Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 73

EYEWITNESS BOOKS

Eyewitness
COMPUTER
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
www.all-terms.com/bbs
Buzz Lighlyoai,
a CCl chaiacloi
fion
Funchod conuloi
oulul lao
liisl-ovoi
hacling dovico, a
Can Ciunch vhisllo
Mozilla liiofox
logo
Modol of a
fuluio nanoLol
RoLol fion
Kisnol iojocl
SnovLoaiding using
viilual ioalily dislay
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Eyewitness
COMPUTER
Wiillon Ly
Di. Milo Coldsnilh
and
1on Jaclson
Micioiocossoi
Randon
accoss
nonoiy
DK FuLlishing
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
www.all-terms.com/bbs

Consu!tant Di. Jon Woodcocl


DK DELHI
Project editor Kingshul Choshal
Project art editor Covind Millal
Editor Viiion Choia
Assistant art editor Nishosh Bhalnagai
Senior DTP designer 1aiun Shaina
DTP designer Mohannad Usnan
DTP nanager Sunil Shaina
Managing editor Suchisnila Banoijoo
Managing art editor Roni ChaliaLoily
Production nanager Fanlaj Shaina
DK LONDON
Senior editor RoL Houslon
Senior art editor Caiol Davis
Associate pub!isher Andiov Macinlyio
Picture researchers Jonny lailhful,
Saiah Hooi, Myiian MoghaiLi
Production editor Andy Hilliaid
Production contro!!er Chailollo Clivoi
Jacket designer Noal CoLouino
US editor Maigaiol Faiiish
liisl uLlishod in lho Unilod Slalos in 211
Ly DK FuLlishing, `75 Hudson Sliool
Nov Yoil, Nov Yoil 114
Coyiighl 211 Doiling Kindoisloy Linilod
1 S 7 6 5 4 ` 2 1
117S`46Jul/11
All iighls iosoivod undoi lnloinalional and Fan-Anoiican Coyiighl Convonlions.
No ail of lhis uLlicalion nay Lo ioioducod, sloiod in a ioliioval syslon, oi
liansnillod in any foin oi Ly any noans, oloclionic, nochanical, holocoying,
iocoiding, oi olhoiviso, vilhoul lho iioi viillon oinission of lho coyiighl
ovnoi. FuLlishod in Cioal Biilain Ly Doiling Kindoisloy Linilod.
A calalog iocoid foi lhis Lool is availaLlo fion lho LiLiaiy of Congioss.
lSBN 7S--7566-S265-1 (Haidcovoi)
7S--7566-S266-S (LiLiaiy Linding)
Coloi ioioduclion Ly MDF, UK
Fiinlod and Lound Ly 1oan Fiinling Co. (Shonzhon) Lld., China
LONDON, NEW YORK,
MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI
Exoslololon
Fac-Man
oaling dols
Layoiod viov of
haid disl diivo
1hoinionic valvo
Chinoso aLacus
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Contents
6
Whal is a conuloi`
S
Bofoio conulois
1
Eloclionic Liains
12
Mini and nicio conulois
14
lnsido a conuloi
16
Monoiy and sloiago
1S
lnul
2
Culul
22
Conulois al voil
24
Conulois all aiound us
26
Cadgols on lho go
2S
Maling conulois
`
Suoiconulois
`2
Soflvaio
`4
Fiogianning
`6
Conuloi-gonoialod inagoiy
`S
Canos and consolos
42
Nolvoils
44
1ho lnloinol
46
Connocling lho voild
4S
1ho vild vild nol
5
Dofonso and socuiily
52
Lifo on lho nol
54
Viilual voilds
56
RoLols
5S
Sliongoi and Lolloi
6
Ailificial inlolligonco
62
1onoiiovs conulois
64
Hisloiy of conuling
66
Conulois in nunLois
6S
Clossaiy
72
lndox
1ouchscioon
Conghis
ioLol
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
www.all-terms.com/bbs
6
What is a computer?
I+ is iinn.is sUninisiNo, considoiing hov nany oolo uso
conulois in lhoii ovoiyday livos, lhal so fov of us ioally lnov
vhal a conuloi is, oi hov il voils. A conuloi is a dovico
lhal can follov a sol of insliuclionsoi a iogian. Conulois
can follov any iogian viillon in lho iighl codo, and nodoin
conulois can iun nany, sooningly al lho sano lino. 1hoy aio
lho nosl voisalilo lools ovoi invonlod. A nusician can cioalo a
nusic alLun vilh a conuloi vilhoul laying a nolo and lhon
shaio il vilh lho voild al lho louch of a Lullon, vhilo a fighloi
jol can nalo inossiLlo luins lhanls lo conulois.
1hoy havo changod lho vay vo livo, and
in lho fuluio lhoy vill chango
il in vays vo cannol
yol inagino.
Dislay scioon vilh
ionolo conliol,
loyLoaid, and nouso
HUMAN COMPUTERS
1ho fiisl uso of lho void conuloi vas nol foi
a nachino Lul foi a oison! 1ho void dalos fion
lho 17lh conluiy and aclually iofoiiod lo an oxoil
nalhonalician vho calculalod conlox suns. ln
lho 14s, lho Diydon llighl Rosoaich Conloi (a
foioiunnoi of NASA) vas losling ils suoisonic lanos
and saco ioclols and vas collocling a vasl anounl
of infoinalion, oi dala. 1ho dala vas analyzod Ly
hunansnoslly vononvho cano lo Lo callod
conulois. 1hoy violo ovoiylhing on aoi and
usod nochanical calculalois callod slido iulos.
FOUNDING FIGURE
Biilish nalhonalician
Alan 1uiing is iogaidod as lho
foundoi of conuloi scionco.
