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Course Syllabus

Course Syllabus
Course Information
POEC 6354 THEORIES AND ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT
 Fall 2009 ,  Class: AH3 1.302, Thursday 7-9:45
  class # 11577

 updated 1 Sep 09

Professor Contact Information


Murray J. Leaf ,  Office GR 3.128,  Tel: 883-2732         
Offices Hours: one hour before class and by appointment.
Course Pre-requisites, Co-requisites, and/or Other Restrictions: None, but you should have largely completed the
POEC core.
 
This is now partly updated. I want to find something more on NGOs, perhaps NGOs and environmental
sustainability.
Course Description
This course is intended to convey a broad sense of the issues and theories that have been considered important in
thinking about development for about the last century and that are likely to continue to be so.  The emphasis is on the
"third world," but all the important issues and concepts are really universal.  The course is also intended to help you
choose what further courses to take and what kind of problem you might choose for a dissertation.  Accordingly, the
syllabus will be flexible.  We can adjust it in response to your interests as they develop in the discussions, and also in
response to faculty interest in coming to speak to us about these or other issues and theories that you might want to
consider.
 
There is no one theory of development.  There are several theories of economic development in economics, but
development is more than just an economic matter and requires theories that recognize more than economic
variables. Ideas and methods from anthropology, sociology, and political science are at least as important on the social
science side. But as a matter of cold fact the most important development projects have been, and still are, framed mainly
with ideas from engineering and the physical sciences.  In many important areas of activity, it has been a struggle to get
any sort of social science expertise involved.  To the extent that this struggle has been successful, the key idea now is that
projects should be “interdisciplinarity.”
 
The readings are of two main types.  Some represent economics, mainly development economics.  Most represent
practical development projects and some broad issues in development theory.  The latter usually take economic theory
into account, but are not framed or limited by its assumptions and methods.
 
The readings in the Off Campus Books packet are mainly focused on economic theories and reflect two major themes
or tensions: central planning or dirigiste theory versus a more "market oriented" theory, and the relative importance of
industry versus agriculture. Dirigiste means “directive.” This type of theory was important until about the 1980s, and the
collapse of the Soviet Union. The most influential market oriented theories in the recent past have been styled "neo-
liberal."  Dirigiste approaches under-rated individualistic considerations of efficiency, neo-liberalism assumes that
individual decisions are necessarily efficient and ignores the problem of regulation.  Neither of these theories holds up
well as empirical science.  The current world-wide economic crisis has been particularly damaging to neo-liberalism.  
After class on August 27, I heard from Rachel and Off Campus Books. She says that after she checked she concluded that
putting the readings on a CD was too much of a gray area, unclear what the relevant law was. So OCB will only make
them available as hard copy. To get a CD, you have to download the PDF files from JSTOR and burn it yourself.  The
reason that there is no problem with this for you is that the University has a license, and your use is included in it.
 
 The Marshall Plan and the Cernea readings reflect actual development projects and a more experiential or experimental
conception of science.  The Marshall plan was almost certainly the largest and most successful development program in
history, and has represented the major practical alternative to Soviet-styled central planning over the last fifty years.  In
addition, however, it represents a very different idea of what theory is than either of the development economics
perspectives.  Essentially, it is pragmatic rather than ideological and  grows out of law, history, and politics as observed
process more than economics as a theoretical structure.

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Course Syllabus

 
The readings from Cernea’s volume are all by social scientists who have worked in actual development projects, and
reflect those projects.  They also reflect the same kind of experience-based view of theory as the Marshall plan.
 
The grouping of papers into topics is mainly issue-oriented but somewhat chronological.  For an overview, we begin with
the contrast between an early argument for central planning and recent arguments for neo-liberalism. Then we turn to the
Marshall Plan and go through it very carefully to see what was done and, especially, what kind of theory was involved.
Then we come to development economics in the post-Marshall Plan period and discuss several overlapping topics
including industrialization, unemployment, savings and investment, and the balance between rural and urban priorities. 
Then we take up the very large problem of food production, which neither the dirigiste theories nor neo-liberals had much
to say about, and the green revolution.  And finally, we discuss the orientation styled as "putting people first" in the
Cernea readings. This is the state of the art at present in actual development work.
 
