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Vygotsky

- 1896-1934
- Russian psychologist
- Triggered an enormous amount of research on child
cognition
The process of internalization
Where cognitive processes and functions performed on an
external plane between persons come be be performed
internally, within the child
Vygotsky's view of language
- A cultural symbol-system
- Has profound influence on cognitive development
- 1st used to communicate interpersonally, 2nd line used to
communicate intrapersonally (internalized)
Inner speech
- Egocentric speech that has become internalized and not
spoke out loud
- Self-regulatory functions of assisting thinking and guiding
actions
Egocentric speech
- Self-talk that is spoke aloud until age 7 or 8
- Vygotsky believed that it helps children self-regulate by
guiding their thoughts and actions.
Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a
___ process.
Socially mediated
The zone of proximal development (zpd)
- Dynamic intelligence assessment measure
- The difference between the child's actual developmental level
as determined by independent problem solving and the higher
level of potential development, as determined by problem
solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more
capable peers
Piaget's Stages of
Cognitive
Development
The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage, infants and toddlers
acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating
objects.


The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids learn through pretend
play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other
people.


The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of development
begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid.
They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.


The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of Piaget's theory
involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and
an understanding of abstract ideas.
The Five Environmental Systems
The ecological systems theory holds that we encounter different environments throughout
our lifespan that may influence our behavior in varying degrees. These systems include the
micro system, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macro system, and the chronosystem.
1. The Micro System
The micro system's setting is the direct environment we have in our lives. Your family,
friends, classmates, teachers, neighbors and other people who have a direct contact with
you are included in your micro system. The micro system is the setting in which we have
direct social interactions with these social agents. The theory states that we are not mere
recipients of the experiences we have when socializing with these people in the micro
system environment, but we are contributing to the construction of such environment.
2. The Mesosystem
The mesosytem involves the relationships between the microsystems in one's life. This
means that your family experience may be related to your school experience. For example,
if a child is neglected by his parents, he may have a low chance of developing positive
attitude towards his teachers. Also, this child may feel awkward in the presence of peers
and may resort to withdrawal from a group of classmates.
3. The Exosystem
The exosystem is the setting in which there is a link between the context where in the
person does not have any active role, and the context where in is actively participating.
Suppose a child is more attached to his father than his mother. If the father goes abroad to
work for several months, there may be a conflict between the mother and the child's social
relationship, or on the other hand, this event may result to a tighter bond between the
mother and the child.
4. The Macrosystem
The macrosystem setting is the actual culture of an individual. The cultural contexts involve
the socioeconomic status of the person and/or his family, his ethnicity or race and living in a
still developing or a third world country. For example, being born to a poor family makes a
person work harder every day.
5. The Chronosystem
The chronosystem includes the transitions and shifts in one's lifespan. This may also
involve the socio-historical contexts that may influence a person. One classic example of
this is how divorce, as a major life transition, may affect not only the couple's relationship
but also their children's behavior. According to a majority of research, children are
negatively affected on the first year after the divorce. The next years after it would reveal
that the interaction within the family becomes more stable and agreeable.
Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:
Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity
directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-
world environments relevant to ones life." While he agreed with
Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability,
he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as
individual talents.
Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is
comprised of three different factors:
Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving
abilities.


Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability
to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills.


Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to
a changing environment.

Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Harvard professor Howard Gardner has identified eight different types of intelligences that each
individual has the capacity to possess. The idea of multiple intelligences is important because it
allows for educators to identify differing strengths and weaknesses in students and also
contradicts the idea that intelligence can be measured through IQ. In researching about genius,
we found that Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a great alternative to
the popular measurable IQ method.
Summaries of eight intelligences:
1. Visual/Spatial - Involves visual perception of the environment, the ability to create and
manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space.
2. Verbal/Linguistic - Involves reading, writing, speaking, and conversing in one's own or
foreign languages.
3. Logical/Mathematical - Involves number and computing skills, recognizing patterns and
relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different kinds of problems
through logic.
4. Bodily/Kinesthetic - Involves physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross
motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical activities.
5. Musical - Involves understanding and expressing oneself through music and rhythmic
movements or dance, or composing, playing, or conducting music.
6. Interpersonal - Involves understanding how to communicate with and understand other
people and how to work collaboratively.
7. Intrapersonal - Involves understanding one's inner world of emotions and thoughts, and
growing in the ability to control them and work with them consciously.
8. Naturalist - Involves understanding the natural world of plants and animals, noticing
their characteristics, and categorizing them; it generally involves keen observation and
the ability to classify other things as well.
"Multiple intelligences is a psychological theory about the mind. It's a critique of the notion that
there's a single intelligence which we're born with, which can't be changed, and which
psychologists can measure. It's based on a lot of scientific research in fields ranging from
psychology to anthropology to biology. It's not based upon based on test correlations, which
most other intelligence theories are based on. The claim is that there are at least eight different
human intelligences. Most intelligence tests look at language or logic or both - those are just two
of the intelligences. The other six are musical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal,
intrapersonal, and naturalist. I make two claims. The first claim is that all human beings have all
of these intelligences. It's part of our species definition. The second claim is that, both because
of our genetics and our environment, no two people have exactly the same profile of
intelligences, not even identical twins, because their experiences are different."
erikson's psychosocial theory - summary diagram
Here's a broad introduction to the main features of Erikson's model. Various
people have produced different interpretations like this grid below. Erikson
produced a few charts of his own too, from different perspectives, but he
seems never to have produced a fully definitive matrix. To aid explanation
and use of his theory he produced several perspectives in grid format, some
of which he advocated be used as worksheets. He viewed his concept as an
evolving work in progress. This summary attempts to show the main points of
the Erikson psychosocial crisis theory of human development. More detail
follows this overview.
erikson's eight psychosocial stages


Stage Basic
Conflict
Important
Events
Outcome
Infancy (birth
to 18 months)
Trust vs.
Mistrust
Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when
caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and
affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Early
Childhood (2
to 3 years)
Autonomy vs.
Shame and
Doubt
Toilet
Training
Children need to develop a sense of personal
control over physical skills and a sense of
independence. Success leads to feelings of
autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame
and doubt.
Preschool (3
to 5 years)
Initiative vs.
Guilt
Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and
power over the environment. Success in this
stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children
who try to exert too much power experience
disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
School Age (6
to 11 years)
Industry vs.
Inferiority
School Children need to cope with new social and
academic demands. Success leads to a sense
of competence, while failure results in feelings
of inferiority.
Adolescence
(12 to 18
years)
Identity vs.
Role
Confusion
Social
Relationships
Teens need to develop a sense of self and
personal identity. Success leads to an ability
to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to
role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Young
Adulthood (19
to 40 years)
Intimacy vs.
Isolation
Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving
relationships with other people. Success leads
to strong relationships, while failure results in
loneliness and isolation.
Middle
Adulthood (40
to 65 years)
Generativity
vs. Stagnation
Work and
Parenthood
Adults need to create or nurture things that
will outlast them, often by having children or
creating a positive change that benefits other
people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness
and accomplishment, while failure results in
shallow involvement in the world.
Maturity(65 to
death)
Ego Integrity
vs. Despair
Reflection on
Life
Older adults need to look back on life and feel
a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage
leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure
results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
Concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory
Source: Glanz et al, 2002, p169.
Environment: Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social
support
Situation: Perception of the environment; correct misperceptions and promote healthful forms
Behavioral capability: Knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior; promote mastery
learning through skills training
Expectations: Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior; Model positive outcomes of healthful
behavior
Expectancies: The values that the person places on a given outcome, incentives; Present
outcomes of change that have functional meaning
Self-control: Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance; Provide opportunities
for self-monitoring, goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward
Observational learning: Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and
outcomes of others behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior
Reinforcements: Responses to a persons behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of
reoccurrence; Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives
Self-efficacy: The persons confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral
change in small steps to ensure success
Emotional coping responses: Strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with
emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management
Reciprocal determinism: The dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the
environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral
change, including environmental, skill, and personal change.
Conceptual Model