Ho vas loy lo iofining lho
idoa of an algoiilhna
nalhonalical vay of
solving ioLlons in a
soiios of slosand
dovoloing il inlo a
syslon of iulos foi
handling dala in
conulois. Evoiy
conuloi iogian usos
nany algoiilhns lo
voil. ln lho 1`s,
1uiing dosciiLod hov a
dovico could ioad and
chango Lils of dala Ly
folloving an algoiilhn. 1his
1uiing Machino, allhough
only an idoa, vas aLlo lo shov
hov conulois nighl voil.
HOUSEHOLD MACHINES
Eaily conulois voio innonso
nachinos lhal fillod onliio
ioons. 1ho fiisl oisonal
conulois in lho 17s
voio also Loxlilo and
covoiod in lighls and
Lullons (soo ago 12). By
lho 1s, conulois did nol lool
oul- of- laco in a living ioon. 1his
21 conulois nicioiocossoi and
nonoiy (soo agos 1415) aio hiddon
Lohind lho scioon. 1hoso hysical ails nalo
u lho conulois haidvaio, Lul lhoy aio usoloss
vilhoul soflvaiolho sol of iogians lhal lolls
lhon vhal lo do (soo agos `2`5).
Scrccn disp|a crcatcd |
scftuarc runnin cn ccnputcr
Wirc|css ncusc
scnds ccnputcr
input | infrarcd
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
7
ANALOG COMPUTER
Al ils sinlosl, a nodoin conuloi is a colloclion of svilchosLillions
of lhon. Such a conuloi is digilal, Locauso il is conliollod Ly a soiios of
digils1s and s (soo ago 1). 1ho nunLois luin lho svilchos on
oi off, and Loing half on is inossiLlo. Eaily conuling nachinos,
hovovoi, voio analog and nol digilal. 1hoii conliol signals
ioso and foll conlinuously lilo a vavo, insload of
fliing Lolvoon on and off. ln lho 1S7s,
Biilish scionlisl Loid Kolvin Luill an analog
conuloi lhal calculalod lho hoighls and
linos of ocoan lidos. 1on cogs, oi goais,
voio sol accoiding lo lho lido alloins al
a ailiculai haiLoi. As lho conulois
handlo vas luinod, il diov lho iiso
and fall of oach lido onlo aoi diuns.
Kolvins nachinos voio voiy accuialo
and voio usod unlil lho 17s.
COMPUTERS EVERYWHERE
By 211, lhoio voio an oslinalod 1 Lillion oisonal
conulois (FCs) in uso, Lul lhoio aio counlloss noio insido
ovoiyday nachinos, fion vashing nachinos lo a cais Lialos.
1hoso lilllo conulois aio onLoddod insido a vido iango
of oloclionic syslons and aio iogiannod lo do jusl ono
joL. 1his digilal canoia collocls lighl lhiough a lons, Lul
lhon lho lighl hils a digilal lighl sonsoi, and a nunLoi of
liny conulois lalo ovoi. Sono loll il vhoio lo focus,
vhilo olhois calculalo hov nuch lighl is noodod lo
nalo a good icluio oi vholhoi il noods lho flash.
Yol anolhoi conuloi dislays lho icluio
on lho scioon Lofoio sloiing il in lho
nonoiy, ioady lo Lo liansfoiiod lo a
iinloioi anolhoi conuloi.
A COMPUTERIZED FUTURE
Conulois iun on olocliical signalsand so do lho noivos lhal conliol living
Lodios. 1his allovs sono conuloiizod dovicos lo Lo usod lo ioaii oi iolaco
danagod Lody ails. Faconalois can loo lho hoail Loaling, vhilo a ioLol
ain can Lo conliollod Ly living nusclos and noivos (soo ago 5S). ln lho
fuluio, conulois vill conlinuo lo onhanco hunan Lodios, oihas ovon
laling ovoi nosl of ils funclionsas in lho caso of lhis Loig voision of
Calain Joan Luc Ficaid in Star 1rc|. 1hc ^cxt Gcncraticn (1S714).
Ccntra| dia|
shcus thc datc
cf cach tidc
!apcr rc|| ccu|d rcccrd
tidc chancs thrcuh
1 car aftcr 4 hcurs
cf cpcraticn
Hand|c
rctatcd a||
ccnpcncnts
Adjusta||c cc spins
arcund cff-ccntcr
Scrccn disp|as
picturcs cncratcd
| diita| scnscr
I|ash |u||
Rcnc.a||c
ncncr card
Autcfccus
ncchanisn
Ii|tcr
prctccts |cns
Icns cf cancra
is fccuscd |
ccnputcri.cd nctcr
Scnscr ccn.crts
|iht intc
c|cctrica| sina|s
Circuit |card
ccntains
cn|cddcd
nicrcprcccsscr
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
www.all-terms.com/bbs
8
COUNTING BEADS
lnvonlod noio lhan 4, yoais
ago, lho aLacus is ono of lho
oldosl calculaling dovicos. ln lhis
1lh-conluiy Chinoso aLacus, Loads
ioiosonl socific nunLois. 1ho
colunn on lho oxliono iighl slands
foi lho nunLoi of onos in a nunLoi,
lho colunn lo ils lofl is lons, lho
noxl, hundiods, and so on. 1ho usoi
onlois nunLois Ly sliding lho Loads
lovaid lho ciossLai. 1ho aLacus is
usod lo ioiosonl nunLois, and
also lo oifoin calculalions
including addilion, suLliaclion,
division, and nullilicalion.
