.

Lxtr|ns|c Va||d|ty of Marr|age
(1) lormal 8equlslLes of Marrlage under hlllpplne
Law [ArL. 3, lC]
(a) AuLhorlLy of Lhe solemnlzlng offlcer
(b) valld marrlage llcense excepL ln Lhe
cases provlded for ln ChapLer 2 of 1lLle l
(c) A marrlage ceremony whlch Lakes place
wlLh Lhe appearance of Lhe conLracLlng
parLles before Lhe solemnlzlng offlcer and
Lhelr personal declaraLlon LhaL Lhey Lake
each oLher as husband and wlfe ln Lhe
presence of noL less Lhan Lwo wlLnesses of
legal age.
(2) ueLermlnaLlon of LxLrlnslc valldlLy
ArL. 26, lC. All marrlages solemnlzed ouLslde Lhe
hlllpplnes ln accordance wlLh Lhe laws ln force ln
Lhe counLry where Lhey were solemnlzed, and valld
Lhere as such, shall also be valld ln Lhls counLry. xxx
ArL. 2, Pague ConvenLlon. lormal requlremenLs for
marrlage are governed by Lhe law of Lhe sLaLe of
celebraLlon.
Ceneral 8ule: Lex Locl CelebraLlonls
LxcepLlons: 1he followlng marrlages are vold even
lf valld ln Lhe counLry where celebraLed [ArL. 26,
lC]:
(a) 1hose conLracLed by any parLy below 18 years
of age even wlLh Lhe consenL of parenLs or
guardlans [ArL. 33(1), lC]
(b) 8lgamous or polygamous marrlages noL falllng
under ArL. 41, lC [ArL. 33 (4), lC]
(c) 1hose conLracLed Lhru mlsLake of one
conLracLlng parLy as Lo Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe oLher
[ArL. 33(3), lC]
(d) 1hose subsequenL marrlage wlLhouL recordlng
ln Lhe clvll reglsLry Lhe [udgmenL of annulmenL or
declaraLlon of nulllLy, parLlLlon and dlsLrlbuLlon of
properLles and Lhe dellvery of Lhe chlldren's
presumpLlve leglLlmes [ArL. 33(6), lC]
(e) A marrlage conLracLed by any parLy who, aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe celebraLlon, was psychologlcally
lncapaclLaLed Lo comply wlLh Lhe essenLlal marlLal
obllgaLlons of marrlage, even lf such lncapaclLy
becomes manlfesL only afLer solemnlzaLlon [ArL.
36, lC]
(f) lncesLuous marrlages[ArL.37,lC]
(l) Marrlages beLween ascendanLs and
ascendanLs of any degree, wheLher
leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe, and
(ll) Marrlages beLween broLhers and
slsLers, wheLher of Lhe full or half-blood
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(g) vold marrlages for reasons of publlc pollcy (ArL.
38, lC)
(l) Marrlages beLween collaLeral blood
relaLlves, wheLher leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe,
up Lo Lhe 4
Lh
clvll degree
(ll) Marrlages beLween sLep-parenLs and
sLep- chlldren.
(lll) Marrlages beLween Lhe adopLlng
parenL and adopLed chlld
(lv) Marrlages beLween Lhe survlvlng
spouse of Lhe adopLlng parenL and Lhe
adopLed chlld
(v) Marrlages beLween Lhe survlvlng
spouse of Lhe adopLed chlld and Lhe
adopLer
(vl) Marrlages beLween an adopLed chlld
and a leglLlmaLe chlld of Lhe adopLer
(vll) Marrlages beLween adopLed chlldren
of Lhe same adopLer
(vlll) Marrlages beLween parLles where one,
wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon Lo marry Lhe oLher, kllled
LhaL oLher person's spouse, or hls or her
own spouse.

noLe: 1hese excepLlons puL lnLo lssue Lhe capaclLy
of Lhe parLles Lo enLer lnLo Lhe marrlage and
Lherefore relaLe Lo Lhe subsLanLlve requlremenL for
marrlage and ls governed by lex naLlonalll.

