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INTRODUCTION
According to their use in a sentence, all the words in English are divided into eight
parts. They are called ‘Parts of Speech’.
XH› "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Jq K͆Çò „¬xx |\÷“, WOwÁ+¬µ…Õx „¬^Î=ò•x߆Çò 8 ƒ•ìQ®=ò•°Qê
qƒ•’lO„¬|_•#q. g\÷<Í ‘Parts of Speech’ JO^ΰ~¡°. Jq
1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. Verb 4. Adjective
5. Adverb 6. Preposition 7. Conjunction 8. Interjection
English ƒì+¬…Õ D q^•Î=°òQê 8 ƒ•ìQ®=ò•°#ß„æ¬\H÷ ,© g@xßO\÷…Õ Verb KŒ…ì =òY¼"³°Ø#k.
WOwÁ+¬µ…Õ Verb …è䛽O_¨ =°#O "ŒH›¼O K³„¬æ…è=ò.
„¬îië J~¡Ö=ò`Ë XH› "ŒH›¼=ò K³„¬C@䛽 ‹¬i†³Ø°# 'Verb Form' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°. H›#°H›
=òO^ΰQê Verb Q®°iOz `³•°‹¬°HùO^Î=ò.
What is a Verb?
A Verb is a word used to denote an action, a state or a possession.
(Doing - Being - Having)
(K͆Çò@ Ð LO_È°@ Ð H›ey†ÇòO_È°@)
=°#=ò Z•Á„¬C_È° U^Ë XH› „¬x K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
=°#=ò K͆Çò „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. =°#=ò K͆Çò
„¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@•#° English Grammar …Õ "Verb' JO^ΰ~¡°. W@°=O\÷ Verbs
WOwÁ+µ¬ ƒ•ì+¬…Õ KŒ…ì L#ßq.
=°#=ò `³•°Q®°…Õ K³„¬C ㄬu „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@䛽 WOwÁ+¬µ…Õ J#°"Œ^Î „¬^Î=ò#ßk.
L^¥‚¬ì~¡}䛽 :
'"³ˆ×ÃÁ@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'go'
'KǶKÇ°@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'see'
'u#°@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'eat'
'KÇ^ΰ=ô@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'read'
'P_È°@Ñ Jx K³„¬C@䛽 'play'
D q^•Î=°òQ®ê =°#=ò U „¬xx Q®°iOz K³„æ¬ =…ÿ##ß#¶, WOwÁ+µ¬ …Õ ^¥xH÷ ‹¬i†³°Ø #
J#°"Œ^Î „¬^Î=ò LO_È°#°.
WH›ø_È =°#=ò XH› =òY¼"³°Ø# q+¬†Ç°=ò Q®=°xOKÇ=…ÿ#°. XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@#°
Verb JO^ΰ~¡° Jx K³„C¬ Hùx†Çò<Œß=ò H›^¥! WOwÁ+µ¬ …Õ „ã u
¬ Verb 䛽 =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•°O_È°#°.
g\÷<Í 'Conjugative Forms' JO^ΰ~¡°.
D =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•#° Grammar …Õ Present Form, Past Form =°i†Çò Past Participle
JO^ΰ~¡°.

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Hêx Spoken English H÷ ‹¬O|Ok•Oz#O`Ç=~¡ä½› D =ü_È° ~¡¶=ò•#° ‹¬°•ƒ•’=òQê


Q®°iëOKÇ°@䛽 g•°Qê, g\÷x =~¡°‹¬Qê "³ò^Î\÷ ^¥xx I Form Jx†Çò, ï~O_È= ^¥xx II Form
Jx†Çò, =ü_È= ^¥xx III Form Jx†Çò K³„¬CHù#=KÇ°ó#°.
D Course …Õx ㄬu Chapter …Õ ã„¬u KË@ D I, II, III Forms ㄬ†³¶Q®=ò [~¡°Q®°KÇ°<Í
†ÇòO_È°#°. H›#°H› Verb 䛽 Q®• =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•#° ƒìQ®°Qê J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°Hù#=…ÿ#°.
I Form J#Qê Verb †³òH›ø "³ò^Î\÷ ~¡¶„¬=ò.
II Form J#Qê Verb †³òH›ø ï~O_È= ~¡¶„¬=ò.
III Form J#Qê Verb †³òH›ø =ü_È= ~¡¶„¬=ò.
L^¥‚¬ì~¡}䛽 :
I Form II Form III Form
go went gone
see saw seen
eat ate eaten
buy bought bought
do did done
give gave given

D q^•Î=°òQê WOwÁ+µ¬ …Õx „ ã u


¬ Verb 䛽 =ü_È° ~¡¶=ò•°O_È°#°. Jxß Verb •†³òH›ø 3
~¡¶„¬=ò•° =°#䛽 `³e‹²†ÇòO_ÈH›‡é=KÇ°ó. g\÷ ~¡¶„¬=ò•#° ãH›=°=òQê practice ^¥Þ~Œ
<Í~¡°óHù#=KÇ°ó#°.
Verb †³òH›ø I Form, II Form, III Form •…Õ =°#䛽 Confusion L#߆³°_È• D notes
follow JQ®°@ H›+¬“=òQê LO_È°#°. JO^ΰ=•# =òO^ΰQê J‹¬•° "Verb' J#Qê Uq°\÷? ^¥xH÷
Zxß~¡¶„¬=ò•°O_È°#°? U ~¡¶„¬=ò#° U=°O^ΰ~¡°? J#° q+¬†Ç°=ò•° „¬îiëQê J~¡Ö=°Q®°#@°Á
`³•°‹¬°Hù#=…ÿ#°. Verb J#Qê Uq°\Õ `³e‹²Hùx, Verb †³òH›ø I, II, III forms `³•°‹¬°Hùx#
`Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç U form #° Z„¬C_È°, Uq^•ÎOQê L„¬†¶ ³ yOKÇ=…ÿ<Ë rule `³•°‹¬°Hùx, practice K͆ò
Ç @
H›+¬“=ò Hê^ΰ. KŒ…ì ‹¬°•ƒ•’=òQê Verb †³ ò H› ø ‹¬ i †³ Ø ° # ~¡ ¶ „¬ = ò#° "ŒH› ¼ =ò…Õ
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=KÇ°ó#°.
INTRODUCTION =°~¡• XH›ª•i ƒìQê J~¡=Ö °Q®°#@°Á KÇ^=Î O_•.
WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ =°#=ò Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò?
J Parts of Speech JxßO\÷…Õ Verb KŒ…ì =òY¼"³°Ø#k.
J XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ° =¶@#° Verb JO^ΰ~¡°.
J WOwÁ+¬µ…Õx ㄬu Verb 䛽 =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•°O_È°#°.
J D =ü_È° ~¡¶„¬=ò•° =~¡°‹¬Qê I Form, II Form, III Form JO^ΰ~¡°
W„¬C_È° Verb †³òH›ø I Form U q^•Î=òQê L„¬†¶³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#° ?
II Form U q^•Î=òQê L„¬†¶³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°?
III Form U q^•Î=òQê L„¬†¶³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#° ?
XHùøH›ø ^¥xx Q®°iOz q=~¡OQê <Í~¡°óHùO^Î=ò.
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REGULAR ACTION - POSITIVE FORM


=°#=ò ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Hùxß „¬#°•° , J•"Œ@°Qê Hùxß „¬#°•° K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ=ò. =°#
J•"Œ@Á#°, =°#=ò ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ㄬu ~ËA library H÷ "³ˆ×`Œ#°. J "Í°=ò „ã u¬ ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ cricket practise Kͪ•ë=ò.
J =¶ father „ã u¬ <³• camp "³ˆ×`Œ~¡°. J P"³° ㄬu #=• HùO@°Ok.
J "Œ~¡° ㄬu <³• meeting H÷ ‚¬ð[~¡° J=ô`Œ~¡°. J =¶ brother KŒ…ì hard work Kͪ•ë_°È .
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã u¬ ~ËA, „ã u¬ "Œ~¡O, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, Z•Á„C¬ _È°, `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê, ª•^•¥~¡}OQê
„¬^Í „¬^Í,=°~¡• =°~¡• ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õx subject 'He' 'She' 'It' (III Person, Singular Number) J~ò#„¬C_È° Verb 䛽
's' Qêx 'es' Qêx, 'ies' Qêx KÍ~¡ó=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ㄬu L^ΆǰO Hindu KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ#°. 6. "Œ~¡° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O [#=i…Õ u~¡°=°•
I read the Hindu every morning. ‹¬O^ÎiŪ•ë~°¡ .
2. "Í°=ò ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O special class H÷ They visit Tirumala in January every
attend J=ô`Œ=ò. year.
We attend the special class every
7. <Í#° ㄬu L^ΆǰO walk H÷ "³ˆìë#°.
Sunday.
I go for a walk every morning.
3. =¶ brother ##°ß studies …Õ ƒìQê
‡ã é`Ç•‚²ìª•ë_°È . 8. "Í°=ò ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O test "ã Œª•ë=ò.
My brother encourages me well in my We write a test every Sunday.
studies. 9. =¶ English lecturer KŒ…ì ƒìQê teach
4. =¶ father <Œä›½ ㄬu <³• money „¬O„¬ô Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
`Œ~¡°. Our English lecturer teaches us very
My father sends me money every well.
month.
10. =¶ mother ã „ ¬ u ‰× x "Œ~¡ O L„¬ " Œ‹¬ O
5. P"³° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O birthday [~¡°„¬ô =ôO@°Ok.
䛽O@°Ok. My mother fasts every Saturday.
She celebrates her birthday every year.

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11. "Œ~¡° „
ã u
¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =¶ió…Õ income tax EXERCISE
K³eªÁ •ë~°¡ . D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
They pay income tax in March every
year. 1. <Í#° ㄬu ~ËA diary "ã Œª•ë#°.
12. "³á*ìQ·…Õ `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê =~¡ÂO „¬_È°`Ç°Ok. 2. "Í°=ò ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O match P_È°`Œ=ò.
It often rains in Vizag. 3. =¶ father <Œä› ½ `Ç ~ ¡ K Ç ° Qê advise
13. <Í#° „
ã u
¬ ~ËA P„¦‹
Ô °¬ H÷ |‹¬°•…Õ "³ˆ`× Œ#°. KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
I go to office by bus every day. 4. =¶ brother Z•Á„C¬ _È° class …Õ first rank
14. Irfan Pathan KŒ…ì fast Qê bowl Kͪ•ë_°È . ‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì_È°.
Irfan Pathan bowls very fast. 5. P"³° north Indian dishes ƒìQê `džǶ~¡°
15. =¶ „ã x² •‡•…˜ Z•Á„C¬ _È° English KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
=¶\ìÁ_È° `Œ~¡°. 6. "Œ~¡° ㄬu ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ tour
Our Principal always speaks English. x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ .
16. H›$‘•â ZH±•„
Ìã ‹¹ XOQË•°H÷ L^Ά°Ç O 10 Q®OII 7. Trains `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê late Qê #_È°‹¬°ëO\ì~ò.
10 xII•ä›½ =‹¬°ëOk. 8. <Í#° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O =¶ native place H÷
The Krishna Express arrives in Ongole "³ˆ×`Œ#°.
at 10.10 a.m.
9. "Í°=ò ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O =¶ father `Ë
17. J`Ç_È° `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê `Ç# friends H÷ help discuss Kͪ•ë=ò.
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.
10. =¶ sister Z„¬C_ȶ #=••° KÇ^ΰ=ô
He often helps his friends.
`ǶO@°Ok.
18. =¶ Physics lecturer „
ã u
¬ lesson H÷ notes 11. J`Ç _ È ° ã „ ¬ u important point note
dictate Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì_È°.
Our Physics lecturer dictates notes for
every lesson . 12. N "Œ*˜ À „ ~ò Zä› ½ ø=Qê ‚² ì On…Õ

ã ‹
¬ O¬ yª•ë~°¡ .
19. H›=°•‚¬ð‹¬<£ Hê"³°_™ scenes …Õ ƒìQê act
Kͪ•ë_°È . 13. =¶ P„¦Ô‹¬~Ÿ =°Oz dignity maintain
Kamal Hassan acts well in comedy Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
scenes. 14. P"³° guests x ƒìQê treat KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
20. N KÇO^ã ƒ
Î ì|° `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê ‡•s“ <Œ†Ç°ä›½•`Ë 15. <Í#° ㄬu ~ËA 9 p.m. H÷ ETV …Õ "Œ~¡ë•°
KÇi󋬶ëO\ì~¡°. KǶª•ë#°.
Sri Chandra Babu often discusses
with the party leaders. Z
Practice makes man perfect. 4
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NEGATIVE FORM
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° J•"Œ@°…èH,› g•°„¬_HÈ › J‹¬•° K͆°Ç =ò. XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò
W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° XH›~¡° J•"Œ@°…èH› J‹¬•°…ÿ„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° J‹¬•° Hê„¦Ô ã`ŒQ®#°. J "Í°=ò J‹¬•° money J„¬CK͆ǰ=ò.
J J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=i=¶\ì q#_È°. J P"³° J‹¬•° birth day [~¡°„¬ôHù#^ΰ.
J "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° taxes K³eÁOKÇ~¡°. J J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=ih #=°à_È°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° J‹¬•° Z„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê J•"Œ@°…èH› Qêx, g•°„¬_HÈ › Qêh, W+¬=“ ò…èH› Qêh =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ J‹¬…„ÿ æ¬ \÷H©
K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Donot / Doesnot + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I', 'We', 'You', 'They' – subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'do not' =KÇ°ó#°.
'He', 'She', 'It' - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'does not' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J‹¬•° #=••° KÇ^Î=#°. 7. <Í#° J‹¬•° \©.q. …Õ `³•°Q®° ‹Ôi†Ç°…˜•
I donot read novels at all. KǶ_È#°.
2. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° work neglect K͆ǰ=ò. I donot watch Telugu serials on

We donot neglect our work at all. T.V. at all.

3. =¶ brother J‹¬•° hard work K͆ǰ_È°. 8. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=ih care K͆ǰ_È°.
My brother doesnot work hard. He doesnot care anybody.
4. P"³° J‹¬•° Z=i`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È^ΰ.
She does not talk to anybody.
9. P"³° J‹¬•° functions H÷ attend J=Þ^ΰ.
She doesnot attend functions at all.
5. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° rules strict Qê ‡•\÷OKÇ~°¡ .
They donot follow rules strictly. 10. "Œ~¡° Pk"Œ~¡O shop open K͆ǰ~¡°.
6. Tamil Nadu Express Ongole station …Õ They donot open the shop on Sunday.
PQ®^ΰ.
11. <Í # ° J‹¬ • ° non-vegetarian items
The Tamil Nad Express does not stop
f‹¬°HË#°.
in Ongole station.
I donot take non-veg. items at all.

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12. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=iH© help K͆ǰ_È°. EXERCISE


He does not help anybody at all. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
13. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° =°# „¬O_È°Q®•° [~¡°„¬~¡°. 1. <Í#° J‹¬•° Hindi movies KǶ_È#°.
They donot celebrate our festivals
at all. 2. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° Sunday work K͆ǰ=ò.

14. <Í#° J‹¬•° W`Ç~¡°• q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O 3. P"³° J‹¬•° guest •#° ‹¬iQê treat
KÍ‹¬°HË#°. K͆ǰ^ΰ.
I donot interefere in others matter.
4. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° friends `Ë move J=_È°.
15. =¶ officer J‹¬ • ° dignity maintain
K͆ǰ~¡°. 5. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° programmes …Õ ‡•…ç¾#~¡°.
Our officer doesnot maintain dignity
6. J`Ç_È° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê office H÷ ~Œ_È°.
at all.
7. <Í#° J‹¬•° smoke K͆ǰ#°.
16. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° money ‡Ú^ΰ„¬ô K͆ǰ~¡°.
They donot save money at all. 8. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° guides follow J==ò.
17. =¶ Chemistry lecturer J‹¬•° notes 9. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° juniors #° encourage
dictate K͆ǰ~¡°. K͆ǰ_È°.
Our Chemistry lecturer doesnot
dictate notes at all. 10. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° ^Í=ôx #=°à_È°.

18. P"³° J‹¬•° |‹¬°•…Õ „


ã †
¬ ¶
Ç }O K͆°Ç ^ΰ. 11. "Œ~¡° regular Qê rent pay K͆ǰ~¡°.
She doesnot travel by bus at all.
12. J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° x~¡°`Œ•‚¬ì„¬__
È °È .
19. =¶ principal J‹¬•° `³•°Q®° =¶\ìÁ_È~¡°.
13. =¶ brother J‹¬•° work Ì„á concentrate
Our Principal doesnot speakTelugu at
K͆ǰ_Ȱ.
all.

14. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° =‹¬°ë=ô•° J„¬C W=Þ~¡°.


20. P"³° J‹¬•° modern dress ^•ÎiOKÇ^°Î .
She does not wear modern dress at 15. "Í°=ò J‹¬•° time waste K͆ǰ=ò.
all.
Z
A rolling stone gathers no mass. 6
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J…"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô ㄬu~ËA news paper KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ"Œ? J g°~¡° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O KÇióH÷ "³ˆ×`Œ~Œ?
J g° brother h䛽 ㄬu <³• money „¬O„¬ô`Œ~Œ? J "Œ~¡° „ã u¬ ª•s g°ä›½ ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì~Œ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ㄬ‰×ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=°òQê =°#=ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê, J•"Œ@°Qê, „¬^Í „¬^,Í =°~¡• =°~¡• „ã u¬ ~ËA,
„ã u¬ "Œ~¡O, „ã u¬ <³•, „ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, Z•Á„C¬ _È°, `Ç~K
¡ °Ç Qê, K͆òÇ XH› „¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
''''Do / Does + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'DoÑ
He, She, It - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬C_È° 'DoesÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ㄬu L^ΆǰO walking H÷ "³ˆ×`Œ"Œ? 7. h=ô English magazines Zä› ½ ø=Qê
Do you go for a walk every morning? KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ"Œ?
2. g° aunt guests #° ƒìQê treat Kͪ•ë~Œ? Do you read English magazines
Does your aunt treat the guests well? mostly?

3. g° father L.I.C. …Õ „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ? 8. g°~¡° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O E-TV …Õ „ã u


¬ ^•ÎÞx
Does your father work in the L.I.C.? programme KǶª•ë~Œ?

4. G.T. Express Ongole …Õ PQ®°`Ç°O^¥? Do you watch the programme

Does the G.T. Express stop in Ongole? Pratidhwani on E-T.V. every Sunday?

5. "Œ~¡° ㄬu ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Annual Day 9. g° brother x#°ß studies …Õ encourage


[~¡°„¬ô`Œ~Œ? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_¨ ?
Do they celebrate the Annual Day Does your brother encourage you in

every year? your studies ?

6. P"³° g°ä›½ Hindi teach KÍ‹¬°ëO@°O^¥? 10. g°~¡° ㄬu"Œ~¡O school …Õ test "ã Œª•ë~Œ?
Does she teach you Hindi? Do you write a test in the school every
week?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE


11. g°~¡° „
ã u
¬ ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ Hã Hï÷ \˜ ZH›ø_È D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
practise Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Where do you practise cricket every 1. h=ô ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê ‚² ì O^Î ¶ À „ „¬ ~ ¡ °
evening? KÇ^ΰ=ô`Œ"Œ ?
12. h=ô ª•^•¥~¡}OQê Z„¬C_È° xã^…Î ªè •ë=ô ? 2. g°~¡ ° college …Õ games practise
When do you usually wake up ? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
13. g° father ㄬu<³• Hyderabad ZO^ΰ䛽 3. g° brother U.S.A. …Õ x=t‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
"³ˆ×`Œ~¡° ? 4. P"³° z#ß z#ß H›^ŠÎ•° ã"Œ‹¬°ëO@°O^¥ ?
Why does your father go to Hyderabad 5. "Œ~¡° „ ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O income tax pay
every month ? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
14. Mrs. Malathi g°ä›½ U subject teach 6. g° Principal Z„¬ C _È ¶ English …Õ<Í
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? =¶\ìÁ_È°`Œ~Œ ?
Which subject does Mrs. Malathi teach 7. H›=°•‚¬ð‹¬<£ ‚²ìOn ‹²x=¶•…Õ ä›•_¨
you ? #\÷‹¬°ëO\ì_¨?
15. h=ô ㄬu ~ËA college H÷ Z…ì "³ˆ×`Œ=ô ? 8. WH›ø_È `Ç~¡KÇ°Qê =~¡ÂO „¬_È°`Ç°O@°O^¥ ?
How do you go to college everyday ? 9. g°ä›½ college …Õ English Z=~¡° teach
16. g° father h䛽 <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç money KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡° ?
„¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡° ? 10. WO_•†Ç°<£ H ã Hï÷ \˜ \©"°£ …Õ h=ô Z=ix like
Howmuch money does your father Kͪ•ë=ô?
send you every month ? 11. h=ô ª•^•¥~¡}OQê U dictionary refer
17. g°~¡ ° P„¦ ¬ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ ~ËAH÷ Zxß Q® O @•° KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ô?
„¬xKͪ•ë~°¡ ? 12. „² < ŒH÷ x express XOQË•°H÷ Z„¬ C _È °
Howmany hours do you work in your =‹¬°ëOk?
office everyday ? 13. ZO^ΰ䛽 J`Ç_È° Z•Á„¬ôC_È° time waste
18. g° business Z=~¡° KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡° ? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°?
Who looks after your business ? 14. g°~¡° D house H÷ <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç rent pay
19. ã „ ¬ u ~ËA L^Î † Ç ° O h=ô Uq° KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
f‹¬°ä›½O\ì=ô ? 15. XH› one-day match …Õ XH› bowler
What do you take every morning ? ª•^•¥~¡}OQê Zxß overs bowl
20. g° elder brother ZH›ø_È „¬xKÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì_È°? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°?
Where does your elder brother
work ?
Z
Honesty is the best policy. 8
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò XH›~°¡ J•"Œ@°…èH› ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê J‹¬…„
ÿ æ¬ \H÷ © K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J h=ô J‹¬•° Hindi movies KǶ_È"Œ ? J g°~¡° J‹¬•° Hê…è[…Õ games P_È~Œ ?
J J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=ih care K͆ǰ_¨ ? J P"³° J‹¬•° Z=i`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_È^¥ ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆ǰx „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~¡°Qêx J…"Œ@° …èH›Qêh, W+¬“O…èH›Qêh, g•°„¬_ÈH›Qêh
J‹¬…ÿ„¬æ\÷H©K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't /Doesn't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - I, We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Don't'
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Doesn't' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô J‹¬•° #=••° KÇ^ΰ="Œ ? 6. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° =°# „¬O_È°Q®•° [~¡°„¬~Œ ?
Don't you read novels at all ? Don't they celebrate our festivals at all?

2. g°~¡° Sunday classes H÷ attend J=~Œ? 7. h=ô J‹¬•° cotten shirts ^•ÎiOKÇ"Œ ?
Don't you attend classes on Sundays? Don't you wear cotten shirts at all ?

3. J`Ç_È° J‹¬•° Z=iH© help K͆ǰ_¨ ? 8. h=ô J‹¬•° ^Í=ôx #=°à"Œ ?


Doesn't he help others at all ? Don't you believe in God ?

4. P"³° J‹¬•° WO\ÕÁ #°O_• |†Ç°@䛽 ~Œ^¥? 9. D camera „¬x K͆ǰ^¥ ?


Doesn't she come out of the house ? Doesn't this camera function ?

5. G.T. Express p~Œ•…Õ PQ®^¥ ? 10. g°~¡° J‹¬•° non-veg. food f‹¬°HË~Œ ?
Doesn't the G.T. Express stop in Don't you take non-veg. food at all ?
Chirala?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 H›+„


“¬ _
¬ • „¬xK͆°Ç =ô ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why don't you work hard ?
1. h=ô J‹¬•° sweet like K͆ǰ"Œ ?
12. g°~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽 games practise K͆°Ç ~¡°?
Why don't you practise games ? 2. g°~¡° J‹¬•° English =¶\ìÁ_È~Œ ?
13. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 early Qê xã^Î …è==ô ?
Why don't you wake up early in the 3. J`Ç_°È J‹¬•° H›+„
“¬ _
¬ • „¬xK͆°Ç _¨ ?
morning ?
4. P"³° J‹¬•° friends Wˆ×¤ä›½ "³ˆ×¤^¥ ?
14. J`Ç_°È ZO^ΰ䛽 studies „
Ì á ‰ã ^
× íÎ KǶ„¬_°È ?
Why doesn't he concentrate on
5. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° taxes pay K͆ǰ~Œ ?
studies ?

15. P"³° ZO^ΰ䛽 Z=i`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_È^ΰ? 6. D 䛽H›ø Z=ih H›~¡=^¥ ?


Why doesn't she speak to others ?
7. J`Ç_È° Z=i =¶\ì q#_¨ ?
16. J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 regular Qê duty H÷
attend Hê_È° ?
8. h=ô J‹¬•° U q+¬†Ç°=ò „¬\÷“OKÇ°HË"Œ?
Why doesn't he attend the duty
regularly ?
9. g° father x#°ß Ug° J#~Œ ?
17. h=ô ㄬu <³• ZO^ΰ䛽 money save
K͆ǰ=ô ? 10. h=ô J‹¬•° fountain pen use K͆ǰ"Œ?
Why don't you save money every
month ? 11. h=ô P~ËQ®¼O ZO^ΰ䛽 care f‹¬°HË=ô ?
18. h=ô job HË‹¬O ZO^ΰ䛽 serious Qê try
K͆ǰ=ô ? 12. ##°ß J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°Hù<ÍO^ΰ䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 try
Why don't you try for a job seriously ? K͆ǰ=ô ?
19. D "³òH›ø ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡Ú_È=ôQê Ì„~¡Q®^ΰ ? 13. g°ï~O^ΰ䛽 J`Çxx #=°à~¡° ?
Why doesn't this plant grow tall ?

20. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 J‹¬•° Z=i`Ë friends 14. "Œ~¡° J‹¬•° ZO^ΰ䛽 rules ‡•\÷OKÇ~°¡ ?
K͆ǰ=ô ?
Why don't you make friends with 15. #H›Æã`Œ•° „¬Q®•° ZO^ΰ䛽 H›#|_È=ô ?
others ?
Z
Fortune favours the bold. 10
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'I form of the verb' Q®°iOz
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Simple Present Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form
2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò.
D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
=°#=ò ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê, J•"Œ@°Qê, „¬ ^ Í „ ¬ ^ Í KÍ † Ç ò XH› „¬ x x ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½
The First form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I take coffee every morning. 2. My father sends me money every month.
3. They work hard. 4. My brother always reads books.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
=°#=ò J•"Œ@°…èH›, g•°„¬_ÈH›, W+¬“O…èH› J‹¬•° Z„¬æ\÷H© K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "donot / doesnot + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I don't smoke at all. 2. My father doesn't tolerate indiscipline.
3. They do not neglect work at all. 4. She doesn't see movies.

3. QUESTION FORM :
=°#=ò ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê, J•"Œ@°Qê, „¬^Í„¬^Í K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•#°
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Do/Does + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Do you wake up early in the morning ? 2. Does she paint pictures ?
3. Do they conduct tests every week ? 4. Does he ofen go to Vizag ?

4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :


=°#=ò J•"Œ@° …èH›, ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Don't / Doesn't + I form of the Verb"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Don't you ride a bike ? 2.Doesn't she go to movies at all ?
3. Don't they come to your house at all ? 4. Doesn't she cook well ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

1. Begin began begun P~¡Oa•OKÇ°@


2. Break broke broken „¬Q®°•Qù@°“@
3. Bring brought brought `³KÇ°ó@
4. Build built built xiàOKÇ°@
5. Buy bought bought Hù#°@
6. Catch caught caught JO^ΰHù#°@
7. Chide chid chidden p"Œ@°Á Ì„@°“@
8. Choose chose chosen Z#°ßHù#°@
9. Come came come =KÇ°ó@
10 Creep crept crept ‡ã •ä›½@
11. Deal dealt dealt x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ°@
12. Draw drew drawn w†Çò@, …ìQ®°@
13. Dream dreamt dreamt H›•Q®#°@
14. Drink drank drunk ã`ŒQ®°@
15. Drive drove driven #_È°„¬ô@
16. Eat ate eaten u#°@
17. Fall fell fallen „¬_È°@
18. Feel felt felt J#°ƒ•’¶u ‡ÚO^ΰ@
19. Fight fought fought ‡é~Œ_È°@
20. Find found found H›#°Qù#°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß~°¡ H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
12 There is no success without hardship.
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PAST ACTION
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹#² XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. J#Qê P „¬x =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È° KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 „¬îië J~ò#k.
J "Í°=ò last Sunday XH› Hindi movie KǶ‰§=ò. J <Í#° x#ß „¬sH›Æ „¦ÔA K³eÁOKŒ#°.
J "Œ~¡° last year <³•¶Á~°¡ H÷ shift J~ò<Œ~¡°. J <Í#° x#ß train miss J~ò<Œ#°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹²# „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› Yzó`"Ç °³ #Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ „¬îië KÍ‹#² XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"II form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Verb †³òH›ø II form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß =¶ father H÷ letter ã"Œ‰§#°. 7. x#ß „²<ŒH÷x ZH±•„
Ìã ‹¹ XH› Q®O@ late Qê
I wrote a letter to my father yesterday. =zó#k.
The Pinakini Express arrived one hour
2. "Í°=ò last week exhibition KǶ‰§=ò.
late yesterday.
We saw the exhibition last week.
8. N Z<£.\÷. ~Œ=¶~Œ=ô 1983 …Õ `³•°Q®°
3. =¶ brother last month Delhi "³ˆìÁ_È°.
My brother went to Delhi last month.
^͉O× ‡•s“ U~Œæ@° K͉§~¡°.
Sri N.T.Rama Rao formed the Telugu
4. P"³° last year M.A. pass J~ò#k. Desam Party in 1983.
She passed M.A. last year.
9. N=°u WOk~Œ QêOn• 1984…Õ KÇx‡é
5. x#ß <³•¶Á~°¡ …Õ ƒ•ìsQê =~¡ÂO „¬_•#k. †Ç¶~¡°.
It rained heavily in Nellore yesterday. Smt. Indira Gandhi died in 1984.

6. "Œ~¡° lastmonth P W•°Á Mìm K͉§~¡°. 10. <Í#° x#ß =¶ friend H÷ help K͉§#°.
They vacated that house last month. I helped my friend yesterday.

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11. x#ß \ ÷ match …Õ Kumble 7 wickets EXERCISE


f‰§_È°. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Kumble took 7 wickets in the match
yesterday. 1. <Í#° x#ß text books Hù<Œß#°.
12. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° 1996…Õ =òY¼=°Oã u 2. "Í°=ò last Sunday picnic "³ˆì¤=ò.
J~ò<Œ~¡°. 3. =¶ father last month Nellore H÷ transfer
Sri Chandra Babu became the Chief- ‡ÚO^¥~¡°.
minister in 1996. 4. P"³° x#ß guests #° KŒ…ì ƒìQê =°~Œ¼^Î
13. =¶ father last year promotion ‡ÚO^¥~¡°. KÍ‹²Ok.
My father got a promotion last year. 5. "Œ~¡° last year D business start K͉§~¡°.
14. =¶ cousin last year Intermediate fail
6. <Í#° x#ß T.V. …Õ cricket match KǶ‰§#°.
J~ò#k.
My cousin failed in Intermediate last 7. "Í°=ò last Sunday English test KŒ…ì
year. ƒìQê ã"Œ‰§=ò.
15. H›…Hÿ ~“› Ÿ x#ß =¶ =°O_È•O…Õ „¬~¼¡ \÷OKŒ~¡°. 8. =òY¼=°Oã u x#ß =~¡ ^ Î ã ‡ •O`Œxß
The Collector toured in our Mandal ‹¬O^ÎiÅOKŒ~¡°.
yesterday. 9. J`Ç_È° last year B.A. „¬îië K͉§_È°.
16. "Í°=ò last Sunday =¶ cousin marriage 10. x#ß \ ÷ match …Õ ‹¬ z <£ >ÿ O _È ¶ •ø~Ÿ
H÷ attend J~ò<Œ=ò. Ì‹OKÇ°s K͉§_È°.
We attended our cousin's marriage last
Sunday.
11. =¶ grand father 1997 …Õ KÇx‡é†Ç¶~¡°.
17. <Í#° x#ß leave H÷ apply K͉§#°. 12. <Í#° ~Œãu XH› English novel KÇk"Œ#°.
I applied for leave yesterday. 13. "Í°=ò last time „¬sH›Æ•H÷ ƒìQê prepare
18. P"³° 1994…Õ S.S.C. „¬îië KÍ‹²#k. J~ò<Œ=ò.
She completed S.S.C. in 1994. 14. N Z<£.\÷. ~Œ=¶~Œ=ô 360 ‹²x=¶•…Õ
19. "Œ~¡° last month family <³•¶Á~¡°H÷ shift #\÷OKŒ~¡°.
KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°.
15. x#ß "Œ~¡° =¶ proposal u~¡‹¬øiOKŒ~¡°.
They shifted the family to Nellore last
month. 16. "Í°=ò last Sunday meeting cancel
20. x#ß Q®°O@¶~¡° ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ ~Ë_È°Û „
ã =
¬ ¶^ÎO…Õ 12 K͉§=ò.
=°Ok ㄬ†Ç¶}÷䛽•° KÇx‡é†Ç¶~¡°. 17. "Œ~¡° last month XH› new book publish
12 passengers died in the road K͉§~¡°.
accident near Guntur yesterday. Z
Work is Worship. 14
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NEGATIVE FORM
=°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ Hùxß „¬#°•° KÍ‹† ² ò
Ç O_È=ò. XHùøH›ø ª•i
W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬ô_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° x#ß friends x H›•°=…è^ΰ. J "Í°=ò last time [#àƒ•’¶q°…Õ ‡•…ç¾#…è^°Î .
J J`Ç_È° x#ß <Œä›½ books W=Þ…è^ΰ. J =¶ brother last time job H÷ ㄬ†Ç°`ÇßO K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° K͆ǰx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß Qêx, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'did not + I form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß Hê…èlH÷ "³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ. 6. P"³° x#ß computer class H÷ ~Œ…è^ΰ.
I didnot go to college yesterday. She didnot come to the computer
class yesterday.
2. "Í°=ò last week English test "
ã Œ†Ç°…è^°Î .
We didnot write English test last week. 7. "Œ~¡° last year annual day [~¡°„¬…è^ΰ.
They didnot celebrate the annual day
3. "Í ° =ò last month mess bill pay last year.
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. 8. <Í#° x#ß P letter post K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
We didnot pay the mess bill last month.
I didnot post that letter yesterday.
4. =¶ brother last time EAMCET H÷ 9. "Í°=ò last Sunday special class H÷
appear J=Þ…è^ΰ. attend J=…è^ΰ.
My brother didnot appear for the We didnot attend the special class last
EAMCET last time. Sunday.

5. ~Œãu XOQË•°…Õ =~¡ÂO „¬_È…è^ΰ. 10. x#ß\÷ match …Õ Kumble P_È…è^ΰ.


It didnot rain in Ongole last night. Kumble didnot play in the match
yesterday.

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11. Q®`Ç ZxßH›•…Õ N "³OH›†Ç°¼<Œ†Çò_È° ‡é\© EXERCISE


K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Sri Venkaiah Naidu didnot contest in
the elections last time.
1. <Í#° last time J`Ç x letter H÷ reply
12. ‡é~ò# ª•i P"³° =°=òà•#° function W=Þ…è^ΰ.
H÷ invite K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
She didnot invite us to the function last 2. "Í°=ò last month rent pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
time. 3. =¶ English lecturer x#ß class
13. "Œ~¡° x#ß <Œä›½ P q+¬†Ç°O `³e†Ç° f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
„¬~¡KÇ…è^ΰ. 4. "Œ~¡° ‡é~ò# ‰×ÃãH›"Œ~¡O =¶ä›½ ‰×•=ô
They didnot inform me that matter
ㄬH›\÷OKÇ…è^ΰ.
yesterday.
14. =¶ manager last week <Œä›½ leave
5. <Í#° x#ß leave H÷ apply K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
grant K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. 6. x#ß meeting …Õ chief guest ‹¬ i Qê
Our manager didnot grant me leave =¶\ìÁ_È…è^ΰ.
last week.
7. P"³° x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ ~Œ…è^ΰ.
15. <Í#° x#ß J`Çx =¶@•° #=°à…è^ΰ.
I didnot believe his words yesterday.
8. <Í#° x#ß class …Õ notes ã"Œ†Ç°…è^ΰ.
16. =¶ father last month <Œä›½ money 9. "Œ~¡ ° last time =¶ä› ½ JH› ø _È =‹¬ u
„¬O„¬…è^ΰ. H›eæOKÇ…è^ΰ.
My father didnot send me money last 10. <Í#° x#ß •OKŸ f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
month.
11. =¶ brother last year college …Õ KÍ~…¡ ^
è °Î .
17. Last time "Œ~¡° =¶ä›½ help K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
They didnot help us last time. 12. <Í#° x#ß news paper …Õ P ㄬH›@#
18. <Í # ° last time Maths H÷ coaching
KǶ_È…è^ΰ.
f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ. 13. =¶ Hindi teacher x#ß class …Õ papers
I didnot take coaching for Mathematics correct K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
last time.
14. <Í#° ~Œãu ~ö _•†³¶…Õ "Œ~¡•ë ° q#…è^°Î .
19. x#ß "Œ~¡° shop `³~¡°=…è^ΰ.
They didnot open the shop yesterday. 15. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß JH› ø _È work complete
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
20. <Í#° ~Œãu \©.q.…Õ #¶¼‹¹ KǶ_È…è^ΰ.
I didnot watch the news on T.V. last
night. Z
Necessity is the mother of invention. 16
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J g°~¡° Q®`Ç <³• house rent pay KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ? J "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç <³• P W•°Á Mìm KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
J P"³° x#ß q°=òà•#° party H÷ invite J h=ô x#ß English class H÷ attend
KÍ‹²#^¥? J~ò<Œ"Œ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=°òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i †Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° „¬îië KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
" Did + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Did' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô x#ß P letter post KÍ ‹ ² < Œ"Œ? 6. "Œ~¡° last year family Hyderabad 䛽 shift
Did you post that letter yesterday? KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?
2. g°~¡ ° last Sunday cricket match Did they shift their family to Hyderabad
P_•<Œ~Œ? last year?
Did you play a cricket match last 7. x#ß match …Õ Laxman century
Sunday?
KÍ‹²<Œ_¨?
Did Laxman make a century in the
3. g° brother last month M.C.A. join
match yesterday ?
J~ò<Œ_¨ ?
8. Last Sunday g°~¡° E-TV …Õ special
Did your brother join M.C.A. last
programme KǶ‹²<Œ~Œ?
month?
Did you watch the special programme
4. English Madam x#ß class …Õ new on E-TV last Sunday ?
lesson teach KÍ‹²O^¥ ? 9. g°~¡° last week u~¡°=°• visit KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Did the English Madam teach a new Did you visit Tirumala last week ?
lesson in the class yesterday ? 10. h=ô last week ‹
Ì q°<Œ~Ÿ …Õ ‡•…ç¾x<Œ"Œ?
5. x#ß ~Œãu WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_•#^¥? Did you participate in the seminar last
Did it rain here last night? week ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô WO@sà_•†³°\˜ ZH›ø_È KÇkq<Œ=ô ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Where did you study Intermediate ?
12. g°~¡° D business Z„¬C_È° ‡
ã •~¡Oa•Oz 1. h=ô x#ß new dress Hù<Œß"Œ ?
<Œ~¡° ?
When did you start this business ? 2. g°~¡° D letter x#ß receive KÍ‹°¬ 䛽<Œß~Œ?
13. h=ô x#ß marriage …Õ P"³ ° ä› ½ Uq°
present KÍ‹²<Œ=ô ? 3. g°~¡° last Sunday exhibition "³o¤<Œ~Œ?
What did you present her in the 4. g° brother last year P.G. „¬îië KÍ‹<
² Œ_¨?
marriage yesterday ?
14. g°~¡° sudden Qê P house ZO^ΰ䛽 Mìm 5. "Œ~¡ ° last month house rent pay
KÍ‹²<Œ~¡° ? KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Why did you vacate that house
suddenly ?
6. g° father last month hä› ½ money

15. ~Œãu g°~¡° U movie KǶ‹²<Œ~¡° ? „¬O„²<Œ~Œ ?


Which movie did you see last night? 7. Last time g° friends h䛽 ƒìQê co-
16. x#ß match …Õ Agarkar Zxß wickets
operate KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?
f‹²<Œ_È°?
Howmany wickets did Agarkar take in 8. x#ß g°~¡° ZH›ø_•H÷ "³o¤<Œ~¡° ?
the match yesterday?
17. "Œ~¡ ° last year business …Õ ZO`Ç
9. Last time P"³° Uq° Hù#ßk ?
amount invest KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°? 10. h=ô last month P job H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 resign
Howmuch amount did they invest in
KÍ‹²<Œ=ô ?
the business last year?
18. x#ß „¬sH›Æ…Õ h=ô Zxß questions answer 11. g°~¡° x#ß exam. Z…ì ã"Œ‹²<Œ~¡° ?
KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
Howmany questions did you answer
12. h=ô Hyderabad #°O_• Z„¬C_È°
in the examination yesterday? =zó<Œ=ô?
19. x#ß g°\÷OQ·ä›½ guest Qê g°~¡° Z=ix 13. J`Ç_È° x#ßh䛽 Uq° K³„²æ<Œ_È° ?
invite KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?
Whom did you invite as the guest to 14. h䛽 D watch Z=~¡° present KÍ‹<
² Œ~¡°?
the meeting yesterday?
15. Ja•…ì+¬ #=• Z=~¡° "ã Œ‹²<Œ~¡° ?
20. WO`Ç z#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ<Í J`Ç_È° Bank
officer Z…ì J~ò<Œ_È°?
How did he become Bank officer at
such a young age?
Z
Speech is silver, Silence is gold. 18
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡
K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g° father last month h䛽 money „¬O„¬…è^¥ ? J g°~¡° last Sunday g° T~¡° "³ˆ×¤…è^¥ ?
J P"³° x#ß q°=òà•#° party H÷ invite K͆ǰ…è^¥? J h=ô x#ß J`Çxx H›•°=…è^¥ ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Didn't + I form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h=ô college H÷ "³ˆ×¤…è^¥ ? 7. Lasttime P†Ç ° # ZxßH› • …Õ ‡é\©
Didn't you go to college yesterday ? K͆ǰ…è^¥?
2. Last Sunday g°~¡° T.V. …Õ programme Didn't he contest in the elections last
KǶ_È…è^¥ ? time ?
Didn't you watch the programme on 8. P"³ ° last year EAMCET H÷ appear
T.V. last Sunday ? Hê…è^¥ ?
3. Last time J`Ç_È° h䛽 help K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? Didn't she appear for the EAMCET last
Didn't he help you last time ? year ?
4. Last month g°~¡ ° house rent pay 9. "Œ~¡° last year Annual Day celebrate
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Didn't you pay house rent last month ? Didn't they celebrate the Annual Day
5. ~Œãu WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_È…è^¥ ? last year ?
Didn't it rain here last night ? 10. x#ß g°\÷OQ·…Õ g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°O discuss
6. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O inform K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? Didn't you discuss this matter in the
Didn't they inform you this matter meeting yesterday?
yesterday ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE


11. h=ô x#ß D q+¬ † Ç ° O <Œï H O^Î ° ä› ½ D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
K³„¬æ…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you tell me this matter
yesterday ? 1. x#ß h=ô letter post K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
12. g°~¡° x#ß marriage H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
2. Last week g°~¡° test ã"Œ†Ç°…è^¥ ?
Hê…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you attend the marriage 3. P"³° x#ß doctor #° consult J=…è^¥ ?
yesterday ? 4. "Œ~¡ ° last time g°ä› ½ JH› ø _È =‹¬ u
13. J`Ç_È° last year college …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 H›eæOKÇ…è^¥?
join Hê…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't he join college last year ?
5. g°~¡° last time exams H÷ ‹¬iQê prepare
14. P"³ ° last week party H÷ q°=òà•#° Hê…è^¥ ?
ZO^ΰ䛽 invite K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ? 6. h=ô x#ß J`Çxx P q+¬†Ç°O J_ÈQ®…è^¥?
Why didn't she invite you to the party
7. g°~¡ ° last Sunday English movie
last week ?
KǶ_È…è^¥ ?
15. "Œ~¡° last time WH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 stay
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ? 8. h=ô x#ß bank #°O_• money withdraw
Why didn't they stay here last time ? K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
16. h=ô x#ß computer class H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 9. h=ô x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ ?
~Œ…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you come to the computer
10. J`Ç_È° last month exam fee ZO^ΰ䛽
class yesterday ? pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
17. g°~¡ ° =òO^Î ° Qê ZO^Î ° ä› ½ J#°=°u 11. P"³ ° last time birthday ZO^Î ° ä› ½
f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ ? celebrate KÍ‹¬°HË…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you take permission earlier?
18. h=ô school days …Õ grammar ZO^ΰ䛽
12. x#ß festival H÷ h=ô new dress ZO^ΰ䛽
<Í~¡°óHË…è^ΰ ? Hù#…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you learn grammar in your 13. Last time Congress Party P†Ç°#䛽
school days ? seat ZO^ΰ䛽 W=Þ…è^ΰ ?
19. h=ô D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ J`Ç x ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O 14. h=ô P q+¬†Ç°O…Õ g° parents advice
ZO^ΰ䛽 HË~¡…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't you seek his help in this
ZO^ΰ䛽 follow J=…è^ΰ ?
matter ? 15. Last time ㄬ[•° B.J.P. H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 F@°Á
20. x#ß match …Õ Sachin ZO^ΰ䛽 P_È…è^ΰ? "͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why didn't Sachin play in the match
yesterday ? Z
Man is made by his belief. 20
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'II form of the Verb' Q®°iOz
<Í ~ ¡ ° ó ä › ½ <Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Simple Past Tense JO\ì~¡ ° . nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° „¬îiëKÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'II form of the Verb' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex : 1. I bought text books yesterday. 2. We celebrated Sankranthi last week.


3. They helped me last time. 3. She passed S.S.C. in 2002.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"did not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex : 1. I did not meet my friend yesterday. 2. We did not seek his help last time.
3. It didnot rain here last night. 4. He did not come to office last Monday.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex : 1. Did you write the test well yesterday? 2. Did he draw the salary last week?
3. Did they vacate the house last month ? 4. Did she join college last year?

4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :


Q®`ÇO…Õ K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex : 1. Didn't you go to library yesterday ?


2. Didn't he take coaching last time ?
3. Didn't they open the shop yesterday ?
4. Did n't she come to your house yesterday?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

21 Fly flew flown ZQ®°~¡°@


22. Forget forgot forgoten =°~¡z‡é=ô@
23. Forgive forgave forgiven H›Æq°OKÇ°@
24. Freeze froze frozen Q®_ÈÛH›@°“@
25. Get got got ‡ÚO^ΰ@
26. Give gave given WKÇ°ó@
27. Go went gone "³ˆ×ä@
28. Grow grew grown Ì„~¡Q®°@
29. Hang hung hung ã"Í…ì_Èn†Çò@
Hang hanged hanged Liãf†Çò@
30. Hear heard heard q#°@
31. Hide hid hidden ^¥z=ôOKÇ°@
32. Hold held held „¬@°“Hù#°@
33. Keep kept kept LOKÇ°@
34. Know knew known `³•°‹¬°Hù#°@
35. Learn learnt learnt <Í~¡°óHù#°@
36. Leave left left =^Îe"͆Çò@
37. Lend lent lent J„¬CQê WKÇ°ó@
38. Light lit lit "³eyOKÇ°@
39. Lose lost lost ‡éQù@°“Hù#°@
40. Make made made `džǶ~¡°K͆Çò@
D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.
Z
22 The action of today becomes the destiny of tomorrow.
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FUTURE ACTION
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬x „ ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ [~¡°Q®°@ …è^°Î . ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò
#O^ΰ [~¡°Q®°#°.
J "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†Ç°O discuss J ö~„¬ô Degree students classes boycott
Kͪ•ë~°¡ . Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
J `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO ordinance pass KÍ‹¬°ëOk. J <Í#° ö~„¬ô =¶ friends `Ë picnic "³ˆ×`Œ#°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° "Will + I form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô <³•¶Á~¡° "³ˆ×`Œ#°. 7. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô h䛽 D q+¬†°Ç O inform Kͪ•ë#°.
I will go to Nellore tomorrow. I will inform you this matter tomorrow.
2. "Í°=ò next Sunday g°\÷OQ· U~Œæ@° 8. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³• new house …ÕH÷ shift
Kͪ•ë=ò. J=ô`Œ=ò.
We will arrange a meeting next We will shift to the new house next
Sunday. month.
3. =¶ brother next month car HùO\ì_È°. 9. J`Ç_È° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ promotion ‡ÚO^ΰ`Œ_È°.
My brother will buy a car next month. He will get a promotion soon.
4. P"³° D proposal `Ç„¬æH› X„¬C䛽O@°Ok. 10. =¶ sister ö ~ „¬ ô interview H÷ attend
She will accept to this proposal. J=ô`Œ~¡°.
5. "Œ~¡ ° =°#ä› ½ JH› ø _È Jxß =‹¬ ` Ç ° •° My sister will attend the interview
H›e檕ë~°¡ . tomorrow.
They will provide us all the facilities 11. "Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• XOQË•°…Õ branch open
there. Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
6. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ P W•°Á Mìm Kͪ•ë~¡°. They will open a branch in Ongole next
They will vacate that house soon. month.

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12. <Í#° ö~„¬ô telephone bill pay Kͪ•ë#°. EXERCISE


I will pay the telephone bill tomorrow. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
13. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô …Õ J`ÇxH÷ XH›
marriage
watch present Kͪ•ë=ò. 1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô =¶ native place H÷ "³ˆìë#°.
We will present him a watch in the 2. "Í°=ò next Sunday sea-shore H÷
marriage tomorrow. "³ˆ×`Œ=ò.
14. Finance Minister =KÍó 28# ‡•~¡"
Á °³ O\˜…Õ 3. =¶ brother next month M.B.A. entrance
budget ㄬ"͉×Ì„_È`Œ~¡°. test H÷ appear J=ô`Œ_È°.
The Finance Minister will present the 4. P"³° Dª•i „¬OKŒ~òf ZxßH•› …Õ ‡é\©
Budget in the Parliament next 28th. KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
15. <ŒQê~¡°#
û †Çüx=i•\© ªé=°"Œ~¡O _•ãw 5. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ business start
„¦¬e`Œ•° ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëOk. Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
Nagarjuna University will announce 6. "Í°=ò next year D town …Õ house
the degree results next Monday. HùO\ì=ò.
16. =¶ uncle Dª•i =òx•„¬…˜ ZxßH•› …Õ 7. <Í#° next year transfer H÷ try Kͪ•ë#°.
‡é\©KªÍ •ë~°¡ . 8. =¶ father <Œä›½ =KÍó "Œ~¡O money
My uncle will contest in the Municipal „¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡°.
elections this time.
9. =°# =òY¼=°Oãu ~ö „¬ô _••bÁ…Õ „ã ^¬ •¥xx
17. =¶ sister next July …Õ B.Sc. join H›•°ª•ë~°¡ .
J=ô`Ç°Ok. 10. "Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• XOQË•°…Õ XH› new
My sister will join B.Sc. next July. showroom open Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
18. =¶ lecturers =¶ „¬sH›Æ• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç tour 11. Ì+Hê=`Ÿ WO_•†Ç¶H÷ next president
x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ . J=ô`Œ~¡°.
Our lecturers will organize a tour after 12. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô g°ä› ½ =¶ x~¡ â † Ç ° O
our examinations. `³e†Ç°*誕ëO.
19. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h䛽 <Œ note book Wª•ë#°. 13. „
ã ^¬ •¥x ~ö „¬ô =°# ~ŒRO…Õ „¬~¼¡ \÷ª•ë~°¡ .
I will give you my note book tomorrow.
14. Intermediate Board D ª•i „¬sH›Æ•°
20. Indian Cricket Board Dª•i Dravid x strict Qê x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëOk.
Captain KÍ‹¬°ëOk. 15. =¶ uncle `ÇÞ~¡…Õ U.S.A. "³ˆ×`Œ~¡°.
The I.C.B. will make Rahul Dravid
captain this time. Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô college H÷ "³ˆ×¤#°. J P"³° D ª•i birthday celebrate KÍ‹¬°HË^ΰ.

J "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 next time help K͆ǰ~¡°.J =¶ brother Dª•i bank test H÷ appear J=_È°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Will not + I form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô duty H÷ attend J=#°. 7. "Í°=ò D ‡Ú~¡‡•@° =°~¡• K͆ǰ=ò.
I will not attend the duty tommorow. We will not commit this mistake again.

2. "Í ° =ò D town …Õ settle J==ò. 8. P"³° D proposal X„¬CHË^ΰ.


We will not settle down in this town. She will not accept to this proposal.

3. =¶ brother next week Ongole ~Œ_È°. 9. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô meeting …Õ D q+¬†Ç°O


My brother will not come to Ongole discuss K͆ǰ~¡°.
next week. They will not discuss this matter in
the meeting tommrow.
4. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ join J=^ΰ.
She will not join college this year. 10. <Í#° J`Çx q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË#°.
I will not interefere in his matter.
5. "Œ~¡° next time =°#䛽 help K͆ǰ~¡°.
They will not help us next time. 11. "Í°=ò D ª•i P hotel …Õ stay K͆°Ç =ò.
We will not stay in that hotel next time.
6. ö~„¬ô match …Õ Lakshman P_È_È°.
Lakshman will not play in the match 12. <Í#° D ª•i J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡#°.
tommrow. I will not seek his help next time.

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13. P"³° next year studies continue K͆°Ç ^ΰ. EXERCISE


She will not continue her studies next D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
year.

14. "Í°=ò next time J`Çx„Ì á P^•¥~¡„_


¬ =
È ò. 1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°=#°.
we will not depend on him next time. 2. "Í°=ò next Sunday =¶ T~¡° "³ˆ×¤=ò.
3. =¶ uncle D ª•i Zxß H › • …Õ ‡é\©
15. "Œ~¡° D ª•i annual day celebrate K͆ǰ~¡°.
K͆ǰ~¡°.
They will not celebrate the annual day
4. P"³° ö~„¬ô =°#`Ë picnic H÷ ~Œ^ΰ.
this time. 5. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 JH›ø_È =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ~¡°.
6. S.V. University next academic year …Õ
16. Next time ZxßH•
› …Õ TDP, BJP H÷ support entrance tests x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ^ΰ.
K͆ǰ^ΰ.
The TDP will not support the BJP in
7. <Í#° D ª•i coaching f‹¬°HË#°.
the next elections. 8. "Í°=ò next month classes H÷ attend
J==ò.
17. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°#•#° JH› ø _È receive 9. Next summer …Õ "Í°=ò holidays waste
KÍ‹¬°HË~¡°. K͆ǰ=ò.
They will not receive us there
tomorrow.
10. =¶ brother WH› P club Hê~¡¼ãH›=¶•…Õ
‡•…ç¾#_È°.
18. P"³° ö~„¬ô party H÷ "Œix invite K͆ǰ^ΰ. 11. [†Ç°ã„¬^Î WH› ‹²x=¶•…Õ #\÷OKÇ^ΰ.
She willnot invite them to the party 12. ‹¬ z <£ >ÿ O _È ¶ •ø~Ÿ WH› captaincy
tomorrow. JOwH›iOKÇ_È°.
19. <Í#° next time work neglectK͆ǰ#°.
13. "Œ~¡ ° WH› =°#ä› ½ material supply
I will not neglect the work next time.
K͆ǰ~¡°.
14. "Í ° =ò next time J=Hê‰× = ò miss
20. University Dª•i exams postpone KÍ‹¬°HË=ò.
K͆ǰ^ΰ. 15. `³•°Q®° ‹²x=¶ Ja•=¶#°•° NTR #°
The university will not postpone the =°~¡z‡é~¡°.
examinations this time.

Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’=+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô ö~„¬ô English class H÷ attend J=ô`Œ"Œ? J g° brother `ÇÞ~¡…Õ USA "³ˆ×`Œ_¨?
J g°~¡° next week g° native place H÷ "³ˆ×`Œ~Œ? J P"³° next month Ongole 䛽 =‹¬°Oë ^¥?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ K͆ǰƒÕ=ô „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° K͆ǰƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall / Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, we - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬C_È° 'shall'
You, He, She It, They - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'will' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ g° WO\÷H÷ =KÍó^¥? 6. g° brother next year Branch Manager
Shall I come to your house tomorrow J=ô`Œ_¨ ?
evening? Will your brother become the Branch
2. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô Bank Manager #° consult Manager next year ?
J=ô^¥=¶? 7. P"³° D proposal X„¬C䛽O@°O^¥ ?
Shall we consult the Bank Manager Will she accept to this proposal ?
tomorrow? 8. "Œ~¡° ~ö „¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†°Ç O discuss
3. <Í # ° =°#ä› ½ lunch order KÍ À ‹ ^¥ ? Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
Shall I order lunch for us ? Will they discuss this matter in the
4. =°#=ò next month L.I.C. test ä› ½ meeting tomorrow ?
appear J=ô^¥=¶ ? 9. ö~„¬ô =òY¼=°Oãu =°# l…ìÁ visit Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Shall we appear for the L.I.C. test next Will the Chief-minister visit our district
month ? tomorrow ?
5. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô H›…ÿH›“~¡°ä›½ D report submit 10. =KÍó "Œ~¡O †Çüx=i•\© P.G. „¦¬e`Œ•°
Kͪ•ë~Œ ? ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
Will you submit this report to the Will the university announce the P.G.
Collector tomorrow ? results next week ?

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11. <Í#° ö~„¬ô hHË‹¬O ZH›ø_È wait KÍÀ‹k? EXERCISE


Where shall I wait for you tomorrow?
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. =°#=ò `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç U course join
J=ô^¥=ò? 1. <Í#° 䛕_¨ ö~„¬ô h`Ë <³•¶Á~¡°H÷ =KÍó^¥?
Which course shall we join next?
2. =°#=ò D q+¬†Ç°O "ŒiH›÷ =òO^ΰQê
13. <Í#° h䛽 K³<³ßå #°Oz Uq° `³KÍók?
inform KÍ^¥í=¶?
What shall I bring for you from
Chennai ? 3. g°~¡° D town …Õ<Í settle J=ô`Œ~Œ?
14. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô guests 䛽 =‹¬u ZH›ø_È 4. WO@sà_•†Ç°\˜ ƒÕ~¡°Û D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ‹²•|‹¹
provide KÍ^¥í=ò? =¶~¡°æ KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥?
Where shall we provide the 5. P"³° =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P school H÷ Head-
accommodation for the guests
mistress J=ô`Œ~Œ?
tomorrow?
15. h=ô =°~¡… g° Ti #°O_• Z„¬C_È° uiy 6. _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°•œ ° ~ö „¬ô strike …Õ ‡•…ç¾O\ì~Œ?
=ª•ë=ô? 7. _•ãw `Ç~ŒÞ`Ç h=ô studies discontinue
when will you return from your village? Kͪ•ë"Œ?
16. ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È ‹
Ì q°<Œ~Ÿ Z=~¡° x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ ? 8. ‹Ôx†Ç°~Ÿ WO@~Ÿ q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O
Who will organize the seminar there farewell party celebrate Kͪ•ë~Œ?
tomorrow?
9. g° parents U.S.A. #°O_• Z„¬C_È° uiy
17. =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ team H÷ next captain Z=~¡° =ª•ë~°¡ ?
J=ô`Œ~¡° ?
Who will become the next captain of 10. h=ô Hyderabad …Õ Zxß~ËA•° LO\ì=ô?
our cricket team? 11. =°#•#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È Z=~¡° receive
18. ö~„¬ô WO@~¡¶Þ¼H÷ ZO`Ç=°Ok Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•° KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡°?
‚¬ð[~¡° J=ô`Œ~¡°? 12. "Œ~¡° ~ö „¬ô ƒì¼OH±…Õ ZO`Ç amount deposit
Howmany candidates will attend the Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
interview tomorrow?
13. h=ô D H›O„¬î¼@~Ÿ HË~¡°• Z„¬C_È° „¬îië
19. g°~¡° Dª•i "Í‹¬q Ì‹•=ô•° ZH›ø_È
Q®_È°„¬ô`Œ~¡°? Kͪ•ë=ô?
Where will you spend your summer 14. ZxßH•› `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç U ‡•s“ „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@°
holidays this time? KÍ‹¬°ëOk?
20. "Œ~¡° new house …ÕH÷ Z„¬C_È° shift 15. h=ô WO@~Ÿ…Õ U ãQ®¶„¹ f‹¬°ä›½O\ì=ô?
J=ô`Œ~¡°?
When will they shift to the new house?
Z
If wealth is lost, nothing is lost.... 28
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J ö~„¬ô =°#=ò "Œix H›•°==^¥í ? J h=ô ö~„¬ô computer class H÷ ~Œ"Œ ?


J J`Ç_È° =KÍó "Œ~¡O duty H÷ attend J=_¨ ? J P"³° WH› college …Õ KÇ^Î=^¥ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó <³•,
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't / willn't (won't) + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Shalln't'
You, He, She, It, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Won't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô WH›ø䛽 ~Œ=^¥í ? 6. P"³° D proposal X„¬CHù#^¥ ?
Shalln't I come here tomorrow ? Won't she accept to this proposal ?

2. =°#=ò next Sunday P programme …Õ 7. "Œ~¡° D town …Õ settle J=~Œ ?


participate K͆ǰ=^¥ í ? Won't they settle down in this town?
Shalln't we participate in that 8. g°~¡° ö~„¬\÷ =~¡ä›½ JH›ø_È wait K͆ǰ~Œ ?
programme next Sunday? Won't you wait there till tomorrow ?
3. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ "³ˆ×¤"Œ ? 9. P"³ ° next year D college …Õ
Won't you go to office tomorrow? „¬xK͆ǰ^¥?
4. J`Ç_È° D course join J=_¨ ? Won't she work in this college next
Won't he join this course ? year?

5. h=ô Dª•i entrance test H÷ apply 10. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°#•#° JH› ø _È receive
K͆ǰ"Œ ? KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?
Won't you apply for the entrance test Won't they receive us there tomorrow?
this time ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô ö~„¬ô =¶`Ë picnic H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why won't you come on picnic with us
tomorrow ?
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°==^¥í ?
12. g°~¡° next week =~¡ä›½ WH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È~¡° ? 2. =°#=ò ~ö „¬ô P function H÷ attend Hê=^¥í?
Why won't you stay here till next week?
3. g°~¡° next Sunday Ongole H÷ ~Œ~Œ ?
13. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ_È° ? 4. h=ô next May …Õ entrance test H÷ appear
Why won't he co-operate with you in J="Π?
this matter ?
5. P"³° D ª•i function H÷ =°#•#° invite
14. P"³° D medicines ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°Hù#^ΰ? K͆ǰ^¥ ?
Why won't she take these medicines?
15. "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 support K͆ǰ~¡°? 6. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô bill pay K͆ǰ_¨ ?
Why won't they support us ?
7. "Œ~¡° D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ =°#H÷ ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iOKÇ~Œ?
16. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 P „¬xK͆ǰ=ô ?
Why won't you do that work ? 8. h=ô ö~„¬ô ZxßH›•…Õ vote "͆ǰ"Œ ?
17. "Œ~¡° J`ÇxÌ„á ZO^ΰ䛽 KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°Hù#~¡°? 9. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤=ô ?
Why won't they take action against
him?
10. g°~¡ ° next week meeting ZO^Î ° ä› ½
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡° ?
18. h=ô next March exams H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
appear J==ô ? 11. P†Ç°# D ª•i ZxßH•› …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡é\©
Why won't you appear for the exams K͆ǰ~¡° ?
next March ?
12. P"³° D ª•i birthday ZO^ΰ䛽 celebrate
19. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô meeting H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
KÍ‹¬°HË^ΰ ?
J=_È° ?
Why won't he attend the meeting 13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#•#° ZO^ΰ䛽 cousult
tomorrow ? J=~¡°?
20. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O tour ZO^ΰ䛽 organize 14. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô seminar …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾#~¡°?
K͆ǰ~¡° ?
Why won't they organize a tour this 15. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô =°#`Ë TiH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ_È°?
year?

Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Future form ' (Will + I form of the
verb) Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Simple Future Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1.
Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.

1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''Will +
I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1.I will buy a camera tomorrow. 2. We will visit Hyd. next month.
3.They will finish this work next week. 4. He will join M.C.A. next June.

2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1.I will not help you in this matter. 2. We will not delay the work tomorrow.
3.They will not settle down in this town. 4. He will not stay here tomorrow.

3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall/Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shall I bring you the text books ? 2. Will you join M.C.A. next year ?
3. Will they help you there tomorrow? 4. Shall we visit Mysore next month ?

4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :


ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense
…Õ ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Shalln't / Won't + I form of the Verb"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1.Won't you stay here tomorrow ? 2. Won't he come here next week?
3.Won't they pay the bill next month? 4. Shalln't I wait for you tomorrow ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

41. Pay paid paid K³eÁOKÇ°@


42. Prove proved proved x~¡¶„²OKÇ°@
43. Read read read KÇ^ΰ=ô@
44. Ride rode ridden ª•ÞsK͆ò Ç @
45. Ring rang rung ã"³¶yOKÇ°@
46. Rise rose risen L^Î~òOKÇ°@
47. Run ran run „¬~¡°ïQ`Ç°ë@
48. Say said said K³„¬C@
49. See saw seen KǶKǰ@
50. Seek sought sought HË~¡°Hù#°@
51. Sell sold sold J=òà@
52. Send sent sent „¬O„¬ô@
53. Shake shook shaken H›keOKÇ°@
54. Shine shone shun ㄬHêtOKÇ°@
55. Shoot shot shot Hê•°ó@
56. Sing sang sung ‡•_È°@
57. Sink sank sunk =ò#°Q®°@
58. Sit sat sat 䛕~ùó#°@
59. Sleep slept slept xãkOKÇ°@
60. Smell smelt smelt "Œ‹¬#KǶKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
32 If character is lost, everything is lost.
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PRESENT CONTINUOUS
=°#O Hùxß „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ continuous Qê
K͆ÇòKǶO^ΰ=ò. P „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°`ÇëO [~¡°Q®° KǶ#ßq. =°#=ò W„¬C_È° continuous Qê
KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° W„¬C_È° type-writing <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°<Œß#°. J "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ LO@°<Œß=ò.
J =¶ lecturers D <³• lessons revise KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°. J J`Ç_È° W„¬C_ùH› H›^ŠÎ ã"Œ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•x߆Çò XH›~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O,
W„¬C_È°, ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am / Is / Are + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : Am, Is, Are J#° D =ü_•O\÷x Present 'Be' forms JO^ΰ~¡°.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Subject – > 'I' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'am + 'ing' form'
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'is + 'ing' form'
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'are +'ing'' form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ B.L. K͆Çò 6. D ~ËA trains Jhß P•‹¬ ¼ OQê #_È °
KÇ°<Œß#°. ‹¬°ë<Œß~ò.
I am doing B.L. in Nellore at present. All the trains are running late today.
2. "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Bank colony …Õ x=t‹¬°ë 7. =¶ English lecturer D "Œ~¡O =¶ä›½
<Œß=ò. grammar teach KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
We are living at Bank colony at Our English lecturer is teaching us
present. grammar this week.
3. =¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O competitive 8. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ friend room …Õ stay
exams H÷ prepare JQ® ° KÇ ° <Œß_È ° . KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
My brother is preparing for the I am staying in my friend's room at
competitive exams this year. present.
4. P"³° W„¬C_È° guests •ä›½ =°~Œ¼^Î KÍ‹°¬ #
ë ßk. 9. =¶ Ì„^Îí#߆ǰ¼ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO business KǶ‹¬°
She is treating the guests now. 䛽O@°<Œß~¡°.
5. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO "Œ~¡° P WO\÷H÷ ~¡¶. 2000 J^³í My elder brother is looking after
K³eÁ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°. business at present.
They are paying a rent of Rs. 2000 for 10. D ~ËA WH›ø_È ƒ•ìs =~¡ÂO „¬_°È KÇ°#ßk.
that house at present. It is raining here heavily today.

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11. "Í°=ò D ~ËA q[†Ç°"Œ_È "³ˆ×Ãë<Œß=ò. EXERCISE


We are going to Vijayawada today. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. P"³° =°…èi†Ç¶`Ë ƒì^•Î„¬_È°KÇ°#ßk.
She is suffering from malaria.
13. "Í°=ò D summer …Õ =¶ Hê•h …Õ 1. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO govt. job HË‹¬O try
water problem face KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
We are facing water problem in our 2. "Í°=ò D ~ËA =¶ class farewell party
colony at present. [~¡°„¬ô䛽O@°<Œß=ò.
14. <ŒQê~¡°û# ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH› ‚²ìOn ‹²x=¶…Õ 3. =¶ parents ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ village …Õ
#\÷‹¬°ë<Œß_È°. LO@°<Œß~¡°.
Nagarjuna is acting in a Hindi movie 4. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° D ~ËA H› $ ‘•â l …ìÁ … Õ
at present. „¬~¡¼\÷‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
15. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ^
ã ¥q_£ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ÇOë =°# cricket team 5. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È XH› shopping
x lead KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°. complex xià‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
Rahul Dravid is leading our cricket 6. <Í#° W„¬C_È° XH› private company …Õ job
team at present. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
16. "Í°=ò D Ì‹•=ô•…Õ English <Í~¡°ó䛽O@° 7. "Í ° =ò D ~ËA g°\÷ O Q· H ÷ U~Œæ@°Á
<Œß=ò. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
We are learning English in these 8. ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O J`Ç _ È ° =¶ä› ½ ƒìQê
holidays. ‹¬‚¬ìH›i‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
17. =¶ Hê…èl students D ª•i [#àƒ•’¶q° 9. P"³° W„¬C_È° guest •ä›½ lunch `džǶ~¡°
programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾O@°<Œß~°¡ . KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk.
Our college students are participating
10. "Í°=ò D ~ËA T.V. …Õ match KǶ‹¬°ë
in the Janmabhoomi programme this
<Œß=ò.
time.
11. =¶ uncle ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ##°ß KÇkq‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
18. =¶ sister ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Hyd. …Õ training
‡ÚO^ΰKÇ°#ßk. 12. "Í°=ò D "Œ~¡O pending files clear
My sister is undergoing training in
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
Hyderabad now. 13. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P shop …Õ 15 =°Ok „¬x
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
19. J`Ç_°È „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH› private school …Õ „¬x
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°. 14. J`Ç _ È ° W„¬ C _È ° wedding cards print
He is working in a private school now. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
20. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ material supply
15. =¶ grandfather ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO „¬îië rest
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°. f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
They are supplying us material now. Z
Empty vessels make much noise. 34
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° W„¬C_È° L^˼Q®O K͆Çò@…è^ΰ. J "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XOQË•°…Õ x=tOKÇ°@…è^ΰ.
J D ~ËA R.T.C. |‹¬°••° #_È=@O …è^°Î . J "Œ~¡° „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Hê…èl…Õ HêÁ‹°¬ •ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡=@O …è^°Î .
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=°òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê W„¬C_È°, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ , D ~ËA,
D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=°ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Am / Is / Are + not + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am not',
He, She , It - subject Qê L#愬C_È° 'is not'
We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are not' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D ~ËA HêÁ‹¬°ä›½ ~Œ=_ÈO…è^ΰ. 7. ‹¬z<£ >ÿO_ȶ•ø~Ÿ D series …Õ ƒìQê
I am not coming to the class today. P_È@O…è^ΰ.
Sachin Tendulkar is not playing well
2. "Í°=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P "Œ¼‡•~¡O K͆°Ç @O …è^°Î .
in this series.
We are not doing that business at
present. 8. =¶ English Madam D "Œ~¡O classes
3. J`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° =¶`Ë LO_È@O…è^ΰ. f‹¬°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
Our English Madam is not taking
He is not staying with us now.
classes this week.
4. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èr…Õ KÇ^=
Î _ÈO…è^°Î .
She is not studying in college this
9. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ Z^ΰ~ùø
year.
#°@…è^ΰ.
They are not facing any problem here
5. D ~ËA WH› ø _È =~¡  O „¬ _ È @ O…è ^ Î ° . now.
It is not raining here now.
10. <Í # ° D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O PHê…è r …Õ
6. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ@O …è^ΰ. „¬xK͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They are not co-operating with us at I am not working in that college this
present. year.

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11. "Í°=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ P WO\ÕÁ x=tOKÇ@O…è^°Î . EXERCISE
We are not living in that house at
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
present.
12. =¶ father ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P old scooter
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 1. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P room …Õ stay K͆ǰ_ÈO
My father is not using that old vehicle
…è^ΰ.
at present. 2. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È° D books follow J=_ÈO
…è^ΰ.
13. ~Ë*ì W„¬C_È° ‹²x=¶•…Õ #\÷OKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
3. J`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° D course K͆Çò@ …è^ΰ.
Roja is not acting in movies now.
4. P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =¶ school …Õ
14. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P club …Õ programmes „¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ.
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 5. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ@O
They are not conducting programmes
…è^ΰ.
in that club now.
6. D ïH"Í°~Œ ‹¬iQê „¬xK͆ǰ@O …è^ΰ.
15. P`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=@O…è^ΰ. 7. "Í°=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D WO\÷H÷ rent pay
He is not coming here now. K͆ǰ_ÈO …è^ΰ.
16. P"³° W„¬C_È° studies continue K͆ǰ_ÈO 8. P"³° D ª•i „¬sH›•Æ 䛽 ‹¬iQê prepare
…è^ΰ. J=@O…è^ΰ.
She is not continuing her studies now. 9. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO books publish K͆ǰ_ÈO
17. "Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P game practise …è^ΰ.
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 10. <Í#° W„¬C_È° U job H© try K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They are not practising that game at 11. "Í°=ò D ~ËA „¬O_ÈQ® [~¡°„¬ôHË=@O
present. …è^ΰ.
18. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D =°O^ΰ•° f‹¬°HË=_ÈO 12. "Œ~¡ ° business …Õ ‹¬ i Qê accounts
…è^ΰ. maintain K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
I am not taking these medicines now. 13. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O college …Õ donations
19. =¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O studies Ì„á =‹¬¶•° K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
‹¬iQê ã‰×^ÎíKǶ„¬_ÈO…è^ΰ. 14. <Í#° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO non-veg. food f‹¬°HË=@O
My brother is not concentrating on his …è^ΰ.
studies this year. 15. <Í#° W„¬C_È° "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
20. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ material supply
KÍ‹¬°HË=@O …è^ΰ.
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They are not supplying us the material
at present. Z
Failures are the stepping stones of success. 36
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò
J h=ô W„¬C_È° …ÿáã|sH÷ "³ˆ×äKÇ°<Œß"Œ? J g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ LO@°<Œß~Œ?
J g° brother W„¬C_È° M.C.A. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨? J P"³° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ‚¬ð‹¬…“ …˜ Õ LO@°#ß^¥?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, W„¬C_È° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Am / Is / Are + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'am',
He, She, It - subject Qê L#愬C_È° 'is'
We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'are' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° W„¬C_È° x#°ß disturb KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß<Œ? 7. [#‰×`Œaí ZH±•ãÌ„‹¹ D ~ËA P•‹¬¼OQê
Am I disturbing you now ? #_È°‹¬°ë#ß^¥?
2. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È°time waste KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=¶? Is the Janasatabdi Express running
Are we wasting time now? late today?
3. g°~¡ ° W„¬ C _È ° results HË‹¬ O Z^Î ° ~¡ ° 8. "Œ~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Group - I „¬sH›•Æ 䛽 prepare
KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ? JQ®°KÇ°<Œß~Œ ?
Are you waiting for the results now? Are they preparing for the Group - I
4. g° father WOHê P company …Õ „¬x examination at present?
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ? 9. h=ô ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO English Ì„á concentrate
Is your father still working in that KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß"Œ?
company ?
Are you concentrating on English
5. g° sister D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O M. Phil. now?
KÍ‹¬°ë#ß^¥?
Is your sister doing M.Phil. this year?
10. J`Ç_È° W„¬C_È° EAMCET H÷ coaching
f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß_¨ ?
6. g°~¡° D ~ËA LQêk „¬O_È°Q® [~¡°„¬ô Is he taking coaching for the EAMCET
䛽O@°<Œß~Œ? now ?
Are you celebrating Ugadi today?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. W„¬C_È° h=ô WO\÷^ÎQ®¾~¡ Uq°KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
What are you doing at home now?
12. g° brother Z…ì KÇ ^ Î ° =ôKÇ ° <Œß _ È ° ? 1. h=ô D ~ËA [Þ~¡O`Ë ƒì^•Î„_ ¬ °È KÇ°<Œß"Œ?
How is your brother studying ?
2. g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Ì‹•=ô•° enjoy KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?
13. h=ô W„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 WH›ø_È x•|_•
=ô<Œß=ô? 3. g° À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°_È° WH›ø_È …ì†Ç°~ŸQê practise
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨?
Why are you standing here now ?
14. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ \©"£°#° Z=~¡° lead
4. <ŒQê~¡°û# W„¬C_È° ‚²ìOn films …Õ act
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨?
Who is leading our cricket team at 5. g° mother W„¬C_È° guests #° treat
present ? KÍ‹¬°ë#ß^¥?
15. "Œ~¡ ° function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á ZH› ø _È 6. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È U^³á<Œ problem face
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?
Where are they making arrangements
for the function ? 7. D "Œ~¡ O "Œ~¡ ° pending files clear
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ?
16. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D course H÷ ZO`Ç = °Ok
students attend J=ô`Ç°<Œß~¡°? 8. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° parents ZH›ø_È =ôO@°<Œß~¡°?
Howmany students are attending this 9. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g°ä›½ material Z=~¡° supply
course at present ? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°?
17. g°~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH› <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç ‚¬ð‹¬…“ ˜ „¦A
Ô 10. "Œ~¡ ° W„¬ C _È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ `Ç Q ® = ô…ì_È °
=‹¬¶•° KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°? 䛽O@°<Œß~¡°?
Howmuch fee are you collecting for
hostel per month at present ? 11. h=ô Chemistry H÷ U book refer
18. h=ô ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O ZO`Ç salary draw KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô? 12. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P camp …Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok tH›Æ}
Howmuch salary are you drawing at ‡ÚO^ΰKÇ°<Œß~¡°?
present?
13. h=ô W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È Z=i HË‹¬O Z^ΰ~¡°
19. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P ‡¦•¼H›“s…Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok „¬x KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
Howmany men are working in that 14. K³~á à¡ <£ „¬^q
Î H÷ Dª•i ZO`Ç=°Ok ‡é\©
factory at present? „¬_È°KÇ°<Œß~¡°?
20. h=ô W„¬ C _È ° N.I.I.T …Õ U course 15. h䛽 ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È Z=~¡° ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
Which course are you doing in the
N.I.I.T at present? Z
Nothing is impossible to a willing heart. 38
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „ ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê XH›~°¡
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO business K͆ǰ@O …è^¥ ? J J`Ç_È° D ~ËA WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=_ÈO…è^¥ ?
J P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D school …Õ „¬xK͆ǰ@O …è^¥? J "Œ~¡° D <³• class H÷ attend J=@O…è^¥?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D
~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Isn't/Aren't + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject –> 'I' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Aren't I' =KÇ°ó#°. ('Amn't I' ~Œä›•_È^ΰ.)
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Isn't'
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Aren't ' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° „¬xÌ„á ã‰×^Îí KǶ„¬@O…è^¥ ? 6. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO D town …Õ x=tOKÇ@O
Aren't I concentrating on work ? …è^¥ ?
2. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P Hê…èl…Õ KÇ^=
Î @O Aren't they living in this town at
…è^¥ ? present?
Aren't you studying in that college 7. h=ô ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO U job HË‹¬O try K͆ǰ@O
this year ? …è^¥ ?
3. P`Ç_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO job K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ? Aren't you trying for any job at present?
Isn't he doing job at present ? 8. J`Ç_È° D ~ËA college H÷ "³ˆ×¤@O…è^¥ ?
4. P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° WO\ÕÁ LO_È@O…è^¥ ? Isn't he going to college today ?
Isn't she staying in your house at 9. P"³ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O `³ • °Q® ° ‹² x =¶•…Õ
present ? #\÷OKÇ@O…è^¥ ?
5. h=ô W„¬C_È° D scooter use K͆ǰ@O Isn't she acting in Telugu movies at
…è^¥? present ?
Aren't you using this scooter now ? 10. <Í#° ‹¬iQê „¬x K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
Aren't I working properly ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P office …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
„¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why aren't you working in that office
at present ?
1. h=ô D ~ËA Hê…èlH÷ "³ˆ×¤@O…è^¥ ?
12. h=ô D ~ËA college H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤@O 2. g°~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO "ŒiH÷ material supply
…è^ΰ ? K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
Why aren't you going to college today? 3. J`Ç _ È ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O U problem face
13. h=ô studies Ì„á ZO^ΰ䛽 concentrate K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why aren't you concentrating on your
4. P"³° W„¬C_È° D medicines f‹¬°HË=@O
studies ? …è^¥ ?
14. g°~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P WO\ÕÁ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 5. "Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O ï ~ á ` Ç ° •ä› ½ loans
x=tOKÇ@…è^ΰ ? W=Þ@O…è^¥?
Why aren't you living in that house at
6. h=ô D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O P course K͆ǰ@O
present ?
…è^¥ ?
15. J`Ç_È° D "Œ~¡O duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
J=@O…è^ΰ ? 7. g°~¡ ° ‹¬ i Qê accounts maintain
Why isn't he attending the duty this K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
week ? 8. P†Ç°# ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO new cases take up
16. P"³ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O WH› ø _È ä › ½ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^¥ ?
~Œ=@O…è^ΰ ?
Why isn't she coming here at present?
9. P"³° „ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ H›^•Î•° "ã Œ†Ç°@O…è^¥ ?
17. "Œ~¡ ° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O business ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 10. g° father h䛽 money „¬O„¬@O…è^¥ ?
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ? 11. h=ô D scooter ZO^ΰ䛽 use K͆ǰ@O
Why aren't they doing business at …è^ΰ ?
present ?
12. g°~¡° rules ZO^ΰ䛽 follow J=@O…è^°Î ?
18. P"³° W„¬C_È° g°`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_È@O…è^ΰ?
Why isn't she staying with you now ? 13. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO books ZO^ΰ䛽 publish
19. D camera ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ? K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
Why isn't this camera functioning ? 14. P†Ç°# ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO films …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 act
20. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO h ïHO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ@O K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ?
…è^ΰ ? 15. P"³ ° D ~ËA "Œi`Ë Hyderabad
Why aren't they co-operating with you
ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤@O…è^ΰ ?
now ?
Z
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. 40
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Am/Is/Are + Verb + 'ing'
form" Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Present ContinuousTense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ß
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''am / is / are + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I am learning English now. 2. We are waiting for the train now.
3. They are playing a match today. 4. She is staying in the hostel at present.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx
XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "am /is/ are + not + 'ing' form"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I am not using this bicycle now.
2. He is not doing any job at present.
3. They are not helping us at present.
4. We are not facing any problem here at present.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Am/Is/Are + Verb + 'ing' form"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Are you going to college now ? 2. Is she studying B.Sc. this year?
3. Is he suffering from a fever today? 4. Are they living in Nellore at present ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx
XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @ä› ½ "Isn't/Aren't + verb + 'ing' form"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Aren't you coming with me now ?
2. Isn't she attending the classes this week ?
3. Aren't they doing this business now ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

61. Speak spoke spoken =¶\ìÁ_È°@


62. Spend spent spent Q®_È°„¬ô@, Y~¡°óK͆Çò@
63. Spoil spoilt spoilt ‡•_È°K͆ò Ç @
64. Spread spread spread "Œ¼„²OKÇ°@
65. Stand stood stood x•|_È°@
66. Steal stole stolen ^ùOyeOKÇ°@
67. Sting stang stung 䛽@°“@
68. Strike stroke struck J_È°ÛHù#°@
69. Strive strove striven ‡é~Œ_È°@
70. Swear swore sworn ㄬ=¶}O K͆Çò@
71. Sweep swept swept T_È°ó@
72. Swim swam swum D^ΰ@
73. Take took taken f‹¬°Hù#°@
74. Teach taught taught <ÍiæOKÇ°@
75. Tear tore torn zOKÇ°@
76. Tell told told K³„¬C@
77. Think thought thought P…ÕzOKÇ°@
78. Thrive throve thriven Ja•=$kœ K³O^ΰ@
79. Throw threw thrown q‹¬~¡°@
80. Understand understood understood J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°Hù#°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
42 'Drown not thyself to save a drowning man'.
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PAST CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•
†ÇòO^ΰ=ò. P „¬#°•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO K͆Çò@…è^ΰ. Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`Ç Hê•=ò continuous Qê
KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~°¡ •ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° x#ß h HË‹¬O library ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ Z^ΰ~¡° KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ#°.
J "Í°=ò last month bank test H÷ coaching f‹¬°HùO@¶O_•<Œ=ò.
J =¶ father J„¬C_È° <³•¶Á~°¡ …Õ „¬x KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• <Œ~¡°.
J P"³° last year Intermediate KÇ^°Î =ô KǶO_•#k.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß Qêx, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was / Were + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : 'Was' 'Were' J#° D ~ï O_•O\÷x Past 'Be' forms JO^ΰ~¡°.


"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ I, He, She, It (Singular) - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'was' =KÇ°ó#°.
We, You, They (Plural) - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. "Í°=ò last week exams "ã Œ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò. 7. =¶ father J„¬C_È° business KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•
We were writing examinations last <Œ~¡°.
week. My father was doing business then.
2. J`Ç_°È last year hostel …Õ stay KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _• 8. "Í ° =ò last month study classes H÷
<Œ_È°. attend J=ô`ǶO_•<Œ=ò.
He was staying in the hostel last year. We were attending the study classes
3. P"³° J„¬C_È° steno Qê „¬x KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#k. last month.
She was working as a steno then. 9. "Í°=ò ~Œãu T.V. …Õ XH› English movie
4. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß O `Œ P q+¬ † Ç ° O discuss KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò.
KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô<Œß~¡°. We were watching an English movie
They were discussing that matter on T.V. last night.
yesterday. 10. =¶ uncle J„¬C_È° High Court …Õ lawyer
5. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ help KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°. Qê practise KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
They were helping us then. My uncle was practising as a lawyer
in the High Court then.
6. <Í#° x#ß h HË‹¬O wait KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•<Œ#°.
I was waiting for you yesterday.

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11. "Í°=ò x#ß D time …Õ Circar Express EXERCISE


…Õ ã „ ¬ † Ç ¶ }O KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _•<Œ=ò. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We were travelling by the Circar Ex-
press at this time yesterday.
12. "Œ~¡ ° Q® ` Ç " Œ~¡ O „¬ O _È ° Q® [~¡ ° „¬ ô 1. <Í#° ~Œã`ÇO`Œ "Í°…çøx L<Œß#°.
䛽O@¶O_•<Œ~¡°. 2. "Í°=ò x#ß cards distribute KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•
They were celebrating the festival last
<Œ=ò.
week. 3. J`Ç_È° last year „¬îiëQê studies Ì„á con-
centrate KÍ‹¶ ¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
13. Mrs. Malathi =¶ä›½ last year Maths
teach KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•#k. 4. P"³° last month typhoid `Ë ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È
Mrs. Malathi was teaching us Math-
`ǶO_•#k.
ematics last year. 5. "Œ~¡° last week South India ‹¬O^ÎiÅ
14. "Í°=ò last month public examinations ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
"ã Œ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò. 6. J`Ç_È° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ HêOãïQ‹¹ ‡•s“
We were writing public examinations
Hê~¡¼H›~Që¡ ê „¬xKÍ‹¶ ¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
last month. 7. "Œ~¡° last month greeting cards sale
15. J`Ç _ È ° last year KŒ…ì hard work KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°. 8. <Í # ° x#ß D „¬ ô ‹¬ ë H › O HË‹¬ O "³ ` Ç ° ä› ½
He was doing hard work last year. `ǶO_•<Œ#°.
16. "Í°=ò x#ß „¦O¬ H›<
Æ H£ ÷ U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _• 9. "Í°=ò last month Physics subject pre-
<Œ=ò. pare JQ®°KǶO_•<Œ=ò.
We were making arrangements for the 10. P"³ ° x#ß O `Œ Ju^•Î ° •ä› ½ =°~Œ¼^Î
function yesterday. KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•#k.
17. Accident [iy#„¬C_È°, J`Ç_È° car KŒ…ì 11. P"³° x#ßO`Œ important letters type
fast Qê #_È°„¬ôKÇ°O_•<Œ_È°. KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#k.
He was driving the car very fast when 12. "Í°=ò x#ß P time …Õ T.V. …Õ serial
the accident happened. KǶ‹¬¶ë<Œß=ò.
18. <Í#° x#ß D book refer KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ#°. 13. J`Ç_È° last year <³•ä›½ ~¡¶. 4,000 r`ÇO
I was refering to this book yesterday. draw KÍ‹¶ ¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
19. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° rice business KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• 14. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì strict Qê rules
<Œ~¡°. ‡•\÷‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
They were doing rice business then. 15. <Í#° last year News reporter Qê „¬x
20. Last week <Í#° notes `dž¶
Ç ~¡° KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• KǶ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ#°.
<Œ#°.
I was preparing notes last week. Z
Rome was not built in a day. 44
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J "Í°=ò Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ attend J=ô`ǶO_È…è^ΰ. J P"³° J„¬C_È° =¶ WO\ÕÁ „¬x KÍ‹°¬ Oë _È…^è °Î .
J "Œ~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D "Œ¼‡•~¡O KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È …è^°Î . J <Í#° x#ß h HË‹¬O wait KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß Qêx, Q®`OÇ "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'' Was / Were + not + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, He, She, It - subject Qê
L#ß„¬C_È° 'was not'
We, You, They- subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were not' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß D letters type KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ. 7. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O weekly tests
I was not typing these letters x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
yesterday. They were not conducting the weekly
2. "Í°=ò WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D problem face tests last year.
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
We were not facing this problem then. 8. <Í # ° J„¬ C _È ° U subject H© tuition
3. h=ô J„¬C_È° money save KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ. f‹¬°ä›½O@°O_È…è^ΰ.
You were not saving money then. I was not taking tuition for any subject
4. ‹¬z<£ >ÿO_È°•ø~Ÿ Q®`Ç series …Õ ‹¬iQê then.
P_È°`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ. 9. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° college …Õ games practise
Sachin Tendulkar was not playing well KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
in the last series. We were not practising games in the
5. P"³ ° WO`Ç ä › ½ =òO^Î ° D office …Õ college then.
„¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
She was not working in this office
10. J`Ç_°È Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O „¬sH›•Æ 䛽 ‹¬iQê
prepare J=ô`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.
then.
He was not preparing well for the
6. x#ß WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_È°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
examinations last year.
It was not raining here yesterday.

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11. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° guides follow J=ô`Ç°O_È EXERCISE


…è^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We were not following guides then.
12. h=ô Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O studies Ì„á ‹¬iQê
concentrate KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
1. <Í#° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O U job Hù~¡ä›½ try
You were not concentrating on your
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
studies last year.
13. <Œ friends WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ <Œä›½ help 2. "Í°=ò WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D problem face
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ. KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
My friends were not helping me then. 3. J`Ç_È° x#ß D book refer KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
14. =¶ manager Q® ` Ç "Œ~¡ O office ä› ½ 4. P"³° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D [|°Ä`Ë ƒì^•Î„_ ¬ °È
=‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ. `ǶO_È…è^ΰ.
Our manager was not coming to office
5. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O strike …Õ ‡•…ç¾O@°O_È
last week.
15. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ D business …è^ΰ.
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ. 6. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° D town …Õ x=t‹¬°Oë _È…^ è °Î .
They were not doing this business 7. <Í#° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O NIIT …Õ D course
then. KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
16. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç <³• study classes 䛽 attend 8. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° D oil use KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
J=_ÈO…è^ΰ. 9. ~ŒR „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO J„¬C_È° [#àƒ•’¶q°…Õ D
We were not attending the study
classes last month.
Hê~¡¼ãH›=°=ò#° x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
17. P"³° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hostel …Õ stay 10. J„¬C_È° D.M.K. ‡•s“ N.D.A „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxH÷
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ. support KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
She was not staying in the hostel last 11. =¶ brother Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O business
year. KǶ‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È…è^ΰ.
18. <Í#° x#ß g° HË‹¬O JH›ø_È wait KÍ‹¬°ëO_È 12. <Í # ° J„¬ C _È ° competitive „¬ s H› Æ • ä› ½
…è^ΰ. prepare J=ô`Ç°O_È…è^ΰ.
I was not waiting for you there
yesterday.
13. "Í°=ò WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ =¶ personal
19. P"³° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D college …Õ KÇ^°Î =ô matters P†Ç°#`Ë discuss KÍ‹¬°ëO_È
`ǶO_È …è^ΰ. …è^ΰ.
She was not studying in this college 14. =¶ lecturers Q®`ÇO…Õ special HêÁ‹¬°•°
last year. x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ.
20. "Í°=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ studies neglect KÍ‹¬°ëO_È 15. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O maths tuition
…è^ΰ. f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È_ÈO…è^ΰ.
We were not neglecting our studies
last time. Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° Q®`Ç <³• „¬sH›•Æ ° "ã Œ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ~Œ ? J P"³° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ g° WO\ÕÁ LO@¶O_• #^¥?
J g° brother J„¬C_È° Delhi …Õ Job KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• <Œ_¨ ?
J h=ô x#ß \÷.q. …Õ Hã Hï÷ \˜ =¶¼KŸ KǶ‹¬°Oë _• <Œ"Œ ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•# „¬#°•#°
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx U ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° XH› „¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
'' Was / Were + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, He, She, It - subject Qê
L#ß„¬C_È° 'was'
We, You, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'were' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß P time …Õ xã^·é`Ƕ<Œß<Œ ? 6. "Œ~¡ ° Q® ` Ç " Œ~¡ O hall-tickets issue
Was I sleeping at that time yesterday? KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
2. g°~¡ ° Q® ` Ç " Œ~¡ O Physics practicals Were they issuing hall-tickets last
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _• <Œ~Œ ? week ?
Were you doing Physics practicals last 7. x#ß WH›ø_È =~¡Â=ò „¬_°È `ǶO_•#^¥ ?
week ? Was it raining here yesterday ?
3. g°~¡° x#ß wedding cards „¬O„²}© 8. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° x#ß =~¡ O Q® … ˜ l…ìÁ … Õ
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ? „¬~¼¡ \÷‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
Were you distributing the wedding Was Sri Chandra Babu touring in
cards yesterday ? Warangal district yesterday ?
4. P time …Õ J`Ç_È° important letters type 9. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ‡•s“ Jƒ•’¼~¡°œ•° WO\÷O\©H©
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_¨ ? canvas KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
Was he typing the important letters at Were the party candidates canvassing
that time ? from door to door last week ?
5. P"³ ° x#ß WO\÷ ^Î Q ® ¾ ~ ¡ rest f‹¬ ° ä› ½ O 10. J„¬æ\÷ HêOãQï ‹¹ „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO D „¬^HΊ ê•#°
@¶O_•#^¥ ? J=°•° „¬~°¡ ‹¬¶Oë _•#^¥ ?
Was she taking rest at home Was the then Congress government
yesterday? implementing these schemes ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. x#ß D time …Õ h=ô WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ Uq° D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ=ô?
What were you doing at home at this
time yesterday ? 1. x#ß JO`Œ g°~¡° train …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O
12. x#ß h=ô P shop …Õ Uq° HùO@¶<Œß=ô ? KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
What were you buying in that shop 2. g°~¡° last year result HË‹¬O hard work
yesterday ? KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
13. Accident [iy# ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò…Õ Hê~¡° 3. J`Ç _ È ° WO`Ç ä › ½ =òO^Î ° hä› ½ help
Z=~¡° drive KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ? KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_¨ ?
Who was driving the car when the
accident happened ?
4. P"³ ° x#ß P time …Õ special items
14. x#ß\÷ =~¡ä›½ P"³° U hospital …Õ zH÷`•Ç `dž¶Ç ~¡° KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•#^¥ ?
‡ÚO^ΰ`ǶO_•#k ? 5. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ D ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° x~¡Þ‚²ì
In which hospital was she undergoing ‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
treatment till yesterday ? 6. Last summer …Õ h=ô English grammar
15. g°~¡ ° x#ß <Œ HË‹¬ O ZH› ø _È wait <Í~°¡ äó ½› O@¶O_•<Œ"Œ ?
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ? 7. Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O g°~¡° office #° ãHù`Çë building
Where were you waiting for me …ÕxH÷ shift KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?
yesterday?
8. x#ß L^Ά°Ç O h=ô ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ´× Oë _•<Œ=ô?
16. P „²••Á #° J„¬C_È° Z=~¡° ‡é+²‹¶
¬ Oë _•
<Œ~¡° ? 9. x#ß ~Œãu g°~¡° Uq° KŒ…ì ‹Ôi†Ç°‹¹ Qê
Who was feeding those children then? KÇi‹ ó ¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ?
17. g°~¡ ° P_•\Õi†Ç ° OH÷ "³ o ¤ # „¬ C _È ° 10. g°ä›½ Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Hê…èl…Õ Maths
g°\÷OQ·…Õ Z=~¡° =¶\ìÁ_°È KǶO_•<Œ~¡°? Z=~¡° teach KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ?
Who was speaking in the meeting 11. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ `Ç Q ® = ô…ì_È °
when you went to the auditorium ? HùO@¶O_•<Œ~¡° ?
18. "Œ~¡ ° x#ß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ P building #° 12. h䛽 J„¬C_È° Z=~¡° help KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°?
„¬_ÈQù@°“KÇ°<Œß~¡° ? 13. Last summer …Õ h=ô U course
Why were they demolishing that
building yesterday ?
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ=ô ?
19. P ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# |‹¬°•…Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok 14. Last year g° business Z=~¡ °

ã †
¬ ¶Ç }=ò KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡° ? KǶ‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡° ?
Howmay passengers were travelling 15. h=ô x#ß P time …Õ JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
in the bus at that time ? x•|_• =ô<Œß=ô ?
20. J`Ç_È° h`Ë Uq° argue KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°?
What was he arguing with you ?
Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J P"³° last month hostel …Õ stay J g°~¡° last year classes H÷ attend
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥? J=ô`Ç°O_È…è^¥ ?
J "Œ~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D "Œ¼‡•~¡O KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È…^è ¥ ? J x#ß h=ô T.V. …Õ match KǶ‹¬¶Oë _È…^è ¥?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Wasn't/Weren't + Verb + "ing" form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - I, He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Wasn't =KÇ°ó#°.
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Weren't =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h=ô <Œ HË‹¬O wait KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È@O …è^¥? 7. J`Ç _ È ° last year job HË‹¬ O try
Weren't you waiting for me yesterday? KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^¥?
2. h=ô last week classes H÷ attend Wasn't he trying for a job last year ?
J=ô`ǶO_È…è^¥ ? 8. P"³ ° last year Maths H÷ coaching
Weren't you attending the classes last f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È…è^¥ ?
week ? Wasn't she taking coaching for Maths
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° h䛽 help KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥? last year ?
Wasn't he helping you then ? 9. J`Ç_°È J„¬C_È° programmes …Õ participate
4. ~Œãu WH›ø_È =~¡âO „¬_È°`ǶO_È…è^¥ ? KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
Wasn't it raining here last night ? Wasn't he participating in programmes
5. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° D house H÷ rent pay then ?
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ? 10. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ g°ä›½ study classes
Weren't they paying rent for this house x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
then ? Weren't they conducting study classes
6. x#ß buses u~¡°Q®°`Ç°O_È…è^¥ ? to you previously ?
Weren't the buses plying yesterday ?

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11. h=ô WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D book ZO^ΰ䛽 EXERCISE


refer KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why weren't you refering to this book
previously ?
12. g°~¡° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ D course ZO^ΰ䛽 1. h=ô x#ß P time …Õ JH›ø_È x•|_•
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ? =ôO_È…è^¥?
Why weren't you conducting this 2. g°~¡ ° last year D books follow
course previously ?
J=ô`ǶO_È…è^¥ ?
13. J`Ç _ È ° last year ZO^Î ° ä› ½ job
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ? 3. P"³° x#ß notes ã"Œ‹¬°ëO_È@O…è^¥ ?
Why wasn't he doing job last year ? 4. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ D problem face
14. P"³° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ medicines ZO^ΰ䛽 KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_È…è^ΰ?
Why wasn't she taking medicines 5. J`Ç_È° last year job KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
previously ? 6. h=ô last week duty H÷ attend J=ô`ǶO_È
15. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° grammar ZO^Î ° ä› ½ …è^¥ ?
<Í~¡°ó䛽O@¶O_È…è^ΰ?
Why weren't you learning grammar 7. P"³° last year D college …Õ KÇ^ΰ=ô
then? `ǶO_È…è^¥ ?
16. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° money ZO^ΰ䛽 save 8. "Œ~¡ ° WO`Ç ä › ½ =òO^Î ° D town …Õ
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ? x=t‹¬¶ëO_È…è^¥ ?
Why wasn't he saving money then ?
17. P"³° J„¬C_È° g°ä›½ D subject ZO^ΰ䛽 9. g°~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ D scooter ZO^ΰ䛽
teach KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ? use KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
Why wasn't she teaching you this 10. J`Ç_È° last year job HË‹¬O ZO^ΰ䛽 try
subject then ? KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
18. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° games ZO^ΰ䛽 practise
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È…è^ΰ ? 11. "Œ~¡° h䛽 J„¬C_È° salary ZO^ΰ䛽 pay
Why weren't you practising games KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
then ? 12. h=ô last week library H÷ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
19. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ C _È ° h =¶@ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ =‹¬¶ëO_È…è^ΰ ?
qO@¶O_È@O…è^ΰ ?
Why wasn't he listening to your words 13. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O ZO^ΰ䛽
then ? HË~¡°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ ?
20. "Œ~¡° x#°ß J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡ã é`Ç•‚²ì‹¬¶Oë _È 14. x#ß buses ZO^ΰ䛽 u~¡°Q®°`ǶO_È…è^ΰ ?
…è^ΰ ?
Why weren't they encouraging you 15. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° accounts ZO^ΰ䛽 maintain
then ? KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È@O…è^ΰ?

Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Was/Were + Verb + 'ing'
form" Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Past Continiuous Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''was / were + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I was reading this novel last night.
2. We were traveling in the train last night.
3. She was suffering from malaria last month.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "was /were + not + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I was not using this scooter then.
2. We were not attending the classes last week.
3. She was not staying in our house then.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Was /Were + Verb+'ing' for m' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Were you suffering from a fever last week ?
2. Was it raining here yesterday ?
3. Were they helping you then ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Wasn't /Weren't + Verb
+ 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Weren't you waiting for us yesterday ?
2. Wasn't he studying in this college last year ?
3. Weren't they coming here then ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

81. Accompany accompanied accompanied "³O@`Ë_È°Qê =KÇ°ó@


82. Accumulate accumulated accumulated 䛕_ȃÿ@°“@
83 Accuse accused accused xO^Î"³¶„¬ô@
84 Accustom accustomed accustomed J•"Œ@°„¬_È°@
85 Achieve achieved achieved ª•k•OKÇ°@
86 Act acted acted #\÷OKÇ°@
87 Add added added H›•°„¬ô@
88 Addict addicted addicted ^ΰ~¡•"Œ@°K͆Çò@
89 Address addressed addressed ‹¬OƒÕk•OKÇ°@
90 Adjust adjusted adjusted ‹¬iK͆Çò@
91. Admire admired admired "³°KÇ°óHù#°@
92. Adopt adopted adopted ^Î`Çë`Ç f‹¬°Hù#°@
93. Adore adored adored P~Œk•OKÇ°@
94. Advise advised advised ‹¬•‚¬ð WKÇ°ó
95. Affix affixed affixed JO\÷OKÇ°
96. Adulterate adulterated adulterated H›bëK͆Çò@
97. Advertise advertised advertised ㄬH›\÷OKÇ°@
98. Agree agreed agreed X„¬CHù#°@
99. Aim aimed aimed Q®°iÌ„@°“@, •H›Æ¼=ò
100. Alight alighted alighted ãH÷OkH÷ kQ®°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
52 Appear like a winner evenif you lose.
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FUTURE CONTINUOUS
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx HùO`ÇHê•O continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO^ΰ=ò. P „¬#°•°
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ "³ò^Î…áÿ HùO`ÇHê•=ò …èH› KŒ…ìHê•=ò continuous Qê [~¡°Q®° `ǶO_È°#°. W…ì
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~°¡ •ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° WH› #°Oz ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê classes 䛽 J "Í°=ò =KÍ<ó •³ holidays =¶ =îi…Õ
‚¬ð[~¡=`ǶO\ì#°. Q®_È°„¬ô`ǶO\ì=ò.
J "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë ‹¬‚¬ìH›i‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. J J`Ç_°È WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë stay KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì_È°.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _È°
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + be + Verb + ing form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : 'Be' J#° ^¥xx 'Future' 'Be' form JO^ΰ~¡°.


"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "will + be + ing form " =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° WH› # °Oz sincere Qê „¬ x 6. <Í # ° WH› #°Oz =¶ uncle advice
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°. ‡•\÷‹°¬ Oë \ì#°.
I will be working sincerely hereafter. I will be following my uncle's advice
2. "Í°=ò =KÍó<³• =¶ Ti…Õ stay hereafter.
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò. 7. "Í°=ò WH›#°Oz ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê rent pay
We will be staying at our village next KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.
We will be paying rent regularly
month.
hereafter.
3. =¶ sister next year university …Õ 8. =¶ brother P.G. `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç job H÷ try
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ƕ LO@°Ok. KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.
My sister will be studying in the My brother will be trying for a job after
university next year. his P.G.
4. J`Ç _ È ° WH› #°Oz =°#ä› ½ help 9. =KÍó<³• "Œ~¡° teacher post •ä›½
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°. interviews x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
He wil be helping us hereafter. They will be conducting the interviews
5. "Œ~¡° next month „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ prepare for the teacher posts next month.
J=ô`Ç°O\ì~¡°. 10. <Í#° WH›#°Oz ㄬu~ËA new words
They will be preparing for the <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°O\ì#°.
examinations next month. I will be learning new words every day
hereafter.
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11. "Í°=ò WH› #°Oz D new vehicle use EXERCISE


KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We will be using this new vehicle
hereafter.
12. =¶ father next year business 1. <Í#° WH›#°Oz h䛽 `Ç~K ¡ °Ç Qê …ÿ@~Ÿ• "ã Œ‹¬¶ë
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. LO\ì#°.
My father will be doing business next 2. "Í°=ò next two months D game ƒìQê
year. practise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.
13. P"³° WH›#°Oz homeopathic medicines 3. =¶ brother WH›#°Oz <Œ ^ÎQ~ö¾® LO\ì_È°.
f‹¬°ä›½O@°Ok.
She will be taking Homeopathic 4. P"³° ~ö „¬ô D time H÷ WH›ø_Èä½› =‹¬°Oë @°Ok.
medicines hereafter. 5. =°# Maths teacher ~ö „¬ô, =°~¡°<Œ_È° =°#
14. "Œ~¡° WH› g°^Î@ strict Qê accounts doubts clarify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
maintian KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. 6. WH› #°Oz <Í#° Z„¬æ\H÷ „ › C¬ _È° h䛽 inform
They will be maintaining the accounts KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
strictly hereafter.
7. =KÍ ó < ³ • JO`Œ =òY¼=°Oã u Zxß H › •
15. "Í ° =ò WH› # °Oz rules follow J=ô
`Ç°O\ì=ò. „
ã K
¬ Œ~¡O…Õ ‡•…ç¾O\ì~¡°.
We will be following the rules 8. =KÍó <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•° =¶ cousin
hereafter. Madras …Õ Engineering KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_È°.
16. =¶ sister next year M.Phil KÍ‹°¬ Oë @°Ok. 9. <Í#° WH›#°Oz Z䛽ø=Qê G.K. books
My sister will be doing M.Phil next refer KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
year.
10. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#HË‹¬O JH›ø_È Z^ΰ~¡°
17. "Œ~¡° WH› g°^Î@ ㄬu"Œ~¡O tests KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
They will be conducting tests every 11. WH› g°^Î@ D mill ƒìQê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO@°Ok.
week hereafter. 12. =KÍó <³•O`Œ "Œ~¡° Hù`Çë F@~¡Á list `dž¶ Ç ~¡°
18. <Í#° WH›#°Oz diary ã"Œ‹¬°ëO\ì#°. KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
I will be writing diary hereafter. 13. D course …Õ <Í#° x#°ß guide KÍ‹¬°ëO
19. "Í°=ò =KÍó"Œ~¡O Chemistry practicals \ì#°.
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò. 14. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô D time H÷ Bangalore KÍ~¡°
We will be doing Chemistry practicals
䛽O@¶O\ì=ò.
next week.
20. <Í#° WH›#°Oz money save KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì#°.
I will be saving money hereafter.
Z
Where there is a will, there is a way. 54
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° WH› P H›OÌ„h…Õ work K͆ǰ#°. J "Í°=ò WH› J`Çx„Ì á P^•¥~¡„_¬ =È ò.
J J`Ç_°È =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O WH›ø_È KÇ^=Î _È°. J P"³° WH› WH›ø_È stay K͆ǰ^ΰ.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=°ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° continuous Qê
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will not + be + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
subject - Singular, Plural U^³#
á #¶ " will not + be + 'ing' form" L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° WH›g°^Î@ D ‡Ú~¡‡•@° K͆°Ç #°. 6. <Í#° =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hostel …Õ stay
I will not be committing this mistake K͆ǰ#°.
hereafter. I willnot be staying in the hostel next
2. "Í°=ò WH›#°Oz work delay K͆ǰ=ò. year.
We will not be delaying the work 7. "Í ° =ò WH› #°Oz D books follow
hereafter. J==ò.
3. =¶ brother =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O D job We will not be following these books
K͆ǰ_Ȱ. hereafter.
My brother wil not be doing this job 8. <Í#° WH› g°^Î@ J`ÇxH÷ help K͆ǰ#°.
next year. I will not be helping him hereafter.
4. P"³ ° WH› #°Oz =°# WO\÷ H ÷ ~Œ^Î ° .
She will not be coming to our house
9. J`Ç_È° WH› =°#䛽 money „¬O„¬_È°.
He will not be sending us money
hereafter.
hereafter.
5. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz J`Çx q+¬†Ç°O *ÕH›¼O
KÍ‹¬°HË~¡°. 10. "Í ° =ò WH› Jx ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O HË~¡ = ò.
They will not be interefering in his We will not be seeking his help
matter hereafter. hereafter.

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11. <Í#° WH› #°Oz J`Çx`Ë move Hê#°. EXERCISE


I will not be moving with him hereafter.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. N H›~°¡ }ìxk• WH› g°^Î@ ~Œ[H©†¶
Ç …ÕÁ
KÇ°~¡°Qê¾ ‡•…ç¾#~¡°.
Sri Karunanidhi will not be 1. <Í#° WH› #°Oz \©.q.…Õ P programme
participating in politics actively
hereafter.
KǶ_È#°.
13. Indian Cricket Team =KÍ ó ï ~ O_È ° 2. "Í°=ò WH› #°Oz class H÷ late Qê ~Œ=ò.
‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•° ‡•H÷ª•ë<`£ Ë =¶¼KŸ P_È^°Î .
The Indian Cricket Team will not be 3. <Í#° WH›#°Oz J|^Îí=¶_È#°.
playing matches against Pakistan next
4. J`Ç_È° WH›#°Oz "ŒiO\÷H÷ "³ˆ×¤_È°.
two years.
14. <Í#° WH›#°Oz D vehicle use K͆ǰ#°. 5. P"³° WH› #°Oz D medicine f‹¬°HË^ΰ.
I will not be using this vehicle
hereafter. 6. "Œ~¡ ° =KÍ ó <³ • U programmes

15. "Í°=ò WH› #°Oz work neglect K͆°Ç =ò. x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡°.


We will not be neglecting the work
7. <Í#° WH› J`Çx ‹¬•‚¬ð ‡•\÷OKÇ#°.
hereafter.
16. „
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ=ò WH› g°^Î@ D scheme #° 8. "Í°=ò WH› "ŒiH÷ co-operate K͆ǰ=ò.
J=°•°„¬~¡KÇ^ΰ.
The government will not be 9. J`Ç_°È =KÍ‹
ó O¬ =`Ç•~¡O studies continue
implementing this scheme hereafter. K͆ǰ_Ȱ.
17. <Í # ° WH› J`Ç x `Ë À ‹ ß ‚ ¬ ì O KÍ † Ç ° #°. 10. "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz P bank…Õ amount
I will not be making friends with him
deposit K͆ǰ~¡°.
hereafter.
18. "Œ~¡ ° WH› D town …Õ x=tOKÇ ~ ¡ ° . 11. <Í#° WH› P shop …Õ Ug° Hù##°.
They will not be living in this town
hereafter. 12. "Œ~¡° WH› P Hê…èr…Õ donations =‹¬¶•°
19. ªÏ~¡"£ Q®OQ®¶b next test series …Õ team K͆ǰ~¡°.
x lead K͆ǰ_Ȱ.
Sourab Ganguly will not be leading
13. "Í°=ò WH› D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ risk f‹¬°HË=ò.
the team in the next test series. 14. <Í#° WH› P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ night duty K͆ǰ#°.
20. <Í#° next month …Õ <Œ holidays waste
K͆ǰ#° . 15. ö~„¬O`Œ D line …Õ trains #_È°==ô.
I will not be wasting my holidays next
month.
Z
Slow and steady wins the race. 56
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬°ë#ß
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J P"³° next year university …Õ J "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz regular Qê HêÁ‹°¬ •ä›½


KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O@°O^¥? ‚¬ð[~¡=ô`Ç°O\ì~Œ?
J =°#=ò WH›#°Oz English =¶\ìÁ_È^¥=¶? J <Í#° ~ö „¬ô D text book refer KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ôO_È°
„¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í°W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=°ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ KÍ‹°¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
" Shall / Will + be + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Shall',
You, He, She, It, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Will' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° WH›ø_È W`Çx`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°`Ç°O_Í^¥? 7. =òY¼=°Oãu ö~„¬ô ‡•s“ <Œ†Ç°ä›½•`Ë
Shall I be talking to him here? KÇi󋬰ëO\ì~Œ?
2. =°#=ò ‹¬ Þ O`Ç Q ê <Ë\˜ • `Ç † Ç ¶ ~¡ ° Will the Cheif-minister be discussing
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=¶ ? with the party leaders tomorrow?
Shall we be preparing the notes of our
own ? 8. g°~¡° WH›#°Oz „ ã u
¬ Pk"Œ~¡O ‹
Ì q°<Œ~Ÿ•
3. h=ô next year job HË‹¬O ㄬ†Ç°uß x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
‹¬°ëO\ì"Œ? Will you be conducting seminars
Will you be trying for a job next year? every Sunday hereafter?
4. J`Ç_È° WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë<Í LO\ì_¨? 9. "Œ~¡ ° WH› # °Oz strict Qê rules
Will he be staying with us hereafter? ‡•\÷‹°¬ Oë \ì~Œ?
5. P"³° ö~„¬ô D time …Õ `Ç# „¬ô\÷“#~ËA Will they be following the rules strictly
celebrate KÍ ‹ ¬ ° ä› ½ O@¶ LO@°O^¥?
hereafter?
Will she be celebrating her birthday
at this time tomorrow ? 10. Next series …Õ ä›•_¨ Dravid team x
6. "Œ~¡° D ï~O_È° <³••° final „¬sH›Æ• Hù~¡ä›½ lead KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_¨?
prepare J=ô`Ƕ LO\ì~Œ? Will Dravid be leading the team in
Will they be preparing for the final the next series also?
examinations these two months?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. D Ì ‹ •=ô•…Õ =°#=ò Uq° D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥=ò?
What shall we be doing these
holidays? 1. <Í#° ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ =~¡ä½› D letters type
12. <Í#° ö~„¬ô hHË‹¬O ZH›ø_È wait KÍ‹¬°ëO_Ík? KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?
Where shall I be waiting for you 2. =°#=ò WH›#°Oz morning class •ä›½
tomorrow? attend J=ô^¥=¶?
13. =°#=ò =KÍó<³• U subject prepare 3. h=ô WH› # °Oz D medicine
J=ô`Ç°O^¥=ò? f‹¬°ä›½O\ì"Œ?
Which subject shall we be preparing 4. g°~¡° =KÍó <³• „¬aHÁ ± „¬sH›•Æ ° "
ã Œ‹¬°Oë \ì~Œ?
next month? 5. J`Ç _ È ° WH› # °Oz sincere Qê
14. WH› # °Oz g° "Œ¼‡•~¡ O Z=~¡ ° „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì_¨?
KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°? 6. "Œ~¡ ° WH› # °Oz D vehicle use
Who will be looking after your KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
business hereafter ? 7. h=ô WH›#°Oz ㄬu<³…ì money save
15. "Œ~¡° =KÍó<³• ZH›ø_È „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì"Œ?
Where will they be working next 8. P"³ ° next year S.V. †Çüx=i•\©…Õ
month? M.Phil KÍ‹¬°ëO@°O^¥?
16. h=ô WH› # °Oz ZO`Ç salary draw 9. "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz business …Õ accounts
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ô? maintain KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
Howmuch salary will you be drawing
herfeafter?
10. WO@~Ÿ q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° =KÍó "Œ~¡O practicals
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
17. "Œ~¡ ° JH› ø _È Zxß ~ËA•° tH› Æ }
‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì~¡°? 11. Ju^•Î°•ä›½ =°#=ò U~Œæ@°Á ZH›ø_È
Howmany days will they be
KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥=ò?
undergoing training there? 12. <Í#° WH›#°Oz regular Q®ê WH›ø_È䛽
18. ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È „¬ x x Z=~¡ ° supervise
=‹¬°ëO_Í^¥?
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°? 13. g°~¡ ° =KÍ ó ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O ZH› ø _È
Who will be supervising the work KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O\ì~¡°?
there tomorrow? 14. x#°ß D course …Õ Z=~¡ ° guide
19. g°~¡° D Ì‹•=ô•° Z…ì Q®_È°„¬ô`Ç°O\ì~¡°? KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
How will you be spending these 15. =KÍó "Í‹¬q Ì‹•=ô•…Õ g°~¡° Uq°
holidays? <Í~¡°ó䛽O\ì~¡°?
20. h䛽 JH›ø_È Z=~¡° ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì~¡°?
Who will be helping you there ? Z
Be good, Do good. 58
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô WH›#°Oz night meal f‹¬°HË"Œ ? J g°~¡° WH› #°Oz P WO\ÕÁ x=‹²‹¬¶ëO_È~Œ ?
J J`Ç_È° WH› #°Oz =°#`Ë move J=_¨ ? J P"³° WH›#°Oz college …Õ KÇ^Î=_¨ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't/Won't + be + Verb + "ing" form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :

I, We –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Shalln't be' =KÇ°ó#°.


You, He, She, It, They –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Won't be' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô next year D college …Õ 6. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô h HË‹¬ O JH› ø _È wait
KÇ^ΰ=ô`ǶO_È"Œ ? KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È=^¥í?
Won't you be studying in this college Shalln't I be waiting for you there
next year ? tomorrow?
2. g°~¡° WH› D town …Õ x=tOKÇ~Œ ? 7. "Œ~¡° WH› P ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~Œ ?
Won't you be living in this town Won't they be organizing this firm
hereafter ? hereafter ?
3. J`Ç_È° WH› WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ_¨ ? 8. h=ô WH› g°^Î@ J`Çx`Ë move J="Œ ?
Won't he be coming here hereafter? Won't you be moving with him
4. J`Ç _ È ° next year P college …Õ hereafter?
„¬xK͆ǰ_¨? 9. P†Ç°# WH› politics …Õ ‡•…ç¾#_¨ ?
Won't he be working in that college next Won't he be participating in politics
year ? hereafter ?
5. P"³° WH› WH›ø_È LO_È^¥ ? 10. =°#=ò WH›g°^Î@ "ŒiH÷ help KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È
Won't she be staying here hereafter ? =^¥í?
Shalln't we be helping them hereafter?
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. P"³° next year studies ZO^ΰ䛽 continue D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
K͆ǰ^ΰ?
Why won't she be continueing her
studies next year ? 1. h=ô WH› #°Oz g° brother H÷ money
12. J`Ç_È° h䛽 JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬‚¬ìH›i „¬O„¬ô`ǶO_È"Œ ?
‹¬¶ëO_È_È° ?
Why won't he be co-operating with 2. g°~¡° WH›g°^Î@ "ŒiH÷ material supply
you there ? KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~Œ ?
13. g°~¡° WH›#°Oz J`Çx ‹¬•‚¬ð ZO^ΰ䛽 3. J`Ç_°È next year =°#`Ë stay KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È_¨?
‡•\÷OKÇ~°¡ ?
Why won't you be following his advice 4. P"³° WH›#°Oz medicines f‹¬°HË^¥ ?
hereafter ?
14. P†Ç°# WH›g°^Î@ elections …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 5. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz taxes =‹¬¶•° K͆ǰ~Œ?
‡é\© KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ? 6. g°~¡° WH› D old vehicle use KÍ‹¶ ¬ Oë _È~Œ?
Why won't he be contesting in the
elections hereafter ? 7. Ganguly WH› One-day matches
15. "Œ~¡° =°#H÷ WH› ZO^ΰ䛽 help K͆ǰ~¡° ? P_È°`ǶO_È_¨ ?
Why won't they be helping us
hereafter?
8. P"³° WH› `Çq°ˆ× ‹²x=¶•…Õ #\÷OKÇ^¥ ?
16. =KÍó<³• g°~¡° HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend 9. "Œ~¡ ° WH› =°# q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ *ÕH› ¼ O
J=ô`ǶO_È~¡° ? KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?
Why won't you be attending the
classes next month ? 10. P"³° WH› #°Oz =°# WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽
17. "Œ~¡° WH›g°^Î@ P business ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_È^ΰ ?
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ? 11. J`Ç_°È WH› #°Oz WH›ø_Èä½› ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ_È°?
Why won't they be doing that business
hereafter ? 12. "Œ~¡ ° WH› #°Oz =°#`Ë ZO^Î ° ä› ½
18. J`Ç _ È ° WH› g °^Î @ P job ZO^Î ° ä› ½ „¬xK͆ǰ~¡° ?
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È_È°?
Why won't he be doing that job 13. h=ô next week duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
hereafter ? J==ô ?
19. "Œ~¡° WH›g°^Î@ Hù`Çë L^˼Qê•° ZO^ΰ䛽 14. g°~¡° WH›#°Oz P shop …Õ =‹¬°ë=ô•°
recruit KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ?
Why won't they be recruiting the new
ZO^ΰ䛽 Hù#~¡° ?
jobs hereafter ? 15. "Œ~¡° WH› #°Oz programmes ZO^ΰ䛽
20. g°~¡ ° WH› # °Oz D crop ZO^Î ° ä› ½ x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬¶ëO_È~¡° ?
„¬O_•‹¬¶Oë _È~°¡ ?
Why won't they be growing this crop
hereafter ?
Z
The harder you work, the luckier you get. 60
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ ''Will + be + verb + 'ing' form"
Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Future Continuous Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ Continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ôO_È° XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ''will + be + Verb + 'ing' form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I will be helping you hereafter.
2. We will be writing examinations next month.
3. He will be doing job next year .
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "will +not + be+ Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I willnot be wasting my time hereafter.
2. We will not be coming here hereafter.
3. They will not be doing this business hereafter.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_ȃÕ=ô XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall / Will + be + Verb+'ing' form'
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shall I be refering to this book ?
2. Shall we be making arrangements tomorrow ?
3. Will they be living in Hyderabad hereafter ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't / Won't + be +
Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shalln't we be using this vehicle hereafter ?
2. Won't you be working here next year ?
3. Won't they be supplying us the material hereafter ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

101. allot alloted alloted qƒ•’lOz WKÇ°ó


102. allow allowed allowed J#°=°uOKÇ°
103. alter altered altered =¶~¡°æ
104. amaze amazed amazed kãQÄ•® =° H›eyOKÇ°
105. amuse amused amused ‹¬O`Ë+¬Ì„@°“
106. annoy annoyed annoyed „Ô_•OKÇ°
107. anticipate anticipated anticipated =òO^ΰQê T‚²ìOKÇ°
108. apologize apologized apologized H›Æ=¶„¬} J_È°Q®°@
109. appeal appealed appealed =°#q KÍ‹¬°Hù#°
110. appear appeared appeared H›#|_È°
111. appland applanded applanded "³°KÇ°óHù#°@
112. apply applied applied W=°àx J_È°Q®°@
113. appoint appointed appointed x†Ç°q°OKÇ°@
114. appreciate appreciated appreciated "³°KÇ°óHù#°@
115. approach approached approached ‹¬g°„²OKÇ°@
116. approve approved approved J#°=°OuOKÇ°@
117. argue argued argued "ŒkOKÇ°@
118. arrange arranged arranged ãH›=°„¬~¡KÇ°@
119. arrest arrested arrested Mÿá^ΰK͆Çò@
120. arrive arrived arrived =KÇ°ó@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
62 Think like a man of action, act like a man of thought.
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PRESENT PERFECT
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° W„¬C_Í (just) KÍ‹²†ÇòO^ΰ=ò. Hùxß „¬#°•° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^Í
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 (already) KÍ‹²†ÇòO^ΰ=ò. XHùøH›ø ª•i W`Ç~¡°•`Ë
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx WO`Ç =~¡ä›½, W„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ (sofar) Zxß ª•~¡°Á KÍ‹#
² n
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° just W„¬C_Í J`Çxx H›e‰§#°. J "Í°=ò already exam fee pay K͉§=ò.
J "Í°=ò D "Œ~¡ë just W„¬C_Í q<Œß=ò. J "Œ~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ D "Œ~¡O 20 files clear KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° just W„¬C_Í Hêx, already WO`Ç䛽 =òO^³„¬C_Ë Hêx „¬îiëKÍ‹²# „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê (i) just W„¬C_Í „¬îië KÍ‹²# „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽, (ii) XH› Yzó`Ç"³°Ø# ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#°
‹¬¶zO„¬H› already WO`Ç䛽=òO^³„¬C_Ë „¬îië KÍ‹²# „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 =°i†Çò (iii) =°#=ò
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä›½ (sofar) XH› „¬xx Zxߪ•~¡°Á KÍ‹#² k ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - I, We, You, They, J~ò#„¬C_È° 'have' =KÇ°ó#°.
Subject - He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'has' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° just W„¬C_Í D letter receive KÍ‹¬° 7. "Í°=ò just W„¬C_Í J`ÇxH÷ money pay
䛽<Œß#°. K͉§=ò.
I have received this letter justnow. We have paid him money justnow.
2. "Í°=ò just W„¬C_Í lunch f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò. 8. =¶ brother just W„¬C_Í office #°Oz
We have taken lunch justnow. =KŒó_È°.
3. =¶ father just W„¬C_Í |†Ç°@䛽 "³ˆì¤~¡°. My brother has come from office just
My father has gone out justnow. now.