ANCIENT SKY TRACKER
1ho Anlilylhoia nochanisn is an anazingly
advancod dovico Luill sono lino Lolvoon
15 and 1 uci, oihas on lho island of
Rhodos. Divois iocovoiod il in 1 fion a
sunlon Ronan shi, vhich vas vioclod
off lho island of Anlilylhoia aiound
7 uci. 1his dovico usod a conlicalod
aiiangononl of noving ails callod goais
(loolhod vhools lhal inloilocl vilh ono
anolhoi) lo calculalo and dislay lho
osilions of lho Sun and lho Moon, along
vilh lhoso of lho najoi slais and oihas
also of lho lanols. ll vas so coiiodod Ly
lho soa lhal scionlisls noodod nany yoais
of sludy lo undoisland ils funclion and
nochanisn. ln 27, a ioconsliuclion of
lho dovico vas iosonlod lo lho Nalional
Hollinic Rosoaich loundalion in Alhons,
Ciooco. lnciodiLly, il voilod oifoclly.
Ion +noUs.Nis oi vi.ns, oolo havo invonlod
nachinos lo sinlify nalhonalical calculalions. 1ho
aLacus fiisl aoaiod in Mosoolania aiound 27 uci.
1ho ancionl Ciools Luill nochanical dovicos caaLlo of
solving ailiculai nalhonalical ioLlons and, Ly lho
17lh conluiy, oolo voio using ciaflsnanshi, dovolood
vhilo Luilding nochanical clocls, lo nalo conlicalod
calculaling nachinos. loi nany conluiios, lhoso nachinos
could do no noio lhan givo lho ansvoi lo a ailiculai
ogualion. ln lho 1lh conluiy, Chailos BaLLago cano u
vilh lho idoa of a nachino lhal could do nany linds of
calculalion Ly folloving a vholo soiios of insliuclions
vhich could Lo changod as ioguiiod. BaLLago callod such
nachinos analylical onginosvo call lhon conulois.
Before computers
KEEPING COUNT
loi nany lhousands of yoais, oolo havo counlod all linds of
lhings, fion days lo loavos of Lioad, and lhoy havo diavn oi
scialchod linos, callod lallios, on iocos of vood oi Lono lo
iocoid lho ansvois. 1his Lono is ovoi 2, yoais old and
vas found al lshango in Afiica. Scionlisls Loliovo lhal oolo
usod il lo iocoid lho hasos of lho Moon.
!ach uhcc|
rcprcscnts cnc
diit cf a nun|cr
3cads a|c.c crcss|ar
rcprcscnt .a|ucs cf .
0. 00. and sc cn
Crcss|ar
Chinoso aLacus
3cads |c|cu crcss|ar
rcprcscnt .a|ucs cf
1. 10. 100. and sc cn
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

DIFFERENCE ENGINE
ln 1S22, nalhonalician Chailos BaLLago Luill a iololyo calculaling nachino, soon
hoio. Ho usod il lo losl oul lho voiling of a laigoi nachinoBaLLagos fiisl Diffoionco
Enginolhal ho could nol Luild duo lo a lacl of funds. 1ho ongino usod a syslon of
goais lo calculalo laLlos of nalhonalical dala. ln 11, lho London Scionco
Musoun follovod BaLLagos lans and Luill lho socond Diffoionco Engino
vhich voilod oifoclly. BaLLago also dosignodLul did nol Luildvhal is
considoiod Ly nany lo Lo lho fiisl liuo conuloi. BaLLago callod lhis lho
Analylical Engino. As a iosull, ho is oflon lnovn as lho falhoi of conuling.
STAR MACHINE
1ho Mooiish asliononoi ALu lshag lLiahin al-Zaigali Luill lhis dovicocallod
an asliolaLoin aLoul 115 ci. AsliolaLos voio novaLlo nodols of lho sly.
Ancionl Ciools invonlod lho oailiosl asliolaLos in aiound 15 uci, and such
dovicos voio in uso in nany counliios unlil lho 16lh conluiy ci. AsliolaLos had
nany usos. lf lhoy voio sol vilh lho osilion of a ailiculai slai ovoi a laco,
oi lhal of lho Sun, lhoy vould dislay lho lino al lhal laco. 1hoy also shovod
lho slais lhal voio visiLlo al socific linos fion ailiculai lacos on Eailh. 1his
ioLaLly holod liavolois find oul vhoio lhoy voio. AsliolaLos voio a lilllo
lilo sinlo calculalois, in lhal lhoy dislayod an ansvoi on Loing fod vilh dala.
Naiois Lonos
NAPIER'S BONES
ln 1617, John Naioi invonlod a sol of sguaio
colunns callod Naiois Lonos. Each Lono vas
dividod inlo nino sguaios, vilh lho lo sguaio
caiiying a nunLoi Lolvoon zoio and nino.
1ho sguaios Lolov conlainod nullilos of
lhal nunLoi. Naiois Lonos holod oifoin
nullilicalion and division. 1o nullily 54S
Ly 5, foi inslanco, a oison vould laco lhoso
lhioo Lonos on a Loaid. 1ho Loaid had a colunn
of nino sguaios on lho lofl, nailod 1. 1ho
usoi vould lhon lool al lho sguaios on lho
Lonos lhal voio noxl lo lho fiflh osilion on
lho Loaid. Ho oi sho vould ioad lho digils
fion lofl lo iighl, adding lho digils vilhin
lho slanling linos. ln lhis caso, lho ansvoi
vould ioad as 2,74.
CALCULATING TAX
1ho Fascalino vas a nochanical calculaloi lhal could
add oi suLliacl nunLois. Blaiso Fascal, a hilosohoi
and nalhonalician, dovolood lho dovico in
1642 lo hol his falhoi caiiy oul calculalions
foi laxalion. 1ho nachino vas guilo
difficull lo uso and so Fascal only
nanagod lo soll a fov of lhon.
Hovovoi, lho Fascalino suiiod
lho dovolononl of noio
advancod dovicos, vhich
finally lod lo lho cioalion
of lho fiisl conulois.