Source: Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. 12-8-04.
From http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html.
Favorite Methods
Surveys, experiments and quasi-experiments are used. See for therapeutical techniques
Bandura (1997) and Glanze et al (2002)
Scope and Application
The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant for designing health education and health behavior
programs. This theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns.
The theory can also be used for providing the basis for intervention strategies
Example
A project was started to prevent and reduce alcohol use among students in grades 6 till 12
(ages 11-13). The program took three years and was based on behavioral health curricula,
parental involvement and community task force activities. The conclusion was that students
were less likely to say they drank alcohol than others who did not join the program. With
observational learning, negative expectancies about alcohol use and increased behavioral
capability to communicate with parents the results were obtained. However, at the end of the
10
th
grade the differences were no longer significant.
A new program in the 11
th
grade was started in which reduced access to alcohol and the
change of community norms to alcohol use for high-school age students were key elements.
With (1) community attention (2) parental education (3) support of alcohol free events (4) media
projects to dont provide alcohol and (5) classroom discussions the program started. After the
12
th
grade a significant result showed that the alcohol use decreased. Furthermore, the access
to alcohol was reduced and the parental norms were less accepting of teen alcohol use at the
end of the study.

The Five Components of Emotional Intelligence
Self-awareness. The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and
emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others. Hallmarks* of self-awareness
include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of
humor. Self-awareness depend on one's ability to monitor one's own emotion state and
to correctly identify and name one's emotions.
[*A hallmark is a sure sign: since self-awareness is necessary for, say, realistic self-
assessment, that is, without self-awareness no realistic self-assessment, the presence
of of realistic self-assessment is a sure sign (sufficient to conclude that there is) self-
awareness.]
Self-regulation.The ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and
the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include
trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.
Internal motivation. A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money
and status -which are external rewards, - such as an inner vision of what is important
in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being
immersed in an activity. A propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence.
Hallmarks include a strong drive to achieve, optimism even in the face of failure, and
organizational commitment.
Empathy. The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in
treating people according to their emotional reactions. Hallmarks include expertise in
building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to clients and
customers. (In an educational context, empathy is often thought to include, or lead to,
sympathy, which implies concern, or care or a wish to soften negative emotions or
experiences in others.) See also Mirror Neurons.
It is important to note that empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy
can be 'used' for compassionate or cruel behavior. Serial killers who marry and kill
many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills!
Social skills. Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an
ability to find common ground and build rapport. Hallmarks of social skills include
effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading
teams.



KOHLBERG'S MORAL STAGES
Kolberg's theory specifies six stages of moral development, arranged in three levels.
Level I: Preconventional/Premoral
Moral values reside in external, quasi-physical events, or in bad acts. The child is
responsive to rules and evaluative labels, but views them in terms of pleasant or
unpleasant consequences of actions, or in terms of the physical power of those who
impose the rules.
Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation
Egocentric deference to superior power or prestige, or a trouble-avoiding set.
Objective responsibility.
Stage 2: Naively egoistic orientation
Right action is that which is instrumental in satisfying the self's needs and
occasionally others'.
Relativism of values to each actor's needs and perspectives.
Naive egalitarianism,orientation to exchange and reciprocity.
Level II: Conventional/Role Conformity
Moral values reside in performing the right role, in maintaining the conventional
order and expectancies of others as a value in its own right.
Stage 3: Good-boy/good-girl orientation
Orientation to approval, to pleasing and helping others.
Conformity to stereotypical images of majority or natural role behavior.
Action is evaluated in terms of intentions.
Stage 4: Authority and social-order-maintaining orientation
Orientation to "doing duty" and to showing respect for authority and
maintaining the given social order or its own sake.
Regard for earned expectations of others.
Differentiates actions out of a sense of obligation to rules from actions for
generally "nice" or natural motives.
Level III: Postconventional/Self-Accepted Moral Principles
Morality is defined in terms of conformity to shared standards,rights, or duties apart
from supporting authority. The standards conformed to are internal, and action-
decisions are based on an inner process of thought and judgement concerning right
and wrong.
Stage 5: Contractual/legalistic orientation
Norms of right and wrong are defined in terms of laws or institutionalized
rules which seem to have a rational basis.
When conflict arises between individual needs and law or contract, though
sympathetic to the former, the individual believes the latter must prevail
because of its greater functional rationality for society, the majority will and
welfare.
Stage 6: The morality of individual principles of conscience
Orientation not only toward existing social rules, but also toward the
conscience as a directing agent, mutual trust and respect, and principles of
moral choice involving logical universalities and consistency.
Action is controlled by internalized ideals that exert a pressure to act
accordingly regardless of the reactions of others in the immediate
environment.
If one acts otherwise, self-condemnation and guilt result.
CAROL GILLIGAN
Carol Gilligan was born on November 28, 1936, in New York
City. She has received her doctorate degree in social
psychology from Harvard University in 1964m and began
teaching at Harvard in 1967. Then in 1970 she became a
research assistant for the great theorist of moral development,
Lawrence Kohlberg.