4. P"³° just W„¬C_Í xã^Î …èzOk. 9. <Í#° already <Œ application form submit
She has just woken up. K͉§#°.
I have already submitted my
5. Pinakini Express just W„¬C_Í =zó#k.
application form.
The Pinakini Express has arrived just
now. 10. "Í ° =ò already D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ XH›
x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.
6. <Í # ° just W„¬ C _Í J`Ç x H÷ message
We have already taken a decision in
„¬O‡•#°. this matter.
I have sent him the message justnow.
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11. =¶ brother already computer course EXERCISE


„¬îië K͉§_È°. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
My brother has already completed the
computer course.
1. <Í#° just W„¬C_Í lunch f‹¬°ä›½<Œß#°.
12. =¶ sister already visa 䛽 apply KÍ‹#
² k.
My sister has already applied for the 2. "Í°=ò just W„¬C_Í D "Œ~¡ë q<Œß=ò.
VISA.
3. =¶ |
ã ^Î~Ÿ just W„¬C_Í <Œä›½ phone K͉§_È°.
13. "Œ~¡° already meeting 䛽 U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹²
†Çò<Œß~¡°. 4. P"³° just W„¬C_Í D item `dž¶
Ç ~¡° KÍ‹O² k.
They have already made the
5. "Œ~¡ ° just W„¬ C _Í programme ‡ã •~¡O
arrangements for the meeting.
a•Oz<Œ~¡°.
14. <Í#° already P movie KǶ‰§#°.
I have already seen that movie. 6. <Í#° already text books Jhß Hù<Œß#°.
15. "Í°=ò already Principal #° consult 7. "Í°=ò already "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†°Ç O inform
J~ò<Œ=ò. K͉§=ò.
We have already consulted the
Principal.
8. J`Ç_È° already bill pay K͉§_È°.
16. =¶ lecturers already syllabus „¬îië 9. P"³ ° already certificates receive
K͉§~¡°. KÍ‹¬°ä›½#ßk.
Our lecturers have already completed
10. "Œ~¡° already tickets book K͉§~¡°.
the syllabus.
17. <Í # ° already =¶ father ä› ½ letter 11. <Í # ° W„¬ æ \÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ D course …Õ
ã"Œ‹²<Œ#°. 15 classes H÷ attend J~ò<Œ#°.
I have already written a letter to my 12. "Í°=ò W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ ~¡¶. 10,000 =‹¬¶•°
father.
KÍ‹²<Œ=ò.
18. <Í#° W„¬æ\=÷ ~¡ä½› _•bÁ 4 ª•~¡°Á visit K͉§#°.
I have visited Delhi four times sofar.
13. =°#=ò W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ 200 H÷.g° ㄬ†Ç¶}O
KÍ‹²<Œ=ò.
19. ‹¬ z <£ >ÿ O _È ¶ •ø~Ÿ W„¬ æ \ ÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ 364
oneday matches P_•<Œ_È°. 14. =¶ English lecturer W„¬ æ \÷ = ~¡ ä › ½
Sachin Tendulkar has played 364 4 poems teach KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°.
oneday matches so far.
15. J`Ç _ È ° WO`Ç = ~¡ ä › ½ studies HË‹¬ O
20. †Ç°O_È=üi W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› 60 „
Ì Qá ê #=••° ~¡¶. 50,000 Y~¡°ó KÍ‹²<Œ_È°.
ã"Œ‹²<Œ~¡°.
Yandamuri has written more than 60
novels so far. Z
Make hay while the sun shines. 64
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê „¬îië K͆°Ç x Hùxß „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° WOHê exam. fee pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. J "Í°=ò WOHê x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
J P"³° WOHê Hê…èr…Õ KÍ~¡…è^ΰ. J "Œ~¡° WOHê P W•°Á MìmK͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê, WO`Ç =~¡ä½› K͆°Ç x „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#¶ „¬îië K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Have / Has + not + (yet) 'III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have'
He, She, It, - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° D~ËA WOHê newspaper 6. <Í#° J`Çx letterH÷ reply WOHê W=Þ…è^ΰ.
KÇ^Î=…è^ΰ. I have not yet given reply to his letter.
I have not yet read the newspaper 7. "Í ° =ò WOHê "Œi`Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O
today. KÇióOKÇ…è^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò D <³• WOHê house rent pay We have not yet discussed this matter
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. with them.
We have not yet paid the house rent 8. g°~¡ ° WOHê P bank …Õ loan clear
this month. K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
3. =¶ brother WOHê degree „¬îiëK†
Í °Ç …è^°Î . You have not yet cleared the loan in
My brother has not yet completed his that bank.
degree. 9. "Œ~¡° WOHê JH›ø_È |†Ç°•°^Í~¡…è^ΰ.
4. P"³° WOHê =°=òà•#° party H÷ P‚¬ðÞxOKÇ They have not yet started there.
…è^ΰ. 10. =¶ father <Œä›½ D <³• WOHê money
She has not yet invited us to the party. „¬O„¬…è^ΰ.
5. Pinakini Express WOHê ~Œ…è^ΰ. My father has not yet sent me money
The Pinakini Express has not yet this month.
arrived.
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11. P"³° WOHê application form submit EXERCISE


K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
She has not yet submitted her
application form.
12. "Œ~¡° WOHê programme ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ…^è °Î . 1. <Í#° WOHê text books Hù#…è^ΰ.
They have not yet commenced the 2. "Í°=ò WOHê journey H÷ tickets book
programme. K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
13. <Í # ° WOHê appointment orders 3. P"³° WOHê „¬îiëQê HË•°HË…è^ΰ.
JO^ΰHË…è^ΰ. 4. =¶ father WOHê office #°O_• uiy
I have not yet received the ~Œ…è^ΰ.
appointment orders.
5. "Œ~¡° WOHê D ~ËA shop `³~¡°=…è^ΰ.
14. "Í ° =ò WOHê function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á 6. <Í#° WOHê „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ English subject
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. prepare Hê…è^ΰ.
We have not yet made the
arrangements for the function.
7. "Í°=ò WOHê function H÷ ready J=…è^ΰ.
15. <Í#° WO`Ç =~¡ä›½ Delhi visit K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. 8. †Çüx=i•\© WOHê _•ãw „¦e¬ `Œ•° „ã H¬ \ › O÷ KÇ
I have not visited Delhi sofar.
…è^ΰ.
16. "Í°=ò WO`Ç=~¡ä½› D HË~¡°• …Õ XH› HêÁ‹°¬ 9. Government WOHê ordinance pass
䛕_¨ miss Hê…è^ΰ. K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
We have not missed a class in this 10. "Œ~¡ ° WOHê bank #°Oz money
course sofar. withdraw K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.

17. J`Ç_È° WO`Ç =~¡ä›½ XH› interview 䛕_¨ 11. <Í#° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ =°# C.M. Speech
attend Hê…è^ΰ. q#…è^ΰ.
He has not attended an interview 12. "Í ° =ò WO`Ç = ~¡ ä › ½ J`Ç x ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ð †Ç ° O
sofar. HË~¡…è^ΰ.
18. <Í # ° WO`Ç =~¡ ä › ½ W@°=O\÷ =¼H÷ ë x 13. J`Ç_È° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH› „¬sH›Æ 䛕_¨ pass
KǶ_È…è^ΰ. Hê…è^ΰ.
I have not seen such a person sofar.
14. P"³° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH› meeting H÷ 䛕_¨
19. "Í°=ò WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ J`Çxx H›•=…è^ΰ. ‚¬ð[~¡°Hê…è^ΰ.
We have not met him sofar.
15. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH› instalment 䛕_¨
20. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç =~¡ä›½ XH› programme 䛕_¨ pay K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ…è^ΰ.
They have not conducted any
programme sofar. Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò XH›~°¡ (just) W„¬C_Í Qêx, (already) WO`Ç䛽=òO^³„¬C_Ë Qêx, (ever)
Z„¬C_³á<Œ Qêh …èH› XH›„¬xx (sofar) W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› Zxߪ•~¡°Á KÍ‹#
² k„
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô just W„¬C_Í •OKŸ f‹¬°ä›½<Œß"Œ? J J`Ç_È° Z„¬C_³á<Œ h䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O KÍ‹²<Œ_¨?
J g°~¡° already bill pay KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ? J h=ô W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡° J~ò<Œ=ô ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 W„¬C_Í, WO`Çä½› =òO^³„C¬ _Ë, Z„¬C_³<
á Œ,
XH›~¡° KÍ‹²# „¬#°•#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 just W„¬ C _Í Qêx, already
WO`Ç䛽=òO^³„¬C_ËQêx, ever Z„¬C_³á<Œ Qêx sofar WO`Ç=~¡ä›½, W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ XH›~¡° „¬îië KÍ‹²# XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 ('just now', 'already', 'ever', 'sofar')
" Have / Has + 'III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Have'
He, She, It, - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô just W„¬ C _Í D letter receive 6. g°~¡° already D q+¬†°Ç O KÇióOz<Œ~Œ?
KÍ‹¬°ä›½<Œß"Œ? Have you already discussed this
Have you received this letter just now? matter?
2. g°~¡ ° just W„¬ C _Í D „¬ x x „¬ î ië 7. h=ô Z„¬ C _³ á < Œ Pã Q ê
visit KÍ ‹ ² < Œ"Œ?
KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ? Have you ever visited Agra?
Have you finished this work just now? 8. g°~¡° Z„¬C_³á<Œ `Çq°ˆ˜<Œ_È° ZH±•ãÌ„‹¹…Õ
3. g° father just W„¬C_Í P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ "³o¤<Œ~Œ? ㄬ†Ç¶}OKÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Has your father just gone to office? Have you ever travelled by the
4. h=ô already exam fee pay KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ? Tamilnadu Express?
Have you already paid the exam fee? 9. P"³° Z„¬C_³á<Œ q°=òà•#° "ŒiO\÷H÷
5. g° brother already P.G. „¬ î ië K Í ‹ ² P‚¬ðÞxOz#^¥?
†Çò<Œß_¨? Has she ever invited you to her house?
Has your brother already completed 10. "Œ~¡° Z„¬C_³<
á Œ D ‡é\©•…Õ ‡•…ç¾x<Œ~Œ?
his P.G. ? Have they ever participated in these
competitions?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô W„¬æ\=


÷ ~¡ä½› Zxß ª•~¡°Á interview H÷ D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
attend J~ò<Œ=ô?
Howmany times have you attended
the interview sofar?
12. g°~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß instalments pay 1. h=ô Hê…èl #°O_• just W„¬C_Í =zó<Œ"Œ?
KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°? 2. g°~¡° just W„¬C_Í WH›ø_È䛽 =zó<Œ~Œ ?
Howmany intalments have you paid
sofar ?
3. J`Ç _ È ° already Govt. job ‡ÚOk
13. D <³•…Õ W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ h=ô ZO`Ç _È|°Ä †Çò<Œß_¨?
Y~¡°ó KÍ‹²<Œ=ô? 4. P"³° already English Grammar <Í~¡°óHùx
Howmuch money have you spent this
month sofar ?
†Çò#ß^¥?
14. g° maths lecturer W„¬ æ \ ÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ Zxß 5. "Œ~¡ ° Z„¬ C _³ á < Œ D problem face
chapters complete KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°? KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
Howmany chapters has your Maths
lecturer completed sofar ? 6. h=ô Z„¬C_³á<Œ D item taste KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ?
15. q.q.†Ç°‹¹. •H›Æà}Ÿ W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ one day 7. „²<ŒH÷h ZH±•„Ì ã ‹¹ just W„¬C_Í "³o¤‡é~ò#^¥?
matches …Õ Zxß Ì‹OKÇs•° KÍ‹²<Œ_È° ?
Howmany centuries has VVS Laxman 8. "Œ~¡° programme just W„¬C_Í commence
made in one-day matches sofar ? KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
16. N †Ç°O_È=üi W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß #=••°
ã"Œ‹²<Œ_È° ? 9. h=ô already D news qx†Çò<Œß"Œ?
Howmany novels has Yandamuri 10. g° brother already training „¬îiëKÍ‹²
written sofar? †Çò<Œß_¨?
17. "Œ~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ ƒì¼OH±…Õ ZO`Ç amount
deposit KÍ‹²<Œ~¡° ? 11. h=ô W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ D movie Zxߪ•~¡°Á
Howmuch amount have they KǶ‰§=ô?
diposited in the bank sofar ?
18. h=ô W„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ Delhi Zxߪ•~¡°Á visit 12. J`Ç_È° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ studies 䛽 ZO`Ç
KÍ‹²<Œ=ô ? Y~¡°óKÍ‹²<Œ_È°?
Howmany times have you visited 13. =°#=ò W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß H÷…Õg°@~¡°Á
Delhi sofar ?
19. "Œ~¡° W„¬æ\÷=~¡ä›½ Zxß |°H±• publish ㄬ†Ç¶}O KÍ‹²<Œ=ò?
KÍ‹²<Œ~¡° ? 14. P"³ ° W„¬ æ \÷ = ~¡ ä › ½ Zxß letters type
Howmany books have they published KÍ‹²#k?
sofar ?
20. W„¬æ\=
÷ ~¡ä½› P†Ç°# Zxߪ•~¡°Á ZxßH•› …Õ 15. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ Zxß Hê~¡°Û•° „¬O„²}©
‡é\©K͉§~¡° ? KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?
Howmany times has he contested in
the elections sofar ? Z
A friend in need is a friend indeed. 68
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô WOHê fee pay K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? J g°~¡° WOHê orders JO^ΰHË…è^¥ ?
J g° brother WOHê duty …Õ KÍ~¡…è^¥ ? J P"³° WOHê office #°Oz ~Œ…è^¥ ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê( yet ) K͆°Ç x
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Haven't / Hasn't + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject 'I' , We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Haven't ' =KÇ°ó#°.
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Hasn't' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô WOHê lunch f‹¬°HË…è^¥ ? 6. "Œ~¡° WOHê D q+¬†Ç°=ò…Õ decision
Haven't you yet taken lunch ? f‹¬°HË…è^¥?
Haven't they yet taken a decision
2. g°~¡° WOHê D <³• rent pay K͆ǰ…è^¥?
in this matter ?
Haven't you yet paid house rent this
month ? 7. g°~¡° WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ Delhi visit K͆ǰ…è^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° WOHê xã^Î…è=…è^¥ ? Haven't you yet visited Delhi sofar?
Hasn't he yet woke up ? 8. J`Ç_È° WOHê job ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥ ?
4. h=ô WO`Ç=~¡ä›½ XH›ø interview 䛕_¨ Hasn't he yet got a job ?
face K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? 9. P"³° WOHê degree „¬îië K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Haven't you faced even one Hasn't she yet completed her
interview sofar ? degree ?
5. Train WOHê ~Œ…è^¥ ? 10. P"³° WOHê college …Õ join J=…è^¥ ?
Hasn't the train yet arrived ? Hasn't she yet joined college ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE


11. h=ô WOHê books ZO^ΰ䛽 Hù#…è^ΰ ?
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why haven't you yet bought books?
12. g°~¡° WOHê D q+¬†°Ç O ZO^ΰ䛽 discuss
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ? 1. h=ô WOHê exam fee pay K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Why haven't you yet discussed this 2. g°~¡ ° WOHê Jxß sujects prepare
matter ? J=…è^¥?
13. J`Ç_°È WOHê D <³• salary ZO^ΰ䛽 draw
3. J`Ç_È° WOHê office #°Oz uiy ~Œ…è^¥?
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't he yet drawn his salary 4. P"³° WOHê items `džǶ~¡° K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
this month ?
5. "Œ~¡° WOHê shop open K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
14. P"³° WOHê "Œix party H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 invite
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ? 6. =~¡ÂO WOHê PQ®…è^¥ ?
Why hasn't she yet invited them to 7. g°~¡° WOHê new house …ÕxH÷ shift
the party? Hê…è^¥ ?
15. Train WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 |†Ç°•°^Í~¡…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't the train yet departed ? 8. h=ô WOHê D <³ • report submit
16. "Œ~¡° WOHê P house ZO^ΰ䛽 vacate K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ? 9. g° father D <³• h䛽 WOHê money
Why haven't they yet vacated that „¬O„¬…è^¥ ?
house ?
10. J`Ç_È° WOHê orders JO^ΰHù#…è^¥ ?
17. g°~¡ ° P loan WOHê ZO^Î ° ä› ½ clear
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ? 11. h=ô WOHê duty …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 KÍ~¡…è^ΰ ?
Why haven't you yet cleared that
12. g°~¡° WOHê P work ZO^ΰ䛽 finish
loan ?
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
18. "Œ~¡° WOHê WH›ø_•H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ…è^°Î ?
Why haven't they yet come here ? 13. J`Ç_È° WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 licence 䛽
19. J`Ç_È° WOHê D ~ËA office H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 apply K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
"³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ ? 14. P"³° WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 ready J=…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't he yet gone to office
today ? 15. "Œ~¡° WOHê P book ZO^ΰ䛽 publish
20. P"³° WOHê D <³• doctor x ZO^ΰ䛽 K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
consult Hê…è^ΰ ?
Why hasn't she yet consulted the
doctor this month ?
Z
Don't try to master too many things. 70
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have' or 'Has' + III form of the
Verb Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Present Perfect Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß ‹¬ = °†Ç ° =ò#ä› ½ just W„¬ C _Í Hêh, already WO`Ç ä › ½
=òO^³„¬C_ËHêx …èH› sofar WO`Ç=~¡ä½› XH› „¬xx Zxß ª•~¡°Á KÍ‹# ² n ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"have' or 'has' + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1.I have bought this purse justnow.2. We have already paid the bill.
3. He has written two books sofar. 4. She has already completed the course.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê (yet) „¬îië K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "havenot / hasnot + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I have not yet met him. 2. We have not yet taken lunch.
3. She hasnot yet recovered. 4. They havenot yet taken a decision.
3. QUESTION FORM :
=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ _ È ° KÇ ° #ß ‹¬ = °†Ç ° =ò#ä› ½ just W„¬ C _Í H êh, already WO`Ç ä › ½
=òO^³„C¬ _ËHêh, ever Z„¬C_³<
á ŒHêh, sofar WO`Ç=~¡ä½› XH› „¬xx Zxߪ•~¡°,Á ZO`Ç=~¡ä½›
KÍ‹²#n Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Have you finished this work just now? 2. Have you ever visited this place?
3. Has he ever helped you? 4.Have you appeared for the test two times sofar?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
=°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOHê (yet) „¬îiëK͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Haven't / Hasn't + III form of
the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Haven't you yet seen the new movie ? 2. Hasn't he yet got a job ?
3. Hasn't she yet gone to college ? 4. Haven't they yet paid the bill ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

121. ascend ascended ascended Z䛽ø@


122. ask asked asked J_È°Q®°@
123. assemble assembled assembled ‹¬=¶"͉×=°Q®°@
124. assist assisted assisted ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°=òK͆Çò@
125. associate associated associated ‹¬‚¬ì"Œ‹¬=òK͆Çò
126. assume assumed assumed T‚²ìOKÇ°@
127. assure assured assured ‚¬ðg°WKÇ°ó@
128. astomish astomished astomished P‰×ó~¡¼„¬~¡KÇ°@
129. attach attached attached JO\÷OKÇ°@
130. attack attacked attacked „Ì |á _È°, ^¥_•K͆ò
Ç @
131. attain attained attained ‡ÚO^ΰ@
132. attempt attempted attempted ㄬ†Ç°ußOKÇ°@
133. attend attended attended ‚¬ð[~¡Q®°@
134. attest attested attested ª•H›¼Æ =òK³„C¬ @
135. attract attracted attracted PH›iÂOKÇ°@
136. avoid avoided avoided x~Ëk•OKÇ°@
137. babble battled battled =^Î~¡°@
138. bake baked baked ~ù>ÿ“•° Hê•°ó@
139. bamish bamished bamished |‚²ì‹¬ø~¡}K͆Çò
140. beetch beetched beetched ã`Í#°æ@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
72 Fame is the perfume of heroic deeds.
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PAST PERFECT
XHùøH›øª•i =°#O XH›~°¡ Q®`OÇ …Õ „¬îië KÍ‹# ² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië J~ò#
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
ï~O_È° „¬#°•° XH›ö~ KÍ‹²=ôO_È=KÇ°ó …èH› "Í~¡° "Í~¡° =¼ä›½ë•° KÍ‹²=ôO_È=KÇ°ó.
J <Í#° x#ß WH›ø_È䛽 =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, =¶ brother #° H›e‰§#°.
J "Í°=ò x#ß work start KÍÀ‹ =òO^ΰ, "Í°<Í[~¡° J#°=°u f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.
J <Í#° camera Hù<Í =òO^ΰ, ^¥xx ƒìQê test K͉§#°.
J "Í°=ò J`Çxx H›eÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í, XH› x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ò.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ KÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##¶ =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~¡°Qêx „¬îiëKÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ
=òO^ΰQê „¬îië J~ò# XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³#
á #° 'had + III form of the verb' L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° class H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, lesson 5. <Í#° D college …Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷
ƒìQê prepare J~ò<Œ#°. =òO^ΰ <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ KÇkq<Œ#°.
I had prepared the lesson well before I had studied in Nellore before I joined
I came to the class. this college.

2. x#ß "Í°=ò ï~á…èÞÀ‹“+¬<£H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iH÷ train 6. guests JO^Î~¡¶ "³o¤# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç J`Ç_È°
"³o¤‡é~ò#k. rest f‹¬°ä›½<Œß_È°.
The train had left before we went to He took rest after the guests had gone.
the railway station yesterday. 7. KŒ…ì books refer KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç J`Ç_È°
3. <Í#° degree …Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^Í XH› book ã"Œ‰§_È°.
type <Í~¡°óHùx<Œ#°. He wrote a book after he had refered
I had learned type-writing before I to many books.
joined degree. 8. Notes Jhß
count KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç <Í#°
4. x#ß <Í#° class H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iöH lecturer J`ÇxH÷ money pay K͉§#°.
attendance f‹²Hù<Œß~¡°. I paid him money after I had counted
The lecturer had taken the attendance all the notes.
before I went to the class yesterday.

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9. Lesson teach KÍ ‹ ² # `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç =¶ EXERCISE


teacher notes dictate K͉§~¡°.
Our teacher dictated the notes after he
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
had taught the lesson.
10. =¶ uncle `Ë discuss KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç 1. h=ô <Œä›½ K³À„æ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í <Í#° D
<Í#° "Œix H›e‰§#°. "Œ~¡ë qx†Çò<Œß#°.
I met them after I had discussed with
my uncle. 2. J`Çxx "Œ~¡° ‚¬ð‹²æ@…˜H÷ f‹¬°ä›½ "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷
11. Jxß U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹²# `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç, "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷ =òO^Í, J`Ç_È° KÇx‡é†Ç¶_È°.
inform K͉§=ò.
We informed them after we had made
3. <Í#° x#ß interview H÷ "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ,
all the arrangements. D book refer K͉§#°.
12. <Í#° WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, =¶ 4. x#ß "Í°=ò theatre …ÕxH÷ "³ˆ¤õ ‹¬iH÷ show
friends room H÷ "³ˆì¤#°. "³ò^Î…ÿá#k.
I had gone to my friend's room before
I came here. 5. x#ß guests =KÍó‹¬iH÷ "Í°=ò Jxß U~Œæ@°Á
13. Guest •ä›½ serve KÍÀ‹=òO^ΰ P"³° P KÍ‹²†Çò<Œß=ò.
item taste KÍ‹²#k.
She had tasted the item before she 6. <Í#° WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ bank
served it to the guests. manager #° H›e‰§#°.
14. <Í#° P movie KǶÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ H›^ŠÎ 7. x#ß "Í°=ò auditorium H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ "Œ~¡°
KÇkq<Œ#°.
programme ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz<Œ~¡°.
I had read the story before I saw the
movie. 8. "Œ~¡° „¬x „¬îiëKÍÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í, "Í°=ò
15. x#ß =~¡ÂO „¬_Í^¥xH÷ =òO^Í "Œ~¡° WO\÷H÷ "ŒiH÷ _È|°Ä K³eÁOKŒ=ò.
KÍ~¡°ä›½<Œß~¡°.
They had reached home before it 9. "Í ° =ò x#ß JH› ø _È |†Ç ° •°^Í ö ~ ^¥xH÷
rained. =òO^ΰ, "ŒiH÷ `³e†Ç°„¬iz<Œ=ò.
16. Camera Hù<Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ <Í#° ^¥xx
10. =¶ brother own business start
ƒìQê test KÍ‹²<Œ#°.
I had tested the camera well before I KÍ À ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Î ° work ƒìQê
bought it. <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß_È°.
17. <Í#° ~Œãu WO\÷H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ „²•Á•° xã^Î
‡é~ò<Œ~¡°.
Children had slept before I went home
last night.
Z
Sweet are the uses of adversity. 74
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KǶ P ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #䛽
WOHê „¬îië Hêx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê degree …Õ join J=…è^ΰ. J "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D W•°Á Hù#…è^ΰ.
J "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D town H÷ shift Hê…è^ΰ. J P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä›½ „¬îië K͆ǰx „¬#°•#°‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° „À ~ùø#°KǶ J#Qê x#ß\÷ =~¡ä½› , Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O=~¡ä½› , Q®`Ç
<³• =~¡ä½› , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =~¡ä½› …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡Hï #á #¶ XH›~°¡ „¬îië K͆°Ç x
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + not + (Yet) + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject –> Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'had not (yet) III form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D Hê…èl…Õ KÍ~¡…è^ΰ. 6. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê D L^˼Q® O
I had not yet joined this college by ‡ÚO^Î…è^ΰ.
then. He had not yet got this job by then.
2. "Í ° =ò J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê À ‹ “ + ¬ < £ ä › ½ 7. <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D scooter Hù#…è^ΰ.
KÍ~¡°Hù#…è^ΰ. I had not yet bought this scooter by
We had not yet reached the station then.
by that time. 8. "Í ° =ò J„¬ æ \ ÷ H ÷ WOHê D "Œ¼‡•~¡ O
3. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê =¶ä›½ D q+¬†Ç°O ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ…^è °Î .
`³e†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ…è^ΰ. We had not yet started this business
You had not yet informed us this news by then.
by then. 9. =¶ brother J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê marriage
4. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê _¨H›“~Ÿ#° consult KÍ‹¬°Hù#…è^ΰ.
Hê…è^ΰ. My brother had not yet got married by
She had not yet consulted the doctor then.
by then. 10. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê KÇ^ΰ=ô „¬îië K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
5. J„¬æ¬\÷H÷ WOHê =~¡ÂO PQ®…è^ΰ. She had not yet completed her
The rain had not yet stopped by then. studies by then.

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11. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê Hê~¡¼Hã =› °O ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ EXERCISE


…è^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
They had not yet commenced the
programme by then.
12. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê <Í#° xã^Î…è=…è^ΰ. 1. <Í#° J„æ¬\÷H÷ WOHê English grammar
I had not yet woken up by that time.
<Í~¡°óHË…è^ΰ.
13. "Í ° =ò J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê D ‹¬ O ‹¬ Ö # ° 2. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê lunch f‹¬°HË…è^ΰ.
ª•Ö„O² KÇ…^
è °Î . 3. =¶ sister J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê M.Phil
We had not yet established this firm
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
by then.
14. J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê N KÇOã^΃ì|° =òY¼=°Oãu 4. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê licence H÷ apply
J=…è^ΰ. K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
Sri Chandra Babu had not yet become 5. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D book publish
chief-minister by then.
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
15. J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê <Í#° D message
JO^ΰHË…è^ΰ. 6. <Í#° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê major Hê…è^ΰ.
I had not yet received this message 7. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D work „¬îië
by then. K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
16. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê D house construct
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. 8. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…è^ΰ.
We had not yet constructed this 9. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê VISA ‡ÚO^Î…è^ΰ.
house by then.
10. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê U.S.A. "³ˆ×Á…è^ΰ.
17. =¶ lecturers J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê syllabus
„¬îië K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. 11. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê chief guest ‹¬ƒ•’…Õ
Our lecturers had not yet completed =¶\ìÁ_È…è^ΰ.
the syllabus by then. 12. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê cards distribute
18. Z<£ . \÷ . ~Œ=¶~Œ=ô J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…ÕxH÷ ㄬ"ÍtOKÇ…è^ΰ.
Sri N.T. Rama Rao had not yet entered 13. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê items `džǶ~¡°
into politics by then. K͆ǰ…è^ΰ.
19. „
ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ=ò J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê D ordinance 14. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê Manager Office H÷
pass K͆ǰ…è^ΰ. ~Œ…è^ΰ.
The government had not yet passed
this ordinance by then.
15. J„¬æ\÷H÷OHê train q[†Ç°"Œ_È À‹“+¬<£H÷
KÍ~¡°HË…è^ΰ.
20. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê WH›ø_Èä½› KÍ~°¡ Hù#…è^°Î .
They had not yet reached here by
then.
Z
A stitch in time saves nine. 76
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê J~ò# „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J x#ß h=ô JH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ¤õ ‹¬iH÷, "Œ~¡° „¬x ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz<Œ~Œ ?
J h=ô station H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½<Í ‹¬iH÷, train "³o¤ ‡é~ò#^¥ ?
J g°~¡° JH›ø_È |†Ç°•° ^Íö~=òO^ΰ, "ŒiH÷÷ inform KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?
J h=ô Q®=~¡ß"³°O\˜ *샘 ‡ÚO^Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ, D Hê…èl…Õ „¬xKÍ‹²<Œ"Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ „¬îië KÍ‹#
² ~ï O_È°„¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië KÍ‹#
² „¬xx „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ KÍ‹#² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îiëK‹Í #² XH›
„¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + 'III form of the Verb" L„¬†¶ ³ yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Had' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. h=ô WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍ=
ó òO^ΰ manager #° 5. <Í#° K³À„æ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í h=ô D news
consult J~ò<Œ"Œ? `³•°‹¬°ä›½<Œß"Œ?
Had you consulted the Manager Had you known this news before I told
before you came here? you ?
2. J`ÇxH÷ money pay KÍÀ‹=òO^ΰ notes 6. ‹¬ÞO`Ç "Œ¼‡•~¡O ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ\ìxH÷ =òO^ΰ
count KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ? h=ô work <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß"Œ?
Had you counted the notes before you Had you learned the work before you
paid him money? started your own business?

3. Computer course join J†Í ° ¼=òO^Î ° 7. ~Œãu =~¡ÂO „¬_^Í ¥xH÷ =òO^Í g°~¡° WO\÷H÷
course Q®°iOz enquire KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ? KÍ~¡°ä›½<Œß~Œ ?
Had you enquired about the computer Had you reached home before it rained
course before you joined it? last night?

4. letter post KÍÀ‹=òO^ΰ h=ô address


8. D x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½<Í =òO^ΰ h=ô g°
father `Ë discuss K͉§"Œ ?
check KÍ‹²<Œ"Œ?
Had you discussed with your father
Had you checked the address before
before you took this decision?
you posted the letter?

77
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

9. Class H÷ =KÍ=
ó òO^ΰ h=ô ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆì¤=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Where had you gone before you came
to the class?
10. D H›OÌ„h…Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ 1. Class H÷ =KÍó =òO^ΰ, lesson ƒìQê
h=ô ZH›ø_È work KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
Where had you worked before you prepare J~ò<Œ"Œ ?
joined this company?
2. JH›ø_È |†Ç°•°^Íö~=òO^ΰ g°~¡° "ŒiH÷
11. D work ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ =òO^ΰ g°~¡° Z=i
inform KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ ?
„¬ià+¬<£ f‹¬°ä›½<Œß~¡°?
Whose permission had you taken 3. g°~¡° station H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ train move
before you started this work?
12. x#ß h=ô press ^ÎQ®¾~¡ä›½ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ J`Ç_È° J~ò#^¥ ?
Zxß cards ㄲO\˜KÍ‹² †Çò<Œß_È°? 4. J`Ç_È° degree complete KÍÀ‹ ^¥xH÷
Howmany cards had he printed =òO^Í type „¬sH›Æ pass J~ò<Œ_¨ ?
before you went to the press?
13. Clinic H÷ "³ˆõ¤=òO^ΰ Uq° f‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ô? 5. "Œ~¡ ° =KÍ ó ‹ ¬ i H÷ g°~¡ ° work finish
What had you taken before you went KÍ‹²<Œ~Œ?
to the clinic?
14. <Í#° K³À„æ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Í h=ô D q+¬†Ç°O 6. g°~¡° press H÷ "³ˆ¤õ‹i¬ H÷ J`Ç_°È cards print
Z…ì `³•°‹¬°ä›½<Œß=ô? KÍ‹²<Œ_¨ ?
How had you known this news before
I told you? 7. g°~¡° D town H÷ shift J†Í°^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
15. h=ô D job ‡ÚO^Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ h䛽 ZH›ø_È x=tOz<Œ~¡° ?
Z=~¡° ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O KÍ‹²<Œ~¡°?
Who had helped you before you got 8. Own business start KÍÀ‹ =òO^ΰ h=ô
this job? work ZH›ø_È <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ô ?
16. D Hê…è*…˜ Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ h=ô
ZH›ø_È KÇkq<Œ=ô? 9. h=ô WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍ=
ó òO^ΰ Z=ix consult
Where had you studied before you J~ò<Œ=ô ?
joined this college?
17. g°~¡° "Œix H›eÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ "Œ~¡° 10. g°~¡ ° D town H÷ shift J†Í ° ^¥xH÷
ZO`Ç amount collect KÍ‹²†Çò<Œß~¡°? =òO^ΰ Guntur …Õ Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°
Howmuch amount had they collected x=tOz <Œ~¡°?
before you met them?
18. WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó =òO^ΰ h=ô g° father `Ë
Uq° discuss KÍ‹²<Œ=ô?
What had you discussed with your
father before you came here?
Z
As you sow, so you reap. 78
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê college …Õ KÍ~¡…è^¥ ? J g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D town H÷ shift Hê…è^¥?
J J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D job ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥ ? J P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê office H÷ "³ˆ×¤…è^¥ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° K³„C¬ KǶ, P ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä½› WOHê J„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä½› „¬îië
K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Hadn't + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Hadn't+III form of the Verb' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. J„¬æ\÷H÷ h=ô WOHê Inter „¬îië K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? 6. J„¬æ\÷H÷ J`Ç_È° WOHê x#°ß H›•=…è^¥ ?
Hadn't you yet completed Intermediate Hadn't he yet met you by then ?
by then ? 7. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê g°~¡° D town H÷ shift
2. J„¬æ\÷H÷ g°~¡° WOHê D message Hê…è^¥?
JO^ΰHË…è^¥ ? Hadn't you yet shifted to this town by
Hadn't you yet received this message then ?
by then ? 8. J„¬æ@H÷ "Œ~¡° WOHê function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á
3. J„¬æ\÷H÷ P"³° WOHê WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ…è^¥ ? K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Hadn't she yet come here by that time? Hadn't they yet made arrangements for
4. J„¬æ\÷H÷ "Œ~¡° WOHê D business start the function by that time ?
K͆ǰ…è^¥ ? 9. J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê h=ô D scooter Hù#…è^¥?
Hadn't they yet started this business Hadn't you yet bought this scooter by
by then ? then ?
5. J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ h=ô WOHê permission 10. J„¬æ\÷H÷ "Œ~¡° WOHê D house construct
f‹¬°HË…è^¥? K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
Hadn't you yet taken permission by Hadn't they yet constructed this house
then? by then ?

79
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
ZO^ΰ䛽 inform K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't you yet informed them
this matter ? 1. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D x~¡â†Ç°O
12. g°~¡ ° J„¬ æ \ ÷ H ÷ WOHê JH› ø _È ZO^Î ° ä› ½ f‹¬°HË…è^¥ ?
|†Ç°•°^Í~¡…è^ΰ ? 2. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê licence ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥ ?
Why hadn't you yet started there by
then ? 3. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê xã^Î…è=…è^¥ ?
13. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê bill ZO^ΰ䛽 pay
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ? 4. P"³ ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê studies „¬ î ië
Why hadn't he yet paid the bill by then? K͆ǰ…è^¥?
14. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 office H÷ 5. Train J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê station H÷ KÍ~°¡ HË…è^¥?
"³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't she yet gone to office by 6. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D book publish
that time ? K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
15. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê P work ZO^ΰ䛽 7. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê D news q#…è^¥ ?
„¬îiëK͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't they yet finished the work 8. J`Ç _ È ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê promotion
by that time ? ‡ÚO^Î…è^¥?
16. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê "Œi`Ë D q+¬†Ç°O
ZO^ΰ䛽 discuss K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ? 9. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ æ \÷ H ÷ WOHê programme
Why hadn't you yet discussed this "³ò^Ε°Ì„@“…è^¥ ?
matter with them by then ?
10. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê bill pay K͆ǰ…è^¥ ?
17. g°~¡ ° J„¬ æ \ ÷ H ÷ WOHê cards ZO^Î ° ä› ½
distribute K͆ǰ…è^ΰ? 11. h=ô J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê salary ZO^ΰ䛽 draw
Why hadn't you yet distributed the K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
cards by then ?
18. P†Ç°# J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 file clear 12. g°~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê work ZO^ΰ䛽 finish
K͆ǰ…è^ΰ? K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't he yet cleared the file by
13. J`Ç_°È J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 h䛽 money
then ?
19. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 P course …Õ „¬O„¬…è^ΰ ?
KÍ~¡…è^ΰ ? 14. P"³° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê "Œix ZO^ΰ䛽 invite
Why hadn't she joined the course by K͆ǰ…è^ΰ ?
then?
20. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\H÷ ÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 JH›ø_•H÷ 15. "Œ~¡° J„¬æ\÷H÷ WOHê ZO^ΰ䛽 JH›ø_È䛽
KÍ~¡…è^ΰ ? KÍ~¡°HË…è^ΰ ?
Why hadn't they yet reached there
by then ? Z
Small deeds done are better than great deeds planned. 80
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ ''Had' + III form of the
Verb" Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Past Perfect Tense JO\ì~¡°.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò „¬îiëKÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê „¬îië
KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 'Had' + III form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I had finished my work before I went out.
2. We had known the news before you told us.
3. He had gone out before I went there.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° K³„¬CKǶ J„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ WOHê „¬îiëK͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had + not+ III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I had not yet got this job by then.
2. We had not yet received the message by that time.
3. He had not yet completed his studies by then.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò „¬îië KÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê
KÍ‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had + III form of the
Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Had you taken lunch before you came here ?
2. Had you booked the tickets before they came here ?
3. Had you counted the notes before you paid him money ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#° K³„¬CKǶ J„¬æ\÷ =~¡ä›½ WOHê „¬îië K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Hadn't + III form of the
Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Hadn't you yet woke up by that time ?
2. Hadn't he yet got ready by then ?
3. Hadn't they yet commenced the programme by that time ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning
140. beetch beetched beetched ã`Í#°æ@
141. believe believed believed #=òà@
142. bellow bellowed bellowed ~¡OïH"͆Çò@
143. belong belonged belonged #=òà@
144. blend blended blended H›•°„¬ô@
145. booze boozed boozed q°ug°i ã`ŒQ®°@
146. borrow borrowed borrowed J„¬CQê f‹¬°Hù#°@
147. boycott boycotted boycotted |‚²ì‹¬øiOKÇ°@
148. breathe breathed breathed ‰§Þ‹²OKÇ°@
149. cajole cajoled cajoled ‡Úy_• "³¶‹¬yOKÇ°
150. calculate calculated calculated …ÿH›øÌ„@“@
151. cancel cancelled cancelled ~¡^ΰíK͆Çò@
152. canvas canvassed canvassed ‡ã •^•Í†°Ç „¬_°È @
153. capture captured captured ª•Þn•#=òKÍ‹°¬ Hù#°
154. carry carried carried "³¶‹¬°Hùx‡é=ô@
155. cease ceased ceased x•°„¬ô@
156. celebrate celebrated celebrated [~¡°„¬ôHù#°@
157. certify certified certified „¬ã`Ç=ò WKÇ°ó@
158. chant chanted chanted ‡•_È°@
159. cheat cheated cheated "³¶‹¬„¬ôKÇ°ó@
160. chew chewed chewed #=°•°@
D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
82 Ability is of little account without opportunity.
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FUTURE PERFECT
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"
Ç °³ #
Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• „¬îiëK†
Í ò
Ç ^ΰ=ò.
P „¬xx Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆Çò^Î"³¶ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO …Õ„¬• q[†Ç°"Œ_È KÍ~¡°ä›½O\ì#°.
J "Í°=ò next Monday …Õ„¬• report `dž¶Ç ~¡°Kͪ•ë=ò.
J "Œ~¡° g°ä›½ =KÍó 15th …Õ„¬• orders „¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡°.
J <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• D answers Jhß <Í~¡°ó䛽O\ì#°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"
Ç °³ #
Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆ò
Ç „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`"Ç °³ #Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• J#Qê ~ö „¬ôQêx, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•,
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬•<³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ „¬îië
K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Will have + III form' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• D #=• KÇk"ͪ•ë#°. 6. "Œ~¡° =KÍó <³• …Õ„¬• family <³•¶Á~°¡ H÷ shift
I will have read this novel by tomorrow. Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
2. "Í°=ò next week …Õ„¬• D work finish They will have shifted their family to
Kͪ•ë=ò. Nellore by next month.
We will have finished this work by next 7. Nagarjuna University next 15th …Õ„¬•
week. Degree results announce KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
3. g°~¡ ° next Monday …Õ„¬ • orders Nagarjuna University will have
JO^ΰ䛽O\ì~¡°. announced the Degree results by 15th
You will have received the orders by of next month.
next Monday. 8. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• g°ä›½ inform
4. =¶ brother next May …Õ„¬• degree „¬îië Kͪ•ë#°.
Kͪ•ë_°È . I will have informed you by tomorrow
My brother will have completed his evening.
degree by next May. 9. "Í°=ò next Sunday …Õ„¬• D cards Jhß
5. P"³° ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• XOQË•°H÷ uiy =‹¬°Oë k. distribute Kͪ•ë=ò.
She will have returned to Ongole by We will have distributed all these
tomorrow. cards by next Sunday.

83
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10. J`Ç_È° next Monday …Õ„¬• duty …Õ join EXERCISE


J=ô`Œ_È°. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
He will have joined duty by next
Monday.
11. "Œ~¡ ° next week …Õ„¬ • D bill pay 1. "Í°=ò next month …Õ„¬• Jxß lessons
KÍ‹
À ª•ë~°¡ . prepare J=ô`Œ=ò.
They will have paid the bill by next 2. "Œ~¡° =KÍó "Œ~¡O …Õ„¬• P road repair
week. KÍ‹À ª•ë~°¡ .
12. "Í°=ò next December …Õ„¬• D loan 3. =KÍó =¶ió …Õ„¬• „ ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO teacher posts
clear KÍ‹
À ª•ë=ò. ƒ•’së KÍ‹À ‹¬°Oë k.
We will have cleared this loan by next 4. "Œ~¡° D <³…ìY~¡° …Õ„¬• P book publish
December. KÍ‹À ª•ë~°¡ .
13. P"³° D ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• D letters 5. D train ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO 9'O' clock …Õ„¬•
Jhß type KÍ‹¬°ëOk. _••bÁ KÍ~°¡ 䛽O@°Ok.
She will have typed all these letters 6. =¶ English lecturer D <³ … ìY~¡ ° H÷
by this evening. syllabus complete Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
14. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO …Õ„¬• function H÷ 7. "Œ~¡° next December …Õ„¬• P house
U~Œæ@°Á Kͪ•ë=ò. construct KÍ‹ À ª•ë~°¡ .
We will have made the arrangements 8. "Í°=ò ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• g°ä›½ =‹¬°= ë ô•° deliver
for the function by tomorrow morning. Kͪ•ë=ò.
15. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• D notes 9. =¶ mother WOHùH› Q®O@…Õ lunch H÷ Jxß
"ã ŒÀ‹ª•ë#°. items `dž¶ Ç ~¡° Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
I will have written this notes by 10. =KÍó XH›@= `Ín …Õ„¬• "Í°=ò D W•°Á
tomorrow evening. Mìm Kͪ•ë=ò.
16. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô L^ΆǰO 9 'O' clock …Õ„¬• 11. =¶ uncle next December …Õ„¬• U.S.A.
Q®°O@¶~¡° KÍ~¡°ä›½O\ì~¡°. "³o¤‡é`Œ~¡°.
They will have reached Guntur by 9'O' 12. =KÍó 5th …Õ„¬• J`Ç_È° salary draw
clock tomorrow morning. Kͪ•ë_°È .
17. "Í°=ò ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ XH› 13. ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• doctors P"³°#° hospital
x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½O\ìO. #°O_• discharge Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
We will have taken a decision in this 14. <Í#° g° amount =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O …Õ„¬•
matter by tomorrow. repay Kͪ•ë#°.
18. "Í°=ò next Monday …Õ„¬• Collector 䛽 15. "Œ~¡ ° next month 10th …Õ„¬• _•ãw
report submit Kͪ•ë=ò.
admission list announce Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
We will have submitted the report to
the Collector by next Monday.
Z
Example is better than precept. 84
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QUESTION FORM
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› Yzó`" Ç °³ #
Ø ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆ò Ç ^ΰ=ò.
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• XH›~°¡ „¬îië K͆ò Ç XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• g°~¡° D „¬xx „¬îië Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
J =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O …Õ„¬• J`Ç_°È XOQË•°H÷ uiy =ª•ë_¨ ?
J Next June …Õ„¬• P"³° degree „¬îië KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
J ö~„¬ô evening …Õ„¬• g°~¡° D bill pay Kͪ•ë~Œ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°O…Õ„¬• XH›~°¡ „¬îië K͆ò
Ç „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• J#Qê ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬•, =KÍó "Œ~¡O …Õ„¬•, =KÍó
<³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …Õ„¬• „¬îië K͆òÇ XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note :
I, We - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Shall have'
You, He, She, It, They - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Will have' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ~ö „¬\÷ …Õ„¬• x~¡†
â °Ç O f‹¬°ä›½O\ì"Œ? 6. h=ô ª•†Ç°Oã`ÇO…Õ„¬• D letters type
Will you have taken a decision by Kͪ•ë"Œ?
tomorrow ? Will you have typed these letters by
2. g°~¡° next month …Õ„¬• D W•°Á Mìm this evening?
Kͪ•ë~Œ ? 7. g°~¡° next week …Õ„¬• orders receive
Will you have vacated this house by KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì~Œ?
next month ? Will you have received the orders by
3. g° brother next Monday …Õ„¬• duty join next week?
J=ô`Œ_¨ ? 8. g° lecturers next January …Õ„¬ •
Will your brother have joined duty by syllabus „¬îië Kͪ•ë~Œ?
next Monday? Will the lecturers have completed the
syllabus by next January?
4. P"³° next month …Õ„¬• D subject 9. g°~¡° next week …Õ„¬• college H÷ report
prepare J=ô`Ç°O^¥?
submit Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Will she have prepared this subject
Will you have submitted the report to
by next month?
the college by next week ?
5. "Œ~¡° =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ …Õ„¬• D house 10. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• cards Jhß distribute
construct Kͪ•ë~Œ? Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Will they have constructed the house Will they have distributed all the cards
by next December? by tomorrow ?

85
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• D course „¬îië D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Kͪ•ë=ô?
When will you have completed this
course ?
12. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• new house …ÕH÷ shift
1. ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• g°~¡° =¶ä›½ g° x~¡â†Ç°O
J=ô`Œ~¡° ? `³e†Ç°*誕ë~Œ ?
When will you have shifted to the new 2. WO@sà_•†³°\˜ ƒÕ~ŸÛ "Í° 31 …Õ„¬• „¦e¬ `Œ•°
house? ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
13. D train Z„¬ æ \÷ …Õ„¬ • Chennai
3. =KÍ ó <³ • …Õ„¬ • J`Ç _ È ° promotion
KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°Ok ?
When will this train have reached
‡ÚO^ΰ`Œ_¨ ?
Chennai ? 4. =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È bridge
14. J`Ç_È° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• certificates receive xiકë~Œ ?
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì_È° ? 5. Next Monday …Õ„¬• g°~¡° D bill pay
When will he have received the
certificates ?
Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
15. P"³° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• WH›ø_•H÷ uiy =‹¬°Oë k? 6. ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ …Õ„¬• g°~¡° g°\÷OQ·H÷ Jxß
When will she have returned here ? U~Œæ@°Á Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
16. D <³…ìY~¡° …Õ„¬• g°~¡° ZO`Ç amount 7. ö~„¬ô 7 p.m. …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° programme
collect Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? ‡ã •~¡Oa•ª•ë~Œ ?
Howmuch amount will you have
collected by the end of this month ? 8. D <³• PY~¡° …Õ„¬• g°~¡° Jxß lessons
17. Next Saturday …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° Zxß files revise Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
clear Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? 9. h=ô Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• D book KÇk"ͪ•ë=ô ?
Howmany files will they have cleared
10. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• tickets book Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
by next Saturday ?
18. =KÍó 15= `Ín …Õ„¬• h=ô Zxß new 11. J`Ç_È° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• iHê~ŸÛ work „¬îië
policies book Kͪ•ë=ô ? Kͪ•ë_°È ?
Howmany new policies will you have 12. P"³ ° Z„¬ æ \ ÷ …Õ„¬ • D dress stitch
booked by next 15th ? KÍ‹¬°ëOk ?
19. =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° bank …Õ ZO`Ç
amount deposit Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
13. =KÍó <³• …Õ„¬• g°~¡° …Õ<£ ‡ÚO^ΰ`Œ~Œ?
Howmuch amount will they have 14. =KÍó "Œ~¡O …Õ„¬• h=ô Zxß lessons
deposited in the bank by next prepare J=ô`Œ=ô ?
December?
15. ö~„¬\÷ …Õ„¬• "Œ~¡° Zxß copies print
20. "Œ~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ …Õ„¬• D ãHù`Çë book publish Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ?
When will they have published this
new book ? Z
He who follows two hares catches neither. 86
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Will + have + III form of the Verb"
Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Future Perfect Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive
Form 2. Question Form J#° 2 parts <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. D 2 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹°¬ 䛽O^¥=ò.

1. POSITIVE FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• XH›~¡° „¬îië K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 'Will have' + III form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. I will have done this workly tomorrow.

2. We will have completed the course by next week.

3. He will have cleared the file by next Monday.

4. They will have distributed cards by tomorrow.

2. QUESTION FORM :

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› xsâ`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò …Õ„¬• XH›~¡° „¬îië K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 'Will have' + III form of the Verb L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :

1. Will you have received the orders by next week?

2. Will he have joined the duty by next 5th?

3. Will she have written the novel by next June?

4. Will they have made arrangements by next week?

87
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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

161. circulate circulated circulated "Œ¼„²O„¬K͆Çò@


162. clarify calrified calrified q=iOzK³„¬C@
163. climb climbed climbed Z䛽ø@
164. close closed closed =ü†Çò@
165. co-operate co-operated co-operated ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ°@
166. collapse collapsed collapsed „¬_•‡é=ô@
167. collect collected collected À‹H›iOKÇ°@
168. command commanded commanded P*ìý„²OKÇ°@
169. commence commenced commenced P~¡Oa•OKÇ°@
170. comment commented commented "Œ¼Mì¼#=òK͆Çò
171. communicate communicated communicated `³e†Ç°*è†Çò
172. compare compared compared ‡é•°ó@
173. compel comepelled comepelled =uë_•K͆òÇ @
174. compete comepted comepted ‡é\©K͆Çò@
175. compile compiled compiled 䛕~¡°æK͆Çò@
176. comlain complained complained „¦¬V~Œ¼^ΰK͆Çò@
177. compose composed composed 䛕~¡°æK͆Çò@
178. conceal concealed concealed ~¡‚¬ì‹¬¼=òQê LOKÇ°@
178. concentrate concentrated concentrated ã‰×^ÎœKǶ„¬ô@
179. conclude concluded concluded =òyOKÇ°@
180. confirm confirmed confirmed Hê†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡°
H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 2 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß
"ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
88 A journey of thousand miles begins with a single step.
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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò WOH›#°
continuous Qê K͆Çò KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. XH› „¬xx =°#=ò Zxß ~ËA•°Qê, ZO`Ç Hê•OQê, Z„¬æ\÷
#°O_• K͆ò Ç KÇ°#ßn W`Ç~°¡ •ä›½ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz D notes `džǶ~¡° K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß#°.
J "Í°=ò <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz D room …Õ LO@°<Œß=ò.
J L^ΆǰO #°Oz "Œ~¡° T.V. …Õ match KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
J 1990 #°Oz =¶ father D business KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz, „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ WOH›#° continuous
Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ß „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx ZO`Ç
Hê•OQêJ#Qê Zxß Q®O@•°Qê, Zxß ~ËA•°, Zxß <³••°, Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have been / Has been + Verb + 'ing' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject –> I, We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'have been',
Subject –> He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'has been' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz English 5. "Œ~¡° <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°Oz D
grammar <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°<Œß#°. Hê•h…Õ x=t‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
I have been learning English They have been living in this colony
grammar for four months. for four years.
2. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz bank test H÷ 6. ‡é~ò# ªé=°"Œ~¡O #°Oz WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO
prepare JQ®°KÇ°<Œß=ò. „¬_È°KÇ°#ßk.
We have been preparing for the bank It has been raining here since
test for two months. Monday last.
3. =¶ brother 1995 #°Oz POã^•¥ƒì¼OH± 7. <Í#° L^Ά°Ç O 7 Q®OII• #°Oz =¶ friend
…Õ „¬x KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°. HË‹¬O Z^ΰ~¡°KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
My brother has been working in the I have been waiting for my friend
Andhra Bank since 1995. since 7 a.m.
4. P"³ ° ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA• #°Oz [Þ~¡ O `Ë 8. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz water
ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È KÇ°#ßk. problem face KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
She has been suffering from fever for We have been facing water problem
two days. for two months.

89
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9. =¶ mother ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz Homeo- EXERCISE


pathic medicines f‹¬°ä›½O@°#ßk.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
My mother has been taking
Homeopathic medicines for two 1. <Í#° XH› Q®O@ #°Oz WH›ø_È bus HË‹¬O
months. wait KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
10. <Í#° ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°Oz govt. 2. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz pending files
job HË‹¬O try KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°. clear KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
I have been trying for a government 3. P"³° 11 'O' clock #°Oz letters type
job for two years. KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk.
11. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz function H÷ 4. =¶ friend KŒ…ì ~ËA•°Qê <Œä›½ help
U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ò. KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
We have been making arrangements 5. =¶ lecturers "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°Oz =¶ä›½
for the function for two days. special HêÁ‹¬°•° f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~¡°.
6. x#ß \ ÷ #°Oz <Í # ° D book refer
12. =¶ father Q®`Ç 8 ‹¬OII•°Qê D business KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
7, ï~O_È° <³•• #°Oz <Í#° English Ì„á
My father has been doing this
concentrate K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß#°.
business for the past eight years.
8. P"³ ° XH› <³ • ~ËA•°Qê XH› #=•
13. „¬ k xq°+¬ = ò• #°Oz telephone ã"Œ‹¬°ë#ßk.
ã"³¶Q®°KÇ°#ßk. 9. "Œ~¡° XH› ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O #°Oz =¶ä›½ ƒìQê
The telephone has been ringing for ‹¬‚¬ìH›i‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
ten minutes.
10. <Í # ° J~¡ Q ® O @ #°Oz D serial
14. J`Ç_È° L^ΆǰO #°Oz P T.V. set repair KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß#°.
K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß_È°. 11. ‡•s“ Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•° ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz
He has been repairing that T.V. set WO\÷O\÷H÷ ㄬKŒ~¡O KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
since morning. 12. ªÏ~¡ƒ˜ Q®OQ®¶b Q®`Ç P~¡° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê
15. =¶ uncle Q®`Ç 12 ‹¬OII•°Qê lawyer Qê ãH÷ïH\˜ P_È°KÇ°<Œß_È°.
practise K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß~¡°. 13. "Í°=ò ~ï O_È° ~ËA• #°Oz D workshop
My uncle has been practising as a x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ë<Œß=ò.
lawyer for the past twelve years. 14. _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°Oz
HêÁ‹¬°•° |‚²ì+¬øi‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°.
16. <Í # ° ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA• #°Oz D #=•
KÇ^ΰ=ôKÇ°<Œß#°. 15. =¶ grand father ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê
cancer `Ë ƒì^•Î„_ ¬ °È KÇ°<Œß~°¡ .
I have been reading this novel for two
days.
Z
No pains, No gains. 90
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „ ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Zxß~ËA•°Qê K͆°Ç _ÈO…è^Ë, ZO`ÇHê•OQê
KÍ‹¬°ëO_È_ÈO…è^Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° <Œ•°Q®°~ËA•#°O_• Hê…èlH÷ "³ˆ¤× _ÈO…è^°Î .
J J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° "Œ~Œ•#°O_• duty H÷ attend J=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
J P"³° <Œ•°Q®°~ËA•#°Oz P‚¬ð~¡O f‹¬°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ.
J "Œ~¡° 1998 #°O_• D town …Õ x=tOKÇ_ÈO …è^ΰ.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`Ç Hê•=òQê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx
Z„¬æ\÷#°O_• K͆°Ç _ÈO…è^Ë, Zxß~ËA•°Qê K͆òÇ @…è^Ë, ZO`ÇHê•OQê K͆òÇ @…è^Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Have / Has + not + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : I, We, You, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have,


He, She, It, - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
* Note : Q®`Ç HùO`ÇHê•OQê KÍ‹¬¶ë =ô#ß XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 positive …Õ
"have been + 'ing' form" =KÇ°ó#°. Hêx Negative …Õ 'been + 'ing' form …è䛽O_¨
"have / has + not + III form L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ~ï O_È°~ËA•#°O_• computer class 6. "Œ~¡° "Œ~¡O~ËA•#°O_• shop open
H÷ attend J=_ÈO…è^ΰ. K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
I have not attended the computer They have not opened the shop for
class for two days. one week.
2. "Í°=ò „¬k~ËA• #°Oz ãH÷ïH\˜ practice 7. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç =ü_È°‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• school
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ. Annual Day celebrate K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
We have not practised cricket for ten They have not celebrated the school
days. Annual Day for the past three years.
3. P`Ç_È° <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz room rent 8. <Í # ° last Monday #°O_• J`Çxx
pay K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ. H›•°=…è^ΰ.
He has not paid room rent for four I have not met him since Monday last.
months. 9. "Í°=ò E<£ 1 #°O_• =¶ =î~¡° "³ˆ¤…× ^
è °Î .
4. P"³° x#ß\÷#°O_• =¶WO\÷H÷ ~Œ…è^ΰ. We have not gone to our village since
She has not come to our house since June 1st.
yesterday. 10. J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• studies Ì„á
5. =ü_È° <³••°Qê WH›ø_È =~ŒÂ•° „¬_È…è^ΰ. concentrate K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
It has not rained here for three months. He has not concentrated on his
studies for two months.

91
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11. P"³ ° <Œ•°Q® ° ~ËA•#°O_• P‚¬ ð ~¡ O EXERCISE


f‹¬°HË=_ÈO…è^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
She has not taken food for four days.
12. <Í # ° ï ~ O_È ° <³ • • #°O_• films
KǶ_È_ÈO…è^ΰ. 1. <Í#° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA• #°Oz Hê…èrH÷ "³ˆ¤@ × O
I have not seen films for two months. …è^ΰ.
13. "Í°=ò XH› ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O#°O_• J`Çx`Ë move 2. "Í°=ò ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°O_• U
Hê=_ÈO…è^ΰ. ‹¬=°‹¬¼ Z^ΰ~Ëø=@O …è^ΰ.
We have not moved with him for one 3. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz J`Ç_È° HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ miss
year. Hê…è^ΰ.
14. J`Ç _ È ° "Œ~¡ O ~ËA•#°O_• exercise 4. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz P"³° =¶`Ë =¶\ìÁ_@ È O …è^°Î .
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 5. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°O_• q^•Î°•ä›½
He has not taken exercise for one ‚¬ð[~¡=@O…è^ΰ.
week.
6. =¶ father ï~O_È° <³•• #°O_• <Œä›½
15. "Œ~¡° ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• programmes money „¬O„¬@O …è^ΰ.
x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 7. 1998 #°Oz "Œ~¡° WH›ø_È x=tOKÇ@O
They have not conducted the
…è^ΰ.
programmes for two months.
8. ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• N<Œ^•£ one day
16. <Í#° HùO`ÇHê•O #°Oz J`ÇxH÷ ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO matches P_È@O …è^ΰ.
K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ.
I have not helped him for sometime.
9. P"³° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA• #°O_• Z=i`Ë#¶
=¶\ìÁ_È@O …è^ΰ.
17. J`Ç_È° XH› ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O#°O_• ZH›ø_¨
„¬xK͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 10. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç HùO`Ç Hê•OQê q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½
scholarships K³eÁOKÇ@O…è^ΰ.
He has not worked anywhere for one
year. 11. <Í#° Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• U
competitive exam H© appear Hê…è^ΰ.
18. "Í ° =ò P~¡ ° <³ • •#°O_• P car use
K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 12. "Í°=ò J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• J`Çx q+¬†°Ç O *ÕH›¼O
We have not used that car for six KÍ‹¬°HË=@O…è^ΰ.
months. 13. =òx‹²‡•e\© "Œ~¡° 4 ~ËA• #°O_• h~¡°
19. HùO`Ç H ê•OQê =¶ brothers <Œä› ½ ‹¬~¡„¦¬~Œ K͆ǰ@O …è^ΰ.
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ_ÈO…è^ΰ. 14. P"³° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O #°O_• H›^•ÎŠ ° "ã Œ†Ç°@O
My brothers have not co-operated …è^ΰ.
with me for sometime. 15. Doctor ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°O_• clinic H÷
20. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OII• #°O_• accounts ‹¬iQê ~Œ=@O …è^ΰ.
maintain K͆ǰ_ÈO…è^ΰ.
They have not maintained the
accounts for the past five years.
Z
Idle man's brain is devil's workshop. 92
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QUESTION FORM
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ WOH›#¶
continuous Qê K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ=ò. XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx Zxß ~ËA•°Qê, ZO`Ç Hê•OQê, Z„¬æ\÷
#°O_• K͆ò Ç KÇ°#ßn „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô WH›ø_È Q®O@ #°Oz wait K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß"Œ?
J g°~¡° 1998 #°Oz D town …Õ x=t‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?
J g° brother ~ï O_È° ‹¬OI #°O_• job KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_¨ ?
J P"³° x#ß\÷ #°Oz [Þ~¡O`Ë ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È KÇ°#ß^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz WOH›#¶ KÍ‹¶
¬ #
ë ß „¬#°•#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë=ô#ß XH› „¬xx Zxß
~ËA•°Qê, Zxß <³••°Qê, Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê, ZO`Ç Hê•OQê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + been + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject –> 'I' 'We' 'You' 'They' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Have been'
'He', 'She', 'It' J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Has been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô x#ß\÷ #°O_• D notes `džǶ~¡° 6. "Œ~¡ ° 1985 #°O_• D ‹¬ O ‹¬ Ö # °
K͆ÇòKÇ°<Œß"Œ ? x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?
Have you been preparing this notes Have they been maintaining this firm
since yesterday ? since 1985 ?
2. g°~¡° "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°O_• results HË‹¬O 7. h=ô ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• Spoken English
Z^ΰ~¡° KǶ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ? HêÁ‹¬°•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡Q®°KÇ°<Œß"Œ ?
Have you been waiting for the results Have you been attending the Spoken
for one week ? English classes for two months ?
3. g° brother ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_• 8. h=ô 2002 #°O_• job HË‹¬ O try
Vizag …Õ LO@°<Œß_¨ ? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß"Œ?
Has your brother been staying in Vizag Have you been trying for a job since
for two years ? 2002?
4. P"³ ° Q® ` Ç <Œ•°Q® ° ~ËA• #°O_• 9. 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ• #°O_È• h=ô D scooter
L„¬"Œ‹¬=òO@°#ß^¥ ? use KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß"Œ ?
Has she been fasting for the last four Have you been using this scooter for
days? ten years ?
5. Q® ` Ç ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA•°Qê WH› ø _È =~¡ Â O 10. 1995 #°O_• P"³° D school …Õ teacher
„¬_È°KÇ°#ß^¥ ? Qê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ë#ß^¥ ?
Has it been raining here for the last Has she been working as a teacher
two days ? in this school since 1995 ?
93
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE


11. h=ô ZO`Ç Hê•OQê D L^˼Q® O
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Howlong have you been doing
this job ? 1. g°~¡° Q®`Ç ªé=°"Œ~¡O #°O_• [#àƒ•’¶q°
12. g°~¡ ° ZO`Ç Hê•OQê D WO\ÕÁ Hê~¡¼Hã =
› °O…Õ ‡•…ç¾O@°<Œß~Œ ?
x=t‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ? 2. h=ô ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA• #°Oz D #=•
Howlong have you been living in this
house ?
KÇ^ΰ=ôKÇ°<Œß"Œ ?
13. g° sister Z„¬æ\÷ #°O_• K³<ßá…
³ Õ KÇ^°Î =ô 3. g° father ï ~ O_È ° <³ • • #°O_• D
KÇ°#ßk ? medicines f‹¬°ä›½O@°<Œß~Œ ?
Howlong has your sister been 4. P"³° L^ΆǰO #°Oz special items
studying in Chennai ? `džǶ~¡° K͆ÇòKÇ°#ß^¥ ?
14. J`Ç_È° ZO`Ç Hê•OQê cancer `Ë ƒì^•Î„_
¬ °È 5. "Œ~¡ ° Q® ` Ç "Œ~¡ O ~ËA•°Qê „¬ O _È ° Q®
KÇ°<Œß_È° ? [~¡°„¬ô䛽O@°<Œß~Œ ?
Howlong has he been suffering from
6. h=ô x#ß\÷ #°O_• D book HË‹¬ O
cancer ?
15. ZO`Ç Hê•OQê "Œ~¡° D problem face
"³^Î䛽KÇ°<Œß"Œ ?
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ? 7. g°~¡° "Œ~¡O ~ËA• #°O_• practicals
Howlong have they been facing this KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~Œ ?
problem ? 8. J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° <³•• #°O_• final exams H÷
16. h=ô WH›ø_È ZO`Ç À‹„¬\÷ #°O_• wait prepare JQ®°KÇ°<Œß_¨ ?
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ? 9. ZO`Ç H ê•OQê g°~¡ ° books publish
Howlong have you been waiting
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
here ?
17. ZO`Ç Hê•OQê g°~¡ ° WH› ø _È English
10. ZO`ÇHê•OQê J`Ç_È° lawyer Qê practise
<Í~¡°ó䛽O@°<Œß~¡° ? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È° ?
Howlong have you been learning 11. P"³° Z„¬æ\÷ #°O_• g°ä›½ Hindi teach
English here ? KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk ?
18. P"³ ° Z„¬ æ \ ÷ #°Oz movies …Õ act 12. "Œ~¡ ° Z„¬ æ \ ÷ #°O_• strike …Õ
KÍ‹¬°ë#ßk? ‡•…ç¾O@°<Œß~°¡ ?
Howlong has she been acting 13. h=ô D course Z„¬æ\÷ #°Oz KÍ‹°¬ < ë Œß=ô?
in movies ?
19. "Œ~¡° Z„¬æ\÷ #°Oz g°ä›½ D material
14. ZO`Ç Hê•OQê g°~¡° D =‹¬°ë=ô•° sale
supply KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡° ?
Howlong have they been supplying 15. Dravid Z„¬ æ \ ÷ #°Oz team x lead
you this material ? KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È° ?
20. J`Ç _ È ° ZO`Ç Hê•OQê hä› ½ help
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È° ?
Howlong has he been helping you ?
Z
Every cloud has a silver lining. 94
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`ÇHê•=òQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _Èx
XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê q㉧Ou f‹¬°HË=@O …è^¥ ?
J g°~¡° ~ï O_È° <³••°Qê bill pay K͆ǰ@O…è^¥ ?
J J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz g°ä›½ help K͆ǰ@O …è^¥?
J P"³° KŒ…ì ~ËA• #°Oz WH›ø_È LO_È@O…è^¥ ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`Ç Hê•=òQê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`Ç Hê•=òQê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Haven't / Hasn't + III form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject I, We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Haven't' =KÇ°ó#°.
He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Hasn't' =KÇ°ó#°.
EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ~ï O_È° ~ËA• #°O_• classes H÷ attend 6. Jan 1st #°O_• h=ô g° T~¡° "³ˆ¤… × ^
è ¥?
Hê=@O…è^¥? Haven't you gone to your village since
Haven't you attended the classes for Jan 1st ?
two days ? 7. g°~¡° Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê salary draw
2. g°~¡° <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°Oz house rent pay K͆ǰ@O…è^¥?
K͆ǰ@O…è^¥? Haven't you drawn salary for the past
Haven't you paid house rent for four two months ?
months ? 8. P"³° J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• g° WO\÷H÷ ~Œ=@O …è^¥?
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz h䛽 help K͆ǰ@O Hasn't she come to your house since
…è^¥? then ?
Hasn't he helped you since then ? 9. Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° <³••°Qê WH›ø_È =~¡ÂO „¬_È_ÈO
4. P"³° x#ß L^Ά°Ç O #°O_• food f‹¬°HË=@O …è^¥?
…è^¥? Hasn't it rained here for the past four
Hasn't she taken food since yesterday
months ?
morning ?
5. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê games practise 10. Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡ Hê•OQê Ganguly matches
K͆ǰ@O…è^¥? P_È@O …è^¥?
Hasn't Ganguly played matches for the
Haven't they practised the games for
past one year ?
the last two months ?