Rctc is a nc.a||c p|atc |a|c|cd uith
thc nancs cf stars and turnin it shcus
hcu thc stars nc.c c.cr 24 hcurs
Astrc|a|c is nadc cf |rass
1npan. cr |ac|p|atc. shcus uhich stars
arc a|c.c thc hcri.cn at a particu|ar tinc
^un|cr
appcars in s|it
tc shcu rcsu|t
Dic-cast
ncta| part
Sin|c diit
nun|cr in
tcp suarc
Stcc| shaft
suppcrts cc|unns
1his suarc
ccntains
thc fifth
nu|tip|c cf
nun|cr cn
tcp suarc
1ccthcd uhcc| fcrns part cf
intcr|cc|cd car nctucr|
Dia| cn fina| cc|unn
shcus rcsu|t cf
ca|cu|aticn
Whcc| uscd tc
input nun|crs
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
www.all-terms.com/bbs
10
Electronic brains
WniN coxiU+ins wini s+iii . Niw iii.,
lhoy voio such a naivol lhal oolo callod
lhon oloclionic Liains. ll vas lho aLilily
of a lhoinionic valvo lo svilch an olocliic
cuiionl on oi off lhal Locano loy lo lho
dovolononl of lho fiisl gonoialion of
liuo conulois, in lho 14s. 1hoso valvos
sloiod dala in conulois and oifoinod
calculalions. 1iansislois voio invonlod
in 147 and did lho sano joL, Lul voio
snalloi and noio ioliaLlo. 1hoy hoialdod
lho socond gonoialion of conulois.
CALCULATING WITH BINARY
1ho valvos in oaily conulois voio connoclod logolhoi
lo foin oloclionic ciicuils callod logic galos lhal nado
calculalions using Linaiy nunLois. 1ho suns voio
usod lo iocoss all linds of dala. Suns lool voiy
diffoionl in Linaiy. 1+2=` is viillon as 1+1=11. All
conulois slill uso logic galos and Linaiy nunLois.
A PIONEERING INVENTION
1his is a falso-coloi X-iay of a
vacuun luLo usod in oaily iadios.
Eaily vacuun luLos, oi lhoinionic
valvos, gavo iiso lo lho noio conlox
onos usod in conulois. 1hoinionic
valvos can Lo usod lo slo oi allov a flov
of olocliicily, lolling lhon acl as svilchos.
ln fiisl-gonoialion conulois, oach valvo
svilchod ono Lil of dala (soo ago 16). A
soiios of valvos sloiod dala in lho foin
of a soguonco of 1s and s. As a iogian
ian, lho valvos vould svilch on oi off as
lho nunLois lhoy hold changod. 1ho
valvos could conliol oach olhoi and Lo
Luill inlo usoful conuloi ciicuils.
SYSTEMS WITH VALVES
ln 15, conuloi ionooi Alan
1uiing Luill a valvo-Lasod conuloi callod lho
Filol ACE. ll usod S valvos and holod scionlisls
solvo hysics ioLlons foi nany yoais. Biggoi
nachinos usod fai noio valvos. 1ho AN/lSQ-7 vas
ono of lho laigosl conulois ovoi Luill. Usod Ly lho US
Aii loico, il conlainod aiound 55, valvos and voighod
noio lhan 245 lons (22` noliic lons). 1ho valvos in such
conulois ioducod so nuch hoal lhal lhoy Luinod oul
and slood lho conulois fion voiling ovoiy fov houis.
Cn' suitch
stands fcr
|inar cnc
Cff' suitch
stands fcr
|inar .crc
Cnc cf thc 800 .a|.cs
uscd in !i|ct AC!
Va|.c cf Cc|cssus.
an ad.anccd
c|cctrcnic ca|cu|atcr
Ccnsc|c fcr ccntrc||in
cpcraticns
Filol ACE
THE BINARY SYSTEM
Conulois sloio and iocoss dala Ly
solling oloclionic svilchos in diffoionl
alloins, using a coding syslon callod
Linaiy. An oloclionic svilch can only
Lo in lvo slaloson and off. ln
Linaiy, lho on slalo is nunLoi ono
and lho off slalo is zoio, as soon
in lhis diagian of a Linaiy svilch.
Cious of svilchos ioiosonl alloins
of 1s and s, and lhoso soguoncos in
luin sland foi nunLois and lollois.
loi oxanlo, 11 is lho nunLoi fivo.
1crnina| uas
c|cctrificd tc
put .a|.c in
cn' statc
Mcta| uirc prcduccd
charcd partic|cs ca||cd
c|cctrcns uhcn hcatcd
Mcta| p|atc rccci.cd
c|cctrcns that ucrc
attractcd tc it
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
THE NEXT GENERATION
Lilo valvos, liansislois can also Lo
usod as svilchos. 1hoy voil Ly using
soniconducloisnaloiials lhal caiiy
an olocliic cuiionl sonolinos, and
Llocl il al olhoi linos. Elocliicily
flovs inlo lho liansisloi lhiough ono
loininal and oul lhiough lho socond,
Lul only if lho liansisloi is svilchod
on fiisl Ly sonding olocliicily lhiough
lho lhiid loininal. 1iansislois did
vhal valvos could, Lul voio snalloi,
fasloi, choaoi, noio ioliaLlo, and
vaslod loss onoigy lhan valvos.
1iansislois lod lo a vholo nov
gonoialion of fasloi conulois,
and liny onos aio iosonl in
nosl nodoin conuloi ciicuils.
THE FIRST BUG
Cn SolonLoi , 147, lho Haivaid Mail ll
conuloi oncounloiod a ioLlon and slood
voiling. Whon ils ooialois invosligalod, lhoy
discovoiod a Luga nolhlhal had gollon
slucl Lolvoon lho conulois iolays. Evoi
sinco lhon, lho void Lug has Loon usod
lo iofoi lo ioLlons in a conuloi,
nainly lo lhoso causod Ly oiiois in
conuloi iogianning. 1ho iocoss
of chocling and ionoving oiiois
fion conuloi iogians is
lnovn as doLugging.