The main hold-out for a kind of dirigiste planning is China, represented by the article by Cao.
 
The course will use a seminar format, with two to four presentations a day. The numbered items in the schedule are the
topics.  Each presentation will either be directly on the assigned reading or on a topic that the reading discusses but does
not explain as well as it should.  The student will present his/or her criticism formally and then lead the class discussion. 
The presentation ought to be accompanied by a short one or two page handout.  It should not be a simple outline or
resume of the chapter or article, but a guide to your own argument. Make copies for everyone.  The presentation should
include:
 
            1. The main theoretical idea or ideas that underlie the reading.  This can be something very simple—and
usually more than a little doubtful.
            2. The main arguments for it.
            3. A critical assessment of those arguments.
 
The paper should be at least 15 double spaced pages in length, and critically review a major theoretical idea relevant to
development or major issue in development that you might consider as a dissertation topic.  The discussion in the paper
must reflect class discussions, and the bibliography must be presented fully in a standard form.  All paraphrased ideas
must be properly attributed to their authors.  All quoted materials must be indicated in quotes and full and complete page
references must be provided. Failure to give proper credit will result in a failing grade on the paper and, if done with
apparent intent to defraud, will be treated as plagiarism. If you are not sure of the proper procedures in citation, check
with me or a standard source such as K. Tarrabian's Manual of Style for Theses, Dissertations and Research Papers.  If
you don't own a copy, get one.
 
 
 
 
For accreditation, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools requires all courses at UTD to state specific
“Student Learning Objectives/Outcomes.” For this course, the objectives are:
Objective 1. To provide an overview of key issues in current development theory.
Objective 2.  To provide an overview of key problems in current development practice.
Objective 3.  To examine the relationships between the theoretical issues and the practical issues with a view toward
identifying areas for possible research.
This should not be understood as precluding the more general objectives of all graduate courses, namely to read
and master the material, learn the kind of critical thinking that it requires, and to understand how one can
conduct research on these topics.
 
 
Required Textbooks and Materials
 
Dulles, Allen (1994) The Marshall Plan.  Berg Publishers.  28.00 new. From 4.95 used.
 
Cernea, M. M. 1984. Putting People First. Oxford Reprint Paperback. $30 new. From $7.00 used. From Amazon.
 
At Off Campus Books:: Packet of articles. Contains the readings listed below as being in the packet. All readings in the

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Course Syllabus

packet are also in JSTOR, and you should be able to find them by using the author title information I provide in the
search feature. The packet is about 450 pages, and will cost around $30-$40.00. Since this is higher than what I guessed
in our first class meeting, please let Off Campus Books know if you will be interested in buying it. You can email
rleepertx@aol.com.

 
 
Assignments & Academic Calendar
Schedule of Assignments
 
Date Topic Readings
20 Aug   Introduction.
Nigerian un-development—an example (slides and discussion).
27Aug Central 1.     Bye, R. T.  1929. Central Planning and Coordination of Production in
Planning Soviet Russia .  Packet. 20. p packet
USSR 2. Davis Soviet Russia in the light of history. 1928. 8 p. Packet.
3. Bogdanov. Soviet Planning. 1932. 10 p. Packet.
4. Hozelitz. Socialist Planning. 1943. 14 p. Packet.
Recording
3 Sep Central 1. Einzig. Hitlers New Order in Theory and Practice packet, (new)
Planning vs 2. Ropke. Fascist Economics. 1935. 17 p. Packet.
New Deal 3. Knight. Two economists on socialism. 1938. 11 p. Packet.
4. Gulick. Politics Admin and the New Deal. 1933.13 p. Packet
5. Nourse. Agric Adjustment Concept. 1936. 13 p. Packet
11 Sep Marshall Plan 1.    Marshall Plan:  Was it an economic “plan?”
2.    Marshall Plan:  What was the problem with Russia and vice versa?
Marshall Plan 1 Recording
18 Sep   1.    Marshall Plan: What were the Industrial Policies?
2.    Marshall Plan: What were the Agricultural Policies?
recording
24 Sep   1.    Marshall Plan: What were the Political Policies?
  2.    Marshall Plan: Why was it successful?
recording
recording
1 Oct Foreign Aid 1. The Money Lenders (Video critical of World Bank)
2. World Bank Website. Look at the whole site, but especially go to About
Us>History>Archive>Presidents. Look at the biographies of the
presidents. How much would you expect such people to k now about
development needs in non-western countries?
3. Easterly, W. 1997.  The Ghost of Financing Gap: How the Harrod Domar
Growth Model Still Haunts Development Economics. Draft for
comments. 30 p. Easterly paper