95
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê h=ô class H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
~Œ=@O …è^ΰ ?
Why haven't you come to the class for
the past two days ? 1. ï~O_È° <³••°Qê g° father h䛽 money
12. Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê "Œ~¡° shop ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬O„¬@O…è^¥?
open K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ? 2. ï~O_È° <³••°Qê h=ô movies KǶ_È@O
Why haven't they opened the shop for
the last four days ?
…è^¥?
13. Q®`"
Ç Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê J`Ç_°È duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 3. KŒ…ì ~ËA•°Qê g°~¡° J`Çxx H›•=…è^¥?
attend Hê=@O…è^ΰ ? 4. KŒ…ì ~ËA•°Qê h=ô "ŒiH÷ letters
Why hasn't he attended the duty for the ã"Œ†Ç°…è^¥?
past one week ?
14. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê h=ô studies Ì„á ZO^ΰ䛽 5. Q®`Ç 6 <³••°Qê g°~¡° bank #°O_• money
concentrate K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ? withdraw K͆ǰ…è^¥?
Why haven't you concentrated on your
studies for the past few months ? 6. Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° <³••°Qê "Œ~¡° g°ä›½ salary
15. P"³° Q®`Ç 10 ~ËA•°Qê Hê…èlH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 K³eÁOKÇ@O…è^¥?
"³ˆ×¤@O…è^ΰ ? 7. x#ß\÷ #°Oz h=ô Ug° f‹¬°HË…è^¥?
Why hasn't she gone to college for the
8. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz J`Ç_°È h`Ë =¶\ìÁ_@ È O…è^¥?
past ten days ?
16. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê classes 9. Q®`Ç 10 ~ËA•°Qê h=ô J`Çxx ZO^ΰ䛽
ZO^ΰ䛽 x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ@O…è^ΰ ? H›•=…è^ΰ?
Why haven't they conducted the 10. h=ô Jan-1 #°O_• g° T~¡° ZO^ΰ䛽
classes for the past four days ? "³ˆ×¤…è^ΰ?
17. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê g°~¡° <Œ`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ@O…è^ΰ ? 11. Q® ` Ç 6 <³ • •°Qê g°~¡ ° instalments
Why haven't you co-operated with me ZO^ΰ䛽 pay K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ?
for the past few months ?
18. Q® ` Ç ï ~ O_È ° „¬ ~ Œ¼†Ç ° =ò•°Qê P†Ç ° # 12. Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡ Hê•OQê "Œ~¡° g°ä›½ material
ZO^ΰ䛽 ZxßH›•…Õ ‡é\© K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ? ZO^ΰ䛽 supply K͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ?
Why hasn't he contested in the 13. ï~O_È° ~ËA• #°O_• h=ô temple H÷
elections for the past two times ?
ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤_ÈO…è^ΰ?
19. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê J`Ç_È° ZH›ø_¨ ZO^ΰ䛽
„¬xK͆ǰ@O…è^ΰ ? 14. <Œ•°Q®° <³•• #°O_• g°~¡° monthly report
Why hasn't he worked any where for ZO^ΰ䛽 submit K͆ǰ…è^ΰ?
the past few months ?
20. J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 "Œi q+¬†°Ç O…Õ 15. ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• #°O_• P"³° birthday
*ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË=@O…è^ΰ? ZO^ΰ䛽 celebrate KÍ‹¬°HË=@O…è^ΰ?
Why haven't you interefered in their
matter since then ?
Z
Adversity introduces a man to himself. 96
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Have / Has + been + Verb
+ 'ing ' form " Q®°iOz <Í~°¡ óä½› <Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Present Perfect Continuous
Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form
4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ㇕~¡Oa•Oz ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#°
continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "have / has + been +
Verb + ' ing ' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I have been doing this job for two years.
2. We have been facing this problem for one month .
3. He has been staying with us since July.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`Ç HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 (P „¬xx
ZO`Ç Hê•OQê KÍ † Ç ò @…è ^ Ë) "have / has + not+ III form of the Verb"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I have not met him for two days.
2. We have not come here since Sunday last.
3. He has not sent me money for two months.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ㇕~¡Oa•Oz ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 WOH›#¶
continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ë#ß XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have /
Has + been + Verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Have you been trying for a job for two years ?
2. Has he been helping you for a long time ?
3. Have they been practising this game since Monday last ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Haven't / Hasn't + III form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Haven't you gone to office for five days ?
2. Hasn't he met you since Monday last ?

97
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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

181. congratulate congratulated congratulated Ja•#OkOKÇ°@


182. conjure conjured conjured Qê~¡_™K͆ǰ@
183. connect connected connected H›•°„¬ô@
184. conquer conquered conquered [~òOKÇ°, ïQ•°KÇ°
185. consider considered considered „¬iQ®}÷OKÇ°@
186. consist consisted consisted H›ey†ÇòO_È°@
187. conspire conspired conspired 䛽ã@„¬#°ß
188. construct constructed constructed xiàOKÇ°@
189. consult consulted consulted ‹¬OㄬkOKÇ°@
190. consume consumed consumed qx†³¶yOKÇ°
191. continue continued continued Hù#ª•yOKÇ°
192. contribute contributed contributed KÇO^¥WKÇ°ó@
193. convert converted converted =¶~¡°ó@
194. convey conveyed conveyed `³e†Ç°*è†Çò@
195. convince convineced convineced X„²æOKÇ°@
196. create created created xiàOKÇ°, ‹¬$+²“OKÇ°
197. criticise criticised criticised q=°iÅOKÇ°@
198. cry cried cried U_È°ó@
199. cultivate cultivated cultivated ª•Q®°K͆ò Ç @
200. dance danced danced #$`ǼOK͆Çò@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
98 A good beginning makes a good ending.
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PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


=°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ KÍ‹²# ï~O_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz `³e†Ç°*è†Çò KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. XH› „¬x „¬îië
J~ò#k. ï ~ O_È = „¬ x "³ ò ^Î \ ÷ „¬ x H› O >è =òO^Î ° HùO`Ç H ê•OQê continuous Qê
[~¡°Q®°KǶO_•#k.
J <Í#° x#ß =¶ friend room H÷ "³ˆ‹Áõ i¬ H÷, J`Ç_°È ~ï O_È° Q®O@•#°O_• lessons KÇ^°Î =ô KǶO_•<Œ_È°.
J "Í°=ò x#ß auditorium H÷ "³ˆÁõ ‹¬iH÷, J„¬æ\÷H÷ „¬k xq°‘•• #°Oz chief guest =¶\ìÁ_È°
KÇ°O_•<Œ_È°.
J x#ß ‹².†Ç°O. =KÍ‹ó i¬ H÷, J„¬æ\÷H÷ J~¡QO® @ =òO^ΰQê<Í „ã [¬ •° ground …Õ gather JQ®° KÇ°O_•<Œ~¡°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx ZO`ÇHê•OQê
KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ"³¶ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ „¬îië KÍ‹#² ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ "³ò^Î\÷ „¬xx ~ï O_È=
„¬xH›O>è =òO^ΰ continuous Qê ZO`Ç Hê•OQê, ZxßQ®O@•°, Zxß ~ËA•°, Zxß <³••° =òO^ΰQê
KÍ‹¬°ë#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + been + Verb + 'ing' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'had been + 'ing' form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° x#ß class H÷ "³ˆõÁ ‹¬iH÷, J~¡Q®O@ 4. =¶ brother Q®=~¡ß"°³ O@° job ‡ÚO^Í^¥xH÷
=òO^ΰ #°OKÍ lecturer lesson teach =òO^ΰ ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê private
KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß~¡°. school …Õ „¬xKÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
The lecturer had been teaching the My brother had been working in a
lesson for half-an-hour before I went to private school for two years before he
the class yesterday. got the govt. job.
2. "Í°=ò x#ß ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ ground H÷ KÍ~°¡ 䛽<Í 5. "Í°=ò last week Mysore KÍ~¡°ä›½<Í^¥xH÷
‹¬iH÷ ï~O_È°Q®O@• =òO^ΰ#°O_Í "Œ~¡° =òO^ΰ ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê JH›ø_È =~¡ÂO
match P_È°`ǶO_•<Œ~¡°. „¬_°È `ǶO_•#k.
They had been playing the match for It had been raining there for two days
two hours before we reached the before we reached Mysore last week.
ground yesterday evening.
6. <Í#° x#ß press H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ XH›
3. "Í°=ò Ongole town H÷ shift J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ Q® O @ #°O_• J`Ç _ È ° cards print
=òO^ΰ, <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•#°Oz KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
Q®°O@¶~¡°…Õ x=t‹¬¶Oë _•<Œ=ò. He had been printing the cards for one
We had been living in Guntur for four hour before I went to the press.
years before we shifted to Ongole town.

99
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7. "Œ~¡° course "³ò^Ε°Ì„>è“ ^¥xH÷ "Œ~¡O EXERCISE


=òO^ΰ #°O_• admissions f‹¬°ä›½O D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
@°O_•<Œ~¡°.
They had been taking the admissions
1. x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ guests =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
for one week before they commenced
ï~O_È° Q®O@• #°Oz =¶ mother items
the course.
`dž¶Ç ~¡° KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•#k.
8. <Í#° last month J`Çxx H›eÀ‹ ^¥xH÷ 2. Train =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ#°O_Í <Í#°
„¬k~ËA• =òO^ΰ#°O_• J`Ç_°È fever `Ë platform g°^Î wait KÍ‹°¬ O ë _•<Œ=ò.
ƒì^•Î„_¬ °È KÇ°<Œß_°È . 3. "Í°=ò x#ß theatre H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iH÷, Q®O@
He had been suffering from fever for =òO^ΰ #°OKÍ JH›ø_È KŒ• =°Ok queue
ten days before I met him last month. …Õ x•|_• L<Œß~°¡ .
9. <Í#° ~Œãu WO\÷H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½<Í ^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° 4. x#ß Prime Minister =KÍó^¥xH÷ ï~O_È°
Q® O @• =òO^Î ° #°O_Í „² • Á • ° xã ^ Î Q®O@• =òO^ΰ #°O_• ~ŒR <Œ†Ç°ä›½•°
‡é`ǶO_•<Œ~¡°. airport ^ÎQ®¾~¡ wait KÍ‹°¬ O
ë _•<Œ~¡°.
Children had been sleeping for two 5. x#ß <Í#° college H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ‹¬iH÷ J„¬æ\÷H÷
hours before I reached home last night. ï~O_È° Q®O@• =òO^ΰ #°OKÍ clerk stu-
dents H÷ hall tickets issue KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ_È°.
10. P"³° Delhi "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ <Œ•°Q®°
<³•• #°Oz WH›ø_È Hindi <Í~°¡ ó 䛽O@¶O_• 6. P film shooting ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ ^¥xH÷ <³•
#k. ~ËA• =òO^ΰ #°O_• "Œ~¡° H›^¥Š KÇ~ó•¡ °
She had been learning Hindi here for [~¡°„¬ôKǶO_•<Œ~¡°.
four months before she went to Delhi. 7. J`Çx father retire J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ ï~O_È°
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• =òO^ΰ#°O_Í J`Ç_°È job
11. <Í#° meeting hall H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß_È°.
=òO^ΰ #°O_• "Œ~¡° P q+¬†°Ç O discuss 8. <Í#° x#ß office H÷ "³ˆ¤õ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°. #°O_Í P"³° letters type K͆òÇ KÇ°O_•#k.
They had been discussing the matter
for one hour before I went to the
9. <Í#° x#ß JH›ø_Èä½› "³ˆ¤õ‹i¬ H÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
meeting hall.
#°O_• "Œ~¡° function H÷ ready JQ®°
KÇ°<Œß~¡°.
12. J`Ç_È° x#ß =¶ WO\÷H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ 10. <Í#° x#ß class 䛽 "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ J~¡Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°Oz "Í°=ò chess P_È°`Ƕ =òO^ΰ #°O_• lecturer lesson explain
=ô<Œß=ò. KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°.
We had been playing chess for one
hour before he came to our house
yesterday. Z
Flattery is the food of fools. 100
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`ÇHê•=ò =~¡ä½› XH›~°¡ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•# XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz, P „¬xx ZO`Ç Hê•=òQê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßk ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ~ï O_È° Q®O@•°Qê JH›ø_È rest f‹¬°ä›½O@¶O_•<Œ~Œ ?
J J`Ç_È° D job ‡ÚO^Í ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ 2 ‹¬OII•°Qê private company …Õ „¬x KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ_¨ ?
J g°~¡° work ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ =òO^ΰ ~ï O_È° Q®O@•°Qê "Œi`Ë KÇi‹ó ¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬x †³òH›ø Hê•=ò#°
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`ÇO…Õx ï~O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò =~¡ä›½ continuous Qê
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz P „¬x ZO`ÇHê•OQê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"³¶ „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Had + been + Verb + ing form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Had been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
4. Programme ㇕~¡Oa•OKÍ^¥xH÷ Q®O@
1. h=ô WH›ø_È䛽 =KÍó^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° Q®O@•
=òO^Î ° Qê "Œ~¡ ° tickets issue
=òO^Î ° Qê WO\÷ ^Î Q ® ¾ ~ ¡ home-work KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"Œ?
Had they been issuing the tickets for
Had you been doing home-work for two
one hour before they commenced the
hours before you came here ?
programme ?
2. H÷ appear J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° <³••
Test
5. Guests =KÍ ó ^¥xH÷ ï ~ O_È ° Q® O @•
=òO^ΰQê g°~¡° prepare J=ô`¶Ç O_•<Œ~Œ? =òO^Î ° Qê g°~¡ ° JH› ø _È U~Œæ@°Á
Had you been preparing for the test for KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
two months before you appeared for the Had you been making arrangements for
test ? two hours before the guests came ?
3. Train =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰQê g°~¡° 6. D company …Õ join J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ P~¡°
station …Õ wait KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _•<Œ~Œ? <³ • •° =òO^Î ° Qê h=ô Hyd. …Õ
Had you been waiting for one hour at „¬xKÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"Œ?
the station before the train arrived ? Had you been working in Hyd. for six
months before you joined this company?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

7. g°~¡° D town H÷ shift HêH›=òO^ΰ ZO`Ç D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Hê•OQê Hyd …Õ x=‹²‹¬¶ëO_•<Œ~¡° ?
Howlong had you been living in 1. h=ô class H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ half an hour #°Oz
Hyderabdad before you shifted to this teacher lesson teach KÍ‹¶ ¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
town ?
2. D room …ÕxH÷ shift J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
8. Manager =KÍó ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç‹ À „¬\÷ #°O_• 6 <³••°Qê h=ô g° uncle WO\ÕÁ stay
KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ"Œ?
h=ô WH›ø_È wait KÍ‹¬°ë<Œß=ô ?
Howlong had you been waiting here 3. h=ô theatre H÷ "³ˆõ¤‹¬iH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰQê
before the manager came ? "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È queue …Õ x•|_• =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?
9. WH› ø _È Join J†Í ° ¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^Î ° 4. D post …Õ join J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ h=ô
ZO`Ç H ê•OQê h=ô JH› ø _È KÇ ^ Î ° =ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê training ‡ÚO^ΰ`ǶO_•<Œ=ô?
KÇ°O_•<Œ=ô ? 5. g° father retire J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç
Howlong had you been studying there
Hê•OQê h=ô job KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ=ô?
before you joined here ?
6. WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ #°O_•
10. Class H÷ attend J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ g°~¡° JH›ø_È chess P_È°`ǶO_•<Œ~Œ?
ZO`Ç À ‹ „¬ \ ÷ #°Oz h=ô lessons
7. g°~¡° JH›ø_•H÷ KÍ~°¡ Hù<Í ^¥xH÷ ~ï O_È° Q®O@•
KÇ^°Î =ô`Ç°O_•<Œ=ô ? =òO^Î ° #°O_• JH› ø _È =~¡  O
Howlong had you been reading the „¬_°È KǶO_•#^¥?
lessons before you attended the class ?
8. Minister =KÍ ó ^ ¥xH÷ ï ~ O_È ° Q® O @•
11. Final match P_Í^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ g°~¡° Zxß =òO^ΰQê "Œ~¡° U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~Œ?
~ËA•°Qê game practise KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°? 9. KÇx‡é†Í° ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê
Howlong had you been practising the g° grand father business KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _•<Œ~¡°?
game before you played the final match?
10. National team …ÕxH÷ selection ‡ÚO^Í
12. Business start KÍÀ‹^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ J`Ç_È° ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê Sachin cricket
ZO`ÇHê•OQê „¬x <Í~°¡ äó ½› O@¶O_•<Œ_È°? P_È°`ǶO_•<Œ_È°?
Howlong had he been learning work
before he started business?
Z
A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend. 102
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FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS


=°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô ~ï O_È° „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ° XH› „¬x K͆ò Ç @ H›O>è =òO^ΰ, "Í~ùH› „¬x ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’"°³ Ø
HùO`Ç Hê•OQê continuous Qê [~¡°Q®°`Ƕ LO@°Ok. =°#=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ° D ï~O_È° „¬#°•°
"Íö~Þ~¡° =¼ä›½ë•° K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó …èH› XH›ö~ ï~O_È° „¬#°•° K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
J Ì‹•=ô•° ㄬH›\÷OKÍ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ„¬k ~ËA•°Qê =¶ …ÿH›ó~¡~Ÿ• =¶ä›½ special classes
f‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡°.
J <Í#° WO@~¡¶ÞH÷ "³ˆ^Áõ ¥xH÷ "Œ~¡O~ËA• =òO^ΰ #°O_• books refer KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
J Independence Day H÷ ï~O_È° ~ËA• =òO^ΰ#°O_Í, "Í°=ò P celebrations HË‹¬O U~Œæ@°Á
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx ZO`ÇHê•OQê
K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ"³¶ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ =°#=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ° XH› „¬x [~¡°Q®°@ H›O>è =òO^ΰ ㇕~¡Oƒ•’"³°Ø
continuous Qê HùO`Ç Hê•OQê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° "Í~ùH› „¬xx Q®°iOz K³„¬C@䛽
"Will have + been + Verb + 'ing' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'will have + been + 'ing' form' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. „¬ s H› Æ • ° "³ ò ^Î • †Í ° ¼^¥xH÷ J~¡ Q ® O @ 4. Function ‡
ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
=òO^ΰ #°O_• invigilators q^¥¼~¡°Ö• hall #°Oz "Í°=ò function hall decorate
tickets verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì=ò.
The invigilators will have been We will have been decorating the
verifying the student hall-tickets for function hall for one hour before we
half-an hour before they commence the start the function.
examination. 5. "Œ~¡° product #° =¶ï~ø\˜…ÕxH÷ q_È°^Ε
KÍÀ‹^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° <³•• =òO^ΰ #°OKÍ
2. "Œ~¡° programme "³ò^Ε°Ì„>è^
“ ¥xH÷ Q®O@ orders book KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
=òO^ΰ #°O_• ‡•‹¹•° issue KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì~¡°. They will have been booking the
They will have been issuing the orders for two months before they
passes for one hour before they release the product into the market.
commence the programme. 6. ㄬ^Î~¡Å# "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ J~¡Q®O@
3. Promotion =KÍó^¥xH÷ 6 <³•• =òO^ΰQê =òO^ΰ#°OKÍ ãÀ„H›Æ䛽•° ‚¬ð…˜…Õ ä›•~¡°óx
<Í#° training ‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì#°. LO\ì~¡°.
I will have been undergoing training The audience will have been sitting
in the hall for half-an-hour before they
for six months before I get a promotion.
begin the show.

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EXERCISE
7. =¶ father India H÷ uiy =KÍó^¥xH÷ XH›
‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O =òO^Î ° #°O_Í <Í # ° job D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
I will have been doing job for one year
before my father returns to India.
1. „¬sH›•Æ ° "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ <³•
~ËA• #°Oz =¶ lecturers lessons Jhß
8. Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•O^Î~¡¶ „¬sH›Æ ‚¬ð•°…ÕxH÷ revise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
=KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ XH› Q®O@ #°O_Í "Œ~¡°
seating U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. 2. Australia tour "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ 15
They will have been making seating ~ËA• #°Oz Indian Cricket players
arrangements for one hour before the Madras …Õ practise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
candidates come into the exam hall.
3. Admission list ㄬH›\÷OKÍ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
9. Doctor clinic H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ Q®O@
#°O_• patients P†Ç°#HË‹¬O Z^ΰ~¡° ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê "Œ~¡° application forms
KǶ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
The patients will have been waiting 4. Train |†Ç°•°^Í~¡_¨xH÷ Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
for one hour before the doctor comes
#°OKÍ ã„¬†Ç¶}÷䛽•° `Ç=° ‹Ô@Á…Õ ä›•~ùóx
to the clinic.
LO\ì~¡°.
10. Office H÷ |†Ç°•° ^Íö~ ^¥xH÷ XH› Q®O@
=òO^ΰ #°O_Í <Í#° WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ files 5. ö~„¬ô Class H÷ "³ˆõÁ^¥xH÷ XH› Q®O@ =òO^ΰ
verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°. #°O_• <Í#° D exercise KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì#°.
I will have been verifying the files at
home for one hour before I start for
6. ö~„¬ô function "³ò^Ε†Í°¼^¥xH÷ Q®O@
office. =òO^ΰ #°OKÍ guests =‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
11. ö~„¬ô guests =KÍó^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° Q®O@• 7. ~ö „¬ô J`Ç_°È WH›ø_•H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ
=òO^ΰ #°O_• mother items `džǶ~¡° ï~O_È° Q®O@• #°Oz "Í°=ò J`Çx HË‹¬O
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°. Z^ΰ~¡° KǶ‹¬¶ëO\ì=ò.
Mother will have been preparing
items for two hours before the guests 8. ‡é\© Jƒ•’¼~¡°•Ö list announce KÍÀ‹ ^¥xH÷
arrive tomorrow. =òO^ΰ ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê N KÇOã^΃ì|°
12. h=ô ö~„¬ô <Œ room H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ Jƒ•’¼~°¡ •Ö bio-datas verify KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°.
=òO^ΰ #°OKÍ <Í#° lessons KÇ^ΰ=ô
`Ç°O\ì#°.
I will have been reading lessons for
one hour before you come to my room. Z
All that glitters is not gold. 104
11TH DAY - A

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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê
‡ã •~¡Oa•Oz HùO`ÇHê•=ò continuous Qê KÍ‹¶ ¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz, ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J ~ö „¬ô "Í°=ò JH›ø_•H÷ =KÍ‹ó i¬ H÷ g°~¡° XH› Q®O@ =òO^ΰQê U~Œæ@°Á KÍ‹¶¬ Oë \ì~Œ ?
J =°#=ò JH›ø_È䛽 "³ˆõ¤^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° Q®O@•°Qê "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È work KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ ?
J h=ô own business ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÍ ^¥xH÷ 6 <³••° =òO^ΰQê accounts <Í~¡°ó䛽O@°O\ì"Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬x †³òH›ø Hê•=ò
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ÿ…Õ =°#=ò K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô ~ï O_È° „¬#°•…Õ =òO^ΰQê KÍ‹¶¬ Oë _È° XH› „¬xx
ZO`ÇHê•OQê K͆ÇòKÇ°O^ΰ"³¶ ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have + been + Verb + ing form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
Subject I, We, J~ò#„¬C_È° "Shall have"
You, He, She, It, they J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Will have' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° WO\÷H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ Q®O@ Will you have been sitting in the hall
=òO^Î ° #°O_Í h=ô lessons half an hour before the chief guest
KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O\ì"Œ? comes?
Will you have been reading the lessons 4. <Œ\÷ H › ã „ ¬ ^ Î i ÅOKÍ ^¥xH÷ <³ • ~ËA•°
for one hour before I come to your =òO^ΰQê g°~¡° rehearsals KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
house? Will you have been making rehearsals
2. h=ô ö~„¬ô exam hall H÷ "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ Q®O@ for one month before you perform the
=òO^Î ° #°Oz D book refer play?
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì"Œ? 5. Doctor clinic H÷
=KÍó ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ Q®O@
Will you have been refering to this book #°O_• patients P†Ç ° # HË‹¬ O wait
for one hour before you go to the exam KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~Œ?
hall ? Will the patients have been waiting for
3. Chief guest =KÍó ^¥xH÷ J~¡QO
® @ =òO^ΰQê the doctor for one hour before he comes
g°~¡° hall …Õ ä›•~ùóx LO\ì~Œ? to the clinic?

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EXERCISE
6. Test 䛽 appear J†Í°¼^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Hê•OQê h=ô lessons revise KÍ‹°¬ Oë \ì=ô?
Howlong will you have been revising 1. ö ~ „¬ ô h=ô WH› ø _•H÷ =KÍ ó ^ ¥xH÷ Q® O @
the lessons before you appear for the =òO^Î ° Qê WO\÷ ^Î Q ® ¾ ~ ¡ lessons
KÇ^ΰ=ô`ǶO\ì"Œ?
test?

7. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° room H÷ =KÍó^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ 2. =°#=ò ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ JH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ¤õ ^¥xH÷
ï ~ O_È ° Q® O @•° =òO^Î ° Qê "Œ~¡ ° test
ZO`Ç À ‹ „¬ ô Qê g°~¡ ° matter discuss ã"Œ‹¬¶ëO\ì~Œ?
KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
Howlong will you have been 3. h=ô |†Ç ° @ä› ½ "³ ˆ õ ¤ ^¥xH÷ J~¡ Q ® O @
discussing the matter before I come
=òO^ΰQê ready J=ô`Ç°O\ì"Œ?
to your room tomorrow?
4. J`Ç_È° Delhi "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ ï~O_È° <³••°
8. =°#=ò "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`ÇÀ‹„¬\÷ =òO^ΰQê Hindi <Í~¡°ó䛽O@¶O\ì_¨?
#°O_• "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
5. Function "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ Q®O@
Howlong will they have been working
=òO^ΰQê<Í guests =‹¬¶ëO\ì~Œ?
before we go there?

9. Train =KÍ^
ó ¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`Ç‹
À „¬\÷ #°O_• 6. „¬sH›•Æ ° "³ò^Ε° J†Í°¼ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ Zxß
~ËA•°Qê g° lecturers lessons revise
clerk tickets issue KÍ ‹ ¬ ° ë O \ì_È ° ? KÍ‹¬¶ëO\ì~¡°?
Howlong will the clerk have been

issuing the tickets before the train 7. Promotion ‡ÚO^Í ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç Hê•O
=òO^ΰQê h=ô tH›Æ} ‡ÚO^ΰ`Ç°O\ì=ô?
arrives?

10. =°#=ò "³ˆõ¤ ^¥xH÷ =òO^ΰ ZO`ÇÀ‹„¬\÷ 8. |‹¬ ° • |†Ç ° •°^Í ö ~ ^¥xH÷ ZO`Ç À ‹ „¬ ô
=òO^ΰQê "Œ~¡° tickets W‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
#°Oz "Œ~¡° JH›ø_È U~Œæ@° KÍ‹¬°ëO\ì~¡°?
Howlong will you have been making

arrangements before the go there? Z


Concentration is the essence of all knowledge. 106
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ =òO^ΰQê "Had + been + Verb
+ 'ing' form" J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D structure #° grammar …Õ Past
Perfect Continuous Tense JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò 1) Positive Form 2) Question Form
J#° ï~O_È° pasrts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D ï~O_È° parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥O.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`ÇHê•=ò =~¡ä›½ continuous Qê KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx ZO`ÇHê•OQê
K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had + been + Verb + ' ing ' form " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I had been suffering form a head-ache for two hours before I went to sleep
last night.
2. They had been revising the lessons for ten days fefore they appeared for
the exam.
2. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`ÇHê•=ò =~¡ä›½ continuous Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ZO`ÇHê•OQê K͆ÇòKÇ°#ßn ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Had+ been + Verb +
'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Had you been staying in your uncle's house for two months before you
shifted to this room ?
2. Had she been typing the letters for two hours before you went there ?
D~ËA =°#=ò "Will have + been + Verb + 'ing' form " J#° structure Q®°iOz
䛕_¨ <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D structure #° grammar …Õ Future Perfect Continuous Tense
JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ Positive Form =°i†Çò Question Form J#° ï~O_È° parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D ï~O_È° parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥O.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬x [~¡°Q®°@H›O>è =òO^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’"°³ Ø continuous Qê HùO`ÇHê•OQê
KÍ‹¬¶ëO_È° "Í~ùH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will have + been + Verb +
'ing'form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I will have been taking rest for one hour before you come to my house.
2. She will have been preparing for the test for two months before she appears
for it.
2. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬x [~¡°Q®°@ H›O>è =òO^ΰ ‡ã •~¡Oƒ•’"°³ Ø continuous Qê HùO`Ç
Hê•OQê KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _È ° "Í ~ ùH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½
"Will have + been + verb + 'ing' form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Will you have been waiting for me for one hour before I come there ?
2. Will they have been getting ready for two hours before they go out ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

201. deceive deceived deceived "³¶‹¬=òK͆Çò@


202. decide decided decided x‰×ó~òOKÇ°@
203. declare declared declared ㄬH›\÷OKÇ°@
204. decline declined declined H©Æ}÷OKÇ°@
205. decoreate decoreted decoreted J•OH›iOKÇ°@
206. decrease decreased decreased `Çy¾OKÇ°@
207. dedicate dedicated dedicated JOH÷`Ç=òK͆Çò@
208. defend defended defended ~¡H÷ÆOKÇ°@
209. deliver delivered delivered JOkOKÇ°@
210. demolish demolished demolished <Œ‰×#=òK͆Çò
211. denote denoted denoted ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
212. deny denied denied Hê^Î#°@
213. depart departed departed |†Ç°•°^Í~¡°@
214. depend depended depended P^•¥~¡„_¬ °È @
215. derive derived derived =ü•=ò#°O_• Qã ‚® ì² OKÇ°
216. describe described described q=iOKÇ°@
217. deserve deserved deserved `Çy†ÇòO_È°@
218. determine determined determined x~¡â~òOKÇ°@
219. develop developed developed Ja•=$kœK† Í òÇ @
220. diagnize diagnized diagnized "Œ¼k•x Q®°iëOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡°
H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 2 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß
"ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
108 Ambition and love are the wings of great actions.
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USED TO
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J…"Œ@°Qê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P J•"Œ@° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO…è^ΰ. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê K͆Çò@…è^ΰ. XH›„¬C_È°
ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.
J <Í#° z#ß„¬C_È° KŒ…ì ƒìQê KÇk"Í"Œ_•x.
J "Í°=ò =¶ ‹¬¶ø•° ~ËA•…Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê P@•° P_Í "Œˆ×¤=ò.
J P"³° J„¬C_È° guests #° ƒìQê treat KÍ‹¬°ëO_Ík.
J "Œ~¡° XH›ø„¬C_È° XH› z#ß Ti…Õ x=tOKÍ"Œ~¡°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J…"Œ@°Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_³_• „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ =°# z#ß `Ç#O…Õ, Hê…èl ~ËA•…Õ =°iOïH„¬C_³<á Œ Q®`OÇ …Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH›
J•"Œ@°Q®ê, „¬^„Í ^¬ Í KÍ‹°¬ Oë _³_• XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Used to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†Ç³¶ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : 'Used to' J#°#k XH› Anomalous Verb. Wk Past Tense …Õ =¶ã`Ç"Í°
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°. Present Tense, Future Tense •…Õ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
"ŒH›¼=ò…Õ Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'used to' =KÇ°ó#°. 'Used to' `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç
verb Z•Á„¬C_È° I form …Õ LO_È=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° <Œ Hê…èl ~ËA•…Õ ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …ÿáã|s 6. N=°u ƒ•ì#°=°u XH› „ ¬ C _È ° `Ç q °ˆ×
H÷ "³•°ëO_Í"Œ_•x. ‹²x=¶•…Õ ä›•_¨ #\÷‹¬°ëO_Ík.
I used to go to library regularly during Smt. Bhanumathi used to act in Tamil
my college days. movies also once.
2. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì hard work 7. N Z<£ . \÷ . P~Ÿ . =°Oz ã H › = °tH› Æ }
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò. ‡•\÷‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ~¡°.
We used to work hard then. Sri N.T.R. used to maintain good
discipline.
3. =¶ brother 90's …Õ Delhi …Õ Bank
8. N=°u WOkQêOn• Z䛽ø=Qê English
Manager Qê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
My brother used to work as a Bank
=¶\ìÁ_Í"Œ~¡°.
Smt. Indira Gandhi used to speak
Manager in Delhi during 90' s.
English mostly.
4. Mrs. Madhavi =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hindi teach 9. P ~ËA•…Õ ‹¬°h…˜ Q®"Œ‹¬ø~Ÿ =°# ãH÷ïH\˜
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Ík. \©"£°#° lead KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
Mrs. Madhavi used to teach us Hindi Sunil Gavaskar used to lead our
then. Cricket team in those days.
5. "Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì z#ß WO\ÕÁ 10. N „².q. #~¡tO‚¬ð~Œ=ô N=°u WOk~Œ
x=t‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°. QêOn•H÷ ~Œ[H©†¶
Ç •…Õ ‹¬•‚¬ð•° W‹¬°Oë _Í
They used to live in a small house "Œ~¡°.
once. Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao used to advise
Smt. Indira Gandhi in politics once.
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11. <Í#° XH›„¬C_È° KŒ…ì heavy Qê smoke EXERCISE


KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•x.
I used to smoke heavily once. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° =¶ lecturers H÷ ƒìQê
respect WKÍó "Œˆ×¤O. 1. <Í#° KÇ^°Î =ô䛽<Í ~ËA•…Õ early morning
We used to respect our lecturers then. xã^…Î ‹
è °¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•x.
13. =¶ father <Œä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ u <³ • 2. "Í°=ò „ ã u ¬ ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ Hã Hï÷ \˜ practise
~¡¶. 2000/Ð „¬O„¬ôKÇ°O_Í"Œ~¡°. KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.
My father used to send me Rs. 2000 3. =¶ Head-master J„¬C_È° =°=òà•#°
every month then. KŒ…ì severe Q®ê tH÷Æ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
14. H›„²…˜^Í"£ XH›„¬C_È° ㄬu =¶¼KŸ…Õ ^¥^¥„¬ô 4. =¶ father <Œä›½ z#ß„¬C_È° grammar
5 qïH\˜• f‹¬°ä›½<Í"Œ_È°. teach KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
Kapil Dev used to take five wickets 5. =¶ father XH›„¬C_È° ~ËAH÷ 15 Q®O@•°
almost in every match once.
work KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
15. "Í°=ò z#ß„¬C_È° ‹¬OãHêOu „¬O_È°Q® KŒ…ì 6. "Í°=ò ‹¬¶ø…˜…Õ English =¶\ìÁ_Ȱ䛽<Í
grand Qê [~¡°„¬ô䛽<Í "Œ~¡=ò.
"Œ~¡=ò.
We used to celebrate Sankranti
festival very grand in our childhood 7. =¶ lecturers =¶ä›½ KŒ…ì ƒìQê lessons
days. explain KÍ‹² K³À„æ"Œ~¡°.

16. XH› „ ¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ [ •° x*ì~òf Q® • 8. „¬ O _•\˜ <³ ã ‚ ¬ ú `Ç # buttonhole …Õ


<Œ†Ç°ä›½•#° Z#°ßHù<Í"Œ~¡°. Z•Á„¬C_È° Q®°…ìa Ì„@°“䛽<Í"Œ~¡°.
People used to elect honest leaders 9. =¶ grand mother Z•Á„C¬ _ȶ ƒ•’Q= ® n¾`Ç
once. KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O_Ík.
17. =¶ Hê…èl ~ËA•…Õ "Í°=ò À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°•`Ë 10. "Í°=ò z#ß„C¬ _È° „ ã u¬ ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O "Í‹q ¬
KŒ…ì ƒìQê enjoy KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò. Ì ‹ •=ô•° =¶ Ti…Õ Q® _ È ° „¬ ô `Ç ° O_Í
We used to enjoy ourselves with our "Œ~¡=ò.
friends in our college days. 11. <Í#° school classes …Õ Hindi …Õ =°Oz
18. <Í#° ‹¬¶ø•° ~ËA•…Õ ã„¬u ‡é\©…Õ KŒ…ì =¶~¡°ø•° score KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•x.
P‹¬HHë÷ ~› O¡ Qê ‡•…ç¾<"Í Œ_•x. 12. "Í ° =ò students Qê L#ß „ ¬ C _È ° ANR
I used to participate in every movies Z䛽ø=Qê KǶ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡=ò.
competition very interestingly in my
school days. 13. <Í#° J„¬C_È° ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O =¶ father `Ë
discuss KÍ‹ À "Œ_•x.
19. J`Ç _ È ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° XH› z#ß ‘•„¬ ô …Õ
salesman Qê „¬xKÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°. 14. =¶ brother XH›„¬C_È° K³_ÈÛ"Œi`Ë À‹ß‚¬ìO
He used to work as a salesman in a KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
small shop once. 15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° ㄬu „¬O_È°Q® KŒ…ì ƒìQê
20. =¶ À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°_È° P#O^£ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì celebrate KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°.
Z䛽ø=Qê money Y~¡°ó KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°.
My friend Anand used to spend money
lavishly then.
Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx „¬#°•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. J#Qê Q®`ÇO…Õ =°#䛽 J•"Œ@° …èH› K͆ǰx„¬#°•°.
J <Í#° J‹¬••° HêÁ‹°¬ •° miss J†Í°¼"Œ_•xHê^ΰ.
J P"³° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° Z=Þi`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_Ík Hê^ΰ.
J "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÍ"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
J "Í°=ò Hê…èl…Õ J‹¬•° games P_Í"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° XH› ~ ¡ ° Q® ` Ç O …Õ ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê …è H › J•"Œ@°Qê KÍ ‹ ¬ ¶ ë O _È x „¬ # °•#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ J•"Œ@°…èHQ› êx, W+¬O“ …èHQ› êx ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Did not + use to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ' did not + use to + I form' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° hard work KÍ‹À "Œ_•ß 6. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° time waste
Hê^ΰ. KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
I did not use to work hard then. We did not use to waste time at all
2. "Í°=ò school days …Õ guides follow then.
J†Í°"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ. 7. N=°u WOk~ŒQêOn• J‹¬•° Z=ih care
We didnot use to follow guides in our KÍÀ‹k Hê^ΰ.
Smt. Indira Gandhi did not use to care
school days.
anyone.
3. P ~ËA•…Õ L^˼Q®°•° •OKÇO f‹¬°ä›½<Í 8. <Í#° XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° friends `Ë move
"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ. J†Í°¼"Œ_•x Hê^ΰ.
Employees did not use to take bribe I did not use to move with friends
in those days. once.
4. P "³ ° J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° Z=i`Ë#° 9. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° studies neglect KÍ
=¶\ìÁ_Ík Hê^ΰ. À‹"Œˆ×¤O Hê^ΰ.
She did not use to talk to anybody We did not use to neglect our studies
then. then.
5. "Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° W`Ç ~ ¡ ° •Ì „ á 10. =¶ brother z#ß „ ¬ C _È ° Z=i=¶\ì
P^•¥~¡„_
¬ "Í Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ. q<Í"Œ_È° Hê^ΰ.
They did not use to depend on others My brother did not use to listen to any
once. body's words in his boyhood days.

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11. <Í#° J„¬C_È° Z=i q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O EXERCISE


KÍ‹°¬ 䛽<Í"Œ_•x Hê^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
I did not use to interefere in others
matter then.
12. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° Hê…è l …Õ language 1. <Í#° XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° films KǶ‹À "Œ_•x
classes H÷ attend J†Í°"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ. Hê^ΰ.
We did not use to attend language 2. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° D festival celebrate
classes in the college then. KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
13. P"³° J„¬C_È° W`Ç~¡°•`Ë H›eÀ‹k Hê^ΰ. 3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° ‹¬iQê duty H÷ attend
She did not use to mingle with others J†Í°"Œ_È°Hê^ΰ.
then. 4. P"³° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° WO\÷…Õ #°O_•
14. =¶ English lecturer J‹¬ • ° `³ • °Q® ° |†Ç°@䛽 =KÍókHê^ΰ.
=¶\ìÁ_Í"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ. 5. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° income tax pay
Our English lecturer did not use to KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ.
speak Telugu at all. 6. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° private schools H÷
15. J`Ç_°È J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° _È|°Ä Y~¡°ó „
Ì >è"
“ Œ_È° "³ˆõ¤"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
Hê^ΰ. 7. =¶ lecturers J„¬C_È° =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° notes
He did not use to spend money at all
dictate KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ.
then.
16. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° business …Õ
8. XH›„¬C_È° =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ players ‹¬iQê
accounts maintain KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
P_Í"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
We did not use to maintain accounts
9. <Í # ° J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° #=••° KÇ k "Í
in business then. "Œ_•ßHê^ΰ.
17. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° taxes pay 10. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° Hê…è l …Õ Ì ‹ q°<Œ~Ÿ … Õ
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ. ‡•…ç¾<"Í Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
We did not use to pay taxes then. 11. P Hê…èl…Õ J„¬C_È° donations =‹¬¶•°
18. XH›„¬C_È° †Çò=䛽•° K³_È° J•"Œ@°Á KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
J•=~¡Kǰ䛽<Í "Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ. 12. =¶ brother J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° money save
Young men didnot use to cultivate KÍÀ‹"Œ_È° Hê^ΰ.
bad habits once. 13. "Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° rules follow J†Í °
19. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° „¬sH›•Æ …Õ copy KÍ‹
À "Œ~¡=ò "Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ.
Hê^ΰ. 14. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° ‹¬iQê food
We did not use to copy in our exams f‹¬°ä›½<Í"Œ_È°Hê^ΰ .
then. 15. "Œ~¡° =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° salary ‹¬iQê pay
20. "Í ° =ò J„¬ C _È ° essays H› O ~” ¡ ‹ ¬ ë O
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° Hê^ΰ.
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡=ò Hê^ΰ.
We did not use to byheart the essays
then. Z
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QUESTION FORM
Q®`ÇO…Õ XH›~¡° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQ®ê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆Çò „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz W`Ç~¡°•#°
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° XH›„¬C_È° D Ti…Õ x=tOKÍ"Œ~Œ?
J g° father J„¬C_È° L.I.C …Õ „¬x KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ?
J "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡=ò KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ~Œ ?
J P"³° g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° English teach KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~°¡ Q®`OÇ …Õ ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê K͆ò
Ç „¬#°•#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°
@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›„C¬ _È° ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê XH›~°¡ KÍ‹°¬ Oë _³_• XH› „¬xx „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Did + use to + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##° "Did + use + I form" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° ï ~ Q® ° ¼•~Ÿ Q ê grammar 5. "Œ~¡° WO`Çä½› =òO^ΰ H›ƒ
Á …˜ Õ ª•O‹¬ø$uH›
<Í~¡°ó䛽O@°O_Í"Œ~Œ? Hê~¡¼ãH›=°=ò•° x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?
Did you use to learn grammar Did they use to conduct the cultural
regularly then ? programmes in the club then ?
2. g°~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° Hyderabad …Õ 6. h=ô J„¬C_È° private college …Õ „¬x
x=t‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ? KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•"Œ ?
Did you use to live in Hyderabad Did you use to work in a private
once? college then ?
7. g°~¡° XH›„¬C_È° book shop #_È°„¬ô`Ç°O_Í
3. H›=°•‚¬ð‹¬<£ J„¬C_È° Hindi films …Õ act "Œ~Œ ?
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_¨ ? Did you use to run a book shop once?
Did Kamala Hasan use to act in Hindi 8. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° ã „ ¬ u L^Î † Ç ° O ¢ Q ÒO_£ … Õ
films then ? exercise KÍ‹°¬ O
ë _Í"Œ_•"Œ ?
4. P"³° J„¬C_È° „¬ãuH›•ä›½ H›^ŠÎ•° Did you use to take exercises in the
„¬O„¬ô`Ç°O_Í^¥ ? ground every morning then ?
Did she use to send stories to the 10. h=ô J„¬C_È° ãH÷ïH\˜ ƒìQê P_È°KÇ°O_Í
magazines then ? "Œ_•"Œ?
Did you use to play cricket well then ?

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10. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° Z䛽ø=Qê Mathematics Ì„á EXERCISE


ã‰×^Îœ KǶ„¬ô`Ç°O_Í"Œ~Œ?
Did you use to concentrate on
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Mathematics then ?
11. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° leisure hours Z…ì 1. h=ô z#ß„¬C_È° P@•° ƒìQê P_È°`Ç°O_Í
Q®_°È „¬ô`Ç°O_Í "Œ_•q ? "Œ_•"Œ ?
How did you use to spend your 2. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê frieds x meet
leisure hours then ?
J†Í°¼"Œ~Œ ?
12. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° ZH›ø_È x=tOKÍ"Œ~¡° ?
Where did you use to live then ? 3. g° father J„¬ C _È ° hä› ½ ‹¬ • ‚¬ ð •°
13. g° father J„¬C_È° Uq° KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ? W‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?
What did your father use to do then ? 4. P"³° WO`Ç䛽 =°òO^ΰ English poems
14. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° ~ËAH÷ Zxß Q®O@•° =~Ÿø compose KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° ?
Howmay hours did you use to work
5. "Œ~¡ ° XH› „ ¬ C _È ° quiz programmes
in a day then ? x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~Œ ?
15. h=ô J„¬C_È° <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç ‹¬O‡•kOKÍ 6. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° g° uncle WO\ÕÁ
"Œ_•q ? LO@°O_Í"Œ_•"Œ ?
Howmuch money did you use to earn
7. g° aunt J„¬ C _È ° dance school
in a month then ?
16. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° Zä› ½ ø=Qê U subject
x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëO_Í^¥ ?
KÇk"Í"Œ~¡° ? 8. g°~¡° WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ Uq°KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡°?
Which subject did you use to study 9. P"³° J„¬C_È° „²•Á•#°Z…ì ‘é+²‹¬°ëO_Ík ?
mostly then ?
17. Mr. Ramana g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° U subject
10. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ P WO\÷H÷ ZO`Ç
teach KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
J^³í K³eÁO‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
Which subject did Mr. Ramana use 11. g° brother J„¬C_È° <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç salary
to teach you then ? draw KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È° ?
18. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° q°=òà•#° sports …Õ 12. 90's …Õ =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ \©"£°#° Z=~¡° lead
Z…ì ‡ã é`Ç•‚²ì‹¬°Oë _Í"Œ_È° ? KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ~¡° ?
How did he use to encourage you in
the sports then ? 13. D ‡Ú•O…Õ g°~¡° WO`Ç䛽 =òO^ΰ U
19. J„¬C_È° g° "Œ¼‡•~¡O Z=~¡° „¬O@ „¬O_•OKÍ"Œ~¡° ?
KǶ‹¬°ä›½O@°O_Í"Œ~¡° ? 14. h=ô J„¬C_È° English Grammar 䛽
Who used to lookafter your business Z䛽ø=Qê U book refer KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Í"Œ_•q?
then ?
20. h=ô J„¬C_È° Z=i`Ë Z䛽ø=Qê close Qê 15. h=ô student Qê L#ß„¬C_È° g° father h䛽
move J=ô`Ç°O_Í"Œ_•q ? <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç money „¬O„¬ô`Ç°O_Í"Œ~¡° ?
With whom did you use to move very
close then ? Z
Pride goes before a fall. 114
12 DAY

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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õ J•"Œ@° …èH› ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê
KÍ‹¬°ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° films KǶ‹À "Œ_•q Hê^¥ ?
J g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D festival celebrate KÍ‹¬°ä›½<Í"Œ~¡° Hê^¥ ?
J h=ô J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° #=••° KÇk"Í"Œ_•q Hê^¥?
J "Œ~¡° g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° salary ‹¬iQê pay KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡° Hê^¥ ?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õ ï~Q®°¼•~Ÿ Qê KÍ‹¬¶ëO_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ J•"Œ@° …èH,› W+¬O“ …èH› ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Didn't + use to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Didn't + use to' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô school days …Õ J‹¬ • ° games 7. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° classes miss J†Í°¼"Œ~¡°
P_Í"Œ_•qHê^¥? Hê^¥?
Didn't you use to play games in your Didn't you use to miss the classes
school days? then?
2. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° answers by heart KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°
Hê^¥? 8. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° studies Ì„á concentrate
Didn't you use to byheart the answers KÍÀ‹"Œ_È°Hê^¥?
then ? Didn't he use to concentrate on studies
3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° ‹¬iQê „¬xKÍÀ‹"Œ_È°Hê^¥? then ?
Didn't he use to work properly then ? 9. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° regular Qê taxes pay
4. P"³° J„¬C_È° Z=i`Ë#¶ =¶\ìÁ_ÍkHê^¥? KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^¥?
Didn't she use to talk to anyone then?
Didn't they use to pay taxes regularly
5. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° D „¬ O _È ° Q® celebrate
then ?
KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^¥?
Didn't they use to celebrate this festival 10. h=ô J„¬ C _È ° college H÷ regular Qê
then ? "³ˆ"¤õ Œ_•qHê^¥?
6. h=ô J„¬C_È° movies KǶ‹À "Œ_•qHê^¥? Didn't you use to go to college regularly
Didn't you use to see movies then ? then?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° language classes H÷ D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
ZO^ΰ䛽 attend J†Í°¼"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ?
Why didn't you use to attend language
1. h=ô J„¬C_È° answers byheart KÍ‹À "Œ_•q
classes then?
Hê^¥ ?
12. h=ô J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 guides follow J†Í°¼
"Œ_•qHê^ΰ? 2. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D game P_Í"Œ~¡°Hê^¥?
Why didn't you use to follow guides 3. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° law practise KÍ‹¬°ëO_Í"Œ_È°
then? Hê^¥ ?
13. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 g° =¶@ q<Í"Œ_È°
Hê^ΰ? 4. P"³° J„¬C_È° gold ornaments ^•ÎiOKÍk
Why didn't he use to listen to your
Hê^¥ ?
words then? 5. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ ƒ•ìs „ Ì @°“|_È°•°
14. P"³° J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 ZH›ø_•H© "³ˆ¤k
õ Hê^ΰ? Ì„>è“ "Œ~¡°Hê^¥?
Why didn't she use to go anywhere 6. h=ô J„¬C_È° Z=iÌ„<á Œ P^•¥~¡„_ ¬ Í "Œ_•q
then? Hê^¥ ?
15. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ „¬ O _È ° Q® • ° 7. g°~¡° J„¬C_È° taxies …Õ „ ã †
¬ ¶Ç }O KÍ‹À "Œ~¡°
[iÀ„"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ? Hê^¥ ?
Why didn't they use to celebrate
festivals then? 8. P†Ç°# J„¬C_È° U q+¬†°Ç =ü „¬\O“÷ Kǰ䛽<Í
16. h=ô college ~ËA•…Õ seminors …Õ "Œ_È°Hê^¥ ?
ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾<"Í Œ_•qHê^ΰ? 9. P"³° XH›„¬C_È° modern dresses ^•ÎiOKÍk
Why didn't you use to participate in Hê^¥ ?
the seminors in your college days?
17. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ regular Qê 10. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° non-veg. f‹¬°ä›½<Í "Œ~¡°
accounts maintain KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ?
Hê^¥ ?
Why didn't you use to maintain 11. h=ô J„¬C_È° ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê college H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽
accounts regularly then? "³ˆ"¤õ Œ_•qHê^ΰ ?
18. P"³° J„¬C_È° =°# WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_Ík 12. g°~¡ ° J„¬ C _È ° traffic rules ZO^Î ° ä› ½
Hê^ΰ? ‡•\÷OKÍ"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ ?
Why didn't she use to stay in our house
then?
13. P"³° J„¬C_È° g° WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_Ík
19. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 loans f‹¬°ä›½<Í Hê^ΰ ?
"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ? 14. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° life #° ZO^ΰ䛽 enjoy
Why didn't they use to take loans then? KÍÀ‹"Œ~¡°Hê^ΰ ?
20. h=ô XH›„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 money save 15. h=ô z#ß`Ç#O…Õ g° father =¶@ ZO^ΰ䛽
KÍ‹À "Œ_•qHê^ΰ? q<Í"Œ_•qHê^ΰ ?
Why didn't you use to save money
once ?
Z
Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached. 116
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ "Used to + I form of the Verb"
J#° structure Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. nxx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`OÇ …Õ HùO`ÇHê•O ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê …èH› J•"Œ@°Qê „¬^„
Í ^
¬ Í KÍ‹¶
¬ Oë _•# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Used to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I used to write letters to the foreigners then.
2. We used to help one another in our college days.
3. She used to teach us Hindi in our school days.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õ HùO`ÇHê•OQê ï~Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêx, J•"Œ@°…èH› Qêx =°#=ò K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Didnot + use to + I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I did not use to go to library in my school days.
2. We did not use to miss the classes then.
3. He did not use to work hard once.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`OÇ …Õ HùO`ÇHê•=ò ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê Qêh, J•"Œ@°Qê Qêh KÍ‹°¬ Oë _³_• XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#° ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Did + use to + I form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Did you use to play games in your school days?
2. Did he use to stay with you in those days?
3. Did they use to celebrate every festival grandly then ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Q®`OÇ …Õx HùO`Ç Hê•O J•"Œ@° …èH› ~ï Q®°¼•~ŸQê KÍ‹°¬ Oë _Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Didn't+use to + I form of Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Didn't you use to attend the classes regularly at school ?
2. Didn't he use to pay rent regularly then ?
3. Didn't they use to maintain the accounts regularly once ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

221. dictate dictated dictated K³„²æ ã"Œ~òOKÇ°@


222. die died died KÇx‡é=ô@
223. differ differed differed "Í~°¡ Ja•ã‡•†Ç°=ò
H›ey†ÇòO_È°@
224. digest digest digest r~¡â=òK͆Çò@
225. dilute dilute dilute h~¡°H›e„² „¬•°KÇ#K͆Çò
226. diminish diminished diminished `Çy¾OKÇ°@
227. dine dined dined ƒ•Õ[#=òK͆òÇ @
227. dip dipped dipped =ò#°Q®°@
228. direct directed directed ^¥iKǶ„¬ô@
229. discover discovered discovered H›#°Qù#°@
230. dismiss dismissed dismissed `ù•yOKÇ°@
231. diosperse dispersed dispersed K³ki‡é=ô@
232. dispute disputed disputed `ÇQ®°=ô…ì_È°@
233. distribute disributed disributed „¬OzÌ„@°“@
234. disturb disturbed disturbed P@OH›„¬~¡KÇ°@
235. divert diverted diverted =°eÁOKÇ°@
236. divide divided divided „¬OzÌ„@°“@
237. dominate dominated dominated Jk•Hê~¡=ò
KÍ…ì~òOKÇ°
238. drag dragged dragged D_È°ó@, …ìQ®°@
239. drown drowned drowned h\÷…Õ =òxy‡é=ô@
240. ebb ebbed ebbed WOH÷‡é=ô@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
118 A little learning is a dangerous thing.
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POSSESSIONS -PRESENT
=°#=ò H›ey†Çò#ß "Œ\÷x Possessives JO^ΰ~¡°.
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O …è^¥ "Íï~=ï~á<Œ H›ey†Çò#ß "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Œä›½ D ~ËA urgent work =ô#ßk. J =¶ä›½ D <³•…Õ public exams =ô#ßq.
J J`ÇxH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°Oz income =ô#ßk. J P"³°ä›½ XH› gold necklace =ô#ßk.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#O …è^¥ "Íï~=ï~á<Œ H›ey†Çò#ß "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'have' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
He, She, It - Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'has' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä›½ D ~ËA WO@~¡¶Þ¼ L#ßk. 6. <Œä›½ W^Îí~¡° sisters L<Œß~¡°.
I have an interview today. I have two sisters.

2. =¶ä›½ D "Œ~¡O English test =ô#ßk. 7. =¶ä›½ WO\ÕÁ Jxß facilities =ô<Œß~ò.
We have English test this week. We have all facilities in our house.

3. =¶ brother 䛽 government Job =ô#ßk. 8. Sachin Tendulkar 䛽 batting …Õ =°Oz
My brother has a govt. Job. skill =ô#ßk.

4. =¶ sister 䛽 college …Õ =°Oz friends Sachin Tendulkar has good skill in

L<Œß~¡°. batting.

My sister has good friends in the 9. =¶ cousin H÷ =°Oz knowledge =ô#ßk.


college. My cousin has good knowledge.

5. "ŒiH÷ D town …Õ =°Oz „¬•°ä›½|_• 10. "ŒiH÷ D town …Õ =°Oz property


=ô#ßk. =ô#ßk.
They have good influence in this town. They have good property in this town.

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11. =¶ uncle H÷ teaching …Õ =°Oz EXERCISE


experience =ô#ßk. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
My uncle has good experience in
teaching.

12. =¶ä›½ D "Œ~¡O office …Õ inspection


1. <Œä›½ W„¬C_È° English class =ô#ßk.
=ô#ßk. 2. =¶ä›½ Hê…èl…Õ Ì„^Îí …ÿáã|s =ô#ßk.
We have inspection in our office this
week.
3. J`ÇxH÷ driving licence =ô#ßk.
4. P"³°ä›½ =°Oz qualifications =ô#ßq.
13. =¶ä›½ D work …Õ KŒ…ì risk =ô#ßk.
We have much risk in this work. 5. "ŒiH÷ Ti…Õ lands =ô#ßq.
14. "ŒiH÷ D ~ËA town …Õ meeting =ô#ßk. 6. Jq°`Œƒ˜|KÇó<£ä›½ =°Oz Ja•=¶#°•°
They have a meeting in the town today. =ô<Œß~¡°.
15. <Œä›½ D ~ËA 1020 temperature =ô#ßk. 7. =¶ä› ½ D town …Õ KŒ…ì =°Ok
I have a temperature of 1020 today. |O^•Î°=ô•° =ô<Œß~°¡ .

16. =¶ä›½ D <³•…Õ public „¬sH›Æ•° =ô#ßq. 8. =¶ Hê•h…Õ ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O =¶ä› ½ water

We have public examinations this problem =ô#ßk.

month. 9. "ŒiH÷ W„¬C_È° Ì‹•=ô•° =ô<Œß~ò.


17. =¶ brother H÷ =°Oz income =ô#ßk. 10. HêOãQï ‹¹H÷ ‡•~¡"
Á °³ O@°…Õ =°Oz "³°*ìi\©
My brother has good income. =ô#ßk.
18. P"³°ä›½ WO\ÕÁ =°Oz ‡ã é`Œ•‚¬ì=ò =ô#ßk. 11. W„¬C_È° <Œ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ~¡¶. 2000 =ô#ßq.
She has good encouragement in her
house.
12. =¶ WO\ÕÁ =¶ä›½ internet facility =ô#ßk.
13. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ Oxford Dictionary =ô#ßk.
19. <Œä›½ D ~ËA P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ heavy work
=ô#ßk. 14. <Œä›½ D~ËA „¬îië rest =ô#ßk.
I have heavy work in the office today.
15. "ŒiH÷ WO\ÕÁ KŒ…ì=°Ok servants
20. =¶ä›½ D ª•i KŒ…ì opportunities =ô<Œß~¡°.
=ô<Œß~ò.
We have many opportunities this time.
Z
What cannot be cured must be endured. 120
PRESENT - NEGATIVE FORM

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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° principles LO_È=ô. J =¶ä›½ D "Œ~¡O school …Õ tests …è=ô.
J =¶ brother H÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO U income …è^ΰ. J P"³°ä›½ J‹¬•° friends …è~¡°.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# D ~ËA, D "Œ~¡O, D <³•, D
‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Donot / Does not + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "do not have"
He, She, It –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "does not have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä›½ D ~ËA office …Õ work …è^ΰ. 7. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ W„¬C_È° _È|°Ä …è^ΰ.
I don't have work in the office today. I don't have money with me now.

2. =¶ä›½ D ~ËA English class …è^ΰ. 8. =¶ TiH÷ bus facility …è^ΰ.