TRANSISTORS IN ACTION
ll vas only vhon oolo ul
liansislois inlo conulois in lho
15s lhal lho nachinos Locano
ioliaLlo onough lo Lo ioally usoful.
Soon, sovoial laigo conanios
Logan using lhon. lnloinalional
Businoss Machinos (lBM), a
conuloi-naling conany,
liilod in sizo in lho 15s.
Anoiican Aiilinos usod an
lBM 7 conuloi (lofl) lo
iosoivo lano soals, caiiying
oul lho voilds fiisl onlino
Loolings in 164.
!ach sccticn ccu|d
|c pu||cd cut fcr
cas naintcnancc
RUNNING FAST
Buill Ly Conliol Dala Coioialion (CDC), lho
CDC 66 vas lho fiisl succossful suoiconuloi
(soo agos ``1), caaLlo of oifoining noio
lhan 1 nillion insliuclions in a socondlodays
suoiconulois can oifoin noio lhan
1 guadiillion calculalions in a socond. 1his nachino
conlainod aLoul 4, liansislois Lasod on lho
olononl silicon, insload of lho goinaniun liansislois
lhal oailioi conulois usod. Moio lhan 1 nachinos
voio sold, noslly lo acadonic and nililaiy iosoaich
laLoialoiios. 1ho CDC 66 vas lho faslosl
conuloi in lho voild Lolvoon 164 and 16.
Suitch-cn ccntrc|
ccnsc|c ucr|cd tc
start and stcp
prcrans
1crnina| cf
transistcr
Ic|card
uas uscd tc
sc|cct data fcr
disp|a cr tc
chanc prcran
Disp|a scrccn fcr tcxt
and sinp|c raphics
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
12
Mini and micro computers
IN +ni 1vecs .Ni 1v:cs, conulois iaidly Locano snalloi
and choaoi, lhanls lo lvo loy oloclionic dovolononlslho
inlogialod ciicuil and lho nicioiocossoi. Each suiiod lho
giovlh of a vholo nov gonoialion of conulois. 1ho shiinling
sizos and falling iicos of conulois changod lho vay oolo
viovod lhoso nachinos. Evonlually, lhoy aoaiod in schools
and in honos. Conulois changod fion nysloiious nachinos
usod only in sono officos and laLoialoiios lo dovicos lhal voio
faniliailhough slill nov and oxciling. 1ho dovolononl
of choa and ovoiful lalos sinco lho 1Ss has
givon oolo lho fioodon lo uso conulois
alnosl anyvhoio.
ALL ON BOARD
1his is lho voilds fiisl inlogialod
ciicuil (lC), invonlod in 15S. ll doos
lho sano joL as a sol of oloclionic conononls
viiod logolhoi, Lul in an lC, lho ails aio all Luill
inlo lho sano unil and nado of lho sano lind of
naloiialcallod a soniconducloi. A singlo lC can
conlain nany liansislois. 1hoso ciicuils aio lough,
conacl, ioliaLlo, and can Lo nass-ioducod. lCs lod
lo lho dovolononl of snalloi and noio ovoiful
nachinos, sonolinos lnovn as lhiid-gonoialion
conulois. 1hoso includod choa, conacl
nachinos callod niniconulois.
LANDING ON THE MOON
1ho Aollo sacociafl lhal lool
non lo lho Moon in lho 16s
and 17s voio oguiod vilh
lho fiisl conulois Lasod on
lCs. Allhough highly advancod
foi lhoii lino, lhoy voio
loss ovoiful lhan nany of
lodays digilal valchos. Bul
lhoy voio voll iogiannod
foi lho lasls lhoy noodod
lo oifoin. ln 16, lho
Aollo 11 sacociafl nado
lho fiisl-ovoi nannod Moon
landing. Duiing lho final
slagos of lho landing, lho
conuloi in lho sacociafl
had lo iocoss so nuch
infoinalion lhal il vould havo
slood voiling, had il nol
Loon socially dosignod lo
ignoio loss inoilanl lasls.
MINICOMPUTERS
ln lho 16s, niniconulois,
such as lho FDF-S, voio
dovolood as connoicial
conulois. 1ho fiisl FDF-Ss had
individual liansislois, Lul laloi
voisions usod lCs. 1ho FDF-S
vonl on salo in 165 and vas
caiofully dosignod lo cosl as
lilllo as ossiLlo. lls officionl
dosign, along vilh ils snalloi
sizo, nado il voiy succossful
conaiod lo olhoi conulois
of lho linonoio lhan
5, unils voio sold.
!ad ccnnccts nicrcprcccsscr
tc scc|ct cn thc ncthcr|card
Circuit |card
pcrfcrns prcccssin
Iiht disp|as cutput
and prcran status
1urnin thc |c
startcd thc !D!-8
Aslionaul Buzz Aldiin
on lho Moon
lnlol Fonliun F5
nicioiocossoi,
1`
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
MICROPROCESSORS
Duiing lho 16s, lCs Locano
ninialuiizod unlil hundiods of
liansislois fil on a singlo ioco, oi
chi, of silicon. 1hoso conacl lCs Locano
lnovn as niciochis. ln 171, lnlol ioloasod
ils 44 chi lhal oifoinod lho funclions of
a conulois conlial iocossing unil (soo ago
15) and vas callod a nicioiocossoi. By 21,
nicioiocossois voio diiving ovoiy conuloi
and conlainod as nany as 2 Lillion liansislois.