8 Oct Specialization 1.  Rostow, W. W. 1956. The Take-Off to Self-Sustained Growth. 23. p packet
and Forced 2.    Chenery, H. B.1961. Comparative Advantage and Economic Policy. 33 p.
Savings. packet
3.    Friedman. Monetarism. 1983. 13 p. Packet.
4. Clarke. Soviet Plannning (last view). 1983. 9 p. Packet.
  Recording

15 Oct Other 1. Neale. Indian Community Development, Local Government, Local Planning
assistance and Rural Policy since 1950.  Pub in 1985.  23 p. Packet.
issues 2. Hardin. Tragedy of the Commons. 1968. 7 p. Packet.
3. Sen. Agency, Well Being, and Freedom.  1984. 54 p. packet.
4.  Look at the UNDP Human Development Index website
5. Kelley. Human Development Index. 1991. 11 p. Packet.
  Recording of 16 Oct 2008
22 Oct Surplus labor  1.   Frankel , S Herbert.  1952. United Nations Primer on Development . 25 p.

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Course Syllabus

and/or packet
unemployment 2. Ehrlich. Impact of Population Growth. 1971. 7 p. Packet.
3. Copestake, James. Theories of Economic Development 1999. 
Copestakeunesco.html
 
Recording of 23 Oct 2008 first part

    FOR OLD MIDTERM EXAMINATION, CLICK HERE  We will write a new


one for this term.
29 Oct Food, 1. Myrdal. UN, Agriculture, and the World Economic Revolution.
Agriculture, 1964. 12 p. Packet
and Population 2. Leaf. Green Revolution in a Punjab Village. 1983. 45 p. Packet.
A related paper describing indigenous methods of farm decision making, with
spread-sheet examples is at http://www.mathematicalanthropology.org/?
PG=TOC
3.    Rome Declaration on World Food Security.1996. 2 p.  packet
4 .  Johnson, D. G. Agriculture and the Wealth of Nations. 1997. 12 p.
Recording of Oct 30 2008
5 Nov Energy and 1. ZweigJianhaiChina's Global Hunt for Energy. Packet. (new)
Sustainability 2. Wood. India's Narmada River Dams. 1993. 18 p. Packet.
3.  Judge. Response to Dams in Indian States. 1993. 13 p. Packet
4. CGIAR statement on food and sustainability
http://www.cgiar.org/exco/exco16/exco16_srf.pdf
12 Nov Putting People 1.         Putting People First: 1. Knowledge from Social Science For Development
First. Policies and Projects.
2.         Putting People First: 12: Kottack: When People Don’t Come First.
3.         Putting People First: 2. Coward: Irrigated areas
4.         Putting People First: 4. Freedman: Middle Level Farmers Organizations
 
19 Nov   1.         Putting People First: 7. Dyson-Hudson. Livestock Projects.
2.         Putting People First:  13. Uphoff:  Fitting Projects to People
3.         Putting People First: 14 Chambers: Shortcut and Participatory Methods
for Gaining Social Information for Projects.
 