Intr|ns|c Va||d|ty of Marr|age
(refers Lo capaclLy of a person Lo marry)
(1) lnLrlnslc valldlLy ls deLermlned by Lhe parLles'
personal law, whlch may be Lhelr domlclllary or
naLlonal law.
noLe:
(a) Laws relaLlng Lo lamlly rlghLs and duLles,
SLaLus, CondlLlon or Legal capaclLy of persons are
blndlng on clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes, even Lhough
llvlng abroad [ArL. 13]
(b) When elLher or boLh of Lhe conLracLlng parLles
are clLlzens of a forelgn counLry, lL shall be
necessary for Lhem before a marrlage llcense can
be obLalned Lo submlL a cerLlflcaLe of legal capaclLy
Lo conLracL marrlage, lssued by Lhelr respecLlve
dlplomaLlc or consular offlclals [ArL. 21, lC]
(c) Marrlages enumeraLed under ArL. 26(2), lC are
vold even lf valld ln Lhe counLry where celebraLed.
(2) lnLrlnslc requlremenLs of marrlage under
hlllpplne Law [ArL. 2, lC]
(3) 1he Pague ConvenLlon on valldlLy of Marrlages
allows a conLracLlng sLaLe Lo refuse recognlLlon of
Lhe marrlage ln Lhe ff. Cases (C8-M
3
):
(a) Cne of Lhe parLles dld noL freely
ConsenL
(b) Spouses were 8elaLed, by blood or
adopLlon
(c) Cne of Lhe parLles dld noL have Lhe
MenLal capaclLy Lo consenL
(d) Cne of Lhe spouses was already
Marrled
(e) Cne of Lhe parLles has noL aLLalned Lhe
Mlnlmum age, nor acqulred Lhe necessary
dlspensaLlon

noLe:
(1) 8ule on roxy Marrlages:
(a) roxy marrlages, where permlLLed by
Lhe law of Lhe place where Lhe proxy
parLlclpaLes ln Lhe marrlage ceremony, are
enLlLled Lo recognlLlon ln counLrles
adherlng Lo Lhe lex locl celebraLlonls rule, aL
leasL lnsofar as formal valldlLy ls concerned
(b) lnLernal hlllpplne law, however, does
noL sancLlon proxy marrlages.
(2) Consular Marrlages
Marrlages beLween llllplno clLlzens abroad may be
solemnlzed by a consul-general, consul or vlce
consul of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes [ArL. 10,
lC].

Lffects of Marr|age
(1) ersonal relaLlons beLween Lhe spouses
(a) Coverned by Lhe naLlonal law of Lhe
parLles
nC1L: lf Lhe spouses have dlfferenL naLlonallLles,
generally Lhe naLlonal law of Lhe husband may
prevall as long as lL ls noL conLrary Lo law, cusLoms
and good morals of Lhe forum.
(b) under hlllpplne law, personal relaLlons
beLween Lhe spouses lnclude [ArLs. 68, 70-
71, lC]
(l) muLual fldellLy
(ll) respecL
(lll) cohablLaLlon
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
(lv) supporL
(v) rlghL of Lhe wlfe Lo use Lhe
husband's famlly name
(2) roperLy relaLlons
(a) 1he Pague ConvenLlon declares LhaL Lhe
governlng law on maLrlmonlal properLy ls:
(l) 1he lnLernal law deslgnaLed by
Lhe spouses before Lhe marrlage
(ll) ln Lhe absence Lhereof, Lhe
lnLernal law of Lhe sLaLe ln whlch Lhe
spouses flx Lhelr hablLual resldence
(b) 8ule under hlllpplne law [ArL. 80, lC]
(l) ln Lhe absence of a conLrary
sLlpulaLlon ln Lhe marrlage seLLlemenLs, Lhe
properLy relaLlons of Lhe spouses
shall be governed by hlllpplne laws,
regardless of
Lhe place of Lhe celebraLlon of Lhe
marrlage and Lhelr resldence.
(ll) 8ule ls lnappllcable:
(1) lf boLh spouses are allens
(2) WlLh respecL Lo Lhe
exLrlnslc valldlLy of Lhe
conLracLs affecLlng properLy
noL slLuaLed ln Lhe
hlllpplnes and execuLed ln
Lhe counLry where Lhe
properLy ls locaLed
(3) WlLh respecL Lo Lhe
exLrlnslc valldlLy of conLracLs
enLered lnLo ln Lhe
hlllpplnes buL affecLlng
properLy slLuaLed ln a forelgn
counLry whose laws requlre
dlfferenL formallLles for lLs
exLrlnslc valldlLy.
(c) uocLrlne of lmmuLablllLy of MaLrlmonlal
roperLy 8eglme:
1he change of naLlonallLy on Lhe parL of Lhe
husband or wlfe does noL affecL Lhe orlglnal
properLy reglme LxCL1 when Lhe law of
Lhe orlglnal naLlonallLy lLself changes Lhe
marlLal reglme, hence, Lhe properLy reglme
has Lo change accordlngly.