COMPUTERS ON THE MOVE
Afloi nicioiocossois, lho noxl loa foivaid in
conuloi ninialuiizalion vas lho dovolononl
of oilaLlo lalos, oi noloLools. 1hoso voio
all-in-ono syslons lhal incoioialod nany
conononls, including lho CFU, dislay,
loyLoaid, and ovon soalois. 1ho Lig
challongo in dovoloing lalos vas lo
nalo scioons lhal voio snall and lighl
and lhal did nol diain lho Lalloiios loo
guiclly. 1ho dovolononl of liguid
ciyslal dislay (LCD) scioons
(soo ago 2) solvod lhoso
ioLlons. 1hoy uso ovoi
voiy officionlly.
PET AT WORK
1ho Connodoio FE1 vas inlioducod
in 177 and vas ono of sovoial
nicioconulois lhal cano lo Lo usod
vidoly in officos. Al lho lino, nosl
novly uichasod conulois ioguiiod
Lolh lino and slill lo Lo sol u, Lul
lho FE1 vas ioady lo uso as soon
as il vas luggod in. lls soaialo
nunoiic loyad vas unusual foi
lho lino and nado il oasioi lo
onloi dala foi scionlific and
Lusinoss alicalions. ll
also guiclly Locano a
oulai conuloi foi
hono and school uso.
COMPUTERS FOR ALL
ln 1S1, lho Biilish Bioadcasling Coioialion (BBC) usod
lhis nicioconuloi in a 1V soiios callod 1hc Ccnputcr
!rcrannc. Micioconulois voio nachinos lhal usod
nicioiocossois and voio ail of lho fouilh gonoialion of
conulois. Ciiginally callod lho Acoin Fiolon, lhis conuloi
vas ionanod lho BBC Micio and vas usod in Biilish schools
in lho 1Ss. 1o dislay ils oulul, usois luggod il inlo a
noinal 1V oi socially nado conuloi noniloi (scioon).
Mcnitcr
(scrccn) cf
Ccnncdcrc !!1
3attcr
ICD scrccn
suitchcs cff
autcnatica||
tc sa.c pcucr
if unuscd fcr
a fcu ninutcs
!ntcrna| circuitr
cf nicrcprcccsscr
3ui|t-in casscttc tapc rcccrdcr uscd
tc sa.c and |cad prcrans and data
Ic|card
Ccnpact
DVD dri.c
^uncric
|cpad
X-iay of a lalo
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
14
Inside a computer
CiiNiNo Ui . coxiU+in iovoals a Laffling aiiay of
oloclionic ciicuiliy, Lul ovoiy conuloi has lho sano Lasic
conononls. Al lho hoail of lho nachino is lho conlial
iocossing unil (CFU), vhich conliols nosl of ils funclions.
ln lho 17s, CFUs voio fiisl ninialuiizod onlo a niciochi
callod a nicioiocossoi. Sinco lhal lino, silicon-Lasod chis
also foin lho nain nonoiy of a conuloiiandon accoss
nonoiy (RAM), vhich lho CFU usos conslanlly vhon
voiling. Conulois also havo long-loin nonoiy in lho
foin of a sloiago dovico, such as a haid disl diivo. lnul
and oulul dovicos (soo agos 1S21) allov inloiaclion
vilh lho usoi, vhilo a conulois sonsilivo oloclionics
ioguiio a snoolh and conslanl ovoi suly.
Mcta| fin rcnc.cs
cxccss hcat
Ian ||cus ccc|
air past fins
!|attcr cf
nanctic
dis|
Mcta| cc.cr prctccts
nanctic dis|
DVD dri.c
Circuit |card
Hcad cf
actuatcr
arn
rcads and
uritcs data
Chip ccntrc|s
actuatcr arn and
rctaticn cf dis|
DISKS OF DATA
1ho conuloi disnanllod
hoio sloios ils dala on a haid
disl diivo. 1o ioliiovo oi sloio
dala, a nagnolic hoad al lho li
of an aclualoi ain novos
iaidly acioss liny aioas
on lho disls suifaco, oi
lalloi, as il sins al u
lo 15, iovolulions oi
ninulo. 1o viilo dala, lho
hoad nagnolizos aioas on
lho lalloi, vhich can Lo
donagnolizod foi iouso. 1o ioad
dala fion lho disl, il convoils
lho nagnolic infoinalion inlo
an olocliic cuiionl. Unlilo dala
in lho RAM, dala sloiod on haid
disl diivos is nol losl vhon lho
conuloi is svilchod off.
HOW COMPUTERS WORK
All conulois voil in lho sano vay. Whon a
usoi foods dala inlo lhon Ly an inul dovico,
lho conlial iocossing unil (CFU), oflon a
nicioiocossoi, sloios il in lho nonoiy. A
iogian iunning in lho nonoiy lhon sonds
insliuclions lo lho CFU, vhich ioliiovos
lho dala, iocossos il accoiding lo lhoso
insliuclions, and sonds lho iosulls Lacl lo
lho nonoiy. Whon ioguiiod, lho CFU
liansfois lho iocossod dala Lacl lo
lho usoi via an oulul dovico.
ON THE INSIDE
Conulois, such as lhis dosllo nachino
fion 21, conlain iinlod ciicuil Loaids, on
vhich a nicioiocossoi and olhoi oloclionic
ails aio fixod and connoclod via cooi
liacls lhal aio olchod on lo lho Loaid. Ciicuil
Loaids aio oflon iovidod vilh oxansion
slols lo allov onlhusiasls lo add oxlia dovicos,
such as giahics caids. Conuloi dosignois
cian as nuch ciicuiliy as ossiLlo inlo lho
availaLlo saco, vhilo alloving onough ioon
foi aii lo ciiculalo so lhal hoal can oscao.
Many ails aio nodulailhoy can Lo
ionovod oasily in ono ioco.