We don't have English class today. We don't have bus facility to our village.

3. h䛽 J‹¬•° commonsense …è^ΰ. 9. =¶ brother H÷ driving licence …è^ΰ.


You don't have common sense at all. My brother doesn't have the driving
licence.
4. J`ÇxH÷ D ~ËA duty …è^ΰ.
He doesn't have duty today. 10. =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° property …è^ΰ.
We don't have property at all.
5. P"³°ä›½ WH›ø_È J‹¬•° friends …è~¡°.
She doesn't have friends here at all. 11. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° ‹¬=°‹¬¼•° LO_È=ô.
They don't have problems at all.
6. "ŒiH÷ „²•Á•° …è~¡°.
They don't have children.

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12. <Œä›½ J‹¬•° leisure LO_È^ΰ. EXERCISE


I don't have leisure at all. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
13. =¶ä›½ Hê…èl…Õ J‹¬•° …ÿáã|s …è^ΰ.
We don't have library in our college. 1. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ text books …è=ô.
2. =¶ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O inspection …è^ΰ.
14. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° L^˼Q® J=Hê‰×=ò•° …è=ô.
He doesn't have job opportunities at 3. g°ä›½ D ~ËA meeting …è^ΰ.
all.
4. =¶ brother H÷ govt. job …è^ΰ.
15. P"³°ä›½ J‹¬•° WO\ÕÁ ‹
À ÞKÇ•ó …è^°Î . 5. P"³°H÷ WO\ÕÁ J‹¬•° encouragement …è^°Î .
She doesn't have freedom in her
house at all. 6. "ŒiH÷ own house …è^ΰ.
7. <Œä›½ J‹¬•° job …Õ risk …è^ΰ.
16. J`ÇxH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO J‹¬•° U P^¥†Ç°O …è^ΰ.
He doesn't have any income at 8. =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° transfer LO_È^ΰ.
present.
9. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° common sense …è^ΰ.
17. KŒ…ì =°Ok ƒ•ì~¡ f †Ç ò •ä› ½ WOHê
10. P"³°ä›½ J‹¬•° English …Õ knowledge
u<ÍO^ΰ䛽 uO_•…è^°Î .
…è^ΰ.
Many Indians still don't have food to
eat. 11. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° H›$`Ç[ý`Ç …è^ΰ.

18. "ŒiH÷ LO_ÍO^ΰ䛽 Wˆ×ä…è=ô. 12. <Œä›½ J‹¬•° business …Õ profit …è^ΰ.
They don't have houses to live in.
13. =¶ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O bonus …è^ΰ.
19. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =¶ä›½ Ì‹•=ô•° …è=ô. 14. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ QêOn•H÷ J‹¬•° ~Œ[H©†Ç°OQê
We don't have holidays at present. experience …è^ΰ.

20. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° business …Õ experience


15. =¶ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO WH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼…è^ΰ.
…è^ΰ.
He doesn't have experience in
business.

Z
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PRESENT - QUESTION FORM

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QUESTION FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò XH›~°¡ H›ey†Çò#ß"Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J D ~ËA WH›ø_È h䛽 work =ô#ß^¥? J W„¬C_È° h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ money =ô#ß^¥?
J D"Œ~¡O g°ä›½ Ì‹•=ô•° =ô<Œß†Ç¶? J J`ÇxH÷ government job =ô#ß^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò H›ey†Çò#ß"Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# W„¬C_È°, D ~ËA, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ , D"Œ~¡O, D<³•,
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
" Do / Does + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° ' Do + have' =KÇ°ó#°.
He, She, It - subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° ' Does + have' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h䛽 D~ËA English class =ô#ß^¥? 7. P"³°ä›½ English …Õ =°Oz knowledge
Do you have English class today? =ô#ß^¥?
Does she have good knowledge in
2. g°ä›½ D "Œ~¡O screening test =ô#ß^¥? English?
Do you have screening test this week?
8. "ŒiH÷ D town …Õ =°Oz influence
3. h䛽 brothers =ô<Œß~Œ? =ô#ß^¥?
Do you have brothers? Do they have good influence in this
town?
4. g°ä›½ ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O Ì‹•=ô =ôO@°O^¥?
Do you have a holiday every Sunday? 9. g° father H÷ WOHê KŒ…ì years service
=ô#ß^¥?
5. g° brother H÷ vehicle =ô#ß^¥?
Does your father have still many year
Does your brother have a vehicle ?
service ?
6. g° WO\ÕÁ g°ä›½ Jxß =‹¬`°Ç •¶ =ô<Œß†¶
Ç ? 10. P"³°ä›½ gold ornaments =ô<Œß†Ç¶?
Do you have all facilities in your house?
Does she have gold ornaments?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE


11. h䛽 ª•^•¥~¡}OQê leisure Z„¬ C _È ° D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
=ôO@°Ok ?
When do you usually have leisure?
1. g°ä›½ ㄬu ~ËA duty LO@°O^¥ ?
12. h䛽 ZO`Ç=°Ok sisters =ô<Œß~¡° ? 2. g°ä› ½ ã „ ¬ u ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O inspection
Howmany sisters do you have?
LO@°O^¥?
13. ZO^ΰ䛽 h=ô J#=‹¬~¡OQê risk H›ey 3. g° brotherH÷ business …Õ =°Oz
†ÇòO\ì=ô ? experience L#ß^¥ ?
Why do you have risk unnecessarily?
4. P"³ ° ä› ½ college …Õ =°Oz friends
14. g°ä›½ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Zxß subjects L<Œß~Œ ?
=ô<Œß~ò?
Howmany subjects do you have this
5. "ŒiH÷ ‹¬ÞO`Ç house L#ß^¥ ?
year ? 6. h䛽 W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È U"³°Ø<Œ work L#ß^¥?
15. J`ÇxH÷ ~ËAH÷ Zxß hours duty =ôO@°Ok? 7. g°ä›½ D <³•…Õ public exams L<Œß†Ç¶?
Howmany hour duty does he have in 8. "ŒiH÷ D town …Õ relations L<Œß~Œ ?
a day?
9. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ Physics text book L#ß^¥ ?
16. J`ÇxH÷ <³•H÷ ZO`Ç P^¥†Ç°O LO@°Ok? 10. D ~ËA ª•†Ç°Oã`ÇO g°ä›½ meeting
Howmuch income does he have in a
L#ß^¥ ?
month ?
11. g°ä›½ college …Õ ~ËAH÷ Zxß classes
17. P"³°ä›½ …Õ Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•
teaching
LO\ì~ò ?
experience =ô#ßk ?
Howmany years experience does she 12. J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 Z•Á„¬C_È° W`Ç~¡°•`Ë
have in teaching? `ÇQê^¥ H›ey=ôO\ì_È° ?
18. W„¬C_È° h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO`Ç money =ô#ßk? 13. g° #•°Q®°i…Õ Z=iH÷ D ~ËA duty
Howmuch moeny do you have now? L#ßk ?
19. g°ä›½ own house ZH›ø_È =ô#ßk? 14. g°ä›½ D ~ËA Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 L#ßk ?
Where do you have own house? 15. D ~ËA Jr. Inter students H÷ U test

20. "ŒiH÷ ZO`Ç=°Ok „²•Á•° =ô<Œß~¡°? L#ßk?


Howmany children do they have?
Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ H›ey †ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ W„¬C_È° money …è^¥? J g°ä›½ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Ì‹•=ô•° …è"Œ ?
J J`ÇxH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO L^˼Q®O …è^¥? J "ŒiH÷ ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P^¥†Ç°O …è^¥?
Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O XH› ~ ¡ ° H› e y†Ç ò O_È x "Œ\÷ x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# J#Qê D~ËA, D<³•,
D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò, „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë OÇ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Don't / Doesn't + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Don't have" =KÇ°ó#°.
He, She, It - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Doesn't have" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h䛽 sisters …è~Œ? 8. "ŒiH÷ „²•Á•° …è~Œ?
Don't you have sisters? Don't they have children?

2. g°ä›½ D~ËA computer class …è^¥? 9. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ W„¬C_È° money …è^¥?


Don't you have computer class today? Don't you have money with you now?

3. h䛽 J‹¬•° common sense …è^¥? 10. g° Ti…Õ internet ªÏH›~¡¼O …è^¥?
Don't you have common sense at all? Don't you have internet facility in your
4. g°ä›½ D <³•…Õ J‹¬•° Ì‹•=ô•°…è"Œ? village?
Don't you have holidays this month? 11. h䛽 ‹¬ï~á# guidance …è^¥?
5. J`Ç x H÷ D ~ËA Uq° work …è ^ ¥? Don't you have proper guidance?
Doesn't he have any work today? 12. g° brother H÷ teaching …Õ experience
6. P"³°H÷ WH›ø_È U problem …è^¥? …è^¥?
Doesn't your brother have experience
Doesn't she have any problem here?
in teaching?
7. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° property …è^¥?
Don't they have property at all?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

13. g°ä›½ D ~ËA classes ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why don't you have classes today?

14. h䛽 D ~ËA duty ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ? 1. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ English Text Book …è^¥?
Why don't you have duty today?
2. g° town …Õ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ water problem …è^¥?
15. g° =°^•Î¼ unity ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why don't you have unity among you? 3. P"³°ä›½ brothers …è~Œ?
16. J`ÇxH÷ P post 䛽 eligibility ZO^ΰ䛽…è^°Î ? 4. J`ÇxH÷ regular income …è^¥?
Why doesn't he have eligibility for that
post ? 5. "ŒiH÷ D Ti…Õ own house …è^¥?
17. P"³°ä›½ JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 freedom …è^ΰ? 6. J`ÇxH÷ J‹¬•° business …Õ experience
Why doesn't she have freedom there? …è^¥?
18. "ŒiH÷ D festival H÷ Ì‹•=ô•° ZO^ΰ䛽 7. P"³°H÷ J‹¬•° science …Õ knowledge
…è=ô? …è^¥?
Why don't they have holidays for this
festival? 8. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° ‡Ú•O#䛽 water supply
19. h䛽 W„¬C_È° work ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ? …è^¥?
Why don't you have work now? 9. <Œä›½ Dª•i J=Hê‰×O …è^¥?
20. "ŒiH÷ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O profits ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?
10. =°#䛽 Dª•i election duty …è^¥?
Why don't they have profits this year?

21. J`ÇxH÷ job ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ? 11. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ driving licence ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ?
Why doesn't he have a job?
12. "ŒiH÷ „²•Á•° ZO^ΰ䛽 …è~¡°?
22. P"³°ä›½ g° co-operation ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why doesn't she have your co-
13. J`ÇxH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ^•³~á ¼¡ O …è^°Î ?
operation? 14. J`ÇxH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 =°Oz qualities …è=ô?
23. J`ÇxH÷ ‹¬i†³Ø°# P^¥†Ç°O ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ?
Why doesn't he have sufficient income? 15. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬ • ° Sunday work ZO^Î ° ä› ½
LO_È^ΰ?
24. "ŒiH÷ J‹¬•° leisure ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why don't they have leisure at all?

Z
A good teacher is worth one thousand priests. 126
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have / Has' • Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D ~ï O_•O\÷x grammar …Õ Anomalous Verbs JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive
Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Vㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have / Has "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. I have good friends here. 2. We have a test today.
3. She has a gold necklace. 4. He has good experience in business.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
V„
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "don't / doesn't have"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. I don't have the driving licence. 2. We don't have any problem here.
3. He doesn't have a job. 4. She doesn't have brothers.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Vㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò H›ey†Çò#ß@°=O\÷ "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Do / Does + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Do you have leisure today? 2. Do you have an interview this week?
3. Does he have good income? 4. Does she have a fever now?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Vㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Don't / Doesn't have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Don't you have any work today? 2. Don't you have rest at all?
2. Doesn't she have classes today ? 3. Doesn't he have money with him now?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

241. educate educated educated KÇ^ΰ=ô K³„²æOKÇ°@


242. elaborate elaborated elaborated q‹¬ëiO„¬K͆Çò@
243. elect elected elected Z#°ßHù#°@
244. elope eloped eloped „
ã †
² òÇ x`Ë ‡•i‡é=ô@
245. emigrate emigrated emigrated =•‹¬‡é=ô@
246. emphasize emphasized emphasized <ùH÷øK³„¬C@
247. enclose enclosed enclosed [`ÇK͆Çò@
248. encourage encouraged encouraged ‡ã é`Ç•‚²ìOKÇ°@
249. engage engaged engaged x=°Q®ß"³°Ø†ÇòO_È°@
250. enjoy enjoyed enjoyed J#°ƒ•’qOKÇ°@
251. enlarge enlarged enlarged q‹¬ëiO„¬*è†Çò@
252. enroll enrolled enrolled *ìa`Œ…Õ À„~¡°KÍ~¡°ó@
253. enter entered entered ㄬ"ÍtOKÇ°@
254. entertain entertained entertained q<Ë^΄¬~¡KÇ°@
255. eradicate eradicated eradicated ~¡¶„¬ô=¶„¬ô@
256. escape escaped escaped `Ç„²æOKÇ°Hù#°@
257. escort escorted escorted `Ë_È°Qê "³ˆ×ä@
258. establish established established ª•Ö„O² KÇ°@
259. estimate estimated estimated q•°= x~¡â~òOKÇ°@
260. exaggerate exaggerated exaggerated Ju‰×†³¶H÷ëQê K³„¬C@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
128 Power comes from sincere service.
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POSSESSIONS - PAST

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J =¶ä›½ x#ß ‹Ì •=ô LO_•#k. J <Œ^ÎQ~
¾® ¡ x#ß ~¡¶. 500 LO_•#q.
J =¶ä›½ x#ß P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ KŒ…ì work =ôO_•#k. J "ŒiH÷ XH›„¬C_È° =°Oz property =ôO_•#k.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey †ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'Had' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'had' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß <Œ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ ~¡¶. 5000 LO_•#q. 6. =°#ä› ½ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° ö H Oã ^ Î O …Õ stable
I had Rs. 5000 with me yesterday. government LO_Ík.
2. last Sunday <Œä›½ K³<³áß…Õ interview We had a stable government at centre
=ôO_•#k. once.
I had an interview in Chennai last 7. N.T.R.H÷ J„¬ C _È ° =°Oz popularity
Sunday. LO_•#k.
3. Last month =¶ä› ½ public exams N.T.R. had a good popularity then.
LO_•#q. 8. XH›„C¬ _È° "ŒiH÷ 100 acres land LO_•#k.
We had public examinations last They had 100 acres land once.
month. 9. <Œä›½ x#ß Journey …Õ =°Oz H›OÌ„h
4 =¶ cousin H÷ J„¬C_È° government job LO_•#k.
LO_•#k. I had a good company on my journey
My cousin had a govt. job then. yesterday.
5. =¶ä› ½ x#ß office …Õ heavy work 10. P"³°ä›½ ~Œãu KŒ…ì [Þ~¡=ò LO_•#k.
LO_•#k. She had a high fever last night.
We had heavy work in office yesterday.

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11. a.*.ÿ „.² H÷ Q®`OÇ …Õ `Çq°ˆ×<Œ_È°…Õ _•.†°Ç O.Hï . EXERCISE


support LO_•#k. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
The B.J.P. had the support of D.M.K. in
Tamil Nadu in the past.
1. =¶ä›½ last Sunday EAMCET LO_•#k.
12. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì job opportunities
2. <Œä›½ x#ß Q®°O@¶~¡°…Õ work LO_•#k.
LO_Íq.
They had many job opportunities once. 3. =¶ä›½ last year six subjects LO_•#q.
13. =¶ä› ½ last Sunday special class 4. P"³°H÷ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì ornaments LO_•#q.
LO_•#k. 5. J`ÇxH›„C¬ _È° KŒ…ì ‹¬=°‹¬¼•° LO_•#q.
We had a special class last Sunday.
6. =¶ä›½ last month WH›ø_È heavy rains
14. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° experienced lecturers
LO_•#q.
LO_•<Œ~¡°.
We had experienced lecturers then. 7. =¶ä›½ last week u~¡°=°•…Õ =°Oz
15. x#ß =¶ä›½ ‹
Ì •=ô LO_•#k. ^Î~Å¡ #=ò •a•Oz#k.
We had a holiday yesterday. 8. "ŒiH÷ last year =°Oz harvest („¬O@)
16. WOk~Œ, ~Œr"£ Hê•O…Õ HêOãQï ‹¹ ‡•s“H÷ LO_•#k.
=°Oz support LO_•#k. 9. =¶ä› ½ last time "Œi co-operation
The congress party had the people's LO_•#k.
support during the tenure of Indira and
10. "ŒiH÷ last week Hyderabad …Õ training
Rajeev.
classes LO_•#q.
17. Last year business …Õ "ŒiH÷ =°Oz
profits LO_•#q. 11. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° WO\ÕÁ XH› pet dog LO_Ík.
They had good profits in their business 12. <Œä›½ WO`Ç䛽=òO^ΰ Andhra Bank …Õ
last year. Account LO_Ík.
18. =¶ =°^•Î¼ XH›„C¬ _È° =°Oz unity LO_Ík. 13. =¶ä›½ x#ß office …Õ XH› urgent meeting
We had good unity among us once. LO_•#k.
19. =°# WO_•†Ç°<£ \©O…Õ =°#䛽 XH›„C¬ _È° 14. XH›„¬C_È° "ŒiH÷ D \º<£…Õ six buildings
=°Oz spin bowlers LO_Í"Œ~¡°. LO_•#q.
We had good spin bowlers in our Indian
15. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hê…èl…Õ =°Oz friends
team once.
LO_Í"Œ~¡°.
20. J`ÇxH›„C¬ _È° =°Oz P^¥†Ç°O LO_•#k.
He had good income then.
Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Œä›½ J„¬C_È° D town …Õ J‹¬•° friends …è~¡°. J =¶ä›½ x#ß Hê…èl…Õ H›O„¬î¼@~Ÿ HêÁ‹¬° …è^ΰ.
J P"³° 䛽 J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° gold ornaments …è=ô. J =¶ brother H÷ x#ß office …Õ duty …è=ô.
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O, XH›„C¬ _È°
…èH› Q®`ÇO…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Did not + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject –> Singular, Plural U^³á##° "did not + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =¶ä›½ x#ß J‹¬•° leisure …è^ΰ. 6. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° own house …è^ΰ.
We did not have leisure yesterday. They did not have own house then.

2. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ x#ß J‹¬•° money …è^ΰ. 7. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hê…èl…Õ =°Oz staff …è~¡°.
I did not have money with me We did not have good staff in our
yesterday. college then.

3. =¶ä›½ x#ß =¶ colony …Õ power supply 8. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° entrance tests LO_Íq
…è^ΰ. Hê=ô.
We did not have power supply in our We did not have entrance tests then.
colony yesterday. 9. J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° work LO_Ík Hê^ΰ.
4. =¶ brother H÷ J„¬C_È° D L^˼Q®=ò …è^°Î . He did not have work at all then.
My brother did not have this job then. 10. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° study classes LO_Íq Hê=ô.
5. P"³°H÷ x#ß J‹¬•° q㉧Ou …è^ΰ. They did not have study classes then.
She did not have rest yesterday. 11. <Œä›½ J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° ƒ•’†°Ç =òO_Ík Hê^ΰ.
I did not have fear at all then.

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12. XH› „ ¬ C _È ° =°# ^Í ‰ × O …Õ =°#H÷ Wxß EXERCISE


‹¬=°‹¬¼•°O_Íq Hê=ô. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We did not have all these problems in
our country once.
13. J`Ç x H÷ J„¬ C _È ° parents #°Oz 1. <Œä›½ last year text books …è=ô.
encouragement …è^ΰ.
2. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° third language LO_Ík
He did not have encouragement from
Hê^ΰ.
his parents then.
14. =¶ ~ËA•…Õ =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° D HË~¡°••° 3. =¶ brother H÷ J„¬C_È° D car …è^ΰ.
…è=ô. 4. P"³°H÷ J„¬C_È° Degree qualification …è^ΰ.
We did not have all these courses in
our days. 5. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° D town …Õ vote ‚¬ì䛽ø…è^°Î .
15. Last year =¶ä›½ =°Oz „¬O@•° …è=ô. 6. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Ì‹•=ô•° Z䛽ø=Qê LO_Íq
We did not have good harvest last Hê=ô.
year.
7. <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ P time …Õ camera …è^ΰ.
16. Last year =¶ä›½ J‹¬•° practicals …è=ô.
We did not have preacticals last year. 8. =¶ä›½ x#ß office …Õ meeting …è^ΰ.
17. P"³°ä›½ J„¬C_È‹¬•° P WO\ÕÁ freedom 9. J`ÇxH÷ XH›„C¬ _È° WH›ø_È J‹¬•° |O^•Î°=ô•°
LO_Ík Hê^ΰ. …è~¡°.
She did not have freedom in that
10. P"³ ° ä› ½ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° J‹¬ • ° minimum
house then.
knowledge 䛕_¨ …è^ΰ.
18. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° business …Õ profits LO_Íq
Hê=ô. 11. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° WH›ø_È ‡Ú•O …è^ΰ.
They did not have profits in business
12. <Œä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° computer course •Ì „ á
then. J=Qꂬì# …è^ΰ.
19. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° J‹¬•° job opportunities
LO_Íq Hê=ô. 13. =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° Hê…èr…Õ lab facilities …è=ô.
We did not have job opportunities 14. J„¬C_È° L^˼Q®°•ä›½ loan ªÏH›~¡¼O…è^ΰ.
then.
15. x#ß P >ÿØ"£°…Õ <Œ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ driving licence
20. =¶ father ^ÎQ®¾~¡ =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° leniance …è^ΰ.
LO_Ík Hê^ΰ.
We did not have lenience with our
father then. Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h䛽 x#ß interview =ôO_•#^¥? J g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì property =ôO_Í^¥?
J J`ÇxH÷ last month training =ôO_•#^¥? J P"³°ä›½ x#ß fever =ôO_•#^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡=ò, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`OÇ …Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
" Did + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ' Did + have' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ money =ôO_•#^¥? 6. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° KŒ…ì property LO_•#^¥?
Did you have money with you Did they have good property then?
yesterday? 7. h䛽 J„¬C_È° close firends =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?
2. Last Sunday g°ä› ½ special class Did you have close friends then?
=ôO_•#^¥?
8. g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° college …Õ =°Oz staff
Did you have a special class last
LO_•<Œ~Œ?
Sunday?
Did you have good staff in the college
3. Last month g°ä› ½ public exams
then?
=ôO_•#"Œ?
Did you have public exams last month? 9. g° brother H÷ J„¬C_È° government job

4. Last year J`Ç x H÷ =°Oz income


=ôO_•#^¥?
Did your brother have a govt. job then?
=ôO_•#^¥?
Did he have good income last year? 10. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° ㄬu Pk"Œ~¡O holiday
5. P"³°ä›½ x#ß P„¦‹
Ô °¬ …Õ g°\÷OQ®° LO_•#^¥? =ôO_Í^¥?
Did she have a meeting in the office Did they have a holiday every Sunday
yesterday? then?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. hä› ½ last Sunday interview ZH› ø _È D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
LO_•#k?
Where did you have the interview last
Sunday?
1. h䛽 x#ß <Œ`Ë work LO_•#^¥ ?
12. g°ä›½ last year Zxß subjects =ôO_•#q? 2. g°ä›½ last Sunday exam LO_•#^¥ ?
How many subjects did you have last
3. J`ÇxH÷ XH›„C¬ _È° ‡•s“ „¬^q
Î =ôO_Í^¥ ?
year?
13. x#ß h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO`Ç moeny LO_•#k? 4. P"³°ä›½ x#ß high temperature LO_•#^¥?
How much moeny did you have with 5. "ŒiH÷ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° KŒ…ì problems
you yesterday? LO_•<Œ†Ç¶ ?
14. g°~¡ ° x#ß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ J`Ç x `Ë `Ç Q ê^¥
H›ey†Çò<Œß~¡° ? 6. h䛽 last year =°Oz income LO_•#^¥?
Why did you have a quarrel with him 7. g°ä›½ XH›„¬C_È° "Œi =°^Îí`Ç° LO_Í^¥ ?
yesterday?
8. J`Ç x H÷ z#ß„¬ C _È ° `Ç e Á ^ Î O ã _ È ° •
15. x#ß h䛽 holiday ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_•#k? encouragement LO_Í^¥ ?
Why did you have a holiday yesterday?
16. Q®`Ç ‡•~¡"Á °³ O\˜…Õ HêOãQï ‹¹ä½› ZO`Ç =°Ok 9. g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° drinking water facility
‹¬ƒ•’°¼•° LO_•<Œ~¡°. LO_Í^¥ ?
Howmany members did the congress 10. "ŒiH÷ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° D toun …Õ =°Oz
party have in the last Parliament?
influence LO_•#^¥ ?
17. last month h account …Õ ZO`Ç amount
=ôO_•#k? 11. g°ä›½ last time training ZH›ø_È LO_•#k?
Howmuch amount did you have on 12. NH› $ +¬ â ^ Í = ~Œ†Ç ò •° `Ç # court …Õ
your account last month? ZO`Ç=°Ok poets #° H›ey†ÇòO_•<Œ_È°?
18. WO`ÇH›=òO^ΰ g° ‘•„¬ô…Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok
13. g°ä›½ last month Zxß working days
Workers =ôO_•i?
Howmany workers did you have in
LO_•<Œ~ò ?
your shop then? 14. x#ß P time …Õ h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO`Ç money
19. h䛽 J„¬C_È° <³•ä›½ ZO`Ç income =ôO_Ík? LO_•#k ?
Howmuch income did you have per
15. ~Œãu g°ä›½ party U hotel …Õ LO_•#k ?
month then?
20. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° Zxß ZH›~Œ• ƒ•’¶q° LO_Ík?
Howmany acres land did they have
then?
Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J x#ß h䛽 computer class …è^¥? J g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° own house …è^¥?
J P"³°ä›½ x#ß J‹¬•° rest …è^¥? J J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° D L^˼Q®O …è^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò …èH›
Q®`ÇO…Õ =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@䛽

"Didn't + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject - Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Didn't + have" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. x#ß g°ä›½ classes …è"Œ? 7. g°ä›½ P ~ËA•…Õ entrance tests LO_Íq
Didn't you have classes yesterday? Hê"Œ?
2. Last week h䛽 office …Õ duty …è^¥? Didn't you have entrance tests in those
Didn't you have duty in the office last days?
week?
8. "ŒiH÷ last year business …Õ profits …è"Œ?
3. J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° D job …è^¥? Didn't they have profits in the business
Didn't he have this job then? last year?
4. P"³°H÷ x#ß WO\ÕÁ work Ug°…è^¥? 9. g°ä› ½ XH› „ ¬ C _È ° L^˼Q® J=Hê‰× = ò•°
Didn't she have any work in the house
yesterday?
LO_ÍqHê"Œ?
Didn't you have job opportunities once?
5. "ŒiH÷ XH›„¬C_È° J‹¬•° property …è^¥?
Didn't they have property at all once? 10. "Œi ^ÎQ®¾~¡ x#ß tickets …è"Œ?
Didn't they have tickets with them
6. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ x#ß money …è^¥? yesterday?
Didn't you have money with you
yesterday?
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. x#ß h䛽 duty ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why didn't you have duty yesterday?
12. h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ P time …Õ licence ZO^ΰ䛽…è^ΰ? 1. Last year g°ä›½ office …Õ inspection
Why didn't you have the licence with
…è^¥?
you at that time?
2. Last Sunday g°ä›½ office …Õ meeting
13. g°ä›½ x#ß JH›ø_È programme ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ? …è^¥ ?
Why didn't you have a programme there 3. x#ß h ^ÎQ®¾~¡ P time …Õ money …è^¥?
yesterday? 4. g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° Sanskrit subject LO_Ík
14. g°ä›½ last Sunday school …Õ test ZO^ΰ䛽 Hê^¥?
…è^ΰ? 5. "ŒiH÷ J„¬C_È° WH›ø_È U problem …è^¥?
Why didn't you have test in the school
last Sunday?
6. x#ß h䛽 J‹¬•° leisure …è^¥?
15. h䛽 J„¬C_È° D post H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 J~¡Ý`Ç 7. g° TiH÷ J„¬C_È° bus =‹¬u LO_Ík
…è^ΰ? Hê^¥?
Why didn't you have eligibility for this 8. J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ J#°ƒ•’=O
post then ? …è^¥?
16. J`ÇxH÷ last year promotion ZO^ΰ䛽 9. g°ä› ½ J„¬ C _È ° "Œ¼‡•~¡ O O…Õ profits
~Œ…è^ΰ?
Why didn't he have a promotion last
ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_ÍqHê=ô?
year? 10. J`ÇxH÷ J„¬C_È° regular income ZO^ΰ䛽
17. "Œi =°^•Î¼ J„¬C_È° unity ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ? …è^ΰ?
Why didn't they have unity among them 11. h student days …Õ h䛽 close friends
then? ZO^Î°ä› …è~¡°?
18. g°ä›½ last month exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç ‹
Ì •=ô•° 12. h=ô last time "Œi ‹¬‚¬ìHê~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽
ZO^ΰ䛽 …è=ô?
Why didn't you have holidays after the
H›ey†ÇòO_È…è^ΰ?
exams last month?
13. x#ß P"³°ä›½ ZO^ΰ䛽 rest …è^ΰ?
19. Last time J`ÇxH÷ "Œi support ZO^ΰ䛽 14. Last time "ŒiH÷ D J=Hê‰×O ZO^ΰ䛽
…è^ΰ? ~Œ…è^ΰ?
Why didn't he have their support last 15. x#ß h=ô lunch ZO^ΰ䛽 H›ey†ÇòO_È
time? …è^ΰ?
20. g°ä›½ J„¬C_È° night duties ZO^ΰ䛽O_Íq
Hê=ô ?
Why didn't you have night duties then? Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Had" Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Had' #° grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb JO\ì~¡°. nxx Past tense …Õ L„¬†¶ ³ yª•ë=ò.
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
=°#=ò Q® ` Ç O …Õ H› e y†Ç ò O_•# "Œ\÷ x Q® ° iOz ‹¬ ¶ zOKÇ ° @ä› ½ "Had"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I had an interview last Sunday. 2. We had holidays last month.
3. He had many problems once. 4. They had heavy work yesterday.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
=°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Did not + have"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I did not have class work yesterday. 3. He did not have rest yesterday.
2. We did not have any problem then. 4. They didn't have this property
once.
3. QUESTION FORM :
=°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õ H›ey†ÇòO_•# "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Did +
have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Did you have work yesterday? 2. Did you have good opportunities once?
3. Did he have training last month?4. Did they have good harvest last time ?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
=°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Didn't + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Didn't you have class yesterday?
2. Didn't he have this job then?
3. Didn't she have good company on journey yesterday?
4. Didn't they have income once ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

261. examine examined examined „¬sH÷ÆOKÇ°@


262. exchange exchanged exchanged Wzó„¬ôKÇ°óHù#°@
263. excuse excused excused =°xßOKÇ°@, H›Æq°OKÇ°@
264. exercise exercised exercised Jƒ•’¼‹²OKÇ°@
265. exceed exceeded exceeded JuãH›q°OKÇ°@
266. exhibit exhibitted exhibitted ㄬ^ÎiÅOKÇ°@
267. exist existed existed rqOz†ÇòO_È°@
268. expand expanded expanded q‹¬ëiO„¬K͆Çò@
269. expose exposed exposed |†Ç°•°„¬~¡KÇ°@
270. express expressed expressed `³e†Ç°„¬~¡KÇ°@
271. extend extended extended q‹¬ëiOKÇ°@
272. fabricate fabricated fabricated H›eæOKÇ°@
273. facilitate facilitated facilitated ‹¬°•ƒ•’=òK͆òÇ @
274. fade faded faded HêOu‚Ôì#=°Q®°@
275. fail failed failed q„¦¬•=°Q®°@
276 fascinate fascinated fascinated W+¬“„¬_È°#@°Á K͆Çò@
277. fast fasted fasted L„¬"Œ‹¬=òO_È°@
278. fear feared feared ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_°È @
279. feign feigned feigned #\÷OKÇ°@
280 felicitate felicitated felicitated Ja•#OkOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
138 Where there is light, there is a shadow.
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POSSESSIONS - FUTURE

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz


‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô college …Õ special class LO@°Ok. J P"³°ä›½ ö~„¬ô q㉧Ou LO@°Ok.
J =¶ä›½ exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç ‹Ì •=ô•° LO\ì~ò. J "ŒiH÷ D ª•i =°Oz profits LO\ì~ò.


Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey †ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•ÎOQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will have" L„¬†³¶ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Will have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô P„¦ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ special duty 5. h䛽 =°Oz ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë LO@°Ok.
LO@°Ok. You will have a bright future.
I will have special duty in the office 6. g°ä› ½ selection `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç training
tomorrow. LO@°Ok.
2. =¶ä›½ =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O Hê…èl…Õ function You will have training after the
LO@°Ok. selection.
We will have function in the college 7. "ŒiH÷ D season …Õ =°Oz sales
next Sunday. LO\ì~ò.
3. =¶ brother H÷ next year promotion They will have good sales in this
LO@°Ok. season.
My brother will have a promotion next 8. =¶ä›½ =KÍó <³• school …Õ P@• ‡é\©•°
year. LO\ì~ò.
4. "ŒiH÷ =KÍó March …Õ public exams We will have sports competitions in our
LO\ì~ò. school next month.
They will have public examinations 9. g°ä›½ „¬sH›Æ• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç Ì‹•=ô•° LO\ì~ò.
next March. You will have holidays after the
examinations.

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10. h䛽 D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ =¶ co-operation EXERCISE


LO@°Ok. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
You will have our co-operation in this
matter. 1. hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ <Œ help
11. g°ä›½ =°~¡• WOHùH› J=Hê‰×O LO@°Ok. LO@°Ok.
You will have another opportunity. 2. g°ä› ½ JH› ø _È =°Oz programmes
12. J`ÇxH÷ JH›ø_È KŒ…ì troubles LO\ì~ò. LO\ì~ò.
He will have many troubles there.
3. =¶ brother H÷ next month Delhi …Õ
13. "ŒiH÷ next year KŒ…ì syllabus LO@°Ok. interview LO@°Ok.
They will have heavy syllabus next
4. g°ä›½ next year WOHùH› ï~O_È° subjects
year.
LO\ì~ò.
14. <Œä›½ next year increment LO@°Ok. 5. P"³°ä›½ D medicine ^¥Þ~Œ quick relief
I will have increment next year.
LO@°Ok.
15. =°#䛽 =KÍó E<£…Õ Municipal elections 6. =¶ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È =°Oz entertainment
LO\ì~ò.
LO@°Ok.
We will have Municipal elections next
June. 7. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È KŒ…ì >ÿØ"£° LO@°Ok.
16. g°ä› ½ next month JH› ø _È seminar
8. hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ "Œi ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ì Hê~¡ O
LO@°Ok. LO@°Ok.
You will have a seminar there next 9. =¶ä›½ D ~ËA Hê…èl…Õ staff meeting
month. LO@°Ok.
17. =¶ brother 䛽 next Sunday Hyderabad 10. h䛽 life …Õ Jxß comforts LO\ì~ò.
…Õ g°\÷OQ· LO@°Ok. 11. h䛽 God blessings LO\ì~ò.
My brother will have a meeting in
12. J`ÇxH÷ ㄬu q+¬†Ç°O…Õ WH› #°Oz =¶
Hyderabad next Sunday.
support LO@°Ok.
18. P"³°ä›½ ö~„¬ô H›O\÷H÷ operation LO@°Ok.
13. "ŒiH÷ D ª•i KŒ…ì fã="³°# Ø punishment
She will have an operation to her eye
tomorrow.
LO@°Ok.
14. h䛽 future …Õ J`Çx =•# KŒ…ì troubles
19. "ŒiH÷ next year =°Oz Q® ° ië O „¬ ô
LO@°Ok. They will have good
LO\ì~ò.
recognition next year. 15. g°ä›½ D ª•i =°Oz remuneration
20. <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô KŒ…ì leisure LO@°Ok. LO@°Ok.
I will have much leisure tomorrow.
Z
Time and tide wait for none. 140
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô office …Õ duty =ôO_È^ΰ. J =¶ä›½ next week classes =ôO_È=ô.
J h䛽 WH› transfer =ôO_È^ΰ. J J`ÇxH÷ WH› U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^ΰ.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will not + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ' will not + have' =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô U work =ôO_È^ΰ. 6. h䛽 =°~¡… D J=Hê‰×O LO_È^ΰ.
I will not have any work tomorrow. You will not have this opportunity

2. =¶ä›½ =KÍóPk"Œ~¡O test =ôO_È^ΰ. again.

We will not have test next Sunday. 7. =¶ä›½ WH› increment =ôO_È^ΰ.
3. =¶ brother H÷ WH› promotion =ôO_È^ΰ. We will not have any increment.

My brother will not have a promotion. 9. g°ä›½ WH› work …Õ risk =ôO_È^ΰ.
4. =¶ä›½ exams `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç Ì‹•=ô•° =ôO_È=ô. You will not have any risk in the work.

We will not have holidays after the 10. P"³°H÷ WH› JH›ø_È U problem =ôO_È^ΰ.
exams. She will not have any problem there.

5. J`ÇxH÷ WH› =¶ co-operation =ôO_È^ΰ. 11. "ŒiH÷ next season …Õ sales =ôO_È=ô.
He will not have our co-operation They will not have sales in the next
hereafter. season.

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11. "ŒiH÷ ö ~ „¬ ô Hê•h…Õ power supply EXERCISE

=ôO_È^ΰ. They will not have power D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
supply in the colony tomorrow.

12. <Œä›½ D ª•i election duty =ôO_È^ΰ. 1. <Œä›½ WH› U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^ΰ.
I will not have election duty this time. 2. =¶ä›½ Next year D subject LO_È^ΰ.
13. =¶ä› ½ next year language paper
3. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô English class LO_È^ΰ.
=ôO_È^ΰ. 4. _•ã w q^¥¼~¡ ° í • ä› ½ WH› g°^Î @
We will not have language paper next supplementary „¬sH›Æ•° LO_È=ô.

year. 5. P"³°ä›½ WH› P WO\ÕÁ freedom LO_È^ΰ.


14. g°ä›½ JH›ø_È U trouble =ôO_È^ΰ. 6. P q+¬†°Ç O…Õ <Œä›½ U ƒì^•Î¼`Ç LO_È^°Î .
You will not have any trouble there. 7. h䛽 JH›ø_È ö~„¬ô U =‹¬u LO_È^ΰ.
15. "ŒiH÷ next year entrance test =ôO_È^ΰ. 8. WH› "Œi =°^μ unity LO_È^ΰ.
They will not have the entrance test 9. =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O #°O_• 10th class "ŒiH÷
next year. 11 papersLO_È=ô.

16. <Œä›½ ö~„¬ô J‹¬•° leisure =ôO_È^ΰ. 10. D scheme ^¥Þ~Œ =°#䛽 U „ ã †
¬ ¶
³ [#O
I will not have leisure at all tomorrow. LO_È^ΰ.
17. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È g°\÷OQ· =ôO_È^ΰ. 11. =°#䛽 ö~„¬ô town …Õ power supply
You will not have meeting there
LO_È^ΰ.
tomorrow. 12. WOHùH› 50 ‹¬OII• =~¡ä›½ =°#䛽 =°#
‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ ‹¬°<Œg° ƒ•’†°Ç O LO_È^°Î .
18. =¶ä›½ D ª•i Z䛽ø= profits =ôO_È=ô.
We will not have much profit this time.
13. J`ÇxH÷ D `Ç„¬CH÷ U tHÆê LO_È^ΰ.
14. P"³°ä›½ next time D payment LO_È^ΰ.
19. J`ÇxH÷ next time =¶ support LO_È^ΰ.
He will not have our support next time.
15. "ŒiH÷ D project =•# U q^•Î"°³ # Ø
#+¬“=ò LO_È^ΰ.
20. h䛽 WH›#°Oz D business …Õ Z䛽ø=
income =ôO_È^ΰ.
You will not have much income in this
business hereafter. Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h䛽 ö~„¬ô special class =ôO@°O^¥? J g°ä›½ next week exams =ôO\ì†Ç¶?
J J`ÇxH÷ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O promotion =ôO@°O^¥? J "ŒiH÷ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È meeting LO@°O^¥ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
" Shall + have" or " Will + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
I, We Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° 'Shall + have'
You, He, She, It, They, Subject Qê =ô#ß„¬ô_È° will + have' =KÇ°ó#°.
EXAMPLES
1. =°#=ò D ~ËA ~ŒãuH÷ hotel …Õ dinner 7. "ŒiH÷ D season …Õ =°Oz sales
H›ey†ÇòO^¥=¶? LO\ì†Ç¶?
Shall we have dinner at hotel tonight? Will they have good sales in this
season?
2. =°#=ò HùO`Ç‹
À „¬ô rest H›ey†ÇòO^¥=¶?
Shall we have rest for a while? 8. hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô P„¦ Ô ‹ ¬ ° …Õ work Zä› ½ ø=Qê
LO@°O^¥?
3. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô holiday LO@°O^¥?
Will you have heavy work in the office
Will you have a holiday tomorrow?
tomorrow ?
4. "ŒiH÷ next week inspection =ôO@°O^¥?
9. h䛽 JH›ø_È =°Oz =‹¬u LO@°O^¥?
Will they have inspection next week?
Will you have good accommodation
5. J`Ç x H÷ D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O promotion there?
=ôO@°O^¥? 10. "ŒiH÷ D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O䛕_¨ =°Oz profits
Will he have a promotion this year? LO\ì†Ç¶?
6. P"³°ä›½ P WO\ÕÁ ‹
À ÞKÇ•ó LO@°O^¥? Will they have good profits this year
Will she have freedom in that house? also?

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11. h䛽 ö~„¬ô duty ZH›ø_È =ôO@°Ok? EXERCISE


Where will you have the duty D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
tomorrow?

12. g° brother H÷ transfer Z„¬C_È° =ôO@°Ok? 1. hä› ½ selection `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç training


When will your brother have the LO@°O^¥?
transfer? 2. g°ä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È U^³ á < Œ problem
13. g°ä›½ next year Zxß subjects =ôO\ì~ò? LO@°O^¥ ?
Howmany subjects will you have next 3. J`ÇxH÷ next week Chennai …Õ interriew
year? LO@°O^¥ ?
14. next year hä› ½ ZO`Ç increment 4. P"³°ä›½ JH›ø_È "Œi ‹¬‚ì¬ Hê~¡O LO@°O^¥?
=ôO@°Ok? 5. "ŒiH÷ next month elections LO\ì†Ç¶?
Howmuch increment will you have 6. hä› ½ D field …Õ =°Oz future
next year? =ôO@°O^¥ ?
15. Dª•i J=Hê‰×O Z=iH÷ LO@°Ok? 7. g°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È U^³á<Œ programme
Who will have the opportunity this LO@°O^¥ ?
time? 8. P†Ç°#䛽 next month examination duty
16. g°ä›½ „¬sH›Æ•° Z„¬C_È° LO\ì~ò? =ôO@°O^¥ ?
When will you have the examinations? 9. P"³ ° ä› ½ D medicines =•# caugh
17. Next month g°ä› ½ g°\÷ O Q· ZH› ø _È #°Oz relief LO@°O^¥ ?
LO@°Ok? 10. "ŒiH÷ Dª•ï~< á Œ„ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@° KÍ‹
À
Where will you have the meeting next "³°*ìi\© LO@°O^¥ ?
month ? 11. g°ä›½ =°~¡• Z„¬C_È° holidays =ôO\ì~ò?
18. h䛽 ö~„¬ô liesure Z„¬C_È° LO@°Ok ? 12. h䛽 training `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç posting ZH›ø_È
When will you have leisure tomorrow? LO@°Ok ?
19. g°ä›½ exams `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç Zxß~ËA•° ‹
Ì •=ô•° 13. "ŒiH÷ ö~„¬ô U „¬sH›Æ =ôO@°Ok?
LO\ì~ò? 14. g°ä›½ Group-I „¬sH›Æ䛽 Zxß optional
Howmany holidays will you have after subjects LO\ì~ò ?
the examinations? 15. EAMCET Jƒ•’¼~°¡ •Ö 䛽 counselling Z„¬C_È°
20. ö~„¬ô =°# section …Õ night duty Z=iH÷ LO@°Ok ?
=ôO@°Ok ?
Who will have the night duty in our
section tomorrow ? Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J ö~„¬ô h䛽 work LO_È^¥? J g°ä›½ next month ‹Ì •=ô•° LO_È"Œ ?
J J`ÇxH÷ next year promotion LO_È^¥? J P"³°ä›½ ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^¥?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³• …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Won't + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Shalln't + have" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
You, He, She, It, They - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "Won't have" L„¬¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h䛽 ö~„¬ô class work LO_È^¥? 6. h䛽 next time JH›ø_È J=Hê‰×=ò LO_È^¥?
Won't you have class work tomorrow? Won't you have an opportunity there
next time?
2. g°ä›½ exams `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç Ì‹•=ô•° LO_È"Œ?
Won't you have holidays after the 7. g°ä›½ selection `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç training LO_È^¥?
exams? Won't you have training after the
selection?
3. J`ÇxH÷ next year transfer LO_È^¥?
Won't he have a transfer next year? 8. J`ÇxH÷ =°Oz ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë LO_È^¥?
Won't he have a bright future?
4. P"³°H÷ Dq+¬†Ç°O…Õ "Œi ã‡é`Œ•‚¬ìO
LO_È^¥ ? 9. P"³°H÷ JH›ø_È "Œi ‹¬‚¬ìHê~¡O LO_È^¥?
Won't she have their encouragement in Won't she have their co-operation
this matter? there?

5. "ŒiH÷ Dª•i =°Oz profits LO_È"Œ? 10. "ŒiH÷ next Sunday meeting LO_È^¥?
Won't they have good profits this time? Won't they have meeting next Sunday?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h䛽 ö~„¬ô duty ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È^ΰ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why won't you have duty tomorrow?

12. g°ä› ½ next season …Õ sales 1. h䛽 ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È work LO_È^¥?
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È=ô?
Why won't you have sales in the next 2. g°ä› ½ Dª•i summer …Õ classes
season? LO_È"Œ?
13. J`Ç x H÷ D ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~¡ O promotion 3. J`ÇxH÷ ö~„¬ô duty LO_È^¥?
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ? 4. P"³°H÷ P job …Õ Z@°=O\÷ risk LO_È^¥?
Why won't he have a promotion this
year? 5. g°ä›½ next year D subject LO_È^¥?
14. P"³°H÷ JH›ø_È ‹
À ÞKÇ•ó ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ? 6. P†Ç°#䛽 JH›ø_È Ug° trouble LO_È^¥?
Why won't she have freedom there?
7. "ŒiH÷ Dª•i g°`Ë discussions LO_È"Œ?
15. "ŒiH÷ next year recruitments ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È=ô? 8. h䛽 Dª•i P post ä› ½ competition
Why won't they have recruitments next
LO_È^¥?
year? 9. "ŒiH÷ JH›ø_È =‹¬`Ç°•° LO_È"Œ?
16. h䛽 JH›ø_È "Œi support ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ? 10. hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È programme
Why won't you have their support ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
there?
11. g°ä› ½ Dª•i admission test
17. g°ä›½ Dª•i =°Oz „¬O@ ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ? ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why won't you have good harvest this
12. P†Ç°#H÷ Dª•i =°Oãu =~¡O¾ …Õ ª•Ö#=ò
time?
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
18. "Œi =°^•Î¼ ‹¬‚ì¬ Hê~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ? 13. P"³°ä›½ JH›ø_È "Œi company (`Ë_È°)
Why won't they have co-operation
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
among them?
14. "ŒiH÷ D „¬ ^ Š Î H › = ò ^¥Þ~Œ benefits
19. =KÍó series …Õ Ganguly H÷ team …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽O_È=ô?
ª•Ö#"³°O^ΰ䛽O_È^°Î ?
Why won't Ganguly have room in the 15. g°ä› ½ =KÍ ó season 䛽 water supply
team in the next series? ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
20. ö~„¬ô g°ä›½ Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why won't you have a holiday
tomorrow? Z
Fools build houses and wisemen live in them. 146
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Will have' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
nx…Õ =°#=ò 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative
Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will have "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I will have leisure tomorrow. 2. We will have inspection next month.
3. He will have a bright future. 4. They will have a meeting tomorrow.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Won't have "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I won't have any trouble from them.
2. We won't have any risk there.
3. He won't have their support next time.
4. She won't have any recognition there.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_ȃÕ=ô "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall
have / Will have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shall I have leave tomorrow? 2. Shall we have dinner tonight?
3. Will you have comforts there? 4. Will they have exams next month?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ H›ey†ÇòO_Èx "Œ\÷x Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't / Won't + have " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Won't you have leisure tomorrow? 2. Won't you have a goal?
3. Won't she have help from them? 3. Won't they have job opportinities in
future ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

281 fetch fetched fetched ‡é~ò`³KÇ°ó@


282 fill filled filled xO„¬ô@
283 finish finished finished =òyOKÇ°@
284 fix fixed fixed ‹²Ö~¡„¬~¡KÇ°@
285 flatter flattered flattered ‡ÚQ®_È°@
286 float floated floated `Í•°@
287 flourish flourished flourished Ja•=$kœKO³ ^ΰ@
288 flow flowed flowed ㄬ=‚²ìOKÇ°@
289 follow followed followed J#°‹¬iOKÇ°@
290 found founded founded ª•Ö„O² KÇ°@
291 frame framed framed U~¡æ~¡KÇ°@
292 frighten frightened frightened ƒ•’†°Ç „Ì @°“
293 fry fried fried "Í~òOKÇ°@
294 fulfil fulfilled fulfilled <³~¡"Í~¡°ó@
295 gabble gabbled gabbled =^Î~¡°@, ãÀ„•°@
296 gallop gallopped gallopped "ÍQ®OQê „¬iïQ`Ç°ë@
297 gamble gambled gambled E^Î=¶_È°@
298 gape gaped gaped P=ôeOKÇ°@
299 gargle gargled gargled „¬ôH÷øeOKÇ°@
300 gather gathered gathered À‹H›iOKÇ°@

D ~ËA …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,


Spoken English lesson
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
148 Great talkers are not great doers.
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'BE' FORMS - PRESENT - AM, IS, ARE


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° XH› English lecturer x. J "Í°=ò W„¬C_È° exam hall …Õ L<Œß=ò.
J N J|°í…˜ H›…ì"£° =°# ãÌ„‹²_³O\˜. J "Í°=ò D ~ËA KŒ…ì busy Qê L<Œß=ò.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê W„¬C_È°, ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° L#ß
XH› Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 Present 'Be' forms J~ò#
"Am/ Is/ Are" •#° L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "am"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "is"
We, you, they Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "are" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° XH› _•ãw q^¥¼iÖx. 6. Cricket XH› P‹¬H÷ëH›~¡"³°Ø# P@.
I am a degree student. Cricket is an interesting game.

2. "Í°=ò D ‡¦•¼H›s“ „¬x"Œ~¡=ò. 7. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È° HêÁ‹¹ ~¡¶=ò…Õ L<Œß=ò.


We are the workers of this factory. We are in the class-room now.

3. =¶ father XH› bank officer. 8. =¶ grandfather W„¬C_È° hospital …Õ


My father is a bank officer. L<Œß~¡°.
4. =¶ mother XH› Q®$‚²ì}÷. My grandfather is in the hospital now.

My mother is a house-wife. 9. "Œ~¡° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO Delhi …Õ L<Œß~¡°.


5. India XH› Qù„¬æ ^͉×=ò. They are in Delhi at present.

India is a great country. 10. =¶ father W„¬C_È° P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ L<Œß~¡°.


My father is at his office now.

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EXERCISE
11. „²•Á•° "Í°_Èg°^Î L<Œß~¡°.
Children are upstairs. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.

12. [O`Ç°=ô•° J_Èq…Õ LO\ì~ò. 1. <Í#° XH› bank L^˼yx.


Animals are in the forest.
2. ªÏ~¡"£ Q®OQ®¶b =°# team captain.
13. <Í#° W„¬C_È° KŒ…ì happy Qê =ô<Œß#°. 3. N KÇOã^΃ì|° T.D.P. J^•Î¼ä›½Æ _È°.
I am very happy now.
4. N A.P.J. Abdul Kalam =°# ~ŒR„¬u.
14. "Í°=ò D ~ËA KŒ…ì busy Qê L<Œß=ò.
5. =¶ uncle XH› heart specialist.
We are very busy today.
6. =¶ elder sister XH› post graduate.
15. =¶ cousin KŒ…ì ªé=°i.
My cousin is very lazy.
7. Mr. Rao =¶ Physics lecturer.

8. ‚
Ì ìá ^Î~Œƒì^ΰ XH› Qù„¬æ KŒiã`Œ`ÇàH› #Q®~=
¡ ò.
16. "Œ~¡° KŒ…ì c^Î"Œ~¡°.
They are very poor. 9. =¶ parents „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =¶ =îi…Õ =ô<Œß~°¡ .

17. D~ËA "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQêL#ßk. 10. _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° W„¬C_È° Physics lab …Õ
The weather is cold today.
=ô<Œß~¡°.
11. u~¡°„¬u XH› †Ç¶ã`Œ ‹¬Ö•=ò.
18. D ~ËA question paper KŒ…ì H›+¬“OQê
L#ßk. 12. H›=°…˜‚¬ð‹¬<£ XH› Qù„¬æ #@°_È°.
The question paper is very difficult 13. `³•°Q®°^͉O× XH› ‡ã •Of†Ç° ‡•s“.
today.
14. U‹¬°Hã ‹
© °¬ ë JO^ÎiH© „
ã ƒ¬ •’°=ô.
19. h=ô KŒ…ì |•‚Ôì#OQê =ô<Œß=ô.
15. ‡ã •¦ <£• XH› ‡•‰§ó`¼Ç ^͉=× ò.
You are very week.

20. =¶ grandmother J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê L<Œß~¡°.


My grand mother is ill.

Z
A great deal of talent is lost for want of a little courage. 150
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NEGATIVE FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬ô_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èx ª•Ö#=ò


(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° D college student x Hê#°. J "Í°=ò D town …Õ =ôO_È=ò.
J J`Ç_È° D~ËA duty …Õ …è_È°. J P"³° =¶ class teacher Hê^ΰ.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò …èx ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò …èx XH› Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
Present 'Be' Forms J~ò#
"Am not / Is not / Are not" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "am not"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "is not"
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "are not" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° XH› govt. employee x Hê#°. 7. "Œ~¡° ƒ•ì~¡f†Çò•° Hê~¡°.
I am not a government employee. They are not Indians.

2. "Í°=ò D Hê…èl q^¥¼~¡°Ö•O Hê^ΰ. 8. <Í#° h servant x Hê#°.


We are not the students of this college. I am not your servant.

3. D ㄬ=¶^¥xH÷ Hê~¡}O <Í#° Hê^ΰ. 9. J…ì =¶\ìÁ_È_¨xH÷ <Í#° „¦¬î…˜x Hê#°.


I am not responsible for this accident. I am not a fool to speak so.

4. =¶ father XH› lawyer Hê^ΰ. 10. =¶ cousin post graduate Hê^ΰ.


My father is not a lawyer. My cousin is not a post-graduate.

5. P"³° <Œ class mate Hê^ΰ. 11. P"³° W„¬C_È° J H›ƒ


Á ˜ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼~Œ•° Hê^ΰ.
She is not my class-mate. She is not a member of that club now.

6. T.D.P. *ìf†Ç° ‡•s“ Hê^ΰ. 12. =¶ father D~ËA duty…Õ …è~¡°.


The T.D.P. is not a national party. My father is not on duty today.

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13. P"³° W„¬C_È° WO\ÕÁ …è^ΰ. EXERCISE


She is not at home now. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
14. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° D town…Õ …è~¡°.
They are not in this town now. 1. <Í#° P party ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È#° Hê#°.
16. "Í°=ò D ~ËA busy Qê …è=ò. 2. "Í°=ò ^•Î#=O`Ç°•=òHê=ò.
We are not busy today. 3. J`Ç_È° D factory worker Hê^ΰ.
17. P"³ ° D ~ËA active Qê …è ^ Î ° . 4. P"³° =¶ class teacher Hê^ΰ.
She is not active today.
5. "Œ~¡° POã^•Î°•° Hê~¡°.
18. D course g°ä›½ L„¬†³¶Q®H›~¡O Hê^ΰ.
6. <Í#° D ~ËA free Qê …è#°.
This course is not useful to you.
7. "Í ° =ò ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O P committee …Õ
19. Physics ‹¬°•ƒ•’"°³ #
Ø subject Hê^ΰ.
‹¬ƒ•’°¼•=ò Hê^ΰ.
Physics is not an easy subject.
8. „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë Ç „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO…Õ P†Ç°# =°OãuHê^ΰ.
20. D item ~¡°zQê …è^ΰ.
This item is not delicious. 9. P"³° D hospital …Õ nurse Hê^ΰ.
10. "Œ~¡° D ãQê=° F@~¡°Á Hê~¡°.
11. <Í#° WH›ø_È happy Qê …è#°.
12. "Í°=ò ªé=°~¡°•O Hê^ΰ.
13. Sanskrit H›+¬“"³°Ø# subject Hê^ΰ.

14. P camera W„¬C_È° <Œ`Ë…è^ΰ.


15. J`Ç_È° x*ì~òf „¬~¡°_È°Hê^ΰ.
16. "Œ~¡° =°# ^Í‰× ‡Ï~¡°•° Hê~¡°.
17. J`Ç_È° <Œ friend Hê^ΰ.
18. Pt+¹ <³ã‚¬• ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç team …Õ …è_È°.
19. Wk =¶ ‹¬ÞO`Ç W•°ÁHê^ΰ.
20. "Œ~¡° <Œ well-wishers Hê^ΰ.

Z
Attention is one's first duty. 152
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QUESTION FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „ã ‹


¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô D Hê…èl q^¥¼iÖ"Œ? J g°~¡° D P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ L^˼Q®°…ì?
J g° father XH› lawyer Qê =ô<Œß~Œ? J P"³° D ~ËA J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ß^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß XH› Position, Place or Condition Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
Present 'Be' Forms J~ò#
"Am / Is / Are" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
'I' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "am"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "is"
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "are" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô Engineering q^¥¼iÖ"Œ? 6. h=ô ã „ ¬ ‹ ¬ ° ë ` Ç O Andhra University

Are you an engineering student? q^¥¼iÖ"Œ?


Are you a student of Andhra
2. g°~¡° D Hê•h "Œ‹¬°…ì?
University?
Are you the residents of this colony?
7. P"³° D ~Ë[O`Œ J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ß^¥?
3. g° father XH› businessman Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?
Is she sick today?
Is your father a businessman?
8. T\©…Õ climate KÇ•ÁQê =ôO@°O^¥?
4. g° brother U.S.A. …Õ Software Engineer
Is the climate cold in Ooty?
Qê †Çò<Œß~Œ?
Is your brother a Software Engineer in 9. g° father D~ËA busy Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?
the U.S.A.? Is your father busy today?

5. N=°u =¶•u g° English lecturer Qê 10. D ~ËA match interesting Qê =ô#ß^¥?


=ô<Œß~Œ? Is the match interesting today?

Is Mrs. Malathi your lecturer in English?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° Principal Z=~¡°? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Who is your Principal at present?

12. D ~ËA HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° H÷ h=ô ZO^Î ° ä› ½ late 1. g°~¡° XH› school teacher Qê L<Œß~Œ ?
J~ò<Œ=ô?
Why are you late to the class today ?
2. h=ô XH› Muslim =°`Ç‹°¬ _Ö •"Œ ?

13. g° parents Z…ì =ô<Œß~¡°? 3. J`Ç_È° XH› IAS Officer Qê L<Œß~Œ ?


How are your parents?
4. P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO P~ËQ®¼OQê L#ß^¥ ?
14. W„¬C_È° time ZO`Ç?
What time is it now?
5. "Œ~¡° g° |O^•Î°=ô…ì ?

15. g° HêÁ‹¬°…Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok girls =ô<Œß~¡°? 6. h=ô D club Secretary Qê L<Œß"Œ ?
Howmany girls are there in your class?
7. g° father D "Œ~¡O camp …Õ L<Œß~Œ ?
16. g° elder brother =†Ç°‹¬°• ZO`Ç?
8. P"³° XH› ‚²ìOn actress Qê L#ß^¥ ?
How old is your elder brother?

17. D <Œ•°yO\÷…Õ h ‹¬¶ø@~Ÿ Uk? 9. g° elder sister _¨H›“~Œ ?


Which is your scooter among these
10. D W•°Á g° ‹¬ÞO`Ç^Í<Œ ?
four?
11. g° native place Uk ?
18. ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO g° grand-father ZH›ø_È L<Œß~¡°?
Where is your grand-father now ? 12. g° family …Õ ZO`Ç=°Ok =ôO\ì~¡° ?
19. D ~ËA `ŒsY° Uq°? 13. h=ô Z=i g°^Î HË„¬OQê =ô<Œß=ô ?
What date is it today?
14. h hobbies Uq°\÷ ?
20. h=ô D ~ËA ZO^ΰ䛽 dull Qê =ô<Œß=ô ?.
Why are you dull today? 15. D new film Z…ì =ô#ßk ?

Z
A man should live within his income. 154
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡°
…è#@°=O\÷ XH› Position, Place or Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°
KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J Wk g° own house Hê^¥ ? J Sanskrit ‹¬°•ƒ•’"°³ #
Ø ƒ•ì+¬ Hê^¥ ?
J g° father XH› govt. employee Hê^¥ ? J <Í#° h ‰ã †
õ ¶³ a•…ì+²x Hê^¥?
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO =°#=ò …è#@°=O\÷ XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° …èx XH›
Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Isn't / Aren't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I' Subject Qê L#ß#¶ Aren't =KÇ°ó#°. Amn't L„¬†³¶yOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° Isn't
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° Aren't =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô Mr. <Œ~Œ†Ç°} Qêi 䛽=¶~¡°_•q 7. g° father W„¬C_È° WO\ÕÁ …è~Œ?
Hê^¥? Isn't your father at home now?
Aren't you the son of Mr. Narayana?
8. P"³° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO JH›ø_È ‹¬O`Ë+¬OQê …è^¥?
2. g°~¡° D ^ׇ͉Ï~¡°•° Hê^¥? Isn't she happy there at present ?
Aren't you the citizens of this country?
9. "Œ~¡° ^•Î#=O`Ç°•° Hê~Œ?
3. J`Ç_È° h class-mate Hê^¥? Aren't they rich?
Isn't he your class-mate ?
10. D~ËA cricket match interesting Qê …è^¥?
4. D~ËA Pk"Œ~¡O Hê^¥? Isn't the cricket match interesting today?
Isn't it Sunday today ?
11. h=ô govt. employee Hê^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° g° |O^•Î°=ô•° Hê~Œ? Aren't you a govt. employee ?
Aren't they your relatives ?
12. g° brother h䛽 helpful Qê =ôO_È_¨?
6. h=ô D~ËA duty …Õ …è"Œ? Isn't your brother helpful to you?
Aren't you on duty today ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

13. D~ËA Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽Hê^ΰ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why isn't it a holiday today?
1. h=ô D Hê…èl student q Hê^¥?
14. Ganguly team …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽…è_È°?
Why isn't Ganguly in the team? 2. g°~¡° XOQË•° =òx‹²‡•e\÷ F@~¡°Á Hê~Œ?
15. "Œ~¡° W„¬C_È° D town …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽…è~¡°? 3. J`Ç_°È W„¬C_È° P ‡•s“ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È° Hê^¥?
Why aren't they in the town at present? 4. P"³° g° own sister Hê^¥?
16. J`Ç_È° D~ËA duty …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽…è_È°? 5. "Œ~¡° öH~¡ˆ×"Œ~¡° Hê^¥?
Why isn't he on duty today?
6. h=ô government employee q Hê^¥?
17. h"³O^ΰ䛽 ^•³~á ¼¡ OQê LO_È=ô? 7. g° father W„¬C_È° `³•°Q®°^͉O× ‡•s“…Õ …è~Œ?
Why aren't you bold?
8. P"³° W„¬C_È° P school Head mistress
18. h=ô g° father `Ë close Qê ZO^ΰ䛽 Hê^¥?
=ôO_È=ô?
Why aren't you close with your father?
9. "Œ~¡° „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ Jk•Hê~¡O…Õ …è~Œ?
10. h=ô J`ÇxH÷ ‹¬xß‚²ì`Ç°_È=ôHê^¥?
19. "Œ~¡° SH›=°`ǼOQê ZO^ΰ䛽 LO_È~¡°?
Why aren't they united? 11. D~ËA g°\÷OQ·…Õ J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽…è_È°?
20. h=ô work …Õ serious QêZO^Î ° ä› ½ 12. "Œ~¡° „ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ g°ä›½ ZO^ΰ䛽 J#°ä›••OQê
LO_È=ô? …è~¡°?
Why aren't you serious at work? 13. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 XH› job …Õ ‹²Ö~¡OQê LO_È=ô?
21. KÇ O ã ^ Î ° _È ° ‹¬ ¶ ~¡ ° ¼_È ° JO`Ç bright Qê 14. P†Ç°# students `Ë ZO^ΰ䛽 strict Qê
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È_È°? LO_È_È°?
Why isn't the moon so bright as the
15. India …Õ [<Œƒ•ì Ì„~¡°Q®°^Ε ZO^ΰ䛽
sun?
control …Õ LO_È^ΰ?
22. ‹¬=òã^΄¬ô h~¡° ~¡°zQê ZO^ΰ䛽O_È^ΰ?
Why isn't the sea water tasty?