DIVCkCL AND SLAkA1ICN

ku|e under the nague Convent|on
1he granLlng of dlvorce or separaLlon musL comply
wlLh Lhe naLlonal law of Lhe spouses and lex forl
(law of Lhe place where Lhe appllcaLlon for dlvorce
ls made).
ulvorce uecrees CbLalned by llllplnos
Ceneral 8ule: uecrees of absoluLe dlvorce obLalned
by llllplnos abroad have no valldlLy and are noL
recognlzed ln hlllpplne !urlsdlcLlon.
noLe: SLaLuLory 8ases
(a) Laws relaLlng Lo lamlly rlghLs and duLles, or Lo
Lhe SLaLus, CondlLlon and Legal capaclLy of persons
are blndlng upon clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes, even
Lhough llvlng abroad [ArL. 13, CC]
(b) rohlblLlve laws concernlng persons, Lhelr acLs
or properLy, and Lhose whlch have for Lhelr ob[ecL
publlc order, publlc pollcy and good cusLoms, shall
noL be rendered lneffecLlve by laws or [udgmenLs,
or by deLermlnaLlons or convenLlons agreed upon
ln a forelgn counLry. [ArL. 17(3), CC]

LxcepLlon: ArL. 26(2), lC
Where a marrlage beLween a llllplno clLlzen and a
forelgner ls valldly celebraLed and a dlvorce ls
LhereafLer valldly obLalned abroad by Lhe allen
spouse capaclLaLlng hlm or her Lo remarry, Lhe
llllplno spouse shall have capaclLy Lo remarry
under hlllpplne law

van uorn v. 8omlllo, !r. (1983): Cwlng Lo Lhe
naLlonallLy rlnclple, only hlllpplne naLlonals are
covered by Lhe pollcy agalnsL absoluLe dlvorces,
Lhe same belng consldered conLrary Lo our concepL
of publlc pollcy and morallLy. Powever, allens may
obLaln dlvorces abroad, provlded Lhey are valld
accordlng Lo Lhelr naLlonal law.

LlorenLe v. CourL of Appeals (2000): ulvorce
obLalned by eLlLloner from hls flrsL wlfe, afLer he
was admlLLed Lo uS clLlzenshlp, ls valld and
recognlzed ln our [urlsdlcLlon as a maLLer of comlLy.

8epubllc v. Crbecldo (2003): aragraph 2 of ArLlcle
26 should be lnLerpreLed Lo lnclude cases lnvolvlng
parLles who, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe celebraLlon of Lhe
marrlage were llllplno clLlzens, buL laLer on, one of
JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
Lhem becomes naLurallzed as a forelgn clLlzen and
obLalns a dlvorce decree. 1he llllplno spouse
should llkewlse be allowed Lo remarry as lf Lhe
oLher parLy were a forelgner aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
solemnlzaLlon of Lhe marrlage. 1he reckonlng polnL
ls noL Lhe clLlzenshlp of Lhe parLles aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe celebraLlon of Lhe marrlage, buL Lhelr
clLlzenshlp aL Lhe Llme a valld dlvorce ls obLalned
abroad by Lhe allen spouse capaclLaLlng Lhe laLLer
Lo remarry.