KEEPING COOL
1ho oloclionic conononls of a conuloi
iun on a lol of olocliical ovoi and so gonoialo
hoal. 1hoso ails aio nado of ciicuils lhal aio
sonsilivo lo changos in lonoialuio, and if lhoy
gol loo hol, lho ails slo voiling iooily.
Dovicos callod hoal sinls hol lo gol iid of lhis
hoal. Hoal sinls lalo lho foin of nolal fins lhal
iadialo hoal avay fion lho oloclionic ails lo
lho aii. A fan inslallod in lho conuloi soods
u lho cooling iocoss Ly foicing vain aii avay
fion lho fins, holing cooloi aii lalo ils laco.
Output Input
Centra!
processing
unit
Menory
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
15
S|ct fcr a sct cf RAM chips
Scc|ct fcr
nicrcprcccsscr
Micrcchip can stcrc
as nan as 1 |i||icn
|inar |its
S|ct fcr
raphics card
3ac|up |attcr
3!CS chip
A HELPING HAND
Walching high-dofinilion (HD)
vidoos oi laying nodoin vidoo
ganos on a conuloi ioguiios
a lol of nonoiy and iocossing
ovoi, sloving dovn lho conuloi.
Ciahics caids aio iinlod ciicuil
Loaids lhal conlain a socializod
niciochi callod a giahics
iocossing unil (CFU). 1ho CFU
sulononls lho iocossing ovoi of
lho CFU Ly laling ovoi nalhonalical
calculalions foi ioducing inagos.
Ciahics caids also havo lhoii ovn
nonoiy callod vidoo RAM (VRAM).
MEMORY POWER
Dala lhal lho conuloi is
aclivoly voiling on is sloiod
in lho RAM. ln a 21 dosllo
conuloi, lho RAM is sloiod in a
soiios of niciochis on a RAM
Loaid. ll is callod iandon accoss
nonoiy Locauso lho conuloi can
accoss any ioco of il al any lino. ll
viilos lho dala lo lho nonoiy in
vhalovoi alloin is guiclosl foi il
lo uso, ialhoi lhan in a soguonco
a hunan vould undoisland. So
a singlo ioco of dala nay Lo
scalloiod ovoi sovoial niciochis.
MOTHERBOARD
1ho nain iinlod ciicuil Loaid of a
conuloi is callod lho nolhoiLoaid.
ll conlains lho nicioiocossoi and
loy conononlsincluding lho Laclu
Lalloiy and lho Lasic inul/oulul syslon
(BlCS) chi. 1ho Lalloiy loos lho conulois
clocl iunning vhilo lho conuloi is svilchod off. 1ho
BlCS chi caiiios lho soflvaio lhal slails lho ooialing
syslon (soo ago `2) vhon lho conuloi is svilchod on.
1ho nolhoiLoaid also conlains slols foi olhoi dovicos,
such as oxlia RAM chis and giahics caids.
THE BRAIN
1ho CFU, noslly conlainod on
a nicioiocossoi, is lho Liain of
ovoiy conuloi. ll conliols nosl
of lho nachinos ooialions,
liansfoiiing dala lo and fion
nonoiy as ioguiiod, iocossing
il as insliuclod Ly soflvaio, and
lhon oilhoi sloiing il Lacl in
nonoiy oi liansfoiiing il lo lho
scioon oi olhoi oulul dovico.
Micioiocossoi
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Memory and storage
SiNci +ni i.niiis+ v.ivi coxiU+ins, lho Lasic aioach lo dala
sloiago has Loon lho sano. 1o sloio dala, a conuloi sols nany lvo-vay
oloclionic svilchos in a alloin ioiosonling 1s and s. Each digil is ono
Lil of infoinalion, and oighl Lils conoso ono Lylo of dala.
Whon a iogian is iun, lhis alloin changos. ln lho oaily
days of conuling, lho dala in a conulois
nonoiy vas hold in laco Ly a conslanl ovoi
suly. ll vanishod vhon lho conuloi shul
dovn (il vas callod volalilo), so lho dala
could Lo caluiod oinanonlly only Ly a
iinloul. Laloi, onginoois invonlod vays
of sloiing oloclionic dala vilh lho ovoi off.
1hoso non-volalilo nonoiy nolhods involvo
laos, disls, and olhoi nodia. 1odays conulois
novo dala Lolvoon lhoii volalilo nonoiy
(socifically, iandon accoss nonoiy, oi RAM)
and lhoii non-volalilo sloios, such as haid disls.
MERCURY DELAY LINES
ln lho 14s, sono of lho oailiosl
oloclionic conulois sloiod dala in
noicuiy dolay linos in lho foin of
sound vavos. Dolay linos voio luLos
fillod vilh noicuiy, vilh a guailz
ciyslal al oach ond. 1ho conuloi
violo dala lo lho luLo as an olocliical
signal. 1his nado ono ciyslal viLialo,
sonding sound vavos dovn lho luLo.
1ho ciyslal al lho olhoi ond luinod
lho sound Lacl inlo olocliical signals,
and lhoso voio fod Lacl lo lho fiisl
ciyslal, vhich iooalod lho sound
vavos. As a iosull, lho sounds did
nol dio avay unlil lho dolay lino
vas svilchod off. A conuloi vas
connoclod lo ono ond of lho luLo,
Lul oflon had lo vail foi lho
ioguiiod dala lo aoai.
STORE NOW, USE LATER
1ho nagnolic lao is an oaily oxanlo of non-volalilo
nonoiy. ll vas a oulai sloiago nodiun fion lho
15s lo lho 1Ss and is slill usod sonolinos. Eailioi
lyos voio laigo sools of laslic lao vilh a nolallic
coaling, vhich could Lo nagnolizod in alchos, oach
ioiosonling ono Lil. Unlilo lho aoi laos lhal cano
Lofoio lhon, oolo could iouso nagnolic laos nany
linos. Laloi voisions sloiod lao in cassollos oi cailiidgos,
vhich voio noio conacl and oasioi lo handlo. 1hough
lhoy can hold u lo ` loiaLylos (1B) of dala, nagnolic
laos aio voiy slov Locauso of lho nood lo vind lhon
lo lho soclion vhoio lho ioguiiod dala is viillon.