26 Nov   Thanksgiving Holiday Thursday and Friday, no class.
 
3 Dec  Conclusion Conclusion
1. Cao. Chinese Privatization Between Plan and Market. Packet (new)
2. Streeten. Human Development. 1994. 7 p. Packet.
3.  Neale, W C. 1990.  ABSOLUTE CULTURAL RELATIVISM: FIRM
FOUNDATION FOR VALUING AND POLICY   Journal of Economic
Issues, 0021-3624, June 1, 1990, Vol. 24, Issue 2
 
10 Research Exam day.  Papers due in my office at class time. (Class does not meet)
papers
   

   
 
Film: The Money Lenders. The World Bank & International Monetary Fund: A Global Report. 85 minutes. VT2545
 
 
 
Grading Policy
The grade will be based 30% on the class presentations, 30% on the midterm, and 40% on a final paper.  The midterm
will probably be take-home, essay format, and call for critical evaluation of important theoretical ideas from the readings
and discussion. 
 
 

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Course Syllabus

Course & Instructor Policies


I do not allow “extra credit” or make up work.  You are expected to complete all assignments on time. Anything not
handed in on time is failed, unless you have made an arrangement with me in advance.
 
 
No Field Trips
 
The following statements are standard for all syllabi and come from general UTD rules. They are required in response to
accreditation critiria of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.
 
Student Conduct & Discipline
 
The University of Texas System and The University of Texas at Dallas have rules and regulations for the orderly and efficient
conduct of their business.  It is the responsibility of each student and each student organization to be knowledgeable about the rules
and regulations which govern student conduct and activities.  General information on student conduct and discipline is contained in
the UTD publication, A to Z Guide, which is provided to all registered students each academic year.
 
The University of Texas at Dallas administers student discipline within the procedures of recognized and established due process. 
Procedures are defined and described in the Rules and Regulations, Board of Regents, The University of Texas System, Part 1,
Chapter VI, Section 3, and in Title V, Rules on Student Services and Activities of the university’s Handbook of Operating
Procedures.  Copies of these rules and regulations are available to students in the Office of the Dean of Students, where staff
members are available to assist students in interpreting the rules and regulations (SU 1.602, 972/883-6391).
 
A student at the university neither loses the rights nor escapes the responsibilities of citizenship.  He or she is expected to obey
federal, state, and local laws as well as the Regents’ Rules, university regulations, and administrative rules.  Students are subject to
discipline for violating the standards of conduct whether such conduct takes place on or off campus, or whether civil or criminal
penalties are also imposed for such conduct.
 
Academic Integrity
 
The faculty expects from its students a high level of responsibility and academic honesty.  Because the value of an academic degree
depends upon the absolute integrity of the work done by the student for that degree, it is imperative that a student demonstrate a high
standard of individual honor in his or her scholastic work.
 
Scholastic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, statements, acts or omissions related to applications for enrollment or the award
of a degree, and/or the submission as one’s own work or material that is not one’s own.  As a general rule, scholastic dishonesty
involves one of the following acts:  cheating, plagiarism, collusion and/or falsifying academic records.  Students suspected of
academic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary proceedings.
 
Plagiarism, especially from the web, from portions of papers for other classes, and from any other source is unacceptable and will be
dealt with under the university’s policy on plagiarism (see general catalog for details).  This course will use the resources of
turnitin.com, which searches the web for possible plagiarism and is over 90% effective.
 
Email Use
The University of Texas at Dallas recognizes the value and efficiency of communication between faculty/staff and students through
electronic mail. At the same time, email raises some issues concerning security and the identity of each individual in an email
exchange.  The university encourages all official student email correspondence be sent only to a student’s U.T. Dallas email address
and that faculty and staff consider email from students official only if it originates from a UTD student account. This allows the
university to maintain a high degree of confidence in the identity of all individual corresponding and the security of the transmitted
information.  UTD furnishes each student with a free email account that is to be used in all communication with university personnel.
The Department of Information Resources at U.T. Dallas provides a method for students to have their U.T. Dallas mail forwarded to
other accounts.

Withdrawal from Class


 
The administration of this institution has set deadlines for withdrawal of any college-level courses. These dates and times are
published in that semester's course catalog. Administration procedures must be followed. It is the student's responsibility to handle
withdrawal requirements from any class. In other words, I cannot drop or withdraw any student. You must do the proper paperwork

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to ensure that you will not receive a final grade of "F" in a course if you choose not to attend the class once you are enrolled.
 