Z
Money is a good servant but a bad master. 156
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
=°#=ò D~ËA =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Am, Is, Are' • Q®°iOz
<Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D =ü_•O\÷x grammar …Õ Present Tense 'Be' forms JO\ì~¡ ° .
nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form
J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :


ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ L#ß XH› Position,
Place, Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "am / is / are " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex : 1. I am a clerk in this office. 2. We are in the play - ground now.

3. He is our M.L.A. 4. They are very busy today.

2. NEGATIVE FORM :

ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° …èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "am not / is not / are not " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I am not an innocent man. 2. He is not in the town today.

3. They are not helpful to us. 4. This book is not useful to us.

3. QUESTION FORM :

„¬‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° L#ß XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Am / Is / Are " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Are you an officer here? 2. Is he on duty now?

3. Are they poor ? 4. Is she a foreigner ?

4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :


ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ …èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz negative
sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Isn't / Aren't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

Ex : 1. Aren't you an employee? 2. Isn't she your sister?

3. Aren't they degree students ? 4. Isn't he at home today ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

301 gaze gazed gazed `Íi‡•~¡K¶ Ç KÇ°@


302 giggle giggled giggled =ò‹²=ò‹²Qê #=ôÞ@
303 glorify glorified glorified ‡ÚQ®_È°@
304 glow glowed glowed ^ÎQ®^ÎQ® "³°i†Çò@
305 grant granted granted ^Άǰ`Ë WKÇ°ó@
306 grasp grasped grasped ãQ®‚²ìOKÇ°@
307 greet greeted greeted =O^Î#=ò K͆Çò@
308 grip gripped gripped „²_•H÷e aQ®|@°“@
309 groan groaned groaned =ü•°Q®°@
310 grope groped groped `Ç_È°=òHù#°@
311 guess guessed guessed T‚²ìOKÇ°@
312 gulp gulped gulped Q®°@°ä›½ø# ãq°OQ®°@
313 hack hacked hacked =òH›ø•°Qê #~¡ä›½@
314 halt halted halted P„¬ô@, x•°„¬ô@
315 happen happened happened ‹¬Oƒ•’qOKÇ°@
316 hasten hastened hastened `ÇÞ~¡„¬~¡KÇ°@
317 hate hated hated ^ÍÞ+²OKÇ°@
318 heal healed healed ƒìQ®°K͆Çò, ã=¶#°æ@
319 hear heard heard q#°@
320 help helped helped ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°„¬_È°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
158 A mother is worth hundred teachers.
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'BE' FORMS - PAST - WAS, WERE


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° last year degree q^¥¼iÖx. J "Í°=ò 1985…Õ Vizag …Õ L<Œß=ò.
J =¶ father J„¬C_È° XH› bank officer. J P"³° last week hospital …Õ =ôO_•#k.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò
(Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 Past 'Be' forms J~ò#
"Was / Were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
'I, He, She, It' SubjectQê L#ß„¬ô_È° "was"
We, you, they Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° last year XH› WO@~Ÿ q^¥¼iÖx. 6. H›~¶
¡ ß•° J„¬C_È° =°# ~ŒR ~Œ[^•¥x.
I was an Intermediate student last year. Kurnool was the capital city of our
2. J„¬C_È° N N.T.R. =°# =òY¼=°OãuQê state then.
LO_•<Œ~¡°. 7. P"³° J„¬C_È° =¶ hostel warden.
Sri N.T.R. was our Chief-Minister then. She was our hostel warden then.
3. Smt. WOk~ŒQêOn• J„¬ C _È ° =°# 8. <Í#° x#ß P time …Õ library …Õ L<Œß#°.
„ã ^¬ •¥#=°Oãu. I was in the library at that time
Smt. Indira Gandhi was our Prime- yesterday.
minister then. 9. "Í°=ò last week =¶ native place …Õ
4. Mr. Rao =¶ä›½ J„¬C_È° „
ã x² •‡•….̃ LO_•<Œ=ò.
Mr. Rao was our Principal then. We were at our native place last week.
5. ƒì|¶ ~Œ*è O ã ^ Î ã „ ¬ ª •^£ =°# "³ ò ^Î \ ÷ 10. =°# =òY¼=°Oãu x#ßO`Œ _•bÁ…Õ L<Œß~°¡ .
~ŒR„¬u. The Chief-minister was in Delhi
Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad was our first yesterday.
Prime-Minister

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11. "Í°=ò x#ß D time …Õ „¬sH›Æ ‚¬ð•°…Õ EXERCISE


L<Œß=ò. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We were in the examination hall at this
time yesterday.
1. x#ß Pk"Œ~¡=ò.
12. =¶ father last week camp …Õ =ôO_•<Œ~¡°.
My father was on camp last week. 2. =¶ father J„¬C_È° P ‹¬¶ø…˜ ‚
Ì ì_£=¶‹¬~“ QŸ ê
13. "Í ° =ò z#ß„¬ C _È ° Hyderabad …Õ LO_•<Œ~¡°.
=ôO_•<Œ=ò.
3. H›„²…˜^Í"£ J„¬C_È° =°# team captain..
We were in Hyderabad in our child-
hood days. 4. <Í#° J„¬C_È° XH› z#ß„²•Á"Œ_È#°.
14. =°# Indian team last month Australia
5. XH›„C¬ _È° WO_•†Ç¶ KŒ…ì c^Î ^͉=
× ò.
tour …Õ =ôO_•#k.
Our Indian team was on tour in 6. "Œ}÷N P~ËA•…Õ XH› ㄬ=òY #\÷.
Australia last month.
7. WO@~Ÿ…Õ Sanskrit <Œ second language.
15. Accident time …Õ <Í#° Bus stop ^ÎQ®¾~¡
L<Œß#°. 8. N N.T.R. TDP ª•Ö„ä¬ ½› _È°.
I was at the bus stop at the time of
accident. 9. N ‰×OH›~Ÿ^ΆǶˆ˜ ‰×~¡à J„¬C_È° =°# ~ŒR
16. <Í#° x#ß KŒ…ì busy Qê LO_•<Œ#°. Q®=~¡ß~Ÿ.
I was very busy yesterday. 10. =¶ grandfather J„¬C_È° =¶ =îi ‹¬~æ¡ OKŸ.
17. "Í°=ò XH›„¬C_È° KŒ…ì c^Î"Œ~¡=ò.
We were very poor once.
11. <Í#° x#ß office H÷ …è\˜ J~ò<Œ#°.
18. x#ß match KŒ…ì interesting Qê =ô#ßk. 12. <Í#° z#ß„¬C_È° KŒ…ì „²iH÷"Œ_È#°.
The cricket match was very interesting
yesterday.
13. "Œ~¡° XH›„C¬ _È° KŒ…ì ^•Î#=O`Ç°•°.
19. P"³° x#ß J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê LO_•#k. 14. P"³° x#ß WO\ÕÁ XO@iQê LO_•#k.
She was sick yesterday.
15. x#ß English question paper KŒ…ì easy
20. x#ß Manager <ŒÌ „ á KŒ…ì HË„¬ O Qê Qê LO_•#k.
LO_•<Œ_È°.
The manager was very angry with me
yesterday. Z
A live ass is better than a dead lion. 160
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NEGATIVE FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° J„¬C_È° D office …Õ L^˼yx Hê#°. J "Í°=ò last year D town …Õ …è=ò.
J =¶ brother x#ß duty …Õ …è_È°. J P"³° x#ß P time …Õ WO\ÕÁ …è^ΰ.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Was not / Were not" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I, He, She, It' – > Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "was not"
We, You, They – > Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "were not " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° J„¬C_È° D Hê…èl ‹¬¶“_³O\˜x Hê^ΰ. 7. ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn• J„¬C_È° ‡•s“ J^•Î¼ä›½Æ ~Œ•°
I was not a student of this college then. Hê^ΰ.
2. "Í°=ò J„¬C_È° class mates Hê^ΰ. Mrs. Sonia Gandhi was not the party
We were not class-mates then. President then.
3. =¶ father J„¬C_È° businessman Hê^ΰ. 8. x#ß Ì‹•=ô …è^ΰ.
My father was not a business man Yesterday was not a holiday.
then. 9. "Œ~¡° XH›„C¬ _È° ƒ•ì~¡`Ç ^Í‰× ‡Ï~¡°•° Hê~¡°.
4. Mr. Rao J„¬C_È° =¶ „
ã x
² •„¬…˜ Hê^ΰ. They were not Indian citizens once.
Mr. Rao was not our Principal then. 10. J`Ç_È° J„¬C_È° JO`Ç `³e"³á#"Œ_È° Hê^ΰ.
5. N KÇOã^΃ì|° J„¬C_È° =òY¼=°Oãu Hê^ΰ. He was not so clever then.
Sri Chandra Babu was not the Chief- 11. "Œ~¡° XH›„C¬ _È° ^•Î#=O`Ç°•° Hê^ΰ.
minister then. They were not rich once.
6. last year J`Ç_È° D H›OÌ„h L^˼y Hê^ΰ. 12. P~ËA•…Õ XOQË•° XH› Ì„^Îí town Hê^ΰ.
He was not an employee of this Ongole was not a big town in those
company last year. days.

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13. J„¬C_È° J`Ç_°È <Œä›½ JO`Ç ‹¬xß‚ì² `ÇO Hê^ΰ. EXERCISE


He was not so intimate to me then. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
14. =°# ãH÷ïH\˜ \©"£° J„¬C_È° JO`Ç |•"³°Ø#k
Hê^ΰ. 1. <Í#° J„¬C_È° D H›ƒ
Á …˜ Õ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È#° Hê#°.
Our cricket team was not so strong
then. 2. N "Œ*˜„
À ~ò J„¬C_È° =°# „
ã ^
¬ •¥x Hê^ΰ.

15. x#ß cricket match P‹¬H÷ëH›~¡OQê …è^ΰ. 3. Q®OQ®¶b J„¬C_È° team captain Hê^ΰ.
The circket match was not interesting
4. P"³° last year =¶ class teacher Hê^ΰ.
yesterday.
5. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È° =¶ Hê•h "Œ‹¬°•° Hê~¡°.
16. last month D W•°Á MìmQê …è^ΰ.
This house was not vacant last month. 6. =¶ father J„¬C_È° "Œ¼‡•i Hê^ΰ.
17. P ~ËA•…Õ "Œ¼‡•~¡°•° Jqhu„¬~¡°•° 7. "Í°=ò X Class …Õ classmates Hê^ΰ.
Hê~¡°.
8. J„¬C_È° |OQê~¡O ^•Î~¡ Z䛽ø=Qê …è^°Î .
Businessmen were not corrupted in
those days. 9. =¶ Q®`Ç „ã x² •‡•…˜ strict Hê^ΰ.
18. x#ß dinner …Õ items ~¡°zQê …è=ô. 10. x#ß =¶ journey comfortable Qê …è^ΰ.
The items were not delicious in dinner
yesterday.
11. x#ß JH›ø_È programme interesting Qê
…è^ΰ.
19. x#ß function …Õ U~Œæ @ °Á guests ä› ½
ªÏH›~¡¼OQê …è=ô. 12. P"³° J„¬C_È° WO`Ç weak Qê …è^ΰ.
The arrangements in the function were 13. x#ß H›$‘•âZH±•„Ì ã ‹¹ late Hê…è^ΰ.
not comfortable to the guests
yesterday. 14. last year chairman „¬ ^ Î q H÷ P†Ç ° #
‡é\©…Õ …è~¡°.
20. J„¬C_È° „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•° "ŒiH÷ J#°ä›••OQê
…è=ô. 15. Last year J`Ç_È° P firm …Õ partner Hê^ΰ.

Circumstances were not favourable to


them then.

Z
A liar is seldom trusted. 162
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° J„¬C_È° D factory …Õ workers Qê =ôO_•<Œ~Œ? J x#ß h=ô leave …Õ =ôO_•<Œ"Œ?
J x#ß programme interesting Qê =ôO_•#^¥? J P"³° XH›„C¬ _È° g° WO\ÕÁ LO_•#^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_•# ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`"Ç Œ~¡O, Q®`<Ç •³ , Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# Position, Place or Condition ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽 Past 'Be' forms J~ò#
"Was / Were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I, He, She, It' Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "was"
We, You, They Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "were" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô last year degree q^¥¼iÖ"Œ? 7. J„¬ C _È ° N.T.R. =°# =òY¼=°Oã u Qê
Were you a degree student last year? LO_•<Œ~Œ?
Was N.T.R. our Chief-minister then?
2. g°~¡° WO@sà_•†³°\˜…Õ class mates Qê
=ôO_•<Œ~Œ? 8. h=ô J„¬C_È° P H›OÌ„h…Õ accountant Qê
Were you class-mates in Intermediate? =ôO_•<Œ"Œ?
Were you an accountant in that
3. g° father XH›„C¬ _È° politics …Õ =ôO_•<Œ~Œ?
company then?
Was your father in politics once?

4. P"³° x#ß P~ËQ®¼OQê LO_•#^¥? 9. Last month =~¡ ä › ½ P W•°Á MìmQê


LO_•#^¥?
Was she sick yesterday?
Was that house vacant till last month?
5. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° c^Î"Œ~Œ?
10. x#ß exam hall …Õ invigilator strict Qê
Were they poor once?
LO_•<Œ~Œ?
6. XH›„¬C_È° XOQË•° z#ß town Qê LO_Í^¥? Was the invigilator stirict in the exam
Was Ongole a small town once? hall yesterday ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. POã^•Î„
ã ^
¬ ‰Í ˜ "³ò^Î\÷ =òY¼=°Oãu Z=~¡° ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Who was the first Chief-minister of
Andhra Pradesh?
12. h=ô x#ß HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° ä› ½ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ absent 1. x#ß g°~¡° busy Qê LO_•<Œ~Œ ?
J~ò<Œ=ô?
Why were you absent from the class 2. Last week h=ô Chennai LO_•<Œ"Œ ?
yesterday?
13. P time …Õ h=ô library ^ÎQ®¾~¡ ZO^ΰ䛽 3. x#ß h=ô special duty …Õ LO_•<Œ"Œ ?
=ô<Œß=ô?
Why were you near the library at that
4. g° father XH›„¬C_È° g° Ti ‹¬~¡æOKŸQê
time? LO_•<Œ~Œ ?
14. Last Sunday g°~¡° ZH›ø_È =ô<Œß~¡°?
Where were you last Sunday?
5. JH›ø_È "Œ~¡° h䛽 helpful Qê LO_•<Œ~Œ?
15. x#ß exams …Õ question paper Z…ì 6. h=ô J„¬C_È° VVM College q^¥¼iÖ"Œ ?
=ôO_•#k ?
How was the question paper in the 7. x#ß h=ô class H÷ late J~ò<Œ"Œ ?
examination yesterday?
16. N.T.R. =°Oã u =~¡ ¾ O …Õ ZO`Ç = °Ok 8. g° father XH›„¬C_È° railway employee Qê
ministers =ôO_•<Œ~¡° ? LO_¨<Œ~Œ ?
Howmany ministers were there in
N.T.R's cabinet? 9. Last week h=ô camp …Õ LO_¨<Œ"Œ ?
17. ^ùOyeO„¬|_•# bag …Õ ZO`Ç amount
=ôO_•#k ? 10. x#ß circus show Z…ì =ôO_•#k ?
Howmuch amount was there in the
stolen bag? 11. x#ß h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 leave …Õ L<Œß=ô ?
18. Last month P"³° hospital …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_•#k ? 12. x#ß match …Õ Indian team …Õ ZO`Ç
Why was she in the hospital last =°Ok bowlers LO_•<Œ~¡° ?
month?
19. 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò• Hã `÷ OÇ =°# ~ŒRO…Õ Zxß 13. J`Ç _ È ° P time …Õ JH› ø _È ZO^Î ° ä› ½
universities =ôO_•#q ? =ô<Œß_È° ?
Howmany universities were there in
our state ten years ago? 14. XH›„¬C_È° D house Z=ik ?
20. x#ß g° annual day function H÷ chief
guest Z=~¡°?
15. J„¬C_È° g° Branch Manager Z=~¡° ?
Who was the chief-guest to your
annual day function yesterday ?
Z
Wise men love truth where as fools shun it. 164
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß„¬C_È° Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
=°#=ò =ôO_È x XH› Position, Place or Condition Q® ° iOz negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J x#ß cricket match P‹¬H÷ëH›~¡OQê …è^¥ ? J x#ß absenties list …Õ J`Çx À„~¡° …è^¥?
J x#ß g° ㄬ†Ç¶}O comfortable Qê …è^¥? J h=ô x#ß duty …Õ …è"Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ =°#=ò LO_Èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx LO_Èx, …èx XH› Position,
Place, Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Wasn't / Weren't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject I, He, She, It J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Wasn't'
We, You, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Weren't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô last year P offfice …Õ accountant 6. x#ß P time …Õ <Í#° JH›ø_È …è<Œ?
q Hê^¥? Wasn't I there at that time yesterday ?
Weren't you an accountant in that office
7. "Œ~¡° x#ß JH›ø_È busy Qê …è~Œ?
last year?
Weren't they busy there yesterday?
2. h=ô x#ß staff meeting …Õ …è"Œ?
8. x#ß question paper easy Qê …è^¥?
Weren't you in the staff meeting
Wasn't the question paper easy
yesterday?
yesterday ?
3. x#ß ‰×x"Œ~¡=ò Hê^¥?
9. x#ß party …Õ dinner ƒìQê …è^¥?
Wasn't it Saturday yesterday ?
Wasn't the dinner delicious in the party
4. XH›„¬C_È° P†Ç°# P firm H÷ owner Hê^¥? yesterday?
Wasn't he the owner of that firm once ?
10. P†Ç°# x#ß office H÷ late Hê…è^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° XH›„¬C_È° c^Î"Œ~¡° Hê^¥? Wasn't he late to the office yesterday ?
Weren't they poor once?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. x#ß h=ô English class …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 …è=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why weren't you in the English class
yesterday?
1. x#ß programme ƒìQê …è^¥?
12. J`Ç_È° h䛽 JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 helpful Qê 2. D chapter last year syllabus …Õ …è^¥?
…è_È°?
Why wasn't he helpful to you there? 3. x#ß JH›ø_È U problem …è^¥?
13. P"³° x#ß function …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ? 4. Olden days …Õ =°#^͉×O…Õ Jqhu…è^¥?
Why wasn't she in the function
5. QêOn• Qêi ‹²^¥œO`Œ•° ‹¬i†³°Ø #qHê"Œ?
yesterday ?
14. hÀ „ ~¡ °
first list …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ …è ^ Î ° ?
6. ‡ã •*ÿä½› •“ ° xiàOKÇ@O J„¬æ\÷ „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ŒÞxH÷
Why wasn't your name in the first list?
ª•^•Î¼„_¬ …È ^è ¥?
15. x#ß ‡é\©…Õ h"³O^ΰ䛽 …è=ô? 7. J„¬æ\ÕÁ „¬O*샘 ‹¬=°‹¬¼ KŒ…ì H÷Á+¬“"³°Ø#k
Why weren't you in the competition Hê^¥?
yesterday? 8. P ‹¬O^Î~Ä¡•O…Õ J`Ç_°È ‹¬O`Ë+¬OQê…è_¨?
16. x#ß\÷ match …Õ Ganguly ZO^ΰ䛽 …è_È°? 9. WOk~ŒQêOn• =°Oãu=~¡O¾ …Õ M.S.R ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_°È
Why wasn't Ganguly in yesterday's
Hê^¥?
match?
17. x#ß ZO^ΰ䛽 Ì‹•=ô Hê^ΰ? 10. Ongole XH› „ ¬ C _È ° Guntur l…ìÁ … Õxk
Why wasn't it a holiday yesterday? Hê^¥?
18. P ~ËA•…Õ _È|°Ä䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 q•°=…è^ΰ? 11. h=ô x#ß P time …Õ WO\ÕÁ ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?
Why wasn't money valuable in those 12. P ~ËA•…Õ money ‹¬ O ‡•kOKÇ @ O
days?
ZO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬°•ƒ•’O Hê^ΰ?
19. W„¬æ\÷ ~ËA•O`Ç "ÍQ®OQê J„¬æ\÷ ~ËA•°
13. D rules Jhß XH›„¬C_È° ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?
ZO^ΰ䛽 …è=ô?
Why weren't those days so fast as these 14. P"³° x#ß journey …Õ *ìãQ®`ÇëQê ZO^ΰ䛽O_È
days? …è^ΰ?
20. XH›„æ\
¬ ÷ WO_•†Ç¶ D<Œ\÷ WO_•†Ç¶ JO`Ç 15. h=ô x#ß JH›ø_È ‹¬i†³Ø°# ‹¬=°†Ç¶xH÷
|•OQê ZO^ΰ䛽 …è^ΰ? ZO^ΰ䛽…è=ô?
Why wasn't yester-India so strong as
today's India?
Z
When love and skill work together, a masterpiece is expected. 166
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'was / were' • Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'was / were' D ï~O_•O\÷x grammar …Õ Past Tense 'Be' forms JO\ì~¡ ° . nx…Õ
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "was / were " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I was sick yesterday. 2. We were on tour last week.
3. He was our group leader then. 4. They were absent from the class yesterday.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Was not / Were not " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I was not an employee then. 2. He was not on duty yesterday.
3. We were not aware of it then. 4. They were not Indians once.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_•# XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "was / were " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Were you on strike last week? 2. Was she ill then?
3. Was he in the hospital last month ? 4. Were they at work at that time?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Wasn't / Weren't " L„¬†¶
³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Weren't you a hostler last year?
2. Wasn't he in the restaurant at that time?
3. Weren't they poor once?
4. Wasn't she in your house then ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

321 hike hiked hiked Ì„~¡Q®°@


322 hire hired hired J^³í䛽 f‹¬°Hù#°@
323 hiss hissed hissed |°‹¬Hù@°“@
324 hoist hoisted hoisted Ì„áH÷Z`Ç°ë@
325 horrify horrified horrified ƒ•’†°Ç „Ì @°“@
326 hug hugged hugged HÒyeOKÇ°Hù#°@
327 hunt hunted hunted "Í\ì_È°@
328 hurl hurled hurled ^ùiÁOKÇ°
329 Identify identified identified Q®°~¡°ëOKÇ°Hù#°@
330 ignore ignored ignored x~¡ÁH›Æ¼=òK͆Çò@
331 illtreat illtreated illtreated x~Œ^•Î~}¡ K͆ò Ç @
332 imagine imagined imagined T‚²ìOKÇ°@
333 impart imparted imparted ƒÕk•OKÇ°@
334 import imported imported kQ®°=°u K͆Çò@
335 impose imposed imposed qk•OKÇ°@
336 impress impressed impressed =°#‹¬°…Õ =òã^Î"͆Çò@
337 inaugurate inaugurated inaugurated ‡ã •~¡Oa•OKÇ°@
338 include included included H›•°„¬ôHù#°@
339 increase increased increased Ì„OKÇ°@
340 indicate indicated indicated ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
168 Prosperity makes friends and adversity tries them.
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'BE' FORMS - FUTURE - WILL BE

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô


ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° next year officer Qê =ôO\ì#°. J N Ì+Hê=`Ÿ next President Qê LO\ì~¡°.
J next two weeks <Í#° =¶ =îi…Õ LO\ì#°. J "Œ~¡° WH›#°Oz =°#`Ë<Í LO\ì~¡°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’=+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
=°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_ȃÕ=ô Position, Place or Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
Future 'Be' form J~ò# "Will be" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "will be" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° next year Branch Manager Qê 6. P"³° g°ä›½ next year Head-mistress Qê
LO\ì#°. LO\ì~¡°.
I will be the Branch Manager next year. She will be your Head-mistress next
2. "Í°=ò next year final year q^¥¼~¡°Ö•°Qê year.
LO\ì=ò. 7. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô.
We will be the final year students next Tomorrow will be a holiday.
year. 8. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D >ÿØO…Õ g°\÷OQ®°…Õ LO\ì#°.
3. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ã^¥q_£ =°# \©O next captain. I will be in the meeting at this time
Rahul Dravid will be the next captain tomorrow.
of our team. 9. "Í°=ò WOHùH› ï~O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•° D
4. ö~„¬ô match winner J`Ç_Í. \º<£…Õ<Í LO\ì=ò.
He will be the winner of the match We will be in this town two more years.
tomorrow. 10. ö~„¬ô E-TV…Õ XH› special programme
5. WH›#°Oz P†Ç°# h䛽 ‹¬O~¡H›Æ䛽_È°. =ôO@°Ok.
He will be your guardian hereafter. There will be a special programme on
E.TV tomorrow.
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11. =KÍ ó "Í ‹ ¬ q …Õ water problem KŒ…ì EXERCISE


fã=OQê LO@°Ok. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Water problem will be severe next
summer.
1. N=°u =°OA• =¶ Hê…è l H÷ next
12. Ì‹•H›Æ<£ `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç 15 ~ËA• training
Principal Qê =ôO\ì~¡°.
=ôO@°Ok.
There will be a 15 day training after 2. ö~„¬\÷ =¶¼KŸ…Õ ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ã^¥q_£ ïHÌ„“<£Qê
the selection. =ôO\ì_È°.
13. "Í°=ò WH› administration …Õ KŒ…ì strict 3. 2008 =~¡ä›½ N=°u ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn•
Qê LO\ì=ò. HêOãQï ‹¹ ‡•s“ J^•Î¼ä›½Æ ~ŒeQê LO\ì~¡°.
We will be very strict in administration
hereafter. 4. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D >ÿØ"£°H÷ _ȶ¼\©…Õ LO\ì#°.
14. =KÍó ~ï O_È° <³••° D ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ =~ŒÂ•° 5. "Í°=ò WH›#°Oz work …Õ sincere Qê
LO\ì~ò. LO\ì=ò.
There will be rains in this area next two 6. ö ~ „¬ ô match KŒ…ì interesting Qê
months.
=ôO@°Ok.
15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô KŒ…ì busy Qê LO\ì#°.
7. Dª•i question paper easy Qê
I will be very busy tomorrow.
=ôO@°Ok.
16. ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQê LO@°Ok.
The weather will be cold here 8. "Œ~¡° WH› =¶ WO\ÕÁ<Í LO\ì~¡°.
tomorrow. 9. "Í ° =ò WH› # °Oz KŒ…ì careful Qê
17. "Í°=ò h䛽 JH›ø_È KŒ…ì helpful Qê LO\ì=ò.
=ôO\ì=ò. 10. J`Ç_È° P committee H÷ next Chairman
We will be helpful to you there.
Qê LO\ì_È°.
18. ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ staff meeting =ôO@°Ok.
There will be a staff meeting in the
11. <Í#° h䛽 WH›ø_È helpful Qê =ôO\ì#°.
office tomorrow. 12. =¶ brother next year university …Õ
19. =KÍó ~ï O_È° <³••° =¶q°_• ^•Î~¡ KñH›Qê LO\ì_È°.
LO@°Ok. 13. N=°u =¶•u 2008 =~¡ä›½ D scool …Õ
The price of mango will be cheap next
Head-mistress Qê LO\ì~¡°.
two months.
20. ~ö „¬ô ‡•s“ KŒ…ì grand Qê =ôO@°Ok.
The party will be very grand tomorrow. Z
One man's meat is another man's poison. 170
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò (Position)
‹¬Ö•=ò (place) ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô duty …Õ LO_È#°. J "Í°=ò next year D town …Õ LO_È=ò.
J P"³° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È free Qê LO_È^ΰ. J "Œ~¡° WH› h䛽 helpful Qê LO_È~¡°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx ª•Ö#=ò, ‹¬•Ö =ò, ‹²u
Ö
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› ª•Ö#=ò
(Position) ‹¬• Ö =ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will not + be" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##° "Will not be" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D time H÷ WO\ÕÁ LO_È#°. 5. P"³° WH› P school Head-mistress Qê
I won't be at home at this time LO_È~¡°.
tomorrow. She won't be the Head-mistress of that
2. "Í°=ò next year D college q^¥¼~¡°•Ö °Qê school hereafter.
LO_È=ò. 6. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô =ôO_È^ΰ.
We won't be the students of this Tomorrow will not be a holiday.
college next year. 7. <Í#° WH› P party member Qê LO_È#°.
3. Next series H÷ Ganguly =°# team I won't be a member of that party
captain Qê LO_È_È°. hereafter.
Ganguly won't be the captain of our 8. "Í°=ò WH› D town …Õ LO_È=ò.
team in the next series. We won't be in this town hereafter.
4. ö ~ „¬ \ ÷ match …Õ referee Qê J`Ç _ È ° 9. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô duty …Õ LO_È_È°.
LO_È_È°. He won't be on duty tomorrow.
He won't be the referee in the match
tomorrow.
10. "Í°=ò WH› J`ÇxH÷ helpful Qê LO_È=ò.
We won't be helpful to him hereafter.

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11. <Í#° WH› careless Qê LO_È#°. EXERCISE


I won't be careless hereafter.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. "Í°=ò WH› P firm partners Qê LO_È=ò.
We won't be partners of that firm
hereafter. 1. <Í#° WH› J`Çx`Ë close Qê LO_È#°
13. D interview `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç g°ä›½ training
2. "Í°=ò WH› office H÷ late J==ò.
LO_È^ΰ.
There won't be any training after this 3. P"³° next year hostel …Õ LO_È^ΰ.
interview.
4. J`Ç_È° next elections H÷ ‡é\©…Õ LO_È_È°.
14. ZxßH›• `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç J`Ç_È° P post …Õ
LO_È_È°. 5. "Œ~¡° WH› D field …Õ LO_È~¡°.
He won't be in that post after the
elections.
6. Next year g°ä› ½ syllabus heavy Qê
LO_È^ΰ.
15. WH› D "Œ¼‡•~¡=ò …샕’^¥†Ç°H›OQê
LO_È^ΰ. 7. ~ŒƒÕ†Í° ~ËA•…Õ _È|°Ä ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ_OÈ
This business won't be profitable easy Qê LO_È^ΰ.
hereafter.
16. ö~„¬\÷ programme …Õ U =¶~¡°æ LO_È^ΰ. 8. g°ä›½ JH›ø_È U q^•Î"°³ #Ø objection LO_È^°Î .
There won't be any change in 9. ~ö „¬ô =°# town …Õ power supply LO_È^°Î .
tomorrow's programme.
17. 58 ‹¬OII =†Ç°‹¬°• `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç P†Ç°# service 10. <Í#° WH› "Œi care taker Qê LO_È#°.
…Õ LO_È~¡°. 11. D ï~O_È° <³•…Õ D ㇕O`ÇO…Õ =~¡ÂO
He won't be in service after 58 years
LO_È^ΰ.
of age.
18. P"³° WH› =°#`Ë LO_È^ΰ. 12. ö~„¬ô work …Õ delay LO_È^ΰ.
She won't be with us hereafter.
13. Group-I officerJQ® ° @ä› ½ hä› ½ D
19. P†Ç°# WH› P party H÷ president Qê knowledge KŒ•^ΰ.
LO_È~¡°.
He won't be the president of the party 14. JH›ø_È D =°O^ΰ•° •a•OKÇ=ô.
hereafter.
15. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô D time H÷ office …Õ LO_È~¡°.
20. U q^•Î"°³ #Ø damage H÷ <Í#° ƒì^•Î°¼_È°Qê
LO_È#°.
I won't be responsible for any damage.

Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøøª•i =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬Ê†Ç°`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô ª•Ö#=ò
(Position), ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place), ‹²Öu (Condition) Q®°iOz ㄬtOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J ö~„¬ô h=ô town …Õ LO\ì"Œ ? J P"³° WOH› g° `Ë<Í LO@°O^¥ ?


J "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô busy Qê LO\ì~Œ J g°~¡° ö~„¬ô D time H÷ exam hall …Õ LO\ì~Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô place, position,
condition #° Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò,
=°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° LO_ȃÕ=ô position, place or condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽 Future
'BE' Form J~ò#
' Will + be' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note :
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'Will be' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ö~„¬ô leave …Õ LO\ì"Œ ? 7. h=ô ~ö „¬ô ª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ WO\÷ ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ LO\ì~Œ?
Will you be on leve tomorrow ? Will you be at home tomorrow
2. g°~¡ ° <Œä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ helpful evening?
LO\ì~Œ ? 8. P†Ç ° # next time chairman „¬ ^ Î q H÷
Will you be helpful to me in this matter? ‡é\©…Õ LO\ì~Œ ?
3. g° father next week camp …Õ LO\ì~Œ? Will he be in the competition for the
Will your father be on camp next week? post of the chairman next time ?

4. h=ô next year University student Qê 9. ö~„¬ô office …Õ staff-meeting LO@°O^¥?


LO\ì"Œ ? Will there be staff-metting in the office
Will you be a university student next tomorrow ?
year ? 10. P†Ç°# P party H÷ next president Qê
5. P"³° WH› g°`Ë<Í LO@°O^¥ ? LO\ì~Œ ?
Will she be with you hereafter ? Will he be the next president of the

6. "Œ~¡° WH› #°OK³á<Œ careful Qê LO\ì~Œ? party ?

Will they be careful hereafter ?


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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. ö~„¬ô D time H÷ g°~¡° ZH›ø_È LO\ì~¡° ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Where will you be at this time
tomorrow?
1. Next year h=ô hostel …Õ LO\ì"Œ ?
12. H÷ next
India president Qê Z=~¡ °
LO\ì~¡° ? 2. Next series H÷ Lakshman team …Õ
Who will be the next President of
=ôO\ì_¨ ?
India? 3. ö~„¬ô J`Ç_È° free Qê LO\ì_¨ ?
13. h=ô next month Hyderabad …Õ Zxß 4. ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È entertainment programmes
~ËA•° LO\ì=ô ? LO\ì†Ç¶ ?
Howmany days will you be in 5. g° parents WH› #°Oz g° `Ë<Í =ôO\ì~Œ?
Hyderabad next month ?
6. "Œ~¡° D ª•i „¬sH›•Æ time …Õ strict Qê
14. P book price ZO`Ç =ôO@°Ok ? LO\ì~Œ ?
What will be the price of that book ?
7. g°~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô D time H÷ journey …Õ
15. ã H ù`Ç ë H› q °\© … Õ ZO`Ç = °Ok ‹¬ ƒ •’ ° ¼•° =ôO\ì~Œ?
LO\ì~¡° ?
8. ö~„¬ô working day <Œ ?
Howmany members will be there in
the new committee ? 9. ƒ•’q+¬Ê†Ç°`Ç°…ë Õ computing …Õ progress
LO@°O^¥ ?
16. g° next programme Uq° =ôO@°Ok ?
What will be you next programme ? 10. D products 䛽 ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ demand H÷
LO@°O^¥ ?
17. Group-I Main exam. Z„¬C_È° LO@°Ok?
When will be the Main exam. for 11. S.S.C. H÷ next year #°Oz Zxß subjects
Group-I posts ? LO\ì~ò ?
18. University „¬sH›Æ•° Z„¬C_È° LO\ì~ò ? 12. Hã ù`Çë =°Oãu =~¡O¾ …Õ ZO`Ç =°Ok =°Oã`°Ç •°
When will be the university LO\ì~¡° ?
examinations ? 13. h ㄬ†Ç°`Œß• „¦¬e`ÇO Z…ì =ôO@°Ok ?
19. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ôO^ΰ䛽 =ôO@°Ok ? 14. g° college H÷ next principal Z=~¡° ?
Why will there be a holiday tomorrow?
15. Next world cup ãH÷ïH\˜ ‡é\©•° ZH›ø_È
20. Next meeting Z„¬C_È° =ôO@°Ok ? LO\ì~ò ?
When will be the next meeting ?
Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò =ôO_Èx XH›
Position, Place or Condition Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J h=ô ö~„¬ô free Qê LO_È"Œ ? J g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ J`ÇxH÷ helpful Qê LO_È~Œ?


J "Œ~¡° WH› =°#`Ë LO_È~Œ? J J`Ç_È° =KÍó ZxßH›•ä›½ ‡é\©…Õ LO_È_¨?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› Postion, Place, Condition #° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò Qêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx LO_Èx, XH› Position,
Place, Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽

"Shalln't / Won't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
Subject I, We J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Shalln't'
You, He, She, It, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'Won't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô ö~„¬ô WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ LO_È"Œ? 7. =KÍ ó World Cup team …Õ Ganguly
Won't you be at home tomorrow? LO_È_¨?
Won't Ganguly be in the team for the
2. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô 5 pm `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç office …Õ
LO_È~Œ? next World Cup?
Won't you be in the office after 5 pm 8. ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È U ‹¬=°‹¬¼ LO_È^¥?
tomorrow? Won't there be any problem there
tomorrow?
3. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô duty …Õ LO_È_¨?
Won't he be on duty tomorrow ? 9. Wk ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH› L„¬†³¶Q®H›~¡"³°Ø#
course Qê LO_È^¥?
4. P"³ ° next year hostel …Õ LO_È ^ ¥?
Won't it be a useful course in future?
Won't she be in the hostel next year?
10. India ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‰×H=
ë÷ O`Ç"°³ #
Ø ^͉O× Qê
5. "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 JH›ø_È helpful Qê LO_È~Œ? LO_È^¥?
Won't they be helpful to us there?
Won't India be a powerful nation in
6. h=ô WH› g°^Î@ =¶`Ë LO_È"Œ? future?
Won't you be with us hereafter?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 successful Qê D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
LO_È=ô?
Why won't you be successful in future?
1. h=ô ö~„¬ô camp …Õ LO_È"Œ?
12. D course g°ïHO^ΰ䛽 useful Qê LO_È^°Î ?
Why won't this course be useful to you? 2. P†Ç°# P college H÷ next Principal Qê
LO_È~Œ?
13. ƒ•’q+¬¼`°Ç …ë Õ soft -ware H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 _•=¶O_£
=ôO_È^ΰ? 3. P"³° next year D dept …Õ LO_È^¥?
Why won't there be demand for soft-
ware in future? 4. "Œ~¡° WH› P Ti…Õ LO_È~Œ?
14. J`Ç_°È ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°Oz position …Õ 5. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô P game …Õ LO_È~Œ?
ZO^ΰ䛽O_È_È°?
Why won't he be in a good position in 6. ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ ƒ•ì~¡`^Ç ‰Í O× …Õ Jqhu LO_È^¥?
future?
7. ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô =ôO_È^¥?
15. P"³° P~ËQ®¼OQê ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È^ΰ?
Why won't she be healthy? 8. J`Ç_°È WH› h ƒ•ìQ®ª•Þq°Qê LO_È_¨?
16. "Œ~¡° Dª•i ‡é\©…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È~°¡ ? 9. P†Ç°# WH› P post …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 =ôO_È_È°?
Why won't they be in the competition
this time?
10. h=ô ö ~ „¬ ô discussions …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
=ôO_È=ô?
17. h=ô ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ "Œ¼‡•~¡~O¡ Q®O…Õ ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È=ô? 11. g°~¡° WH› P club …Õ members Qê ZO^ΰ䛽
Why won't you be in the business field =ôO_È~¡°?
in future?

18. D book =°#ä› ½ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 12. "Œ~¡° WH› g°^Î@ ZO^ΰ䛽 H›e‹²=ôO_È~¡°?
=ô„¬†³¶Q®„¬_È^ΰ? 13. h=ô WH› g°^Î @ <Œ`Ë ZO^Î ° ä› ½
Why won't this book be useful to us?
co-operative Qê LO_È=ô?
19. Next year #°O_• degree course ZO^ΰ䛽
‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê =ôO_È^°Î ? 14. J`Ç_È° P „¬^Îq…Õ Z䛽ø= Hê•O ZO^ΰ䛽
Why won't the Degree course be easy LO_È_È°?
from next year on words?
15. D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O ZO^ΰ䛽 =~ŒÂ•° =ôO_È=ô?
20. "Œ~¡ ° D ~¡ O Q® O …Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½ ‹² Ö ~ ¡ O Qê
LO_È~¡°?
Why won't they be constant in this field? Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'won't be' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
nxx grammar …Õ Future Tense 'Be' form JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form
3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i
revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 Future "be" form J~ò# "will be " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I will be a law graduate next year.
2. We will be in the conference hall tomorrow.
3. He will be alright after the treatment.
4. They will be good at English after the coaching.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "will not be " (won't be) L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I won't be in this section next year.
2. We won't be present in the party tomorrow.
3. He won't be troublesome in future.
4. They won't be in power after the next elections.
3. QUESTION FORM :
Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_ȃÕ=ô XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall / Will + be " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shall we be here to - night? 3. Will he be successful in his attempt?
2. Will you be careful next time? 4. Will they be in the U.S.A. perminently?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ LO_Èx XH› Position, Place,
Condition Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't / Won't + be " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ
=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shalln't we be strict with them? 2. Won't you be harmful to them there?
3. Won't the match be on live relay? 4. Won't they be strong after this victory ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

341 inform informed informed `³e†Ç°*è†Çò@


342 injure injured injured Qê†Ç°„¬_È°@
343 inquire inquired inquired qKŒiOKÇ°@
344 insist insisted insisted x~¡•Ä O^•Î„~¬ K
¡ °Ç @
345 inspect inspected inspected `ÇxvK͆Çò@
346 inspire inspired inspired ãÀ„ö~„²OKÇ°@
347 intend intended intended `Ç•OKÇ°@
348 interefere interefered interefered *ÕH›¼OKÍ‹¬°Hù#°@
349 interrupt interrupted interrupted J_È°ÛHù#°@
350 introduce introduced introduced „¬iKdžǰ=òK͆Çò@
351 invade invaded invaded ^ÎO_³`Ç°ë@
352 invent invented invented ãHù`ÇëQê H›#°Qù#°@
353 invite invited invited P‚¬ðÞxOKÇ°@
354 join joined joined KÍ~¡°@
355 juggle juggled juggled Qê~¡_™K͆Çò@
356 jump jumped jumped ^ΰ=ò䛽@, ^¥@°@
357 kick kicked kicked `Ç#°ß@
358 kidnap kidnapped kidnapped |•`ÇŒø~¡=òQê
=°#°+¬µ•<³`Ç°ëHùx‡é=ô
359 kill killed killed KÇO„¬ô@
360 kiss kissed kissed =ò^ΰíÌ„@°“Hù#°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
178 A good name is got by many actions and lost by one.
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'BE' FORMS - PRESENT PERFECT- HAVE BEEN / HAS BEEN


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬Ö•=ò (Place) ‹²Öu (Condition)
…Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê L#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J "Í°=ò 1995 #°O_• D town …Õ L<Œß=ò. J P"³° KŒ…ì Hê•OQê J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê L#ßk.
J "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OI • #°O_• U.S.A. …Õ =ô<Œß~¡°. J <Í#° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OI •°Qê D Hê…èl…Õ lecturer Qê L<Œß#°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò L#ß ª•Ö#=ò (Position) ‹¬•Ö =ò (Place) ‹²u
Ö (Condition)
…Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê L#ßn ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò L#ß XH› Position, Place or Condition …Õ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê ,
Zxß ~ËA•°, Zxß <³••°, Zxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê L#ßk ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
'Have been' / 'Has been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
'I, We, You, They ' SubjectQê L#ß„¬ô_È° "Have been"
He, She, It Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° "Has been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê D 6. <Í#° Q®`Ç 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê D H›O„
Ì h
college student Qê =ô<Œß#°. L^˼yQê =ô<Œß#°.
I have been a student of this college I have been an employee of this
for four years. company for the past ten years.
2. "Í°=ò 1995 #°O_• D Hê•h "Œ‹¬°•°Qê 7. N †Ç ° O.\÷ . H› $ +¬ â ƒ ì|° Q® ` Ç ï ~ O_È °
=ô<Œß=ò. ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê „ ã H¬ ê‰×Ol…ìÁ H›…Hÿ ~“› °¡ Qê
We have been the residents of this =ô<Œß~¡°.
colony since 1995. Sri M.T. Krishna Babu has been the
3. N KÇOã^΃ì|° 1994 #°O_• T.D.P. Collector of Prakasam District for the
J^•Î¼ä›½Æ •°Qê L<Œß~°¡ . past two years.
Sri Chandra Babu has been the 8. <Í#° 1985 #°Oz D H›ƒ
Á ˜ ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_•Qê
President of the T.D.P. since 1994. =ô<Œß#°.
4. N=°u =¶•f^Íq Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OII•°Qê =¶ I have been a member of this club
Hê…èl „ã x² •‡•…˜Qê =ô<Œß~°¡ . since 1985.
Mrs. Malathi Devi has been our 9. =¶ cousin KŒ…ì Hê•OQê K³ < ³ ß å … Õ
Principal for the past five years. LO@°<Œß_È°.
5. "Œ~¡° KŒ…ìHê•OQê =¶ ‡Ú~¡°Q®°# =ô<Œß~°¡ . My cousin has been in Chennai for a
They have been our neighbours for a long time.
long time.

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10. <Œ z#ß`# Ç O #°O_• =¶ father <Œä›½ EXERCISE


Q®°~¡°=ô. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
My father has been my teacher since
my childhood.
11. z#ß„æ¬\÷ #°O_• Harish =°i†Çò <Í#° 1. <Í # ° z#ß ` Ç # =ò #°O_• =¶
close friends Qê =ô<Œß=ò. grandparents `Ë<Í L<Œß#°.
Harish and I have been close friends 2. "Í°=ò KŒ…ì Hê•OQê D state …Õ<Í
since childhood.
LO@°<Œß=ò.
12. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê "Í°=ò KŒ…ì busy
Qê =ô<Œß=ò. 3. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê degree students
We have been very busy for the past stricke …Õ L<Œß~¡°.
one week. 4. Q®`Ç 15 ‹¬OII•°Qê P†Ç°# lawyer Qê
13. KŒ…ìHê•OQê P"³° J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ßk. L<Œß~¡°.
She has been ill for a long time. 5. x#ß\÷ #°Oz P"³° =¶ WO\ÕÁ<Í L#ßk.
14. Q®`Ç <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê P†Ç°# leave …Õ 6. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç 25 ‹¬OII•°Qê =¶ town …Õ
=ô<Œß~¡°.
leading businessmen Qê L<Œß~¡°.
He has been on leave for the past four
days. 7. N KÇOã^΃ì|° `Ç# college ~ËA• #°O_Í
15. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQê ~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…Õ L<Œß~¡°.
L#ßk. 8. <Í#° 1995 #°O_• D ‹¬O‹¬…Ö Õ L^˼yx.
The weather has been cold for the last 9. Q®`Ç 4 ‹¬OII•°Qê P case ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë…Õ L#ßk.
one week.
16. J„¬æ¬\÷#°Oz P†Ç°# <Œg°^Î HË„¬OQê 10. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç HùO`Ç Hê•OQê troubles …Õ
=ô<Œß~¡°. L<Œß=ò.
He has been angry with me since then. 11. P"³° Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê HË=¶…Õ L#ßk.
17. P"³° 10 ~ËA•°Qê hospital …Õ =ô#ßk. 12. P ‹¬O‹¬Ö ª•Ö„O² z# <Œ\÷ #°O_• P†Ç°#
She has been in the hospital for ten ^¥xH÷ chairman Qê L<Œß~¡°.
days.
13. Q®`Ç 20 ‹¬OII•°Qê J`Ç_°È "ŒiH÷ #=°àH›"°³ #
Ø
18. Q®`HÇ ùkí~ËA•°Qê "Œ~¡° <Œä›½ KŒ…ì helpful
Qê =ô<Œß~¡°. À‹=䛽_È°Qê L<Œß_È.
They have been helpful to me for a few 14. J`Ç_È° Q®`Ç 20 ‹¬OII•°Qê `³•°Q®°^͉×O
days. Hê~¡¼H›~¡ë Qê L<Œß_È°.
19. J„¬æ\÷#°Oz J`Ç_È° active Qê =ô<Œß_È°. 15. Q®`Ç 25 ‹¬OII•°Qê „¬tó=° ƒÿOQê…˜ …Õ
He has been active since then. H›=ü¼x‹¬°“ ‡•s“ Jk•Hê~¡=ò…Õ L#ßk.
20. P case Q®`Ç 10 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê qKŒ~¡}…Õ
=ô#ßk.
That case has been under trial for ten
years. Z
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NEGATIVE FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° „


ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò HùO`Ç Hê•OQê =°#=ò
LO_Èx XH› position, place, condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA• #°Oz duty …Õ …è#°. J "Í°=ò HùO`Ç Hê•OQê J`ÇxH÷ helpful Qê …è=ò.
J Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê P „¬^HΊ =› ò J=°•°…Õ…è^°Î . J J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• "Œ~¡° WH›ø_È …è~°¡ .
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ㄬ‹¬°ë`ÇO HùO`ÇHê•OQê XH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› position, place, condition Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#䛽 Q®`Ç HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò …èH›
"Í~ùH›~¡° LO_Èx XH› Position, Place, Condition Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + not + been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "have not been".
He, She, It –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° "has not been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê town …Õ …è#°. 6. D car Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê use …Õ …è^ΰ.
I have not been in the town for two This car has not been in use for the past
days. two months.

2. "Í°=ò Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê duty …Õ …è=ò. 7. Sachin Q®`Ç ~


ï O_È° series •…Õ =°Oz form
…Õ…è_È°.
We have not been on duty for the past
Sachin has not been in good form for
one week.
the past two series.
3. J`Ç _ È ° Q® ` Ç Hùxß ~ËA•°Qê =¶`Ë 8. Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê =¶ hostel …Õ food
‹¬xß‚²ì`ÇOQê LO_È@O…è^ΰ. ƒìQ®°O_È@O…è^ΰ.
He has not been close with us for the The food has not been good in our
past few days. hostel for the past one week
4. P"³° x#ß\÷ #°Oz WO\ÕÁ …è^ΰ. 9. Q®`Ç Hùxß ~ËA•°Qê =¶ä›½ U problem …è^ΰ.
She has not been at home since There has not been any problem to us
yesterday. for the past few days.
5. "Œ~¡° Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡OQê =¶`Ë LO_È@O…è^°Î . 10. Q®`Ç 10 ~ËA•°Qê =¶ colony …Õ water
supply …è^ΰ.
They have not been with us for the past
There has not been water supply in our
one year.
colony for the past ten days.

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EXERCISE
11. D ~ËA L^Ά°Ç O #°O_• P†Ç°# office …Õ
…è~¡°. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
He has not been in the office since
morning. 1. <Í#° ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê free Qê …è#°.
12. Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê =¶ ‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ
‹¬i†³Ø°# =~ŒÂ•° …è=ô. 2. x#ß L^ΆǰO #°Oz =¶ colony …Õ
There have not been sufficient rains in power supply …è^ΰ.
our area for the past two years. 3. Q®`Ç Hùxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê P college …Õ
13. Q® ` Ç Hùkí ~ËA•°Qê =¶ "Œ¼‡•~¡ O ãH›=°tH›Æ}…è^ΰ.
…샕’^¥†Ç°H›OQê …è^°Î . 4. Q®`Ç Hùxß ~ËA•°Qê J`Ç_°È active Qê …è_°È .
Our business hasnot been profitable for
the past few days. 5. Q®`Ç ï~O_È° ~ËA•°Qê Q®°[~Œ`Ÿ…Õ „¬i‹²Öu
14. HùO`ÇHê•OQê J`Ç_°È =¶ä›½ helpful Qê …è_°È . J^ΰ„¬ô…Õ…è^ΰ.
He hasnot been helpful to us for some 6. 1995 #°Oz Ì ‚ á ì ^Î ~ Œƒì^£ …Õ =°`Ç
time. „¦¬°~¡Â}•°…è=ô.
15. Q®`Ç Hùxß <³••°Qê P"³° P~ËQ®¼O ƒìQê …è^ΰ. 7. Q®`Ç Hùkí <³••°Qê P product 䛽 demand
Her health hasnot been good for the
past few months.
…è^ΰ.
16. J`Çx `ÇO_
ã • =°~¡}O ^ÎQ~¾® ¡ #°Oz J`Ç_°È 8. Q® ` Ç 6 <³ • •°Qê D medicines
‹¬O`Ë+¬OQê …è_È°. ^ù~¡H›@O…è^ΰ.
He hasnot been happy since his father's 9. "Œi father =°~¡}O #°O_• "Œ~¡° WH›ø_È
death.
LO_È@O…è^ΰ.
17. "Œ~¡ ° J„¬ æ \ ÷ #°Oz =¶`Ë =°OzQê
(‹¬‚ì¬ $^¥Ä•=O`Ë) =ôO_È@O …è^°Î . 10. Q® ` Ç Hùxß ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~Œ•°Qê WH› ø _•
They havenot been in good terms with "Œ`Œ=~¡ } O =¼=ª•†Ç ° =ò#ä› ½
us since then. J#°ä›••OQê…è^ΰ.
18. Q®`Ç ï~O_È° series • #°O_• Ganguly team 11. Q®`Ç ï~O_È° <³••°Qê P"³° P~ËQ®¼ „¬i‹²Öu
…Õ…è_È°. ƒìQê …è^ΰ.
Ganguly hasnot been in the team for
the last two series.
12. Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬OII•°Qê P†Ç°# ~Œ[H©†Ç¶•…Õ
19. XH› ^Ή§|í Hê•OQê „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë Ç q^¥¼q^•¥#O…Õ …è~¡°.
standard LO_È@O…è^ΰ. 13. J„¬æ\#÷ °O_• "Œ~¡° partners Qê …è~¡°.
There hasnot been any standard in the 14. P†Ç°# HùO`ÇHê•OQê P post …Õ …è~¡°.
education system for a decade.
20. Q®`Ç Hùkí ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê `³•OQê} 15. P"³° x#ß\÷ #°O_• ‹¬æ $‚¬ì…Õ …è~°¡ .
‡ã •O`ÇO…Õ Ja•=$kœ…^è °Î .
There hasnot been any development in
Telangana area for a few years.
Z
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò „ ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë =
Ç ò XH›~°¡ L#ß Position, Place, Condition …Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê
LO@°<Œß~Ë ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô 4 ‹¬OII•°Qê WH›ø_È L^˼yQê =ô<Œß"Œ? J g°~¡° Q®`Ç 10 ‹¬OII•°Qê D town …Õ =ô<Œß~Œ?
J KŒ…ìHê•OQê P"³° J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ß^¥? J "Œ~¡° 2001 #°O_• D field …Õ =ô<Œß~Œ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~°¡ „
ã ‹
¬ °¬ `ë OÇ =ô#ß XH› Position, Place, Condition …Õ ZO`ÇHê•OQê =ôO@°#ß
q+¬†Ç°O Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê „ã ‹¬ °¬ `ë =Ç ò =°#=ò =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò# XH›~°¡ =ô#ß XH› Position, Place,
Condition …Õ Z„¬æ\÷ #°O_• =ôO@°<Œß~Ë „ ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Have / Has + been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We, You, They –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Have been'
He, She, It –> Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Has been' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô <Œ•°Q®° ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê D college 6. 2001 #°O_• P†Ç°# g° ㄲx•‡•…˜Qê
student Qê =ô<Œß"Œ? =ô<Œß~Œ?
Have you been a student of this college Has he been your Principal since 2001?
for four years? 7. J„¬æ\÷ #°O_• g°~¡° D WO\ÕÁ<Í L<Œß~Œ?
2. g°~¡ ° 1995 #°O_• D town …Õ<Í Have you been in this house since then?
LO@°<Œß~Œ? 8. J„¬æ\÷ #°Oz J`Ç_È° h䛽 helpful Qê
Have you been in this town since 1995? =ô<Œß_¨?
3. g° father ï ~ O_È ° ‹¬ O =`Ç • ~Œ•°Qê Has he been helpful to you since then?
J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô<Œß~Œ? 9. z#ß„æ\
¬ ÷ #°O_• g°i^Î~í ¶¡ „Ìã O¦ _£•Qê =ô<Œß~Œ?.
Has your father been ill for two years? Have you been friends since childhood
days?
4. P"³° P~¡° <³••°Qê g°`Ë<Í =ô#ß^¥?
Has she been with you for six months? 10. <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê "Œ`Œ=~¡}O KÇ•ÁQê
=ô#ß^¥?
5. "Œ~¡° <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•°Qê busy Qê =ô<Œß~Œ? Has the climate been cold for four days?
Have they been busy for four days?

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11. h=ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê D ‹¬O‹¬Ö…Õ L^˼yQê EXERCISE


=ô<Œß=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Howlong have you been an employee
of this firm? 1. g° father Q®`Ç ~ï O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê D
12. g°~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê D town …Õ L<Œß~¡°? bank manager Qê L<Œß~Œ?
Howlong have you been in this town? 2. h=ô ~ï O_È° Q®O@• #°O_• WH›ø_Í =ô<Œß"Œ?
13. ZO`ÇHê•OQê P"³° J<Œ~ËQ®¼OQê =ô#ßk? 3. g°~¡° Q®`Ç 5 ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê H›q°\© "³°O|~Ÿ•Qê
Howlong has she been ill?
=ô<Œß~Œ?
14. ZO`Ç H ê•OQê g°~¡ ° XH› i HùH› ~ ¡ ° 4. P†Ç°# 1990 #°O_• g° Ti ‹¬~æ¡OKŸQê
‹¬xß‚²ì`Ç°•°? =ô<Œß~Œ?
Howlong have you been close to each
other? 5. P"³° Q®`Ç"Œ~¡O ~ËA•°Qê hospital …Õ
15. "Œ~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê "Œ¼‡•~¡ ~¡OQ®O…Õ =ô#ß^¥?
L<Œß~¡°? 6. "Œ~¡° L^ΆǰO #°O_• laboratory …Õ
Howlong have they been in the =ô<Œß~Œ?
business field?
7. x#ß\÷ #°O_• "Œ`Œ=~¡}O WH›ø_È KÇ•QÁ ê
16. P†Ç°# P ‹¬O‹¬äÖ ½› ZO`ÇHê•OQê K•³~á à¡ <£Qê =ô#ß^¥?
=ô<Œß~¡°? 8. Q®`Ç ï~O_È° ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò•°Qê J`Ç_È° D
Howlong has he been the Chairman of
office incharge Qê =ô<Œß_¨?
that firm?
17. Wxß ~ËA•°Qê g°~¡ ° ZH› ø _È L<Œß ~ ¡ ° ? 9. g°~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê J`Çx`Ë ‹¬xß‚²ì`ÇOQê
Where have you been all these days?
=ô<Œß~¡°?
18. Wxß ‹¬O=`Ç•~Œ•°Qê g°ä›½ guardian Qê 10. h=ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê D H›q°\© ‹¬ƒ•’°¼_È°Qê
Z=~¡° =ô<Œß~¡°? L<Œß=ô?
Who has been your guardian all these 11. g° father ZO`Ç H ê•OQê politics …Õ
years? L<Œß~¡°?
19. Wxß ~ËA•°Qê h=ô JH›ø_È XO@iQê Z…ì 12. P"³° ZO`ÇHê•OQê g°`Ë =ô#ßk?
=ô<Œß=ô?
How have you been alone there all
13. P†Ç°# ZO`ÇHê•OQê D profession …Õ
these days?
=ô<Œß~¡°?
20. g° cousins ZO`Ç H ê•OQê U.S.A. …Õ 14. "Œ~¡° ZO`ÇHê•OQê WO_•†Ç¶…Õ =ô<Œß~°¡ ?
=ô<Œß~¡°? 15. h=ô ZO`ÇHê•OQê J`Çx À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°_•Qê
Howlong have your cousins been in the =ô<Œß=ô?
U.S.A?
Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Have been / Has been" •
Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. Have been / Has been J#° nxx grammar …Õ Present Perfect
'Be' form JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ 1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form J#° 3
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 3 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° L#ß XH› Position, Place or Condition …Õ ZO`Ç
Hê•OQê LO@°#ßn ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò`Ë ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have been / Has been"
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I have been here since 7 'O' clock.
2. We have been on special duty for three days.
3. He has been ill for a long time.
4. She has been with us since July last.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
Q®`ÇO…Õx HùO`ÇHê•OQê =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° …è#@°=O\÷ XH› Position, Place,
Condition ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "havenot been / has not been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I havenot been in the town for two days.
2. We have not been in the office since morning.
3. She hasnot been well for one week.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ㄬ‹¬°ë`Ç=ò =°#=ò=ô#ß XH› position, place, condition •…Õ ZO`Ç Hê•OQê =ôO@°#ßn
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Have been / Has been" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Have you been busy for one week ?
2. Have they been here since morning ?
3. Has he been your Principal for four years ?
4. Has she been sick since yesterday ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

361 knock knocked knocked `Ç@°“@


362 lack lacked lacked Hù~¡=|_•=ôO_È°@
363 lag lagged lagged "³#°H›|_•†ÇòO_È°@
364 lament lamented lamented ~Ëk•OKÇ°@
365 laugh laughed laughed #=ôÞ@
366 lessen lessened lessened `Çy¾OKÇ°@
367 levy levied levied qk•OKÇ°@
368 lick licked licked <Œä›½@, Q®`ǰ䛽@
369 dread dreaded dreaded ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_°È @
370 dissolve dissolved dissolved H›~¡yOKÇ° h\÷…Õ
371 conceive conceived conceived `Ç•OKÇ°@
372 congeal congealed congealed Q®_ÈÛH›@°“@
373 condole condoled condoled qKŒ~¡=ò `³•°„¬ô@
374 elapse elapsed elapsed Hê•=ò fi‡é=ô@
375 emancipate emancipated emancipated q=òH÷ëK͆Çò@
376 foozle foozeled foozeled „¬xx ‡•_È°K͆ò Ç @
377 confound confounded confounded ƒã •’=°„¬~K¡ °Ç @
378 certify certified certified H÷`Œ|° WKÇ°ó@
379 prove proved proved |°°A=ô K͆Çò@
380 praise praised praised "³°KÇ°óHù#°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 3 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
186 A proud mind and a poor purse are illmet.
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SHALL
=°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ Hùxß „¬#°•° K͆°Ç =…ÿ ##° L^Í‰í ¼× =ò H›ey †ÇòO^ΰ=ò. XHùøH›øª•i
W`Ç~¡°•`Ë =¶\ìÁ_È° KÇ°#ß„¬ô_È° =°#=ò (I, we) ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ P „¬#°•#° K͆ò Ç L^Í‰í ¼× =ò#°
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô leave apply Kͪ•ë#°. J "Í°=ò D ª•i ^΋~¬ Œ „¬O_È°Q® =¶ Ti…Õ [~¡°„¬ô䛽O\ì=ò.
J "Í°=ò D town …Õ<Í settle J=ô`Œ=ò. J <Í#° next month scooter HùO\ì#°.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° <Í#° (I) , …èH› "Í°=ò (we), =°#=ò XH› „¬xx K͆Çò
L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° (idea) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : WKÇ@ =° # =ò `Ç„¬æH› K͆Çò„¬#°•° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@…è^ΰ . öH=•O XH› „¬xx


K͆Çò L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@. 'Shall' J#° form öH=•O I, We J#° subjects 䛽
=¶ã`Ç"Í° =KÇ°ó#°.
'<ŒÑ L^Íí‰×¼=ò '<Í#°Ñ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@ Ð 'I shall'
'=¶Ñ L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° "Í°=ò ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@ Ð 'We shall'
EXAMPLES
1. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô Ì ‹ q°<Œ~Ÿ … Õ ‡•…ç¾ O \ì#°. 6. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô g°\÷ O Q· … Õ D q+¬ † Ç ° O
I shall participate in the seminar. KÇiªó •ë=ò.
2. "Í°=ò =KÍó "Œ~¡O "³°‹
Ø ¶
¬ ~Ÿ visit Kͪ•ë=ò. We shall discuss this matter in the
We shall visit Mysore next week. meeting tomorrow.
3. <Í#°=KÍó <³• computer course join 7. <Í#° =KÍó "Œ~¡O <Œ L^˼Q®O Q®°iOz
XH› x~¡â†Ç°O f‹¬°ä›½O\ì#°.
J=ô`Œ#°. I shall take a decision about my
I shall join the computer course next studies next week.
month.
8. "Í°=ò =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O <³•¶Á~°¡ …Õ branch
4. "Í°=ò =KÍó [#=i…Õ family Hyderabad open Kͪ•ë=ò.
H÷ shift Kͪ•ë=ò. We shall open a branch in Nellore next
We shall shift our family to year.
Hyderabad next January. 9. <Í#°`ÇÞ~¡…Õ Delhi "³ˆ×`Œ#°.
I shall leave for Delhi soon.
5. <Í#° =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O =¶ friends x =¶ 10. "Í°=ò =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O q[†Ç°"Œ_È…Õ
WO\÷H÷ invite Kͪ•ë#°. settle J=ô`Œ=ò.
I shall invite my friends to my house We shall settle down in Vijayawada
next Sunday. next year.