Eventually Gilligan became independent and began to criticize
some of Kohlberg' s work. Her opinions were presented in her
famous book, " In a different Voice: Psychological Theory and
Women ' s Development " which was published in 1982. She
felt that Kohlberg only studied " privileged, white men and
boys. " Gilligan said that this caused a biased opinion against
women. She felt that , in Kohlberg ' s stage theory of moral
development, the male view of individual rights and rules was
considered a higher stage than women's point of view of
development in terms of its caring effect on human
relationships. " Gilligan ' s goal is was to prove that women are
not " moral midgets " , she was going against many
psychological opinions. Another famous theorist, Freud thought
women ' s moral sense was stunted because they stayed
attached to their mothers. Another great theorist , Erik
Erickson , thought the tasks of development were separation
from mother and the family , If women did not succeed in this
scale, then they were obviously lacking. Therefore Gilligan ' s
goal was a good cause.



Her theory is divided into three stages of moral development
beginning from " selfish , to social or conventional morality ,
and finally to post conventional or principled morality . "
Women must learn to deal to their own interests and to the
interests of others . She thinks that women hesitate to judge
because they see the complexities of relationships.

Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care
Approximate Age Range Stage Goal
not listed Preconventional Goal is individual survival
Transition is from selfishness -- to -- responsibility to others
not listed Conventional Self sacrifice is goodness
Transition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is a person too
maybe never Postconventional Principle of nonviolence: do not hurt others or self
Pre Conventional
-Person only cares for themselves in order to
ensure survival
-This is how everyone is as children

In this transitional phase, the person 's attitude is
considered selfish, and the person sees the
connection between themselves and others.

Conventional
-Responsibility
-More care shown for other people.
-Gilligan says this is shown in the role of Mother &
Wife
-Situation sometimes carries on to ignoring needs
of self.


In this transitional phase, tensions between
responsibility of caring for others and caring for
self are faced.


Post Conventional
-Aceeptance of the principle of care for self and
others is shown.
-Some people never reach this level.
Bems Gender Schema Theory Summarized by
Margaret Hsiao
Indeed, no other dichotomy in human experience appears to have as many entities linked
to it as does the distinction between female and male (Bem, 1983).

Overview of Theory



Bems Gender Schema Theory consolidated contemporary theories of sex typing by
identifying the values and inherent flaws of psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive
developmental theories. Bem rejected Freudian beliefs of anatomy is destiny and instead
proposed that an individuals gender identification emerged from his or her cognitive
development and societal influences. Bems publication, The Lenses of Gender, sought to
render those lenses [of stereotypical and socially accepted masculine and feminine
traits]visible rather than invisible, to enable us to look at the culture's gender lenses rather
than through them (Bem, 1993, p. 2).

There are three defining features of gender schematics based on Bems research:

1. Gender schemas develop through an individuals
observation of societal classifications of masculinity and
femininity, which are evidenced in human anatomy,
social roles, and characteristics.
2. Males and females cognitively process and
categorize new information in their environment based
on its maleness or femaleness.
3. Self-authorship is displayed by an individuals
categorization of and conformity to the sets of elements
that belong to either definition of masculinity or
femininity.
(Evans, 2010, p. 336)

Bem Sex Role Inventory (1972)

In response to her theory, Bem developed Bems Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), which was
developed as a means of identifying gender schematic and gender aschematic individuals.
Composed of 60 words (which are divided into 20 stereotypically masculine traits, 20
stereotypically feminine traits, or 20 neutral traits), the test asks participants how strongly
they identify with a given characteristic. Participants would then be ranked based on the
following results:





Unlike other questionnaires, however, the BSRI does not dichotomize masculinity and
femininity; a person does not have to be characterized as one or the other in inventory
results. In other words, the BSRI ranks masculinity and femininity on a continuum; scores
may include evidence of high levels of masculinity and femininity (androgenous) or low
levels of both (undifferentiated).