Va||d|ty of Iore|gn D|vorce 8etween Iore|gners
(1) A forelgn dlvorce wlll be recognlzed ln all
conLracLlng sLaLes lf, aL Lhe daLe of Lhe lnsLlLuLlon
of Lhe proceedlngs (Pague ConvenLlon on Lhe
8ecognlLlon of ulvorce and Legal SeparaLlon):
(a) elLher spouse had hls hablLual resldence
Lhere,
(b) boLh spouses were naLlonals of LhaL
sLaLe, or (c) lf only Lhe peLlLloner was a
naLlonal, he should have hls hablLual
resldence Lhere
(2)Whlle Lhere ls no provlslon of law requlrlng
hlllpplne courLs Lo recognlze a forelgn dlvorce
decree beLween non-llllplnos such wlll be
recognlzed under Lhe prlnclple of lnLernaLlonal
comlLy, provlded LhaL lL does noL vlolaLe a sLrongly
held pollcy of Lhe hlllpplnes.

ANNULMLN1 AND DLCLAkA1ICN CI NULLI1
Iur|sd|ct|on to Annu|
(1) vesLed ln Lhe courL of Lhe domlclle of Lhe
parLles
(2) !urlsdlcLlon over Lhe non-resldenL defendanL ls
noL essenLlal

Govern|ng Law
(1) Lex locl celebraLlonls -deLermlnes Lhe
consequences of any defecL as Lo form
(2) ln general, Lhe same applles wlLh reference Lo
subsLanLlve or lnLrlnslc valldlLy. 8uL wlLh regard Lo
capaclLy of Lhe parLles Lo marry, naLlonal law ls
deLermlnaLlve.



nUMAN kLLA1ICNS
A8USL CI kIGn1

ArL. 19. Lvery person musL, ln Lhe exerclse of hls
rlghLs and ln Lhe performance of hls duLles, acL
wlLh [usLlce, glve everyone hls due, and observe
honesLy and good falLh.

AC1S CCN1kAk 1C LAW
ArL. 20. Lvery person who, conLrary Lo law, wllfully
or negllgenLly causes damage Lo anoLher, shall
lndemnlfy Lhe laLLer for Lhe same.

AC1S CCN1kA 8CNUS MCkLS
ArL. 21. Any person who wllfully causes loss or
ln[ury Lo anoLher ln a manner LhaL ls conLrary Lo
morals, good cusLoms or publlc pollcy shall
compensaLe Lhe laLLer for Lhe damage.
8reach of promlse Lo marry ls noL an acLlonable
wrong. [ue !esus vs. Syqula, 38 hll., 866]
8u1 damages may be recoverable

Wassmer v. velez (1964): Mere breach of promlse
Lo marry ls noL an acLlonable wrong. 8uL Lo
formally seL a weddlng and go Lhrough all Lhe
above-descrlbed preparaLlon and publlclLy, only Lo
walk ouL of lL when Lhe maLrlmony ls abouL Lo be
solemnlzed, ls qulLe dlfferenL. 1hls ls palpably and
un[usLlflably conLrary Lo good cusLoms for whlch
defendanL musL be held answerable ln damages ln
accordance wlLh ArLlcle 21 aforesald.

8aksh vs. CourL of Appeals (1993): ArLlcle 21 may
also be applled ln a breach of promlse Lo marry
where Lhe woman ls a vlcLlm of moral seducLlon.
Award of damages pursuanL Lo ArLlcle 21 ls
[usLlfled noL because of such promlse Lo marry buL
because of Lhe fraud and decelL behlnd lL and Lhe
wlllful ln[ury Lo her honor and repuLaLlon whlch
followed LhereafLer.

1an[anco v. CourL of Appeals (1966): 1he conducL
of a woman of adulL age, malnLalnlng lnLlmaLe
sexual relaLlons wlLh appellanL, wlLh repeaLed acLs
of lnLercourse ls lncompaLlble wlLh Lhe ldea of
seducLlon.

JD 103-PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS REVIEWER Silliman University College of Law Class of 2018
kINCILL CI UNIUS1 LNkICnMLN1

ArL. 22. Lvery person who Lhrough an acL of
performance by anoLher, or any oLher means,
acqulres or comes lnLo possesslon of someLhlng aL
Lhe expense of Lhe laLLer wlLhouL [usL or legal
ground, shall reLurn Lhe same Lo hlm.
noL necessarlly a aymenL should be mlsLake ln
paymenL made by mlsLake