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EXERCISE
11. <Í#° =KÍó "Œ~¡O bank test H÷ appear
J=ô`Œ#°. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
I shall appear for the bank test next
week. 1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 help
12 "Í°=ò next Monday bank Manager Kͪ•ë#°.
#° consult J=ô`Œ=ò. 2. "Í ° =ò =KÍ ó "Œ~¡ O H© Þ *˜ ‡é\©
We shall consult the Bank Manager
next Monday.
x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë=ò.
13. <Í#° next week leave H÷ apply 3. <Í#° =KÍó <³• ãHù`Çë course …Õ join
Kͪ•ë#°. J=ô`Œ#°.
I shall apply for leave next week. 4. "Í°=ò `ÇÞ~¡…Õ WH›ø_È W•°Á construct
14. "Í°=ò =KÍó Uㄲ…˜…Õ annual day Kͪ•ë=ò.
[~¡°„¬ô`Œ=ò.
5. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô x#°ß P„¦‹
Ô °¬ …Õ H›•°ª•ë#°.
We shall celebrate the annual day
next April. 6. "Í°=ò =KÍó "Œ~¡O „Ì O_••OQ· files clear
15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O Kͪ•ë=ò.
`³e†Ç°*誕ë#°. 7. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x `Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O
I shall inform them this news tomor- =¶\ìÁ_È°`Œ#°.
row .
8. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³• 5 # =¶ ‡•„¬ birthday
16. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È guests 䛽 =‹¬u
U~Œæ@° Kͪ•ë=ò. KŒ…ì grand Qê celebrate Kͪ•ë=ò.
We shall provide accommodation 9. <Í#° =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡=ò Q®°O@¶~¡° A.C.
for the guests there tomorrow. Hê…èl…Õ join J=ô`Œ#°.
17. <Í#° next time P job HË‹¬O ㄬ†Ç°`ÇßO 10. "Í°=ò =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ…Õ Hù`Çë WO\ÕÁH÷
Kͪ•ë#°. shift J=ô`Œ=ò.
I shall try for that job next time.
11. <Í#° ö~„¬ô marriage …Õ J`ÇxH÷ XH› watch
18. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³• P W•°Á Mìm Kͪ•ë=ò.
present Kͪ•ë#°.
We shall vacate that house next
month. 12. "Í°=ò =KÍó "Í‹¬q…Õ tour x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë=ò.
19. <Í#° ö~„¬ô SBI …Õ ~¡¶. 50,000/Ð 13. <Í#° next summer …Õ English grammar
_•‡•l\˜ Kͪ•ë#°. <Í~¡°ó䛽O\ì#°.
I shall deposit Rs. 50,000/- in the 14. "Í ° =ò D ª•i function H÷ =¶
SBI tomorrow.
|O^•Î°=ô•O^Îih P‚¬ðÞxª•ë=ò.
20. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·H÷ Jxß U~Œæ@°Á
Kͪ•ë=ò. 15. <Í#° D ª•i ZxßH›•…Õ BJP H÷ F@°
We shall make all the arrangements "ͪ•ë#°.
for the meeting tomorrow. Z
Cut your coat according to the cloth. 188
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NEGATIVE FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
=°#䛽 XH›„¬x K͆Çò L^Íí‰×¼=ò …è䛽O_È°@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È"Œix H›•°=#°. J "Í°=ò =KÍó"Œ~¡O P programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾#=ò.
J "Í°=ò "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË=ò. J <Í#° next May …Õ EAMCET H÷ appear J=#°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xK͆ò
Ç L^Í‰í ¼× =ò
…èH›‡é=ô@#° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß =¼H÷ë (speaker) <Í#° …èH› "Í°=ò (I , We)
`Œ#° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Shall + not + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
I, We, Subject Qê L#ß„¬ô_È° =¶ã`Ç"Í° 'Shall notÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô computer class H÷ attend 6. "Í°=ò Dª•i "Œi q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
J=#°. KÍ‹¬°HË=ò.
I shall not attend the computer class We shall not interefere in their matter
tomorrow. this time.
2. "Í°=ò =KÍó <³• D course …Õ join J==ò. 7. <Í#° WH› J`Çx ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡#°.
We shall not join this course next I shall not seek his help hereafter.
month. 8. "Í ° =ò D ª•i g°\÷ O Q· postpone
3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ `Ë_È°Qê <³•¶Á~¡° "³ˆ×¤#°. K͆ǰ=ò.
I shall not accompany them to Nellore We shall not postpone the meeting
tomorrow. this time.
4. "Í°=ò D ª•i annual day celebrate 9. <Í # ° next year D Hê…è l …Õ work
K͆ǰ=ò. K͆ǰ#°.
We shall not celebrate the annual day I shall not work in this college next
this time. year.
5. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x `Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° =ò 10. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô strike …Õ ‡•…ç¾#=ò.
=¶\ìÁ_È#°. We shall not participate in the strike
I shall not talk to him this matter tomorrow.
tomorrow.
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11. <Í#° =KÍó <³• =¶ native place H÷ "³ˆ×¤#°. EXERCISE


I shall not go to my native place next D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
month.
12. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È "Œi HË‹¬ O wait 1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ duty H÷ attend J=#°.
K͆ǰ=ò.
We shall not wait for them there 2. "Í°=ò D <³• house rent pay K͆ǰ=ò.
tomorrow.
3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "Œi`Ë K³<³áß "³ˆ×¤#°.
13. <Í#° =KÍó <³• =¶ brother H÷ money
„¬O„¬#°. 4. "Í°=ò D ª•i work delay K͆ǰ=ò.
I shall not send money to my brother
next month. 5. <Í#° degree `Ç~¡°"Œ`Ç studies continue
14. "Í°=ò D ª•i P hotel …Õ stay K͆°Ç =ò. K͆ǰ#°.
We shall not stay at that hotel this time. 6. "Í°=ò D ª•i farewell party celebrate
15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô Hê…èlH÷ ~Œ#°. K͆ǰ=ò.
I shall not come to college tomorrow.
16. "Í ° =ò next month holidays WH›ø_È 7. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D q+¬†Ç°O J`ÇxH÷ K³„¬æ#°.
Q®_È„¬=ò. 8. "Í°=ò WH› J`Çxx #=°à=ò.
We shall not spend our holidays here
next month. 9. <Í#° WH› J`Çx`Ë move J=#°.
17. <Í#° D ª•i test H÷ apply K͆ǰ#°.
10. "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ U trouble
I shall not apply for the test this time.
W=Þ=ò.
18. "Í°=ò D ª•i J`ÇxH÷ money J„¬CQê
W=Þ=ò. 11. <Í#° D book refer K͆ǰ#°.
We shall not lend him money this time.
12. "Í°=ò D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ "ŒiH÷ support
19. <Í#° Dª•i EAMCET 䛽 coaching
f‹¬°HË#°. K͆ǰ=ò.
I shall not take coaching for the 13. <Í#° WH› <Œ time waste K͆ǰ#°.
EAMCET this time.
20. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È work continue 14. "Í°=ò WH› "ŒiÌ„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È ò.
K͆ǰ=ò. 15. "Í°=ò Dª•i tournments x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ=ò.
We shall not continue the work there
tomorrow.
Z
Spare the rod and spoil the child. 190
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
<Í#° …èH› =°#=ò XH› „¬xx K͆ǰ^ΕKÇ° L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ letter ã"ŒÀ‹^¥ ? J =°#=ò =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O picnic "³ˆ×^¥=¶?
J <Í#° =KÍó <³• h䛽 money „¬OÀ„^¥? J <Í#° h䛽 shop #°O_•book f‹¬°ä›½=KÍ^ó ¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
<Í#° …èH› =°#=ò XH› „¬xx K͆ǰ^ΕKÇ° L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ö~„¬ô, =KÍó"Œ~¡O, =KÍó<³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß =¼H÷ë …èH› =¼ä›½ë•° (<Í#° …èH› =°#=ò) XH› „¬xx K͆ǰƒÕ=ô L^Íí‰×¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Shall J#° D form 'I' =°i†Çò 'We' J#° subjects 䛽 =¶ã`Ç"Í° L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° P„¦Ô‹¬°H÷ =KÍó^¥? 6. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h HË‹¬O WO\÷ ^ÎQ®¾~¡ wait
Shall I come to your office tomorrow? KÍÀ‹^¥?
2. =°#=ò next Sunday picnic "³ˆ×^¥=¶? Shall I wait for you at home tomorrow?
Shall we go on a picnic next Sunday? 7. <Í#° ö~„¬ô <³•¶Á~¡°H÷ h䛽 `Ë_È°Qê =KÍó^¥?
3. =°#=ò next Monday manager #° shall I accompany you to Nellore
consult J=ô^¥=¶? tomorrow?
Shall we consult the Manager next 8. =°#=ò next month Mysore visit
Monday? KÍ^¥í=¶?
4. <Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ inform Shall we visit Mysore next month?
KÍÀ‹^¥? 9. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ marriage …Õ XH›
Shall I Inform them this matter watch present KÍ^¥í=¶?
tomorrow? Shall we present him a watch in the
5. =°#=ò next Sunday farewell party marriage tomorrow?
celebrate KÍ^¥í=¶? 10. =°#=ò D ª•i function H÷ guest Qê
Shall we celebrate the farewell party H›…ÿH›“~Ÿ#° invite KÍ^¥í=¶?
next Sunday? Shall we invite the Collector as guest
to the function this time?
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô hHË‹¬O ZH›ø_È wait KÍÀ‹k? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Where shall I wait for you tomorrow?
2. =°#=ò new house …ÕH÷ Z„¬C_È° shift 1. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô classes boycot KÍ^¥í=¶?
J=ô^¥=ò?
2. <Í#° ö~„¬ô "ŒiH÷ D message „¬OÀ„^¥?
When shall we shift to the new house?
3. <Í#° h䛽 Chennai #°O_• Uq° `³Kk
óÍ ? 3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô evening show H÷ =°#H÷ tickets
What shall I bring for you from book KÍÀ‹^¥?

Chennai? 4. =°#=ò next month D house vacate


4. =°#=ò next U course join J=ô^¥=ò? KÍ^¥í=¶?
Which course Shall we join next? 5. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h䛽 D q+¬†Ç°O Q®°~¡°ë KÍÀ‹^¥?
5. <Í#° ö~„¬ô g° father H÷ Uq° K³À„æk? 6. =°#=ò next week invitation cards
What shall I tell your father tomorrow?
distribute KÍ^¥í=¶?
6. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ ZO`Ç money pay
KÍ^¥í=ò? 7. <Í#° D book f‹¬°Hù<Í^¥?
Howmuch money shall we pay him 9. <Í#° ~ö „¬ô ƒì¼OH± #°O_• money withdraw
tomorrow? KÍÀ‹^¥?
7. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô Hyderabad …Õ U ‚¬ìÙ@…˜…Õ 10. <Í#° D point dairy …Õ note KÍ‹°¬ Hù<Í^¥?
stay KÍ^¥í=ò?
11. =°#=ò house work Z„¬ C _È ° start
In which hotel Shall we stay in
KÍ^¥í=ò?
Hyderabad tomorrow ?
8. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È Z=ix consult
12. <Í#° g° WO\÷H÷ Z„¬C_È° =KÍók?
J=ô^¥=ò? 13. =°#=ò =°# „² • Á • #° next year U
Whom shall we consult there ‹¬¶ø…ÕÁ admit KÍ^¥í=ò?
tomorrow? 14. ö~„¬ô guests 䛽 =°#=ò =‹¬u ZH›ø_È
9. =°#=ò MBA H÷ ZH›ø_È apply KÍ^¥í=ò? provide KÍ^¥í=ò ?
Where shall we apply for MBA?
15. Next Sunday =°#=ò ZH›ø_•H÷
10. =°#=ò al<³‹¹…Õ ZO`Ç amount invest "³ˆ×^¥=ò?
KÍ^¥í=ò?
Howmuch amount shall we invest in
the business?
Z
A stitch in time saves nine. 192
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
=°#=ò K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›•°==^¥í? J =°#=ò ö~„¬ô P function H÷ attend Hê=^¥í ?
J <Í#° =°~¡• WH›ø_•H÷ uiy ~Œ=^¥í? J =°#=ò D test H÷ appear Hê=^¥í?
Ì „ á "ŒH› ¼ =ò•° ƒ•’ q +¬ ¼ `Ç ° ë … Õ =°#=ò KÍ † Ç ° x XH› „¬ x x Q® ° iOz ã „ ¬ t ß O KÇ ° @#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° <Í#° (I) …èH› "Í°=ò , =°#=ò (we) J#Qê
=¶\ìÁ_È°KÇ°#ß =¼H÷ë (speaker) `Œ#° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shalln't + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
I, We =¶ã`Ç"Í° Subject Qê LO_È°#°. H›#°H› "Shalln't " =KÇ°ó#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=^¥í? 6. <Í#° D letter post K͆ǰ=^¥í?
Shalln't I come here tomorrow? Shalln't I post this letter?
2. =°#=ò ö ~ „¬ ô "Œi`Ë D q+¬ † Ç ° O 7. =°#=ò D q+¬†Ç°O "ŒiH÷ `³•°„¬=^¥í?
KÇióOKÇ=^¥í? Shalln't we inform them this matter?
Shalln't we discuss this matter with
them tomorrow? 8. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô bank #°O_• money draw
K͆ǰ=^¥í?
3. <Í#° ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ D q+¬†Ç°O K³„¬æ=^¥í? Shalln't I withdraw money from the
Shalln't I tell him this matter tomorrow?
bank tomorrow?
4. =°#=ò ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x H÷ money pay
K͆ǰ=^¥í? 9. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô g°HË‹¬ O JH› ø _È wait
K͆ǰ=^¥í?
Shalln't we pay him money tomorrow?
Shalln't we wait there for you tomorrow?
5. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _•H÷ "³ ˆ × ¤ = ^¥í ?
Shalln't we go there tomorrow?
10. <Í#° J`ÇxH÷ help K͆ǰ=^¥í?
Shalln't I help him?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_•H÷ =°#=ò ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ¤=


× ^ΰ?í D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why shalln't we go there tomorrow?
12. ö~„¬ô <Í#° duty H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend Hê=^ΰí? 1. <Í#° D photograph J`ÇxH÷ KǶ„¬=^¥í?
Why shalln't I attend the duty
tomorrow? 2. =°#=ò Dª•i "ŒiÌ„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ =
È ^¥í?
13. P programme …Õ "Í ° =ò ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 3. <Í#° D letters type K͆ǰ=^¥í?
‡•…ç¾#=^ΰ?í
Why shalln't we participate in that 4. =°#=ò D HË~¡°• KÍ~=
¡ ^¥í?
programme?
5. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ phone K͆ǰ=^¥í?
14. ö~„¬ô g°`Ë <Í<³O^ΰ䛽 ~Œ=^ΰí?
Why shalln't I come with you 6. <Í#° ö~„¬ô D bill pay K͆ǰ=^¥í?
tomorrow?
7. =°#=ò ö~„¬ô "Œix invite K͆ǰ=^¥í?
15. ~ö „¬ô "Í°=ò JH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽 stayK͆°Ç =^ΰ?í
Why shalln't we stay there tomorrow? 8. =°#=ò JH›ø_È "Œix ‹¬OㄬkOKÇ=^¥í?
16. =°#O ö ~ „¬ ô "Œˆ× ¤ ` Ë match ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 9. <Í#° ö~„¬ô J`ÇxH÷ `Ë_È°Qê "³ˆ×¤=^¥í?
P_È=^ΰí?
Why shalln't we play match against 10. =°#=ò May …Õ test H÷ appear J==^¥í?
them tomorrow?
11. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô JH› ø _È J`Ç x x ZO^Î ° ä› ½
17. <Í # ° "Œi`Ë Dq+¬ † Ç ° O ZO^Î ° ä› ½ H›•°==^ΰí?
=¶\ìÁ_È=^ΰí?
Why shalln't I talk to them this matter? 12. =°#=ò J`Çxx D q+¬†Ç°O ZO^ΰ䛽
J_ÈQ®=^ΰí?
18. =°#=ò J`Ç x H÷ money ZO^Î ° ä› ½
„¬O„¬=^ΰí? 13. <Í#° ö~„¬ô P file ZO^ΰ䛽 `Í=^ΰí?
Why shalln't we send him money?
14. =°#=ò JH› ø _È dinner ZO^Î ° ä› ½
19. =°#=ò P WO\ÕÁH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 shift Hê=^ΰí? f‹¬°HË=^ΰí?
Why shalln't we shift to that house?
20. =°#=ò D ª•i "Œi ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO ZO^ΰ䛽 15. <Í#° D medicine ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°HË=^ΰí?
HË~¡=^ΰí?
Why shalln't we seek their help this
time?
Z
A bad workman complains of his tools. 194
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Shall' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Shall' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç L^͉œ ¼× =ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall + I form of the Verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°. I, We - Subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° =¶ã`Ç"Í° 'shall' =KÇ°ó#°.
Ex : 1. I shall meet you tomorrow.
2. We shall celebrate the Farewell Party next Sunday.
3. I shall appear for the I-CET next May.
4. We shall organize a tour next month.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç H› ‡é=ô@#° (L^͉œ ¼× =ò …èH)› negative sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shall not + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I shall not continue my studies next year.
2. We shall not stay here tomorrow.
3. I shall not join this course.
4. We shall not seek his help in this matter.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç L^͉œ ¼× =ò#° Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shall
+ I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shall I consult the Manager tomorrow?
2. Shall we visit Mysore next month?
3. Shall I come here tomorrow?
4. Shall we play a friendly match next Sunday?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
Vƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz (L^͉œ ¼× =ò …èH)› negative sense …Õ
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shalln't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shalln't I wait for you tomorrow?
2. Shalln't we invite them to the party next week?
3. Shalln't I bring books for you?
4. Shalln't we stay here tonight?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

381. lift lifted lifted Ì„áïH`Ç°ë@


382. lighten lightened lightened ƒ•ì~¡=ò#° `ÇyO¾ KÇ°
383. listen listened listened q#°@
384. live lived lived x=tOKÇ°@
385. locate located located ‹¬Ö•=ò#° H›#°Q®ù#°
386. maintain maintained maintained x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ°@
387. manage managed managed [i„²OKÇ°@
388. marry married married q"Œ‚¬ì=¶_È°@
389. mediate mediated mediated =°^•Î¼‹¬=Ö ò K͆ò
Ç
390. mend mended mended ‹¬iK͆Çò@
391. mention mentioned mentioned ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
392. merge merged merged XH›\÷ K͆Çò@
393. mingle mingled mingled H›•°„¬ôHù#°@
394. miss missed missed Q®°i `Ç„¬ôæ@,
JO^ΰHË…èH› ‡é=ô@
395. mix mixed mixed H›•°„¬ô@
396. moan moaned moaned "³°•ÁQê U_È°ó@
397. mock mocked mocked ZQ®`Œo K͆Çò@
398. mourn mourned mourned ‰ÕH÷OKÇ°@
399. move moved moved H›keOKÇ°@
400. murmer murmered murmered Qù}°Q®°@

D ~ËA …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,


Spoken English lesson
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
196 Despair gives courage to a coward.
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WILL
=°#=ò Hùxß „¬#°•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ `Ç„æ¬ H› K͆°Ç =…ÿ#x x~¡~â òOKÇ°HùO^ΰ=ò. XHùøH›ø
ª•i W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ `Ç„æ¬ H› K͆ò
Ç XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
1 <Í#° D ª•i `Ç„æ¬ H› prize Qï •°ª•ë#°. 2. "Í°=ò =KÍ ó<³• `Ç„¬æH› loan clear KÇªÍ •ë=ò.
3. P"³° D ª•i =°#•#° `Ç„æ¬ H› P‚¬ðÞx‹¬°Oë k. 5. ªÏ~¡"£ Q®OQ®¶b =°~¡• captain J=ô`Œ_È°.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍó
<³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° `Ç„æ¬ H› definite Qê K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô
XH› „¬xx ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
" Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, PluralU^³á##° "Will + I form" =KÇ°ó#°.
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç ƒÕ=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz XH› Q®\“÷ x~¡†
â °Ç O f‹¬°Hùx P „¬xx `Ç„æ¬ H›
K͆Çò@Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D „¬sH›Æ…Õ `Ç„¬æH› pass J=ô`Œ#°. 6. "Œ~¡° =KÍó _•‰×O|~¡°…Õ D HË~¡°• „¬îië
I will pass this examination definitely. Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
They will complete this course next
2. "Í°=ò Yzó`ÇOQê D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 December.
support Kͪ•ë=ò. 7. ZxßH›• H›g°+¬<£ `ÇÞ~¡…Õ ZxßH›• `Ín•#°
We will support you in this matter. ㄬH›\÷‹¬°ëOk.
3. h=ô `Ç Þ ~¡ … Õ appointment orders The Election Commission will
JO^Îΰ䛽O\ì=ô. announce the election dates soon.
You will receive the appointment 8. D train ~ö „¬ô L^Ά°Ç O 10 Q®OII•ä›½ _••bÁ
orders soon. KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°Ok.
This train will reach Delhi at 10 a.m.
4. ~Œ‚¬•…˜ ã^¥q_£ Indian team H÷ next tomorrow.
captain J=ô`Œ_È°. 9. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô J`Çxx hospital …Õ admit
Rahul Dravid will become the next Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
captain of the Indian team. They will admit him to hospital
tomorrow.
5. Mrs. ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn• =°~¡• J"Í°n• #°O_• 10. "Œ~¡° =KÍ ó<³• ãHù`Çë product #° =¶ï~ø\˜
‡•~¡"Á °³ O\˜ä½› ‡é\© Kͪ•ë~°¡ . …ÕxH÷ q_È°^Ε Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
Mrs. Sonia Gandhi will contest to the They will release a new product into
Parliament from Amethi again. the market next month.

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11. =¶ "Í°<Í[~Ÿ ö~„¬ô Vizag camp "³ˆ×`Œ~¡°. EXERCISE


Our Manager will go on camp to
Vizag tomorrow.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. =òY¼=°Oãu _••…ÕÁ…Õ ~ö „¬ô „ã ^¬ •¥x`Ë ~ŒR
‹¬=°‹¬¼•° KÇióª•ë~°¡ . 1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô `Ç„¬æH› „¬sH›Æ „¦ÔA pay Kͪ•ë#°.
The C.M will discuss the state
2. "Í ° =ò D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ hä› ½ `Ç „ ¬ æ H›
problems with the P.M. in Delhi
tomorrow. ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iª•ë=ò.
13. D world cup ‡é\©•…Õ =°# Indian 3. =¶ father ~ö „¬ô =¶ „ã x ² •„¬…#
˜ ° consult
team finals H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°Ok. J=ô`Œ~¡°.
The Indian team will reach the finals
in this world cup tournments.
4. P"³° ö~„¬ô `Ç# 21= „¬ô\÷“# ~ËA [~¡°„¬ô
14. H›=ü¼x‹¬°“ ‡•s“ "Œ~¡° =KÍ ó ªé=°"Œ~¡O 䛽O@°Ok.
‚Ì ìá ^Î~Œƒì^£…Õ ƒ•ìs ~Œ¼b x~¡Þ‚²ìª•ë~°¡ . 5. "Œ~¡° =KÍó<³• bank loan clear Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
The Communist parties will organise
6. ö~„¬ô annual day celebrations …Õ "Í°=ò
a huge ralley in Hyderabad next
Monday. XH› <Œ\÷H› „ã ^ ¬ iΠŪ•ë=ò.
15. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ Ì„^Îí 7. Lª•àx†Ç¶ †Çüx=i•\© E<£ 16#
amount „Ì @°“|_• „Ì _È`Œ~¡°. B.Ed., entrance test x~¡Þ‚²ì‹¬°ëOk.
They will invest a big amount in the
business this year.
8. ö~„¬ô =¶ WO\÷H÷ guests =ª•ë~°¡ .
16. =¶ uncle retire J†Ç ° # `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç 9. =¶ brother next year USA "³ˆìë_È°.
business start Kͪ•ë~°¡ . 10. =¶ father D ª•i =òx‹²„…¬ ˜ ZxßH•› …Õ
My uncle will start business after his ‡é\©KªÍ •ë~°¡ .
retirement.
17. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ XH› English dictionary 11. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô 7 p.m H÷ programme
publish Kͪ•ë~°¡ . ‡ã •~¡Oa•ª•ë~°¡ .
They will publish a new English 12. "Í°=ò next Sunday Hindi test "ã Œª•ë=ò.
Dictionary soon.
13. =¶ father next June …Õ =¶ brother x
18. C.B.I. P öH‹¬° ^Î~Œ¼„¬ôë KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
The C.B.I. will investigate the case. B.Tech …Õ admit Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
19. ö~„¬ô H›…ÿH›“~¡° programme #° inaugurate 14. <Í # ° x#°ß =°~¡ • ö ~ „¬ ô ª•†Ç ° Oã ` Ç O
Kͪ•ë~°¡ . H›•°ª•ë#°.
The Collector will inaugurate the
programme tomorrow.
15. English lecturer ~ö „¬ô =°#䛽 new poem
20. ㄬƒ•’°`ÇÞO `ÇÞ~¡…Õ ordinance pass explain Kͪ•ë~°¡ .
KÍ‹¬°ëOk.
The government will pass the
ordinance soon.
Z
Birds of the same feather gather together. 198
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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz XH› (firm decision)
|•"³°Ø# x~¡â†Ç°O ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ#°. J "Í°=ò D ª•i „ã †
¬ °Ç `ÇßO…Õ fail J==ò.
J P"³° D proposal X„¬ôCHË^ΰ. J P†Ç°# D ª•i Z•H›<Æ …£ Õ ‡é\© K͆°Ç ~¡°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬x Q®°iOz (firm
decision) XH› |•"³°Ø# x~¡â†Ç°=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz XH› Q®\“÷
x~¡â†Ç°O`Ë K³„¬C@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + not + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³ á # #¶ ''''Will + not + I form of the verbÑÑÑÑ
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D mistake =°~¡• K͆ǰ#°. 6. "Í°=ò D ª•i P‡•s“H÷ vote "͆ǰ=ò.
I will not commit this mistake again. We will not vote for that party this time.
2. "Í°=ò D J=Hê‰×=ò#° =^ΰ•°HË=ò. 7. h=ô ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ "Œi #°Oz U problem
We will not lose this opportunity. face K͆ǰ=ô.
You will not face any problem from
3. =¶ brother WH› studies continue them in future.
K͆ǰ_È°. 8. "Í°<Í[~¡° h䛽 XH› •H›Æ ~¡¶‡•†Ç°• H›O>è
My brother will not continue his Z䛽ø= loan sanction K͆ǰ~¡°.
studies. The Manager will not sanction you
4. =¶ cousin h proposal J‹¬•° accept more than Rs. 1 lakh loan.
K͆ǰ_È°. 9. =¶ sister next year college …Õ KÇ^°Î =^ΰ.
My cousin will not accept to your My sister will not study in the college
proposal. next year.
5. "Œ~¡° D <³• P house vacate K͆ǰ~¡°. 10. g°~¡ ° picnic "³ ˆ × Ã ¤ @ ä› ½ principal
They will not vacate that house this permission W=Þ~¡°.
month. The Principal will not give you
permission to go on a picnic.

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11. Manager D~ËA P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ ~Œ~¡°. EXERCISE


The Manager will not come to office D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
today.

12. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O Group-2 posts


ƒ•’së K͆°Ç ^ΰ. 1. Intermediate Board D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
syllabus change K͆ǰ^ΰ.
The government will not fill up the
Group - 2 posts this year. 2. POã^•¥†Çüx=iÅ\© Dª•i entrance test
13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È g°#°Oz Ug° demand x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ^ΰ.
K͆ǰ~¡°. 3. "Í ° =ò ö ~ „¬ ô college function …Õ
They will not demand anything from indiscipline tolerate K͆ǰ=ò.
you there tomorrow.
4. =¶ father <Œä›½ D <³• money „¬O„¬~¡°.
14. "Í°=ò "ŒiH÷ JH›ø_È U =‹¬u provide
5. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô strike 䛽 =°^Îí`Ç° W=Þ~¡°.
K͆ǰ=ò.
We will not provide them any 6. J`Ç_È° WH› D scooter use K͆ǰ_È°.
accommodation there tomorrow. 7. principal h䛽 D course …Õ admission
15. "Œ~¡° WH› guides publish K͆ǰ~¡°. W=Þ~¡°.
They will not publish guides hereafter.
8. Next test match …Õ Shehwag P_È_È°.
16. =¶ father WH› business KǶ‹¬°HË~¡°. 9. ~ö „¬ô =°# l…ìÁ…Õ |‹¬°••° #_È==ô.
My father will not look after business
hereafter. 10. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ=ò P G.O. #° L„¬‹¬O‚¬ìiOKÇ°
HË^ΰ.
17. ANR WH› films …Õ act K͆ǰ~¡°.
ANR will not act in films hereafter. 11. WO_•†Ç°<£• QêOn•rx Z„¬æ\H÷ © =°~¡z‡é~¡°.
18. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O tour x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡°. 12. ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ <Í#° <Œ Ja•ã‡•†Ç°O
They will not organize a tour this year. express K͆ǰ#°.

19. "Í°=ò WH› =‹¬°ë=ô•° credit 䛽 J=°à=ò. 13. "Œ~¡° =KÍó "Œ~¡O class x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡°.
We will not sell goods on credit.
14. =¶ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ ##°ß
friends
20. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô D q+¬†Ç¶xß serious Qê encourage K͆ǰ~¡°.
f‹¬°Hù#~¡°.
15. =¶ brother D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O promotion
They will not consider this matter
‡ÚO^Î_È°.
seriously.
Z
The child is father of the man. 200
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QUESTION FORM
=°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ H›
(definite) K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.

J h=ô D ª•i definite Qê pass J=ô`Œ"Œ ? J g°~¡° =KÍó <³• definite Qê money repay Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
J P"³° D proposal `Ç„¬æH› X„¬C䛽O@°O^¥ ? J N KÇOã^΃ì|° =°~¡• ‹².ZO. J=ô`Œ~Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° =°#=ò ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ `Ç„æ¬ H› K͆ò
Ç XH› „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° `Ç„¬æH› K͆Çò XH› „¬xx
ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Will + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – You, He, She, It, They J~ò#„¬C_È° 'will +I form of the verb'
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô next year studies continue Kͪ•ë"Œ? 6. N KÇOã^΃ì|° =°~¡• =°# CM J=ô`Œ~Œ?
Will you continue your studies next Will Sri Chandra Babu become our
year ? C.M. again ?
2. g°~¡° D town …Õ<Í settle J=ô`Œ~Œ ? 7. D tournments …Õ Indian team definite
Will you settle down in this town ? Qê finals H÷ KÍ~¡°ä›½O@°O^¥ ?
3. g° brother next month U.S.A. "³ˆ`× Œ_¨? Will the Indian team reach the finals
in this tournments definitely ?
Will your brother go to the U.S.A. next
month ?
8. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô definite Qê bill pay Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
Will you pay the bill definitely tomorrow?
4. g° sister D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O degree „¬îië 9. q.q.Z‹¹. •H›;}Ÿ D series …Õ ä›•_¨ ƒìQê
KÍ‹¬°ëO^¥ ? shine J=ô`Œ_¨ ?
Will your sister complete her degree
Will V.V.S. Lakshman succeed in this
this year ? series also ?
5. g° friends D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 `Ç„¬æH› co- 10. \÷._•.„,² a.*.ÿ „² H÷ Dª•i 䛕_¨ =°^Î`í °Ç
operate Kͪ•ë~Œ ? W‹¬°ëO^¥ ?
Will your friends co-operate you in this Will the TDP support the BJP this time
matter ? also ?

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11. h=ô Head-master #° Z„¬C_È° consult EXERCISE


J=ô`Œ=ô ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
When will you consult the Head-
master ?
12. g°~¡° next Sunday ZH›ø_•H÷ "³ˆ`× Œ~¡° ? 1. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô college function …Õ <Œ\÷H› play
Where will you go next Sunday ?
Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
13. N KÇOã^΃ì|° D ª•i ZH›ø_È ‡é\©
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? 2. h=ô next month scooter HùO\ì"Œ ?
Where will Sri Chandra Babu contest 3. g° fatherx#°ß next year B.Tech …Õ
this time ?
admit Kͪ•ë~Œ ?
14. g°~¡° future …Õ ZH›ø_È settle J=ô`Œ~¡° ?
Where will you settle down in future ? 4. P"³ ° next year ä› • _¨ Vizag …Õ<Í
15. "Œ~¡° <³•¶Á~¡°…Õ branch Z„¬C_È° open KÇ^ΰ=ô`Ç°O^¥ ?
Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? 5. "Œ~¡ ° =°#ä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô material supply
When will they open the branch in Kͪ•ë~Œ?
Nellore ?
16. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô P work H÷ ZO`Ç money 6. =òY¼=°Oãu ö~„¬ô =°# l…ìÁ „¬~¡¼@#䛽
demand Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? =ª•ë~Œ ?
Howmuch money will they demand for 7. N=°u ªéx†Ç¶ QêOn• „ã ^¬ •¥x J=ô`Œ~Œ?
that work tomorrow ?
8. g°~¡ ° =KÍ ó "Œ~¡ = ò seminar …Õ
17. ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È =°#•#° Z=~¡° receive
‡•…ç¾O\ì~Œ ?
KÍ‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡° ?
Who will receive us there tomorrow ? 9. g° brother next month job H÷ resign
18. Next Sunday g° function Z=~¡ ° Kͪ•ë_¨ ?
inaugurate Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? 10. "Œ~¡° x#°ß WOHùH› ª•i #=òà`Œ~Œ ?
Who will inaugurate the function next
Sunday ?
11. g°~¡° D q+¬†Ç°=òÌ„á x~¡â†Ç°O Z„¬C_È°
19. ö~„¬ô interview H÷ ZO`Ç =°Ok candidates f‹¬°ä›½O\ì~¡° ?
attend J=ô`Œ~¡° ? 12. h=ô D ª•i Z=iH÷ F@° "ͪ•ë=ô ?
Howmany condidates will attend the
13. `Í[ next U film direct Kͪ•ë_°È ?
interview tomorrow ?
20. g°~¡° next year college H÷ ZO`Ç amount 14. g° father hä› ½ ö ~ „¬ ô ZO`Ç money
donate Kͪ•ë~°¡ ? „¬O„¬ô`Œ~¡° ?
Howmuch amount will you donate for
the college next year ?
Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
XH›~¡° K͆ǰx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J ö~„¬ô =°#=ò "Œix H›•°==^¥í ? J h=ô ö~„¬ô computer class H÷ ~Œ"Œ ?
J J`Ç_È° =KÍó "Œ~¡O duty H÷ attend J=_¨ ? J P"³° WH› college …Õ KÇ^Î=^¥ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê =°#=òQêx, "Í~ùH›~°¡ Qêx ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó <³•,
=KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Willn't (won't) + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õ
You, He, She, It, They - subject Qê L#ß„¬C_È° 'Won't' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. g°~¡° <Œä›½ D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ help K͆ǰ~Œ? 7. g°~¡° ö~„¬\÷ =~¡ä›½ JH›ø_È wait K͆ǰ~Œ ?
Won't you help me in this matter? Won't you wait there till tomorrow ?

2. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ "³ˆ×¤"Œ ? 8. g°~¡ ° WH› J`Ç x q+¬ † Ç ° =ò *ÕH› ¼ O


Won't you go to office tomorrow? KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ?
Won't you interefere in his matter
3. J`Ç_È° D course join J=_¨ ?
hereafter?
Won't he join this course ?
9. h=ô Dª•i entrance test H÷ apply
4. P"³° D proposal X„¬CHù#^¥ ?
K͆ǰ"Œ ?
Won't she accept to this proposal ?
Won't you apply for the entrance test
5. "Œ~¡° D town …Õ settle J=~Œ ? this time ?
Won't they settle down in this town?
10. P"³ ° next year D college …Õ
6. "Œ~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô =°#•#° JH› ø _È receive „¬xK͆ǰ^¥?
KÍ‹¬°HË~Œ? Won't she work in this college next
Won't they receive us there tomorrow? year?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11 h=ô ö~„¬ô =¶`Ë picnic H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œ=ô? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why won't you come on picnic with us
tomorrow ?
1. h=ô WH› studies continue K͆ǰ"Œ?
12. g°~¡° next week =~¡ä›½ WH›ø_È ZO^ΰ䛽
LO_È~¡° ? 2. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô T.V. …Õ cricket match KǶ_È~Œ?
Why won't you stay here till next week?
3. g°~¡° next Sunday Ongole H÷ ~Œ~Œ ?
13. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ ZO^Î ° ä› ½
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ_È° ? 4. h=ô next May …Õ entrance test H÷ appear
Why won't he co-operate with you in J="Π?
this matter ?
5. P"³° D ª•i function H÷ =°#•#° invite
14. P"³° D medicines ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°Hù#^ΰ? K͆ǰ^¥ ?
Why won't she take these medicines?
6. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô bill pay K͆ǰ_¨ ?
15. "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 support K͆ǰ~¡°?
Why won't they support us ? 7. "Œ~¡° D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ =°#H÷ ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iOKÇ~Œ?
16. h=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 P „¬xK͆ǰ=ô ? 8. h=ô ö~„¬ô ZxßH›•…Õ vote "͆ǰ"Œ ?
Why won't you do that work ?
9. h=ô ö~„¬ô office H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 "³ˆ×¤=ô ?
17. "Œ~¡° J`ÇxÌ„á ZO^ΰ䛽 KÇ~¡¼ f‹¬°Hù#~¡°?
Why won't they take action against 10. g°~¡ ° next week meeting ZO^Î ° ä› ½
him? x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ~¡° ?
18. h=ô next March exam H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 appear 11. P†Ç°# D ª•i ZxßH•› …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡é\©
J==ô ? K͆ǰ~¡° ?
Why won't you appear for the exams
next March ? 12. P"³° D ª•i birthday ZO^ΰ䛽 celebrate
KÍ‹¬°HË^ΰ ?
19. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô meeting H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend
J=_È° ? 13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#•#° ZO^ΰ䛽 cousult
Why won't he attend the meeting J=~¡°?
tomorrow ?
14. g°~¡° ~ö „¬ô seminar …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾#~¡°?
20. "Œ~¡° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O tour ZO^ΰ䛽 organize
K͆ǰ~¡° ? 15. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô =°#`Ë TiH÷ ZO^ΰ䛽~Œ_È°?
Why won't they organize a tour this
year?

Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Will' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Will' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ `Ç„æ¬ HK
› †
Í ò
Ç XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will
+ I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I will help you in this matter. 2. We will organize a tour next month.
3. She will join MBA next June. 3. He will participate in the seminar next Sunday.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense
…Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽"Won't + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I won't stay here tomorrow. 2. We won't settle down in this town.
3. He won't come here next week. 4. They won't accept to this proposal.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ `Ç„¬æH›K͆Çò XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Will + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Will you post this letter?
2. Will you visit Tirumala next month?
3. Will you complete the course next December?
4. Will they vacate the house next month?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç x XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense
…Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽"Won't + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Won't you come here tomorrow?
2. Won't you stay here tonight?
3. Won't you join college next year?
4. Won't they pay the bill tomorrow?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

401. narrate narrated narrated q=iOz K³„¬C


402. neglect neglected neglected x~¡ÁH›Æ¼=ò K͆Çò
403. nod nodded nodded `Ç•= J#°=°uOKÇ°
404. nominate nominated nominated x†Ç°q°OKÇ°@
405. obey obeyed obeyed q^•Í†°Ç `ÇQê LO_È°@
406. oblige obliged obliged |^ΰœ_³á †ÇòO_È°@
407. obtain obtained obtained ‡ÚO^ΰ@
408. occupy occupied occupied PãH›q°OKÇ°@
409. occur occured occured ‹¬Oƒ•’qOKÇ°@
410. offer offered offered WKÇ°ó@
411. omit omitted omitted q_•zÌ„@°“@
412. ooze oozed oozed Hê~¡°@
413. open opened opened `³~¡KÇ°@
414. operate operated operated #_•„²OKÇ°@
415. opine opined opined ƒ•ìqOKÇ°@
416. oppose opposed opposed =¼uö~H÷OKÇ°@
417. owe owed owed |°°}„¬_• =ôO_È°@
418. pardon pardoned pardoned H›Æq°OKÇ°, =°xßOKÇ°
419. participate participated participated ‡•…ç¾#°@
420. pass passed passed Q®_È„¬ô@, ^¥@°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
206 Hope and expectation are a fool's income.
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MAY
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH› „¬xx K͆ò Ç J=Hê‰×=ò (Possibility) #° Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò. P „¬x [~¡Q= ® KÇ°ó,
[~¡Q®H›‡é=KÇ°ó. ‹¬O^Í‚¬ì=òQê (doubtful) K³„¬CKÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô =¶ brother `Ë K³<³áß "³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó. J "Í°=ò |‚¬•‰§ =KÍó <³• D W•°Á Mìm K͆°Ç =KÇ°.ó
J P"³° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „¬îiëQê HË•°HË=KÇ°ó. J D ~ËA ~ŒãuH÷ H˪•ë l…ìÁ…Õ =~¡ÂO „¬_È=KÇ°ó.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° XH› „¬xx K͆Çò J=Hê‰×=ò
(Possibility) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"May + I form of the Verb" =KÇ°ó#°.

öH=•O XH› „¬xx K͆Çò J=Hê‰×=ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@ (doubtful).


* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##° "May + I form" =KÇ°ó#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô
office H÷ late Qê ~Œ=KÇ°ó. 6. P"³° |‚¬•‰§ D proposal X„¬CHË=KÇ°ó.
I may come to office late tomorrow.
She may accept to this proposal.
2. "Í°=ò |‚¬•‰§ D \º<£…Õ<Í settle 7. D ª•i |‚¬•‰§ Congress öHOã^ÎO…Õ
Hê=KÇ°ó. ã „ ¬ ƒ •’ ° `Ç Þ O U~Œæ@° KÍ † Ç ° =KÇ ° ó .
We may settle down in this town. The Congress may form the govt. at
centre this time.
3. =¶ brother Dª•i teacher post
8. "Œ~¡ ° |‚¬ • ‰§ D "Œ~¡ O …Õ orders
‡ÚO^Î=KÇ°ó.
My brother may get the teacher post JO^ΰHË=KÇ°ó.
this time. They may receive the orders this

4. "Œ~¡° |‚¬•‰§ =°#䛽 JH›ø_È =‹¬u week.

H›eæOKÇ=KÇ°ó. 9. P"³° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „¬îiëQê HË•°HË=KÇ°ó.


They may provide us accommodation She may recover completely soon.
there. 10. "Œ~¡° |‚¬•‰§ ö~„¬ô g°\÷OQ· "Œ~ò^¥
5. D ~ËA G.T. Express late Qê ~Œ=KÇ°ó. "͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
The G.T. Express may arrive late They may postpone the meeting
today. tomorrow.
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EXERCISE
11. <Í#° |‚¬•‰§ =KÍó Pk"Œ~¡O K³<ßá³ "³ˆ¤×=KÇ°ó.
I may go to Chennai next Sunday. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. "Œ~¡° |‚¬•‰§ ~ö „¬ôª•†Ç°Oã`OÇ q[†Ç°"Œ_È
KÍ~¡°HË=KÇ°ó. 1. <Í#° |‚¬•‰§ Dª•i „¬sH›Æ second class
They may reach Vijayawada tomorrow …Õ pass Hê=KÇ°ó.
evening.
2. "Í°=ò |‚¬•‰§ D ~ËA D „¬x „¬îië
13. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 Ì‹•=ô ㄬH›\÷OKÇ=KÇ°ó.
They may declare a holiday for us
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
tomorrow. 3. =¶ father D "Œ~¡ O <Œä› ½ money
14. |‚¬•‰§ ~ö „¬ô, =°~¡°<Œ_È° H˪•ë l…ìÁ•…Õ „¬O„¬=KÇ°ó.
=~¡ÂO„¬_È=KÇ°ó. 4. P"³° K³<³áß…Õ =KÍó "Œ~¡O heart specialist
It may rain in the coastal districts x consult Hê=KÇ°ó.
tomorrow and day after tomorrow. 5. ö~„¬ô match …Õ |‚¬•‰§ ~Œ‚¬ì…˜ ã^¥q_£
15. "Œ~¡ ° D „¬ x H÷ ‹¬ ° =¶~¡ ° 4000~¡ ¶ . team x lead K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
demand K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó. 6. D ª•i 䛕_¨ T.D.P. öHOã^ÎO…Õ B.J.P. H÷
They may demand Rs. 4000 for this =°^Îí`Ç° W=Þ=KÇ°ó.
work.
7. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ `Ç=° x~¡† â °Ç O „
ã H¬ \
› O÷ KÇ=KÇ°ó.
16. N "³OH›†°Ç ¼<Œ†Çò_È° =°~¡• ‡•s“ „
Ìã ‹²_O³ \˜
8. ö ~ „¬ ô _•ã w q^¥¼~¡ ° Ö • ° HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° •°
J==KÇ°ó.
Sri Venkaiah Naidu may become party
|‚²ì+¬øiOKÇ=KÇ°ó.
President again. 9. |‚¬ • ‰§ Indian team =KÍ ó PQ® ‹ ¬ ° “ … Õ
17. Degree `Ç~°¡ "Œ`Ç =¶ brother |‚¬•‰§ job WOQêÁO_£ „¬~¡¼\÷OKÇ=KÇ°ó.
H÷ try K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó. 10. Ex†Ç°~Ÿ _¨H›“~¡°Á WOHùH› "Œ~¡O strike
My brother may try for a job after his Hù#ª•yOKÇ=KÇ°.ó
Degree. 11. `ÇÞ~¡…Õ „ ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO †Çò=䛽• HË‹¬O XH›
18. =¶ cousin =KÍó _•Ì‹O|~Ÿ…Õ USA „¬^ŠÎH›O ㄬ"͉×Ì„@“=KÇ°ó.
"³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó. 12. XH›\÷ ï~O_È° <³••…Õ P†Ç°# L^˼QêxH÷
My cousin may leave for the USA next ~Œr<Œ=¶ K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
December.
19. J`Ç _ È ° g°ä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ help
13. "Œ~¡° `ÇÞ~¡…Õ WO_•†Ç¶ä›½ uiy ~Œ=KÇ°.ó
14. |‚¬ • ‰§ "Œ~¡ ° P‹¬ Ö • O…Õ `Ç Þ ~¡ … Õ XH›
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó.
shopping complex xiàOKÇ=KÇ°ó.
He may help you in this matter.
20. "Œ~¡ ° |‚¬ • ‰§ J`Ç x x clerk Qê 15. =¶ brother `Ç# vizag tour cancel
x†Ç°q°OKÇ=KÇ°ó. KÍ‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó.
They may appoint him a clerk.
Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx K͆ǰH› ‡é=KÇ°ó#x (doubtful) Qê T‚²ìOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J P"³° D ª•i „¦O¬ H›<Æ ä£ ½› =°#•#° invite K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó. J <Í#° ö~„¬ô P„¦Ô‹¬°ä›½ "³ˆ×ÁH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
J "Í°<Í[~Ÿ h䛽 permission W=ÞH›‡é=KÇ°ó. J "Œ~¡° D q+¬†°Ç O…Õ =°#䛽 ‹¬‚ì¬ H›iOKÇH› ‡é=KÇ°.ó

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç H›‡é=KÇ°ó#x
T‚²ìOz K³„¬C@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç H›‡é=KÇ°#ó x doubt
Qê K³„¬C@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''May + not + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ ''''May + not + I form of the verbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô Hê…èlH÷ ~ŒH›‡é=KÇ°ó. 6. "Œ~¡° D town …Õ settle HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
I may not come to college tomorrow. They may not settle down in this town.
2. "Í ° =ò next week programme …Õ 7, N "³OH›†°Ç ¼<Œ†Çò_È° Dª•i ZxßH•› …Õ
‡•…ç¾#H›‡é=KÇ°.ó ‡é\© K͆ǰ‡é=KÇ°ó.
We may not participate in the Sri Venkaiah Naidu may not contest
programme next week. in the elections this time.
3. English lecturer ö ~ „¬ ô =°#ä› ½ HêÁ ‹ ¬ ° 8. "Í°<Í[~¡° ö~„¬ô h䛽 leave grant K͆ǰH›
f‹¬°Hù#H›‡é=KÇ°ó. ‡é=KÇ°ó.
The English lecturer may not take our The Manager may not grant you a
class tomorrow. leave tomorrow.
4. =¶ cousin D ª•i `Ç # birthday 9. =¶ uncle D proposal X„¬CHËH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
celebrate KÍ‹¬°HËH›‡é=KÇ°ó. My uncle may not accept to this
My cousin may not celebrate her birth proposal.
day this time. 10. =¶ sister D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O studies continue
5. D train time H÷ q[†Ç°"Œ_È KÍ~H¡ ‡› é=KÇ°ó. K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
This train may not reach Vijayawada My sister may not continue her studies
in time. this year.
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11. ö~„¬ô =¶¼KŸ…Õ ‹¬z<£ P_ÈH›‡é=KÇ°ó. EXERCISE


Sachin may not play in the match D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
tomorrow.
12. "Œ~¡° D ª•i tour x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
They may not organize the tour this 1. <Í#° D ª•i exam ‡•‹¹HêH›‡é=KÇ°.ó
time.
13. J`Ç _ È ° g°ä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ 2. "Í°=ò ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È work K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó. 3. =¶ brother next year college join
He may not co-operate with you in this HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
matter.
4. P"³° ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 ~ŒH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
14. N.G.O.s~ö „¬ô |‚¬•‰§ q^•Î°•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡°
HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó. 5. "Œ~¡ ° =°#•#° JH› ø _È receive
The N.G.O.s may not attend the duty KÍ‹¬°HËH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
tomorrow.
6. ö~„¬ô buses #_È=H›‡é=KÇ°ó.
15. "Œ~¡ ° D ª•i „¬ O _È ° Q® ä › ½ Ì ‹ •=ô•°
ㄬH›\÷OKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó. 7. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô =°#䛽 D q+¬†Ç°=ò inform
They may not declare holidays for the K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
festival this time.
8. J`Ç _ È ° hä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ help
16. P"³° D ª•i function 䛽 =°#•#° invite K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
She may not invite us to the function 9. D ~ËA =~¡ÂO „¬_ÈH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
this time. 10. =¶ sister Dª•i „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ ‚¬ð[~¡°
17. "Œ~¡° ~ö „¬ô g°\÷OQ·…Õ D q+¬†°Ç O discuss HêH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
They may not discuss this matter in 11. J`Ç_È° D job H÷ try K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
the meeting tomorrow. 12. J`Ç_È° =°~¡• =°#•#° H›•°=H›‡é=KÇ°ó.
18. N H›~¡°}ìxk• WH› g°^Î@ politics …Õ 13. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞO D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O \©K~Ç Ÿ ‡é‹¬°•“ ° ƒ•’së
active Qê participate K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
Sri Karunanidhi may not participate
K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
in politics actively hereafter. 14. †Çüx=i•\© D ª•i entrance test
19. P"³° WH› P "Œ¼k• #°O_• HË•°HËH›‡é=KÇ°.ó x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
She may not recover from that
15. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô shops open K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
disease.
20. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È stay K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó.
They may not stay here tomorrow. Z
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QUESTION FORM

ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH› „¬xx K͆ò


Ç @䛽 J#°=°ux (permission) Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° WH› WO\÷H÷ "³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó<Œ ? J "Í°=ò D HË~¡°• K͆°Ç =KÇ°<ó Œ ?
J <Í#° W„¬C_È° J`Çxx H›•°= =KÇ°ó<Œ ? J <Í#° ö~„¬ô g°`Ë JH›ø_È䛽 ~Œ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç @䛽 J#°=°ux
HË~¡°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH› „¬xx K͆òÇ @䛽 J#°=°u (permission)
‡ÚO^ΰ@#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"May + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'May + I form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D HË~¡°• join J==KÇ°ó<Œ? 6. "Í ° =ò ä› • _¨ ö ~ „¬ ô g°`Ë picnic ä› ½
May I join this course ? ~Œ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May we come on picnic with you
2. <Í # ° g° WO\ÕÁ ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA•° stay
tomorrow ?
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I stay two days in your house ? 7. h À„~¡°, Jã_È‹¬° `³•°‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May I know your name and address ?
3. =°#=ò ä› • _¨ ö ~ „¬ ô seminar …Õ
‡•…ç¾#=KÇ°<
ó Œ? 8. "Í ° =ò D ~ËA g° vehicle use
May we participate in the seminar KÍ‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
tomorrow ? May we use your vehicle today ?

4. <Í # ° W„¬ C _È ° g° #°O_• Ì ‹ •=ô 9. <Í#° D …ÿ@~Ÿ KÇ^ΰ= =KÇ°ó<Œ ?


f‹¬°Hù#=KÇ°ó<Œ ? May I read this letter ?
May I take leave from you now ?
10. =°#=ò ö ~ „¬ ô "ŒiH÷ =°# opinion
5. "Í°=ò 䛕_¨ D H›Áƒ˜…Õ membership K³„¬æ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
‡ÚO^Î=KÇ°ó<Œ ? May we express our opinion to them
May we get membership in this club ? tomorrow?

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11. <Í#° …ÕxH÷ ~Œ=KÇ°ó<Œ ? EXERCISE


May I come in ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. =°#=ò D ƒì¼OH± … Õ loan H÷ apply
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May we apply for a loan in this bank ?
1. <Í#° XH› Q®O@ rest f‹¬°HË=KŒó ?
2. =°#=ò Manager chamber …ÕxH÷
13. <Í#° J`Ç_È° P•‹¬¼OQê ~Œ=\ìxH÷ reason "³ˆ×¤=KŒó ?
`³•°‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ? 3. <Í # ° D document Ì „ á ‹¬ O `Ç H › O
May I know the reason for his late
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
coming ?
4. "Í°=ò D Ì‹•=ô•#° qx†³¶yOKÇ°
14. "Í°=ò manager Qêi`Ë =¶\ìÁ_=
È KÇ°ó<Œ? Hù#=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May we speak to the Manager ? 5. <Í#° D HË~¡°• K͆°Ç =KÇ°<ó Œ?
15. <Í#° non-veg food f‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ? 6. =°#=ò admission q=~¡ = ò•°
May I take non-veg food ?
`³•°‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
7. <Í#° loan H÷ apply K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
16. =°#=ò 5 pm `Ç ~ ¡ ° "Œ`Ç WO\÷ H ÷ 8. "Í°=ò P temple visit K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
"³ˆ×¤=KÇ°ó<Œ?
9. <Í # ° D album …Õ photographs
May we go home after 5 p.m. ?
KǶ_È=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
17. <Í#° h ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡=KÇ°ó<Œ ? 10. =°#=ò ä› • _¨ quiz competition …Õ
May I seek your help ? ‡•…ç¾#=KÇ°< ó Œ?
18. "Í ° =ò WH› ø _È HùOK³ O À ‹ „¬ ô rest
11. <Í # ° D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ interefere
f‹¬°HË=KÇ°ó<Œ ? Hê=KÇ°ó<Œ?
May we take rest here for a while ? 12. "Í°=ò D compartment …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
19. <Í # ° D ~ËA Ì ‹ •=ôä› ½ apply
13. <Í#° D item taste K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ?
14. =°#=ò JH› ø _•H÷ U time …Õ<³ á < Œ
May I apply for leave today ?
"³ˆ×Á=KÇ°ó<Œ ?
20. "Í°=ò W„¬C_È° Principal #° consult 15. <Í#° 䛕_¨ report submit K͆ǰ=KÇ°ó<Œ?
J==KÇ°ó<Œ ?
May we consult the Principal now ? Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'May' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'May' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form J#° 3 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D 3 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› „¬xx K͆òÇ J=Hê‰×=ò#° Q®°iOz (Possibility) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"May + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°. nxx Doubtful Future JO\ì~¡°.
Ex :
1. I may go to Hyderabad next week.
2. We may win the match tomorrow.
3. He may get the post this time.
4. They may receive the orders soon.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~¡° XH›„¬xx K͆ǰH›‡é=KÇ°ó#x (Doubtful)
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "May not + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. He may not help in this matter.
2. She may not continue her studies next year.
3. They may not come here tomorrow.
4. You may not get the opportunity this time.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› „¬xx K͆ò
Ç @䛽 XH›~°¡ WOHùH›i J#°=°ux (Permission) ‡ÚO^ΰ@
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "May + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. May I read this letter?
2. May we go home now?
3. May I speak to the Manager?
4. May we stay here tonight?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

421. peel peeled peeled `Ë•° =•KÇ°@


422. peep peeped peeped `ùOyKǶKÇ°@
423. perform performed performed x~¡Þ‚²ìOKÇ°@
424. permit permitted permitted J#°=°uOKÇ°@
425. perturb perturbed perturbed KÇeO„¬ K͆Çò@
426. pick picked picked f‹¬°Hù#°, Z#°ßH›ù#°
427. play played played P_È°@
428. please pleased pleased W+¬“„¬_È°, ^ΆǰK͆Çò@
429. polish polished polished "³°~¡°Q®°, #°#°„¬ôK͆Çò
430. possess possessed possessed H›ey†ÇòO_È°
431. postpone postponed postponed "Œ~ò^¥"͆Çò@
432. pour poured poured ã‡é†Çò@
433. praise praised praised ‡ÚQ®_È°@
434. pray prayed prayed ‡ã •iÖOKÇ°@
435. preach preached preached L„¬^ÍtOKÇ°@
436. predict predicted predicted *Õ‹¬¼=ò K³„¬C@
437. prefer prefered prefered ‡ã •^•¥#¼`Ç WKÇ°@ ó
438. prepare prepared prepared `džǶ~¡° K͆Çò@
439. prescribe prescribed prescribed =òO^ΰQê ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@
440. preside presided presided J^•Î¼H›`Æ Ç =‚²ìOKÇ°@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 3 parts KÇ^=Î O_•!
g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
214 What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her.
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CAN
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (ability) #° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J "Í°=ò D ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° ‹¬•ƒ•’=òQê „¬i+¬øiOKÇ Q®•=ò.
J <Í#° ~ËA䛽 „¬k Q®O@•° „¬xK͆ǰQ®•#°.
J "Œ~¡° Dª•i "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ =°Oz profits ‡ÚO^ÎQ•® ~¡°.
J =¶ brother English ƒìQê =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•_È°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•…Õx „¬#°•x߆ü Ç ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx
K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (ability) #° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò#°
(ability) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Can + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'CanÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° WOwÁ+¬µ fluent Qê =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•#°. 6. N =°<Ëà‚¬ì<£‹²OQ· Hêjà~¡° ‹¬=°‹¬¼#°
I can speak English fluently. „¬i+¬øiOKÇQ®•~¡°.
2. "Í ° =ò Jxß subjects ï ~ O_È ° <³ • •…Õ Sri Manmohan Singh can solve the
prepare HêQ®•=ò. Kashmir problem.
We can prepare all the subjects within 7. <Í#° D „
ã ‰¬ ßוxßO\÷H÷ answer K͆°Ç Q®•#°.
two months. I can answer all these questions.
3. <Í#° h ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° J~¡ÖOKÍ‹¬°HËQ®•#°. 8. "Í°=ò D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ J`Çxx convince
I can understand your problem. K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
4. Oral practice ^¥Þ~Œ g°~¡ ° English We can convince him in this matter.
improve KÍ‹¬°HËQ®•~¡°. 9. P"³° U q+¬†°Ç OÌ„<
á <
á³ Œ argue K͆°Ç Q®•^ΰ.
You can improve English through oral She can argue on any matter.
practice. 10. "Œ~¡ ° D work <Œ•°Q® ° ~ËA•…Õ
5. ‹¬z<£ >ÿO_ȶ•ø~Ÿ ㄬ„¬OKÇO…Õ U ƒº•~Ÿ „¬îiëK͆ǰ Q®•~¡°.
<³á<Œ Z^ΰ~ùø#Q®•_È°. They can complete this work in four
Sachin Tendulkar can face any bowler days.
in the world.
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11. =¶ q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° D ª•i 90% =¶~¡°ø•° EXERCISE


score K͆ǰQ®•~¡°.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Our students can score 90% of marks
this time.
12. =¶ mother U item S<Œ KŒ…ì ƒìQê 1. <Í # ° xq°‘•xH÷ 60 „¬ ^ ¥•° type
prepare K͆ǰQ®•^ΰ. K͆ǰQ®•#°.
My mother can prepare any item very 2. "Í°=ò WH›ø_È h䛽 help K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
well.
3. h=ô D „¬sH›Æ easy Qê ‡•‹¹ HêQ®•=ô.
13. J`Ç_°È ~ËAH÷ ~¡¶. 200 ‹¬O‡•kOKÇQ•® _È°.
He can earn Rs. 200 per day.
4. J`Ç_È° <Œ•°Q®° ƒ•ì+¬•° ^•¥~Œˆ×OQê
=¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•_È°.
14. "Í°=ò ~ËAH÷ 20 Hù`Ç„
ë ^
¬ ¥•° <Í~°¡ óHËQ®•=ò.
We can learn twenty new words every
5. =°#=ò train …Õ u~¡°„¬uH÷ S^ΰQ®O@•…Õ
day. KÍ~¡°HËQ®•=ò.
15. "Œ~¡° business …Õ ~¡¶. 5,00,000 =~¡ä›½ 6. <Í#° h䛽 D amount <Œ•°Q®° ~ËA•…Õ
invest K͆ǰQ®•~¡°. uiy K³eÁOKÇQ®•#°.
They can invest upto Rs. 5,00,000 in 7. S.P. U ƒ•ì+¬…Õ<³<á Œ ‡•@•° ‡•_ÈQ•® _È°.
the business.
8. <Í # ° "ŒiH÷ D q+¬ † Ç ° O explain
16. <Í#° „².l q^¥¼~¡°Ö•ä›½ 䛕_¨ English
K͆ǰQ®•#°.
teach K͆ǰQ®•#°.
I can teach English even to the P.G. 9. "Í°=ò h䛽 D ~ËA ~¡¶. 10,000 adjust
students. K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
17. =°<Ë^•³~á ¼¡ O`Ë =°#O U^³<á Œ ª•k•OKÇQ•® O. 10. <Œ•°Q®° <³••…Õ g°~¡° „¬îië English
We can achieve anything with our will <Í~¡°óHù#Q®•~¡°.
power. 11. P\Õ…Õ "³ˆÃ× .¤ H›$‘•â express JO^ΰHËQ®•=ô.
18. Hard work `Ë <Í#° <Œ •HÆê¼xß KÍ~¡Q®•#°.
12. ï~O_È° ~ËA•…Õ "Í°=ò D cards Jhß
I can reach my goal through hard work.
distribute K͆ǰQ®•=ò.
19. <Í#° U „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •<³<
á Œ ^•³~á ¼¡ OQê Z^ΰ~Ëø
Q®•#°. 13. "Œ~¡ ° D season …Õ =°Oz profits
I can face any circumstances ‡ÚO^ÎQ®•~¡°.
courageously. 14. <Í#° 24 Q®O@•¶ „¬xK͆ǰQ®•#°.
20. P~¡° <³••…Õ "Œ~¡° D building xiàOKÇ 15. D tournments …Õ =°# Indian team
Q®•~¡°. easy Qê cup ïQ•=Q®•^ΰ.
They can build this building in six
months Z
Character is destiny. 216
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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›iH÷ XH› „¬x K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (ability) …èH›‡é=ô@ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô g°`Ë village H÷ ~Œ…è#°. J "Í°=ò WH› D old house …Õ x=tOKÇ…=è ò.
J P†Ç°# =°#䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ…è_È°. J P ‡•s“ Dª•i„ã ƒ¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@° K͆°Ç …è^°Î .