Student Grievance Procedures
 
Procedures for student grievances are found in Title V, Rules on Student Services and Activities, of the university’s Handbook of
Operating Procedures.
 
In attempting to resolve any student grievance regarding grades, evaluations, or other fulfillments of academic responsibility, it is the
obligation of the student first to make a serious effort to resolve the matter with the instructor, supervisor, administrator, or
committee with whom the grievance originates (hereafter called “the respondent”).  Individual faculty members retain primary
responsibility for assigning grades and evaluations.  If the matter cannot be resolved at that level, the grievance must be submitted in
writing to the respondent with a copy of the respondent’s School Dean.  If the matter is not resolved by the written response
provided by the respondent, the student may submit a written appeal to the School Dean.  If the grievance is not resolved by the
School Dean’s decision, the student may make a written appeal to the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education, and the deal
will appoint and convene an Academic Appeals Panel.  The decision of the Academic Appeals Panel is final.  The results of the
academic appeals process will be distributed to all involved parties.
 
Copies of these rules and regulations are available to students in the Office of the Dean of Students, where staff members are
available to assist students in interpreting the rules and regulations.
 
Incomplete Grade Policy
 
As per university policy, incomplete grades will be granted only for work unavoidably missed at the semester’s end and only if 70%
of the course work has been completed.  An incomplete grade must be resolved within eight (8) weeks from the first day of the
subsequent long semester.  If the required work to complete the course and to remove the incomplete grade is not submitted by the
specified deadline, the incomplete grade is changed automatically to a grade of F.
 
Disability Services
 
The goal of Disability Services is to provide students with disabilities educational opportunities equal to those of their non-disabled
peers.  Disability Services is located in room 1.610 in the Student Union.  Office hours are Monday and Thursday, 8:30 a.m. to 6:30
p.m.; Tuesday and Wednesday, 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m.; and Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
 
The contact information for the Office of Disability Services is:
The University of Texas at Dallas, SU 22
PO Box 830688
Richardson, Texas 75083-0688
(972) 883-2098 (voice or TTY)
 
Essentially, the law requires that colleges and universities make those reasonable adjustments necessary to eliminate discrimination
on the basis of disability.  For example, it may be necessary to remove classroom prohibitions against tape recorders or animals (in
the case of dog guides) for students who are blind.  Occasionally an assignment requirement may be substituted (for example, a
research paper versus an oral presentation for a student who is hearing impaired).  Classes enrolled students with mobility
impairments may have to be rescheduled in accessible facilities.  The college or university may need to provide special services such
as registration, note-taking, or mobility assistance.
 
It is the student’s responsibility to notify his or her professors of the need for such an accommodation.  Disability Services provides
students with letters to present to faculty members to verify that the student has a disability and needs accommodations.  Individuals
requiring special accommodation should contact the professor after class or during office hours.
 
Religious Holy Days
The University of Texas at Dallas will excuse a student from class or other required activities for the travel to and observance of a
religious holy day for a religion whose places of worship are exempt from property tax under Section 11.20, Tax Code, Texas Code
Annotated.

The student is encouraged to notify the instructor or activity sponsor as soon as possible regarding the absence, preferably in advance
of the assignment.  The student, so excused, will be allowed to take the exam or complete the assignment within a reasonable time
after the absence: a period equal to the length of the absence, up to a maximum of one week. A student who notifies the instructor
and completes any missed exam or assignment may not be penalized for the absence. A student who fails to complete the exam or

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Course Syllabus

assignment within the prescribed period may receive a failing grade for that exam or assignment.

If a student or an instructor disagrees about the nature of the absence [i.e., for the purpose of observing a religious holy day] or if
there is similar disagreement about whether the student has been given a reasonable time to complete any missed assignments or
examinations, either the student or the instructor may request a ruling from the chief executive officer of the institution, or his or her
designee. The chief executive officer or designee must take into account the legislative intent of TEC 51.911(b), and the student and
instructor will abide by the decision of the chief executive officer or designee.

These descriptions and timelines are subject to change at the discretion of the Professor.
 

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