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç …èH‡› é=ô@ Q®°iOz
K³„¬CKÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH›„x¬ x K͆òÇ ª•=°~¡¼œ =ò (lack
of ability) …èH›‡é=ô@ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Cannot + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶


"Cannot + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° English fluent Qê =¶\ìÁ_È…è#°. 7. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç #+¬O“ ƒ•’iOKÇ…~è °¡ .
I cannot speak English fluently. They cannot bear this much loss.

2. "Í°=ò D problem face K͆ǰ…è=ò. 8. =°#O P‚¬ð~¡O …è䛽O_¨ rqOKÇ…è=ò.


We cannot face this problem. We cannot live without food.

3. =°#=ò J`Çx`Ë "ŒkOKÇ…è=ò. 9. h=ô English medium …Õ lessons follow


We cannot argue with him. Hê…è=ô.
4. J`Ç_È° D „¬sH›Æ easy Qê ‡•‹¹ Hê…è_°È . You cannot follow the lessons in

He cannot pass this examination English medium.

easily. 10. g°~¡° ##°ß "³¶‹¬yOKÇ…è~¡°.


5. P"³° |‹¹…Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}÷OKÇ…è^ΰ. You cannot deceive me.

She cannot travel by bus. 11. <Í#° ~ËAH÷ 10 Q®OII•H›O>è Z䛽ø= work
6. <Í#° D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ h䛽 ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆ǰ…è#°.
K͆ǰ…è#°. I cannot work more than ten hours in

I cannot help you in this matter. a day.

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12. =°#=ò D ‹² \ © … Õ J`Ç x address EXERCISE


H›#°Qù#…è=ò. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We cannot find his address in this city.

13. HËzOQ· …è䛽O_¨ h=ô D test …Õ rank


1. <Í#° D ª•i „¬sH›…Æ Õ 90% H›O>è Z䛽ø=
‡ÚO^Î…è=ô. =¶~¡°ø•° score K͆ǰ…è#°.
You cannot get rank in this test without
2. "Í°=ò D z#߂𬠕°…Õ function H÷ U~Œæ@°Á
coaching.
K͆ǰ…è=ò.
14. <Í#° J‹¬•° J==¶#O ƒ•’iOKÇ…#
è °. 3. g°~¡ ° =¶ help …è ä › ½ O_¨ D work
I cannot bear insult at all. complete K͆ǰ…è~¡°.

15. =°#=ò J`Ç x x D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ 4. =¶ grandfather JO`Ç^ζ~¡O #_È=…è~¡°.


X„²æOKÇ…è=ò. 5. ~Œ‚¬ • …˜ ã ^ ¥q_£ fast Qê runs score
We cannot convince him in this matter. K͆ǰ…è_È°.
6. q.q.†Ç°‹¹. •H›Æà}Ÿ ƒºeOQ· K͆ǰ…è_È°.
16. P†Ç°# _•ãw q^¥¼~¡°•Ö 䛽 Mathematics
7. =¶ Maths lecturer doubts clarify
teach K͆ǰ…è_È°.
K͆ǰ…è_È°.
He cannot teach Mathematics to the
Degree students. 8. <Í # ° ö ~ „¬ ô J`Ç x H÷ amount adjust
K͆ǰ…è#°.
17. "Œ~¡ ° D „¬ x ï ~ O_È ° ~ËA•…Õ „¬ î ië 9. Hardwork …è ä › ½ O_¨ =°#=ò life …Õ
K͆ǰ…è~¡°. success Hê…è=ò.
They cannot complete this work in two
10. P"³° XO@iQê P WO\ÕÁ LO_È…è^ΰ.
days.
11. "Œ~¡ ° Dª•i business …Õ profits
18. <Í#° D ~ËA duty H÷ attend Hê…è#°. ‡ÚO^Î…è~¡°.
I cannot attend the duty today. 12. \÷._•.„.² support …è䛽O_¨ a.*ÿ.„²². ~ŒRO…Õ
‹Ô@°Á ïQ•°=…è^ΰ.
19. D question <Í#° answer K͆ǰ…è#°.
I cannot answer this question. 13. D z#ß WO\ÕÁ =°#=ò x=tOKÇ…è=ò.
14. Highway g°^Î J`Ç_°È car drive K͆°Ç …è_°È .
20. `Çe^
Á OÎ _
ã °È • ‡ã é`Œ•‚¬ìO …èä½› O_¨ rq`ÇO…Õ 15. <Í#° h =¶@ #=°à…è#°.
„²•Á•° Ì„áH÷ ~Œ…è~¡°.
Children cannot come up in life without
thier parents' encouragement. Z
A little learning is a dangerous thing. 218
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QUESTION FORM
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (ability) ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° D problem #° ^•³~á ¼¡ OQê face K͆°Ç Q®•~Œ? J h=ô ~ËAH÷ „¬k Q®O@•° „¬xK͆°Ç Q®•"Œ?
J J`Ç_È° U vehicle J~ò<Œ drive K͆ǰQ®•_¨?• J P"³° U q+¬†Ç°=òÌ„á<³á<Œ argue K͆°Ç Q®•^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
(ability) #° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Can+ I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural U^³á##° "Can + I form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. D competition …Õ <Í # ° prize 6. g° lecturers D <³•…Õ g° syllabus „¬îië
ïQ•°=Q®•<Œ ? K͆ǰQ®•~Œ ?
Can I win a prize in this competition ? Can your lecturers complete your
2. =°#=ò D <³• target reach J=Q®•=¶? syllabus this month ?
Can we reach the target this month ? 7. N KÇO^ã ƒ
Î ì|° =°~¡• „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ŒÞxß U~Œæ@°
3. g°~¡° =¶ä›½ English Grammar teach
K͆ǰQ®•~Œ ?
Can Sri Chandra Babu form the
K͆ǰQ®•"Œ ?
government again ?
Can you teach us English Grammar ?
8. g°~¡° D ª•ï~<á Œ succeed J=Q®•~Œ ?
4. g° brother D attempt …Õ Group-I Can you succeed atleast this time ?
Officer J=Q®•_¨ ? 9. 2007…Õ =°# Indian players =°#䛽
Can your brother become a Group-I World Cup f‹¬°ä›½~ŒQ®•~Œ ?
Offier in this attempt ? Can the Indian players bring the World
5. g° sister pictures ƒìQê paint Cup in 2007 ?
K͆ǰQ®•^¥? 10. h=ô D box #° Ì„áH÷ lift K͆ǰQ®•"Œ ?
Can your sister paint the pictures well? Can you lift this box ?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. h=ô Zxß languages =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•=ô ? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Howmany languages can you speak?
12. h=ô D ª•i English …Õ Zxß marks
score K͆ǰQ®•=ô ? 1. h=ô <Œä›½ D doubt clarify K͆ǰQ®•"Œ?
Howmany marks can you score in 2. =°#O <³ • ~ËA•…Õ Jxß subjects
English this time ? prepare J=Q®•=¶ ?
13. <Œ ‹¬=°‹¬¼#° Z=~¡° J~¡ÖO KÍ‹¬°HËQ®•~¡°?
Who can understand my problem ?
3. g° brother D ª•i EAMCET …Õ rank
14. D Ì„^Îí city …Õ =°#=ò J`Çxx ZH›ø_È ‡ÚO^ÎQ®•_¨ ?
"³^ÎH› Q®•=ò ? 4. g° younger brother business
Where can we search for him in this KǶ‹¬°HËQ®•_¨ ?
big city ? 5. <Œ „ã ‰¬ ß×ä½› h=ô ‹¬=¶^•¥#O K³„æ¬Q•® "Œ ?
15. g° brother <³ • ä› ½ ZO`Ç money 6. h=ô D letter =¶ brother 䛽 JO^Î*è†Ç°
‹¬O‡•kOKÇQ•® _È° ?
Q®•"Œ ?
Howmuch money can your brother
earn in a month ? 7. g° sister English fluent Qê
16. h=ô xq°‘•xH÷ Zxß words type =¶\ìÁ_ÈQ®•^¥?
K͆ǰQ®•=ô ? 8. P"³° XH›ø`Í JO^Î~¡° guests •#° treat
Howmany words can you type in a K͆ǰQ®•^¥ ?
minute ?
9. g°~¡° WO`Ç #+¬O“ ƒ•’iOKÇQ•® ~Œ ?
17. =°#=ò ZxßH›• „¦¬e`Œ•° =òO^ΰQê Z…ì
guess K͆ǰQ®•=ò ?
10. J`Ç _ È ° D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ =°#ä› ½ help
How can we guess the election results K͆ǰQ®•_¨ ?
earlier ? 11. P†Ç°# U subject ƒìQê teach K͆ǰ
18. D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ =°#O W„¬ C _È ° UO Q®•~¡°?
K͆ǰQ®•=ò ? 12. =°#=ò D „¬ô‹¬Hë O› ZH›ø_È ‡ÚO^ÎQ•® =ò?
What can we do in this matter now ?
13. D ‹¬=°‹¬¼ #°O_• x#°ß Z=~¡° Hꇕ_È
19. P ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° WH› #°Oz Z=~¡° maintain
Q®•~¡°?
K͆ǰQ®•~¡°?
Who can maintain that firm hereafter? 14. D structure Ì„á h=ô Zxß sentences
20. =°#=ò W„¬C_È° D „ ã =
¬ ¶^ÎO #°O_• Z…ì frame K͆ǰQ®•=ô ?
`Ç„²æOKÇ°HËQ®•=ò ? 15. g° brothers co-operation …è䛽O_¨ h=ô
How can we escape from this danger D ‹¬O‹¬Ö#° Z…ì maintain K͆ǰQ®•=ô ?
now ?
Z
Where love is, there God is. 220
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
XH›~¡° K͆ǰ…èH›‡é=ô XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô D questions answer K͆ǰ…è"Œ? J g°~¡° D test pass Hê…è~Œ ?
J J`Ç_È° maths teach K͆ǰ…è_¨? J "Œ~¡° =°#䛽 =‹¬u H›eæOKÇ…è~Œ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬`°Ç …ë Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ J#Qê ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
…èH› ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èH‡› é=ô (XH› „¬xx
K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò …èH‡› é=ô@) XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „ã t¬ ßOKÇ°@䛽
"Cann't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Cann't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. h=ô English fluent Qê =¶\ìÁ_È…è"Œ? 6. "Œ~¡° D problem solve K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
Cann't you speak English fluently? Cann't they solve this problem?

2. g°~¡ ° <Œä› ½ D~ËA money adjust 7. h=ô J`Çx`Ë ‡é\©„¬_È…è"Œ?


K͆ǰ…è~Œ? Cann't you compete with him?
Cann't you adjust me money today?
8. g°~¡° D~ËA D work finish K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
3. h=ô D car drive KÍ † Ç ° …è " Œ? Cann't you finish this work today?
Cann't you drive this car?
9. h=ô spectacles …è䛽O_¨ KǶ_È…è"Œ?
4. J`Ç _ È ° =°#ä› ½ D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ help Cann't you see without spectacles?
K͆ǰ…è_¨?
10. P"³° WH› D "Œ¼k• #°O_• HË•°HË…è^¥?
Cann't he help us in this matter?
Cann't she recover from this disease?
5. P"³ ° WH› ø _È XO@iQê LO_È … è ^ ¥?
11. "Œ~¡° ö~„¬ô match ïQ•°=…è~Œ?
Cann't she stay here alone?
Cann't they win the match?
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

12. <Í<³O^ΰ䛽 job ‡ÚO^Î…è#°? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Why cann't I get a job?
13. =°#"³°O^ΰ䛽 match ïQ•°=…è=ò? 1. h=ô D work D ~ËA „¬îië K͆ǰ…è"Œ?
Why cann't we win the match? 2. g°~¡° D problem face K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
14. h=ô rank ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡ÚO^Î…è=ô? 3. J`Ç_°È Dª•i prize ïQ•°=…è_¨?
Why cann't you secure a rank?
4. P"³° bus …Õ ã„¬†Ç¶}O K͆ǰ…è^¥?
15. J`Ç_³O^ΰ䛽 #_È°=…è_È°?
Why cann't he walk? 5. "Œ~¡° WO`Ç rent bear K͆ǰ…è~Œ?
16. P"³° ZO^ΰ䛽 =¶\ìÁ_È…è^ΰ? 6. =°#=ò D subject <³• ~ËA•…Õ prepare
Why cann't she speak? Hê…è=¶?
17. "Œï~O^ΰ䛽 „
ã ƒ
¬ •’°`ÇÞO U~Œæ@°K͆°Ç …è~°¡ ? 7. g°~¡° D case ïQ•°=…è~Œ?
Why cann't they form the government? 8. P†Ç°# Dª•i `Ç# „ã u ¬ ƒ•’ KǶ„¬…_ è ¨?
18. h=ô J`Çxx ZO^ΰ䛽 X„²æOKÇ…è=ô? 9. Ganguly =°~¡ • team …Õ ª•Ö # =ò
Why cann't you convince him?
‡ÚO^Î…è_¨?
19. h"³O^ΰ䛽 „¬i‘•ø~¡O H›#°Qù#…è=ô?
Why cann't you find the solution?
10. India =KÍó World Cup ZO^ΰ䛽 Qï •°=…è^°Î ?
20. =°#"³°O^ΰ䛽 H›‘•“•° Jk•H›q°OKÇ…=
è ò? 11. g°~¡° J`Çx`Ë ZO^ΰ䛽 argue K͆ǰ…è~¡°?
Why cann't we overcome difficulties? 12. P"³° ZO^ΰ䛽 "Œix X„²æOKÇ…è^ΰ?
21. h=ô D „¬sH›Æ ZO^ΰ䛽 pass Hê…è=ô? 13. J`Ç_È° money ZO^ΰ䛽 ‹¬O‡•kOKÇ…_ è °È ?
Why cann't you pass this test?
14. "Œ~¡° syllabus in time …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 „¬îië
22. <Í#°lessons ZO^ΰ䛽 follow Hê…è#° ? K͆ǰ…è~¡°?
Why cann't I follow the lessons ?
15. h"³O^ΰ䛽 early morning xã^Î…è=…è=ô?
23. =°#"³°O^ΰ䛽 success Hê…è=ò ?
Why cann't we succeed ? 16. <Í#° D test ZO^ΰ䛽 pass Hê…è#° ?
24. h"³O^ΰ䛽 ^•Î#=O`Ç°_•q Hê…è=ô ? 17. =°#=ò •H›Æ ¼O ZO^ΰ䛽 ª•k•OKÇ…=è ò?
Why cann't you become a richman ?
18. g°ï~O^ΰ䛽 loan clear K͆ǰ…è~¡° ?
25. g°ï~O^ΰ䛽 "Œix ZkiOKÇ…è~¡° ?
Why cann't you oppose them ?
19. J`Ç_È° ZO^ΰ䛽 HË•°HË…è_È° ?
26. "Œï~O^ΰ䛽 D problem solve K͆ǰ…è~¡°? 20. "Œï~O^ΰ䛽 „¬O^³O ïQ•°=…è~¡° ?
Why cann't they solve this problem ?
Z
Set your sail according to the wind. 222
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Can' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Can' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#°
4 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (capacity)
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Can + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I can speak English fluently. 2. We can solve this problem easily.
3. He can do any work. 4. They can win the match today.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç …èH› ‡é=ô@#° (ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò
…èH›‡é=ô@) ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Cann't + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I cann't understand Hindi. 2. We cann't face this problem.
3. He cann't get rank this time. 4. They cann't do anything.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®• ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (capacity)
Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Can + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Can he lead the team towards success?
2. Can you guess the result?
3. Can we achieve our target?
4. Can they clear the loan this month?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç …èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz (ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#°
…èH›‡é=ô@ Q®°iOz) negative sense …Õ ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Cann't + I form of the verb "
L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Cann't you complete the course this month?
2. Cann't you provide us some work?
3. Cann't he clear this loan ?
4. Cann't they make arrangements?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

441. press pressed pressed J}KÇ°@, J^ΰ=ò@


442. presume presumed presumed T‚²ìOKÇ°@
443. pretend pretended pretended #\÷OKÇ°@
444. prevent prevented prevented J_È°ÛHù#°@
445. print printed printed JKÇ°ó"͆Çò@
446. prove proved proved |°°A=ô KÍ‹¬°Hù#°@
447. proceed proceeded proceeded =òO^ΰ䛽‡é=ô@
448. proclaim proclaimed proclaimed ㄬH›\÷OKÇ°@
449. produce produced produced L`ÇæuëK͆Çò@
450. prohibit prohibitted prohibitted xÀ+k•OKÇ°@
451. prolong prolonged prolonged ‡Ú_•yOKÇ°@
452. promote promoted promoted L#ß`Ç„¬^Îqx WKÇ°ó
453. pronounce pronounced pronounced LKÇ•ó iOKÇ°@
454. propagate propagated propagated ㄬKŒ~¡O K͆Çò@
455. propose proposed proposed „
ã u¬ ‡•kOKÇ°@
456. prorogue prorogued prorogued `Œ`ŒøeH›=òQê "Œ~ò^¥ "͆Çò@
457. protect protected protected Hꇕ_È°@, ~¡HOÆ÷ KÇ°@
458. provide provided provided WKÇ°ó, H›eæOKÇ°
459. provoke provoked provoked HË„¬=ò „¬ô\÷“OKÇ°@
460. publish published published ㄬKǰiOKǰ@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson…Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
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SHOULD
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
=°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# qk• (duty) …èH› ƒì^•Î¼`Ç•#° (responsibility)
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° ö~„¬ô election duty H÷ attend J"Œe. J "Í°=ò D<³• WO\÷„¬#°ß K³eÁOKŒe.
J =°#=ò life …Õ XH› aim H›ey†ÇòO_¨e. J \©K~Ç •Ÿ Hùxß principles ‡•\÷OKŒe.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•…Õ ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx
K͆°Ç =•‹²# qk• (duty) …èH› ƒì^•Î¼`Ç•#° (responsibility) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# qk•
(duty) …èH› ƒì^•Î¼`Ç (responsibility) Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
''''Should + I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'shouldÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ㄬu~ËA 10 a.m. H÷ duty H÷ attend 5. L^˼Q®‹°¬ •ë ° ~ËAH÷ 8 Q®O@•° „¬xK͆¶
Ç e.
J"Œe. Employees should work eight hours
I should attend the duty at 10 a.m. in a day.
everyday. 6. _¢ =á³ ~Ÿ• JO^Î~°¡ licence H›eyLO_¨e.
2. "Í°=ò ㄬu"Œ~¡O H›…ÿH›“~ŸH÷ report submit All the drivers should possess the
K͆Ƕe. licence.
We should submit the report to the 7. q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° =°Oz Hã =
› °tH›}
Æ ‡•\÷OKŒe.
collector everyweek. Students should maintain good
3. g°~¡° application form `Ë certificates discipline.
enclose K͆Ƕe. 8. =°#O x*ì~òf Q® • <Œ†Ç ° ä› ½ •#°
You should enclose the certificates Z#°ßHË"Œe.
with the application form. We should elect honest leaders.
4. "Œ¼‡•~¡‹¬°ë•° ㄬƒ•’°`ŒÞxH÷ accounts 9. =°#=ò „¬ @ “ } ì•…Õ traffic rules
KǶ‡•e. ‡•\÷OKŒe.
Businessmen should show the We should follow the traffic rules in
accounts to the government. the towns.

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10. =°#=ò `ÇeÁ^ÎOã_È°•#° QÒ~¡qOKŒe. EXERCISE


We should respect our parents.
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
11. =°#=ò =°# ^͉×O HË‹¬O „¬xK͆Ƕe.
We should work for our country.
1. <Í#° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O hardwork K͆Ƕe.
12. g°~¡° g° À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°•ä›½ ‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKŒe.
You should co-operate with your 2. =°#=ò =zó # J=Hê‰× = ò#°
friends. qx†³¶yOKÇ°HË"Œe.
13. parents „²•Á•O^Îih ‹¬=¶#OQê treat
3. g°~¡° „²Hß÷H± "³ˆÃ× ¤@䛽 principal permission
K͆Ƕe.
Parents should treat all the children
f‹¬°HË"Œe.
equally. 4. J`Ç_È° `Ç# `Ç=òàx KÇkqOKŒe.
14. <Œ†Ç°ä›½•° ㄬ[•ä›½ sincere Qê À‹=
K͆Ƕe. 5. P"³° health care f‹¬°HË"Œe.
Leaders should serve the people 6. "Œ~¡° D <³…ìY~¡°…Õ„¬• tax K³eÁOKŒe.
sincerely.
15. „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ orders #° =°#O obey K͆Ƕe. 7. g°~¡° Z„¬æ\H÷ „
› C¬ _È° =¶ä›½ q+¬†°Ç O inform
We should obey to the government
K͆Ƕe.
orders. 8. =°#O =°# culture x QÒ~¡qOKŒe.
16. =°#=ò =°Oz J•"Œ@°Á J•=~¡°óHË"Œe.
We should cultivate good habits.
9. =°#=ò =°# „
Ì ^Î•í ‹¬•‚¬ð•#° ‡•\÷OKŒe.
17. ƒ•’ä½› •ë °
temple …Õ x‰×Å|íO ‡•\÷OKŒe. 10. _¨H›~“ °¡ Á `Ç=° =$uëH÷ „¬îië <Œ¼†Ç°O K͆¶
Ç e.
Devotees should maintain silence in
the temple. 11. =°#=ò ƒ•’Q=
® O`Ç°x ^Ά°Ç Hù~¡ä½› ‡ã •~¡#
Ö
18. WO_•†Ç¶…Õ ‹
¢ •ëÔ ° ª•Oã„^
¬ ¥†Ç° ^ΰ‹¬°•ë ° K͆Ƕe.
^•ÎiOKŒe. 12. g°~¡° P`Çàq‰§Þ‹¬O develop KÍ‹¬°HË"Œe.
Women should wear traditional dress
in India. 13. ^•Î#=O`Ç°•° c^Î"ŒiH÷ ‹¬‚𬠆ǰO K͆¶Ç e.
19. =°#O c^Î"ŒiH÷ ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O K͆Ƕe. 14. „²•Á•° =°Oz moral stories KÇ^Î"Œe.
We should help the poor.
20. ‹Ôx†Ç°~Ÿ• `Ç=° Ex†Ç°~Ÿ•x encourage
15. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° "Œi knowledge x improve

K͆Ƕe. KÍ‹¬°HË"Œe.
The seniors should encourage their
juniors.
Z
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NEGATIVE FORM

XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„ô¬ _È° XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx „¬#°• Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J =°#=ò time waste K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ. J †Çò=䛽•° W`Ç~°¡ •Ì„á depend Hê䛕_È^ΰ.
J =°#=ò „¬xx postpone K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ. J parents „²••
Á #° disappoint K͆°Ç 䛕_È^°Î .
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° XH›~¡° K͆ǰ䛕_Èx „¬#°• Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.

D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx „¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Should + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶


"Should + not + I form of the verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. =°#=ò =°# work neglect K͆°Ç 䛕_È^°Î . 6. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° classes miss Hê䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not neglect our work. Students should not miss the classes.
2. W`Ç~¡°•° …ÕxH÷ ~Œä›•_È^ΰ. 7. „²••Á ° K³_°È J•"Œ@°Á J•=~¡K°Ç HË ä›•_È^°Î .
Others should not come inside. Children should not cultivate bad
3. =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° • q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ *ÕH› ¼ O habits.
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ. 8. =°#O L^˼Q®°•ä›½ •OKÇO W=Þ䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not interefere in others' We should not offer bribe to
matter. employees.
4. =°#=ò =°# À‹ß‚²ì`Ç°•#° "³¶‹¬yOKÇ 9. =°#=ò =°# `Ë\÷"Œix J==¶xOKÇ
䛕_È^ΰ. 䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not deceive our friends. We should not insult our fellowmen.
5. =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°• work disturb K͆ǰ 10. =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°•ä›½ W|ÄOk H›•°Q®*è†Ç°
䛕_È^ΰ. 䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not disturb other's work. We should not cause trouble to others.

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11. =°#=ò =°# Q® ° iOz Qù„¬ æ Qê EXERCISE


K³„¬CHË䛕_È^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We should not boast of ourselves.
12. g°~¡° W`Ç~°¡ •Ì„á P^•¥~¡„_
¬ äÈ •› _È^°Î .
You should not depend on others. 1. <Í#° <Œ _ȶ¼\©H÷ late Qê "³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^ΰ.
13. q^¥¼~¡°•œ ° ~Œ[H©†¶
Ç •…Õ ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^°Î . 2. =°#=ò W`Ç~¡°• x~¡â†Ç¶•#° q=°iÅOKÇ
Students should not participate in
䛕_È^ΰ.
politics.
3. =°#=ò self - confidence HË…Õæ䛕_È^ΰ.
14. ¢‹Ôë•° =°# ‹¬O‹¬ø$ux =°~¡°=䛕_È^ΰ.
Women should not forget our culture.
4. g°~¡° work delay K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
15. =°#=ò Jk•Hê~¡°•=òO^ΰ =°# „¬ik• 5. Permission …è䛽O_¨ g°~¡° church …ÕxH÷
^¥@䛕_È^ΰ. ㄬ"ÍtOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
We should not cross our limit before 6. =°#=ò q°ug°i ㄬ=iëOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
the officers. 7. ƒã 사ìà}°•° =¶Oª•‚¬ð~¡=ò u#䛕_È^°Î .
16. q^¥¼~¡ ° Ö • ° „¬ s H› Æ • …Õ copy H÷ 8. =°#=ò =°# ^͉×=ò#° ^ÍÞ+²OKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
‡••æ_äÈ •› _È^°Î . 9. =°#=ò W`Ç ~ ¡ ° • q=°~¡ Å •ä› ½
Students shluld not indulge to
ƒ•’†°Ç „¬_äÈ •› _È^°Î .
copying in the examinations.
10. Employees „ ã [¬ •#°Oz •OKÇO f‹¬°Hù#
17. Teachers q^¥¼~¡°•Ö =°^•Î¼ U „¬H‡Æ› •`ÇO
KǶ„¬ä›•_È^ΰ. 䛕_È^ΰ.
Teachers shluld not show partiality 11. Businessmen ‹¬i†³Ø°# licence …è䛽O_¨
among the pupils. "Œ¼‡•~¡O K͆°Ç 䛕_È^°Î .
18. =°#=ò „ã ƒ¬ •’°`ÇÞ rules JuãHq
› °OKÇä•› _È^°Î . 12. Two-wheeler Ì„á =òQ®°¾~¡° =¼ä›½ë•° ride
We should not voilate government K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
rules. 13. =°#=ò P~ËQ® ¼ =ò x~¡ Á H › Æ ¼ =ò KÍ † Ç °
19. ‹Ôx†Ç°~Ÿ• Ex†Ç°~Ÿ•#° x~¡°`Œ•‚¬ì„¬~K
¡ Ç ä›•_È^ΰ.
䛕_È^ΰ. 14. licence …è䛽O_¨ drivers vehicles drive
Seniors should not discourage K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
juniors.
15. q^¥¼~¡°Ö•° q•°"³á# ‹¬=°†Ç¶xß =$^•¥
20. =°#=ò ‹¬O‡•^Î#Hù~¡ä›½ =°#^͉§xß K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
q_•z "³ˆä¤× •› _È^°Î .
We should not leave our country for
earning.
Z
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QUESTION FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# ƒì^•Î¼`Ç (Responsibility)
H›~¡ë=¼=ò (duty) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J g°~¡° P„¦Ô‹¬°…Õ daily ten hours work K͆Ƕ…ì?
J h=ô abroad …Õ KÇ^"Î Œ•O>è TOEFL qualify J"Œ…ì?
J =°#=ò exam hall …Õ J_•y#„¬ô_È° hall ticket KǶ‡•…ì?
J "Œ~¡° D test 䛽 appear Hê"Œ…ì ?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# ƒì^•Î¼`Ç
(Responsibility) H›~¡ë=¼=ò (duty) Q®°iOz ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç =•‹²# ƒì^•Î¼`Ç,
H›~¡ë=¼=ò#° ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Should+ I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Should+ I form' L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° =òO^ΰQê Principal #° consult 6. g°~¡° D application ö~„¬ô „¬O„¬=…ÿ<Œ?
Hê"Œ…ì? Should you send this application form
Should I consult the Principal first? tomorrow?
2. =°#=ò ã „ ¬ u "Œ~¡ O report submit 7. =°#=ò text books refer K͆ǰ=…ÿ<Œ?
K͆Ƕ…ì? Should we refer to the text books?
Should we submit the report every 8. "Œ~¡° D <³• 10 …Õ„¬• nomination file
week? K͆Ƕ…ì?
3. g°~¡° D <³• penalty K³eÁOKŒ…ì? Should they file the nomination before
Should you pay penalty this month? 10th of this month?
4. =°#=ò =òO^ΰQê manager permission 9. XH› business K͆ò
Ç @䛽 =°#=ò licence
f‹¬°Hù#=…ÿ<Œ? H›eyLO_¨…ì?
Should we take the Manager's Should we possess the licence to do
permission first? some business?
5. <Í#° D document Ì„á sign K͆Ƕ…ì? 10. ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È䛽 g°`Ë <Í#° 䛕_¨ ~Œ"Œ…ì?
Should I sign to this document ? Should I too come there with you
tomorrow?
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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

1. =°#=ò W„¬C_È° WH›ø_È Uq° K͆Ƕe? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
What should we do here now?
2. g°~¡° D report ZH›ø_È submit K͆Ƕe?
Where should you submit this report?
1. h=ô ö~„¬ô election duty H÷ attend J"Œ…ì?
2. =°#=ò =KÍ ó " Œ~¡ O exam fee pay
3. <Í#° h䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 help K͆Ƕe?
Why should I help you? K͆Ƕ…ì?
3. g°~¡ ° ã „ ¬ u ~ËA accounts maintain
4. =°#=ò =òO^ΰQê "ŒiH÷ ZO`Ç deposit
pay K͆Ƕe? K͆Ƕ…ì?
Howmuch amount should we pay 4. =°#=ò guests 䛽 =‹¬u H›eæOKŒ…ì?
them as deposit first ? 5. g°~¡° next Sunday =~¡ä›½ WH›ø_È stay
5. D #+¬O“ "Í°=ò ZO^ΰ䛽 ƒ•’iOKŒe? K͆Ƕ…ì?
Why should we bear this loss? 6. h=ô D~ËA D work finish K͆Ƕ…ì?
6. =°#=ò application `Ë Zxß copy •° 7. =°#=ò ㄬu lesson H÷ notes prepare
[`Ç„¬~¡KŒe? KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ…ì?
Howmany copies should we enclose 8. "Í ° =ò ã „ ¬ u important point note
with the application form?
KÍ‹¬°HË"Œ…ì?
7. h=ô J#=‹¬ ~ ¡ O Qê J`Ç x q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ 9. =°#=ò bank …Õ chalan f‹¬°HË"Œ…ì?
ZO^ΰ䛽 *ÕH›¼O KÍ‹¬°HË"Œe? 10. g°~¡° interview H÷ original certificates
Why should you interefere in his
matter unnecessarily?
f‹¬°Hùx"³ˆì¤…ì?
11. =°#O next month JH›ø_È Zxß~ËA•°
8. g°~¡° office …Õ ~ËA䛽 Zxß Q®O@•°
work K͆Ƕe?
„¬xK͆Ƕe?
Howmany hours should you work in 12. =°#O WOHê Zxß ~ËA•° training
the office in a day? ‡ÚO^¥e?
9. =°#O ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È Z=ix consult J"Œe? 13. =°#O ralley x~¡ Þ ‚² ì OKÇ ° @ä› ½ Z=i
J#°=°uf‹¬°HË"Œe?
Whom should we consult there 14. g°~¡ ° training camp ä› ½ Z„¬ C _È °
tomorrow?
KÍ~¡°HË"Œe?
10. =°#=ò licence HË‹¬O ZH›ø_È apply 15. <Í # ° D medicine ~ËAH÷ Zxߪ•~¡°Á
K͆Ƕe? f‹¬°HË"Œe?
Where should we apply for the
licence?
Z
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NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM


XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ
=°#=ò K͆ǰ䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° D test H÷ appear Hê䛕_È^¥? J g°~¡° J#°=°u …è䛽O_¨ Ì‹•=ô f‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
J J`Ç#° WH›ø_È stay K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥? J "Œ~¡° KÇ~•ó¡ …Õ ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^¥?

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz „
ã t
¬ ßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°
KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Shouldn't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ =…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Shouldn't " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° …ÕxH÷ ~Œä›•_È^¥? 7. XH› ¢ ï H á ‹ ¬ ë = ‹¬ < Œ¼‹² x q"Œ‚¬ ì O
Shouldn't I come in? KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
2. "Í°=ò D programme …Õ ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^¥? Shouldn't a nun get married?
Shouldn't we participate in this 8. Office hours …Õ =°#=ò |†Ç ° @
programme? u~¡Q®ä›•_È^¥?
3. =°#=ò D q+¬ † Ç ° O |‚² ì ~¡ ¾ ` Ç = ò Shouldn't we move out during office
K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥? hours?
Shouldn't we reveal this matter? 9. g°~¡ ° J#°=°u…è ä › ½ O_¨ |†Ç ° @ä› ½
4. =°#=ò =¶Oª•‚¬ð~¡=ò f‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥? "³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^¥ ?
Shouldn't we take non-veg food? Shouldn't you go out without
permission?
5. XH› ‹¬<Œ¼‹² HËiH›•° H›ey†ÇòO_È䛕_È^¥?
Shouldn't a saint possess desires? 10. =°#=ò P q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ *ÕH› ¼ =ò
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
6. <Í#° q=~Œ•° `³•°‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥? Shouldn't we interefere in that matter?
Shouldn't I know the details?

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'Wh' QUESTIONS EXERCISE

11. <Í#° D meeting H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 attend


D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Hê䛕_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't I attend this meeting? 1. =°#=ò Principal chamber …ÕxH÷ enter
12. =°#=ò D course ZO^Î ° ä› ½ join
Hê䛕_È^¥?
Hê䛕_È^ΰ? 2. g°~¡° guides follow J=䛕_È^¥?
Why shouldn't we join this course? 3. =°#=ò D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ own decision
13. P†Ç ° # ZxßH› • …Õ ZO^Î ° H› ½ ‡é\© f‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ? 4. =°#=ò J#°=°u …è䛽O_¨ |†Ç°@䛽
Why shouldn't he contest in the "³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^¥?
elections?
5. <Í#° W„¬C_È° D course KÇ͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
14. P"³° WH›ø_È䛽 ZO^ΰ䛽 ~Œä›•_È^ΰ? 6. =°#=ò licence …è䛽O_¨ business start
Why shouldn't she come here?
K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
15. "Œ~¡ ° ZO^Î ° ä› ½ money demand 7. g°~¡° q^¥¼~¡°œ• #°Oz donations collect
K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ? K͆ǰ䛕_È^¥?
Why shouldn't they demand money?
8. =°#=ò govt. rules #° Juã H › q °OKÇ
16. P „¬ x h"³ O ^Î ° ä› ½ KÍ † Ç ° ä› • _È ^ Î ° ? 䛕_È^¥?
Why shouldn't you do that work?
9. "Œ~¡° administration q+¬†Ç°O…Õ *ÕH›¼O
17. =°#=ò ZO^ΰ䛽 claim K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ? KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
Why shouldn't we claim it?
10. h=ô seminar …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 ‡•…ç¾#䛕_È^°Î ?
18. =°#=ò XH› i HùH› ~ ¡ O ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 11. =°#=ò =°# opinion ZO^ΰ䛽 express
‹¬‚¬ìH›iOKÇ°HË䛕_È^ΰ? K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't we co-operate with one
another? 12. <Í#° Ì‹•=ô ZO^ΰ䛽 f‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ?
19. XH› widow =°~¡• ZO^ΰ䛽 marriage
13. =°#=ò D test H÷ ZO^ΰ䛽 appear
KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ? Hê䛕_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't a widow get married 14. g°~¡° High Court …Õ ZO^ΰ䛽 appeal
again? KÍ‹¬°HË䛕_È^¥?
20. =°#=ò J<Œ¼†Ç ¶ xß ZO^Î ° ä› ½ 15. =°#=ò D tickect Ì„á express train …Õ
ZkiOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ? ZO^ΰ䛽 ㄬ†Ç¶}=ò K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ?
Why shouldn't we oppose injustice? Z
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Should' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Should' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anomalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form 4. Negative Question Form J#° 4
parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò. D 4 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ qk•Qê, ƒì^•Î¼`ÇQêK͆ò
Ç XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Should + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. We should maintain discipline. 2. You should possess the licence.
3. He should seek their permission. 4. They should pay the bill regularly.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Should not + I form of the verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. We should not blame others. 2. You should not neglect the work.
3. He should not do like that. 4. They should not cause trouble.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ qk•Qê, ƒì^•Î¼`ÇQê K͆°Ç =•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Should + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Should we attend the special duty tomorrow?
2. Should you consult the Manager today?
3. Should he come here?
4. Should they pay penalty?
4. NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ K͆ǰ䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz negative sense …Õ ã„¬tßOKÇ°@#°
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Shouldn't + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. Shouldn't we know the matter?
2. Shouldn't we interefere in this matter?
3. Shouldn't he appear for this test?
4. Shouldn't they participate in this seminar?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

461. pull pulled pulled …ìQ®°@


462. pulverize pulverized pulverized ‡Ú_• K͆òÇ @
463. purchase purchased purchased H›ù#°@
464. purify purified purified ‰×Ã^Îœ=ò K͆Çò@
465. push pushed pushed ã`ˆÇò@, <³@°“@
466. qualify qualified qualified J~¡Ý`Ç ‡ÚO^ΰ@
467. quench quenched quenched ^΄²æH› f~¡°ó@
468. quote quoted quoted L^΂¬ìiOKÇ°@
469. raise raised raised Ì„áïH`Ç°ë@
470. rape raped raped j•=ò K³~¡KÇ°@
471. reach reached reached KÍ~¡°Hù#°@
472. realize realized realized `³•°‹¬°H›ù#°@
473. reap reaped reaped „¬O@HˆÇò@
474. receive received received JO^ΰHù#°@
475. recite recited recited X„¬CHù#°@
476. recognize recognized recognized Q®°iëOKÇ°@
477. recommend recommended recommended ‹²‡•¦ ~¡‹°¬ Kdž
Í ò
Ç @
478. record recorded recorded ã"Œ‹²Ì„@°“@
479. recover recovered recovered uiy ‡ÚO^ΰ@
480. rectify rectified rectified ‹¬ik^ΰí@

D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form,
Negative Question Form ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i
D 4 parts KÇ^=Î O_•! g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
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MUST
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò W`Ç~°¡ •`Ë =¶\ìÁ_°È KÇ°#ß„C¬ _È° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ
XH›~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê (compulsory) KÍ‹² f~¡=•‹²# „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J ö~„¬ô <Í#° J`Çxx Yzó`ÇOQê H›e‹² f~Œe. J g°~¡° Yzó`ÇOQê =òO^ΰQê "Í°<Í[~Ÿ J#°=°u f‹¬°HË"Œe.
J J`Ç_°È D ª•i exam pass J~ò f~Œe. J"Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê licence H›ey†ÇòO_¨e.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê (compulsory) KÍ‹²
f~¡=•‹²# „¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ° KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³á##° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~¡° Yzó`ÇOQê, `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê
(compulsory) KÍ‹² f~¡=•‹²# XH›„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽

''''Must+ I form of the VerbÑÑÑÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ 'MustÑ L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° D ~ËA D work complete KÍ‹² 6. "Œ~¡° customers #° satisfy KÍ‹²f~Œe.
f~Œe. They must satisfy the customers.
I must complete this work today. 7. <Í#° D "Œ~¡O Yzó`ÇOQê =¶ T~¡°
2. "Í ° =ò MCA admission ‡ÚO^Î ° @ä› ½ "³o¤f~Œe.
entrance test 䛽 appear J~òf~Œe. I must go to my village this week.
We must appear for the entrance test 8. =°#=ò D J=Hê‰×=ò#° qx†³¶yOKÇ°
to get admission to MCA. 䛽xf~Œe.
3. g°~¡° WO@~¡¶Þ¼ ‹¬=°†Ç°O…Õ originals We must avail ourselves of this
submit KÍ‹²f~Œe. opportunity.
You must submit the originals at the 9. g°~¡° ㄬu important point note KÍ‹¬°Hùx
time of interview. f~Œe.
4. MBA course 䛽 J`Ç_°È donation pay KÍ‹² You must note every important point.
f~Œe. 10. Indian team finals KÍ~¡°@䛽 D ~ËA
He must pay donation for MBA course. match ïQezf~Œe.
5. P"³° "³O@<Í _¨H›~“ #
Ÿ ° consult J~òf~Œe. The Indian team must win the match
She must consult the doctor today to reach the finals.
immediately.
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EXERCISE
11. Court orders ã „ ¬ H ê~¡ O "Œ~¡ ° P W•°Á
MìmKÍ‹²f~Œe. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
They must vacate the house according
to the court orders. 1. <Í#° `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê Hindi <Í~¡°óHùxf~Œe.
12. "Í°=ò D ~ËA WH›ø_È |†Ç°•°^Íif~Œe. 2. "Í°=ò Yzó`ÇOQê D course complete
We must start here today. KÍ‹²f~Œe.
13. P"³° WOHùH› "Œ~¡O ~ËA•° hospital …Õ 3. h=ô `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê penalty K³eÁOzf~Œe.
LO_•f~Œe. 4. =°#O `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê Principal permission
She must stay in the hospital one more f‹¬°Hùxf~Œe.
week. 5. =°#O Z…ìï Q á < Œ ª•†Ç ° Oã ` Ç O …Õ„¬ •
14. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô HË~¡°“䛽 ‚¬ð[~¡° Q®°O@¶~¡° KÍ~¡°HË"Œe.
J~òf~Œe. 6. P†Ç°# D ~ËA `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê WH›ø_È䛽
They must attend the court tomorrow. =zóf~Œe.
15. q^¥¼~¡°•Ö ° „
ã u
¬ q+¬†°Ç O `³•°‹¬°Hùx f~Œe. 7. P"³° Z…ìïQ<á Œ D "Œ¼k• #°Oz HË•°HË"Œe.
Students must know everything.
8. =°#=ò next Monday …Õ„¬• amount
16. D <³•…Õ "Œ~¡° loan clear KÍ‹²f~Œe. deposit KÍ‹²f~Œe.
They must clear the loan this month.
9. g°~¡ ° D ã „ ¬ † Ç ° `Ç ß O …Õ `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê
17. `Ç e Á ^ Î O ã _ È ° •° „² • Á • #° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê succeed J"Œe.
educate KÍ‹²f~Œe.
10. h=ô Z…ìïQá<Œ "Œix D q+¬†Ç°O…Õ
Parents must educate their children.
convince K͆Ƕe.
18. h=ô h honesty x prove KÍ‹°¬ Hùxf~Œe. 11. =°#O Hùxß ‹²^¥œO`Œ•ä›½ H›@°“|_• LO_¨e.
You must prove your honesty.
12. D game …Õ =°#O "Œix F_•Oz f~Œe.
19. XH› =°Oz teacher Jxß L`Çë=° •H›Æ}ì•°
13. =°#O Z…ìïQá<Œ „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ =òO^ΰ D
H›ey†ÇòO_¨e.
book publish KÍ‹²f~Œe.
A good teacher must possess all good
qualities.
14. ã „ ¬ u =ò‹² Á O `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê =°Hêø
‹¬O^ÎiÅOKŒe.
20. „
ã u
¬ ‚²ìO^ΰ=ô ƒ•’Q=
® n¾`Ç KÇkqf~Œe.
Every Hindu must read the Bhagavad
15. =°#=ò Z…ìïQá<Œ D ª•i best rank
Gita.
ª•k•OKŒe.

Z
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NEGATIVE FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH› „¬xx
Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ ö~„¬ô Ì‹•=ô f‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ.
J =°#=ò Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D J=Hê‰×O =^ΰ•°HË䛕_È^ΰ.
J J`Ç_È° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D „¬sH›Æ fail J=䛕_È^ΰ.
J "Œ~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D match F_•‡é䛕_È^°Î .
Ì„á "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°ë…Õ XH›~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ K͆ǰ䛕_Èx „¬#°• Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍ"ó Œ~¡O, =KÍ<ó •³ , =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx U W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx
„¬#°•#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Must + not + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
á #¶ "Must + not + I form of the verb" L„¬†¶³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Subject – Singular, Plural U^³#

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ D „¬sH›Æ fail 6. h=ô Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ time
J=䛕_È^ΰ. waste K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
I must not fail in this examination. You must not waste time.
2. =°#=ò Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° • …Õ#¶ D 7. =°#O Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶ ‹¬ ‚ ¬ ì #O
J=Hê‰×=ò ‡ÚQù@°“HË䛕_È^ΰ. HË…Õæ䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not lose this opportunity. We must not lose patience.
3. g°~¡° ö~„¬ô U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ class miss 8. =°#O Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶ =°#
Hê䛕_È^ΰ. ‹²^¥œO`Ç=ò•#° KÇO„¬ôHË䛕_È^ΰ.
You must not miss the class tomorrow. We must not kill our principles.
4. J`Ç_È° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D q+¬†Ç°O 9. g°~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D q+¬†Ç°O
`³•‹¬°HË䛕_È^ΰ. |‚²ì~¡¾`ÇO K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
He must not know this matter. You must not reveal this matter.
5. P"³° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D proposal 10. =°#O Z@°=O\÷ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶
JOwH›iOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ. x~¡°`Œ•‚¬ì„¬_äÈ •› _È^°Î .
She must not accept to this proposal. We must not lose heart.

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11. =°#O U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° parents 䛽 EXERCISE


J|^ÎœO K³„¬æ䛕_È^ΰ. D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
We must not tell lies to our parents.
12. <Œ†Ç°ä›½•° U „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ Jk•Hê~¡O 1. <Í#° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° D ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O
^ΰiÞx†³¶Q®O K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ. studies neglect K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
Leaders must not misuse their power.
13. Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ ~ö „¬ô Australia =°#Ì„á 2. =°#=ò U „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#° F@q°x
ïQ•°=䛕_È^ΰ. JOwH›iOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
Australia must not win the match
3. h=ô U „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#° enemies #°
against India tomorrow.
`Ç䛽ø=Qê estimate K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
14. Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ =°#O _È|°Ä
J„¬C K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ. 4. J`Ç_È° ö~„¬ô U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°…Õ#° WH›ø_•H÷
We must not borrow money. ~Œä›•_È^ΰ.
15. \©KÇ~Ÿ• Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ „¬sH›Æ•…Õ
5. P"³° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° P function 䛽
copying 䛽 J#°=°uOKÇ䛕_È^ΰ.
attend J=䛕_È^ΰ.
Teachers must not allow copying in the
examinations. 6. "Œ~¡° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#° D place q_•z
16. Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° =°#O ö~„¬ô "³ˆ×¤ä›•_È^ΰ.
programme postpone K͆ǰ䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not postpone the 7. <Í#° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ "ŒiH›O>è "³#°H›
programme tomorrow. „¬_È䛕_È^ΰ.
17. =°#=ò Z\÷ “ „¬ i ‹² Ö ` Ç ° •…Õ#¶ ~Œr 8. =°#=ò Z@°=O\÷ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#° ^•³~á ¼¡ O
„¬_È䛕_È^ΰ. HË…Õæ䛕_È^ΰ.
We must not compromise to the
circumstances. 9. Jƒ•’¼~¡°Ö•° U „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° ZxßH›•
18. J`Ç_È° Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#¶ D ZxßH›•…Õ x|O^•Î# JuãHq› °OKÇä•› _È^°Î .
ïQ•°=䛕_È^ΰ.
10. =°#=ò Z\÷“ „¬i‹²Ö`Ç°•…Õ#° D ª•i
He must not win this election.
"³¶‹¬‡é䛕_È^ΰ.
19. =°#=ò D ª•i Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#¶ "Œi
‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O HË~¡ä›•_È^ΰ.
We must not seek their help this time Z
A rolling stone gathers no moss. 238
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QUESTION FORM
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J h=ô `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê W„¬C_È° "Œi WO\ÕÁ LO_• f~Œ…ì?
J P"³° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D ~ËA T~¡° "³o¤ f~Œ…ì?
J P†Ç°# `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D medicine f‹¬°Hùx f~Œ…ì?
J "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx ‹¬iQê B.Ed. KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì ?
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õ XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH›
„¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@ Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ ~ö „¬ô, =KÍó "Œ~¡O, =KÍó <³•, =KÍó ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH›
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx =°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ x ‹¬iQê KÍ‹² f~¡=•‹²#
XH› „¬xx ㄬtßOKÇ°@䛽
"Must + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject – Singular, Plural U^³á##° 'Must + I form" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° ö~„¬ô h`Ë JH›ø_È䛽 =zóf~Œ…ì? 6. P"³° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô WH›ø_È䛽 =zó
Must I come there with you tomorrow? f~Œ…ì?
2. =°#=ò MCA admission 䛽 entrance Must she come here tomorrow?
test 䛽 appear J~òf~Œ…ì? 7. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê P ‹¬Ö•O Mìm KÍ‹²
Must we appear for the entrance test f~Œ…ì?
for MCA admission ? Must they vacate that site?
3. g°~¡ ° ö ~ „¬ ô `Ç „ ¬ æ x‹¬ i Qê seminar H÷ 8. =°#=ò `Ç„æ¬x‹¬iQê D HË~Ÿ• KÍ‹f
² ~Œ…ì?
‚¬ð[~¡~òf~Œ…ì? Must we do this course?
Must you attend the seminar 9. loanHù~¡ä›½ `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê =°#=ò surity
tomorrow? KǶ„²Oz f~¡=…ÿ<Œ?
4. P†Ç°# `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê doctor #° consult Must we show surity for a loan?
J~òf~Œ…ì? 10. J`Ç _ È ° "Œix `Ç „ ¬ æ x‹¬ i Qê ‡é+² O z
Must he consult the doctor? f~Œ…ì?
5. <Í#° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê identity card KǶ‡•…ì? Must he feed them?
Must I show the Identity card?

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11. P"³° `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê treatment ‡ÚOkf~Œ…ì? EXERCISE


Must she undergo treatment? D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
12. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D „¬x ö~„¬ô „¬îië KÍ‹²
f~Œ…ì? 1. =°#=ò ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_•H÷ "³of Á ~Œ…ì ?
Must they finish this work tomorrow?
2. h=ô `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê ~ö „¬ô J`ÇxH÷ money „¬O„²
13. g°~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê Enlgish paper answer f~Œ…ì ?
KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì? 3. g°~¡° `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê ~ö „¬ô JH›ø_È J`Çxx H›e‹²
Must you answer the English paper? f~Œ…ì ?
14. =°#=ò D form …Õ Jxß columns fill KÍ‹² 4. J`Ç _ È ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D course KÍ ‹ ²
f~Œ…ì? f~Œ…ì?
Must we fill up all the columns in this 5. P"³° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê training ‡ÚOk f~Œ…ì?
form? 6. "Œ~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô D report submit
15. <Í#° ö~„¬ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D iHê~ŸÛ present KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì ?
KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì? 7. h=ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D test 䛽 coaching
Must I present this record there f‹¬°Hùx f~Œ…ì ?
tomorrow? 8. g°~¡° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê ö~„¬ô JH›ø_È "Œix
16. =°#O B.Ed seat 䛽 `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê donation receive KÍ‹¬°Hùx f~Œ…ì ?
pay KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì? 9. =°#=ò `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D books Hùx
Must we pay donation for the B.Ed. f~Œ…ì ?
seat? 10. J`Ç_È° `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê D exam pass J~ò
17. g°~¡ ° D files D "Œ~¡ O clear KÍ ‹ ² f~Œ…ì ?
f~Œ…ì? 11. P"³ ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x‹¬ i Qê treatment ‡ÚOk
Must you clear all these files this f~Œ…ì?
week? 12. "Œ~¡ ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D rule ‡•\÷Oz
18. h=ô ö~„¬ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê Chennai KÍ~¡°Hùx f~Œ…ì?
f~Œ…ì? 13. h=ô `Ç„¬æx‹¬iQê "Œi permission ‡ÚOk
Must you reach Chennai tomorrow? f~Œ…ì ?
19. =°#O application Ì „ á photograph 14. <Í # ° `Ç „ ¬ æ x ‹¬ i Qê D ~ËA office H÷
JO\÷Ozf~Œ…ì? =zóf~Œ…ì ?
Must we affix the passport size 15. =°#=ò `Ç„æ¬ x‹¬iQê D <³•…Õ loan clear
photograph on application form? KÍ‹²f~Œ…ì ?
20. h=ô "ŒiH÷ =òO^ΰQê inform KÍ‹f
² ~Œ…ì?
Must you inform them earlier?
Z
Little strokes fell great oaks. 240
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REVISION
What have we learnt today ?
=°#=ò D ~ËA Uq° <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò ?
D~ËA =°#=ò =°# Spoken English Course …Õ 'Must' Q®°iOz <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
'Must' J#° ^¥xx grammar …Õ Anoamalous Verb - (Future Form) JO\ì~¡°. nx…Õ =°#=ò
1. Positive Form 2. Negative Form 3. Question Form J#° 3 parts <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß=ò.
D 3 parts XH›ª•i revise KÍ‹¬°ä›½O^¥=ò.
1. POSITIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~°¡ `Ç„æ¬ H› KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Must + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. I must pass this test.
2. We must learn Sanskrit.
3. You must prepare all the lessons.
4. They must finish this work today.
2. NEGATIVE FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ =°#=ò Z\÷“ „¬i‹²`Ö °Ç •…Õ#° K͆°Ç 䛕_Èx XH›
„¬xx Q®°iOz ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Must not+ I form of the Verb " L„¬†¶ ³ yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex : 1. We must not lose heart in our difficulties.
2. We must not fear to our problems.
3. He must not know this news.
4. They must not repeat this mistake.
3. QUESTION FORM :
ƒ•’q+¬¼`Ç°…ë Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ Yzó`OÇ Qê KÍ‹f
² ~¡=•‹²# XH› „¬xx Q®°iOz
ㄬtßOKÇ°@#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽 "Must + I form of the Verb " L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.
Ex :
1. Must I appear for the entrance test ?
2. Must we enclose original certificates ?
3. Must you submit this report tomorrow ?
4. Must they vacate the house next month ?

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D ~ËA Hùxß verbs, "Œ\÷ †³òH›ø three forms <Í~¡°ó䛽O^¥O.


I Form II Form III Form Meaning

481. reduce reduced reduced `Çy¾OKÇ°@


482. reform reformed reformed ‹¬Oª•ø~¡=ò K͆òÇ @
483. refuse refused refused u~¡‹¬øiOKÇ°@
484. regret regretted regretted „¬‰§ó`Œë„¬„¬_È°@
485. regulate regulated regulated ãH›=°„¬~¡KÇ°@
486. reject rejected rejected ã`Ë‹²"͆Çò@
487. relate related related q=iOKÇ°@
488. relax relaxed relaxed ‹À ÞKÇ•ó Qê LO_È°@
489. release released released q_•„²OKÇ°@
490. relieve relieved relieved q_È°^Ε K͆Çò
(L^˼Q® ‹¬OII"³°Ø#q)
491. remain remained remained q°ye †ÇòO_È°
492. remember remembered remembered *ìý„¬H›=òOKÇ°Hù#°@
493. remind reminded reminded *ìý„¬H› „¬~¡KÇ°@
494. remove removed removed `ù•yOKÇ°@
495. repeat repeated repeated =°~¡• K³„¬C, K͆Çò@
496. repent repented repented „¬‰§ó`Œë„¬ „¬_È°@
497. reply replied replied |^ΰ•° K³„¬C@
498. require required required Hê=•‹²#k HË~¡°@
499. rescue rescued rescued Hꇕ_Ȱ@
500. reside resided resided x=VtOKÇ°@
D ~ËA Spoken English lesson …Õx Positive Form, Negative Form, Question Form
ƒìQê <Í~¡°ó䛽<Œß~¡° H›^¥! Z@°=O\÷ confusion …èä½› O_¨ =°~¡• XH›ª•i D 3 parts KÇ^=Î O_•!
g°~¡° own Qê Hùxß "ŒH꼕° practise K͆°Ç O_•.

Z
242 He who spits against the sky will have it fall on his face.
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COULD
XHùøH›øª•i =°#=ò Q®`ÇO…Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^ΰ XH›~¡° XH› „¬xx K͆ǰQ®ey#
ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°O^ΰ=ò.
J <Í#° x#ß interview ƒìQê K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
J "Í°=ò last year =°Oz results ‡ÚO^ÎQ®eQê=ò.
J J`Ç_È° x#ß =¶ä›½ amount adjust K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°.
J "Œ~¡° x#ß match easy Qê ïQ•°= Q®ey<Œ~¡°.

Ì á "ŒH›¼=ò•° Q®`OÇ …Õ XH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° ‹¬¶zOKÇ°KÇ°#ßq.
D q^•Î=òQê Q®`OÇ …Õx XH› ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò #O^ΰ x#ß, Q®`Ç "Œ~¡O, Q®`Ç <³•, Q®`Ç ‹¬O=`Ç•~¡O …èH› Q®`OÇ …Õx
=°i†Í° W`Ç~¡ ‹¬=°†Ç°=ò#O^³#á #° =°#=ò …èH› "Í~ùH›~°¡ XH› „¬xx K͆°Ç Q®ey# ª•=°~¡¼Ö =ò#° (ability)
‹¬¶zOKÇ°@䛽
"Could + I form of the Verb" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

* Note : "ŒH›¼=ò…Õx
Subject Singular, Plural U^³á##¶ "Could" L„¬†³¶yOKÇ=…ÿ#°.

EXAMPLES
1. <Í#° Degree …Õ 90% =¶~¡°ø•° score 6. <Í#° x#ß interview …Õ Jxß questions
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°. answer K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
I could score 90% of marks in Degree. I could answer all the questions in the
2. "Í°=ò x#ß ï~O_È° Q®O@•…Õ <³•¶Á~¡° interview yesterday.
KÍ~¡°HËQ®eQê=ò. 7. "Í°=ò last time P problem easy Qê solve
We Could reach Nellore within two K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
hours yesterday. We could solve that problem easily
3. Sachin Tendulkar KŒ…ì z#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ last time.
ㄬ„¬OKÇ records create K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°. 8. ‡éb‹¬°•° <Í~¡‹¬°Ö•#° ï~O_È° ~ËA•…Õ
Sachin Tendulkar could create the Q®°iëOKÇQ®ey<Œ~¡°.
world records at a young age. The police could identify the criminals
4. =¶ sister x#ß ‡•@• ‡é\©…Õ first prize within two days.
‡ÚO^ÎQ®ey#k. 9. <Í # ° <Œ 19= †Í ° @†Í ° „² . l. „¬ î ië
My sister could win the first prize in
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
I could complete my P.G. at the age
the singing competition yesterday.
of 19.
5. N KÇ O ã ^ Î ƒ ì|° `Ç # 45= U@<Í 10. "Í°=ò Hùkí ~ËA•…Õ<Í `Ç„¬C `³•°‹¬°HË
=òY¼=°Oãu J=Q®ey<Œ~¡°. Q®e<Œ=ò.
Sri Chandra Babu could become We could realise our mistake in a few
Chief- minister at the age of 45. days.

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11. <ŒQê~¡°û# J#ß=°†Ç°¼ ‡•ã`Ç…Õ ƒìQê act EXERCISE


K͆ǰQ®eQê_È°.
Nagarjuna could act well in the role of
D "ŒH›¼=ò•° English …ÕxH÷ translate K͆°Ç O_•.
Annamayya.
12. =¶ brother last year ~¡¶. 50,000 save
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°. 1. <Í # ° x#ß <Œ•°Q® ° lessons
My brother could save Rs. 50,000 last <Í~¡°óHù#Q®ey<Œ#°.
year. 2. <Í # ° x#ß g°\÷ O Q· … Õ ^•³ á ~ ¡ ¼ OQê
13. <Í#° ~ï O_È° <³••…Õ<Í Short Hand Writing =¶\ìÁQ®ey<Œ#°.
<Í~¡°óHù#Q®eQê#°. 3. "Í°=ò last time 6 <³•••Õ loan clear
I could learn Short Hand Writing within K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
two months.
4. =¶ brother KŒ…ì z#ß =†Ç°‹¬°•…Õ<Í Bank
14. Last time <Í # ° J`Ç x amount 10
officer J=Q®ey<Œ_È°.
~ËA•…Õ repay K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ#°.
I could repay his amount within ten 5. P"³° x#ß guest •#° KŒ…ì ƒìQê treat
days last time. K͆ǰQ®ey#k.
15. "Í ° =ò last time =°Oz „¦ ¬ e `Œ•° 6. "Œ~¡° ï~O_È° <³••…Õ<Í business ƒìQê
ª•k•OKÇQe® y<Œ=ò. pickup K͆ǰQ®e<Œ~¡°.
We could achieve better results last 7. <Í # ° x#ß „¬ s H› Æ KŒ…ì ƒìQê
time. ã"Œ†Ç°Q®ey<Œ#°.
16. P"³ ° typhoid attack #°Oz „¬ î ië Q ê 8. "Í°=ò ï~O_È° <³••…Õ<Í house construct
HË•°HËQ®ey#k.
She could recover from the attack of
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
typhoid completely. 9. J^Î$+¬= “ ‰§`Ç°ë "Í°=ò P „
ã =
¬ ¶^Î=ò #°O_•
17. =¶ brother x#ß interview ƒìQê escape J=Q®ey<Œ=ò.
K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ_È°. 10. Q®`Ç „¬sH›Æ•ä›½ <Í#° XH› <³•…Õ<Í Jxß
My brother could do the interview well subjects prepare J=Q®ey<Œ#°.
yesterday. 11. <Í#° J`ÇxH÷ x#ß q=~¡OQê explain KÍ‹²
18. Indian bowlers Pakistan batsmen K³„¬æQ®ey<Œ#°.
„¬~¡°Q®°•° K͆ǰ䛽O_¨ J_È°ÛHËQ®ey<Œ~¡°. 12. J`Çx parents ‡ã é`Œ•‚¬ìO`Ë `Ç# •H›¼Æ O
The Indian bowlers could prevent the
Pakistan batsmen from making runs.
ª•k•OKÇQe® y<Œ_È°.
19. "Í ° =ò x#ß J`Ç x x D q+¬ † Ç ° O…Õ 13. =¶ friends ‹¬‚¬ð†Ç°O`Ë "Í°=ò x#ß P
X„²æOKÇQ®ey<Œ=ò. „¬x ‹¬°•ƒ•’OQê „¬îië K͆°Ç Q®ey<Œ=ò.
We could convince him in this matter 14. Last time "Í°=ò Ì‹•=ô•° ƒìQê enjoy
yesterday. K͆ǰQ®ey<Œ=ò.
20. "Œ~¡° "Œ¼‡•~¡O…Õ 5 ‹¬OII…Õ 25 •H›Æ•° 15. "Œ~¡° J„¬C_È