Ca||c transfcrs
data tc and
frcn thc dc|a |inc
Casin at cnd
cf |inc ccntains
uart. crsta|
1u|c ccntains ncrcur
Data is fcd tc thc tu|c
in thc fcrn cf c|cctrica|
sina|s thrcuh a
p|atfcrn cf ccnncctcrs
Manctic data stcrac
tapcs in a rac|. in a
ccnputcr tapc |i|rar
READING MEMORY
Randon accoss nonoiy
(RAM) can Lo viillon iandonly,
oi in any oidoi. 1ho Willians
luLo vas lho fiisl RAM dovico.
A conuloi sloiod dala on il
Ly shooling a Loan of oloclions
on lo ils scioon. 1ho Loan lofl
olocliically chaigod alchos on
lho scioon, oach of vhich hold
ono Lil of dala. An olocliical
giid on lho fionl of lho luLo
doloclod lho chaigod
alchos, alloving lho
conuloi lo ioad
dala in any oidoi.
Scioon of
Willians luLo
Willians luLo,
146
3riht dct
rcprcscnts a
|inar cnc and
faint dct is a .crc
Scrccn is cc.crcd
| c|cctrica| rid
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
17
Monoiy caid,
dovolood in
lho oaily 1s
Funchod lao,
usod vidoly foi
dala sloiago fion
15s lo 17s
Lasoi viiling lo a DVD
llash diivo,
dovolood in 2
MINIATURIZING MEMORY
Evoiy yoai conulois ioduco noio dala, Lul
dala sloiago lochnology has lol aco Ly acling
dala inlo snalloi and snalloi sacos. Sono oaily
oloclionic conulois iosoivod dala Ly oululling
aoi lao vilh holos unchod in il, Lul lhis vas Lully
and oasily danagod. Magnolic laos could sloio fai
noio dala, Lul ioading fion oi viiling lo lhon vas
slill a slov iocoss. ln lho 1Ss, nagnolic floy
disls nado dala accoss fasloi, allhough lhoy could
sloio only 1 oi 2 nogaLylos of dalaloss lhan
ono coniossod digilal hologiah fion lodays
canoias. lion aiound 15, CDs and lhon
DVDsolical disls lhal could hold 1,
linos as nuch dalavoio inlioducod. By
21, consunois could chooso fion a
iango of disls, conacl caids, and
niciochi-Lasod nonoiy olions, oach
offoiing nany gigaLylos of sloiago.
A POCKET FULL OF DATA
A USB slicl (also lnovn as a flash diivo, nonoiy slicl, oi on diivo)
is anolhoi oxanlo of non-volalilo nonoiy and a convonionl lyo of
ionovaLlo dala sloiago dovico. USB slands foi univoisal soiial Lus, a
lyo of soclol found on alnosl ovoiy nodoin conuloi. A USB slicl
conlains a flash nonoiy chi lhal allovs a conuloi lo nodify sloiod
dala nuch fasloi lhan on a haid diivo. llash diivos aio snall onough
lo fil in a oclol, viilually shoclioof, and, unlilo a haid diivo, conlain
no noving ails. Conulois CFUs can uso Lolh haid diivos and USB
slicls as viilual nonoiy, onhancing lhoii RAM and sooding u
lhoii iocossing, Lul USB slicls aio noio officionl al lhis.
OPTICAL DISKS
Sono sloiago dovicos aio ionovaLlo. 1hoso includo oilaLlo
haid diivos and olical disls, such as conacl disls (CDs)
and digilal voisalilo disls (DVDs). Clical disls aio oulai
Locauso lhoy aio choa, lough, and snall, and can hold u lo
17 gigaLylos (CB) of dala on a singlo disl. A iod lasoi viilos
dala lo lho disl Ly naling ils (liny iniossions) on il al
iociso localions. 1ho ils ioiosonl s and lho snoolh aioas
sland foi 1s. 1ho lasoi also ioads dala
fion lho disl. Blu-iay disls
(BDs) uso a Lluo lasoi lhal
nalos snalloi ils lhan
on a DVD, alloving a
BD lo sloio sovon
linos as nuch
dala as a DVD.
Hc|c cn tapc
rcprcscnts
cnc |it cf
infcrnaticn
!in ccnnccts thc
card tc thc ccnputcr
cr cthcr dc.icc
Mcta| casin
cnc|cscs US3
ccnncctcr
Circuit
|card
Micrcchip acts as a |ridc
|ctuccn US3 ccnncctcr and
f|ash ncncr chip. uhich is
cn thc cthcr sidc cf thc dri.c
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
18
Input
ivinv coxiU+in wonis wi+n iNiU+dala and insliuclions
lhal lho usoi foods inlo lho conuloi so lhal il can Login
ils calculalions. 1o onloi dala inlo lho oailiosl conulois,
ooialois fod in caids oi sliis of filn vilh holos unchod
in lhon. Hovovoi, lhis vas a voiy slov iocoss suilaLlo
foi inulling only voids oi nunLois. 1oday conulois
can handlo nany diffoionl lyos of inulfion loxl
and sounds lo iadio signals, inagos, oi ovon
a louch. Sono foins of inul conliol lho
conuloi ilsolf, vhilo olhois food dala
inlo iogians foi analysis. Bul fiisl,
all foins of inul dala nood lo Lo
convoilod inlo olocliical signals
lhal a conuloi can iocoss.
COUNTING CARDS
Hoinan Holloiilhs laLulaling nachinos
ionooiod nany of lho iincilos lhal vould laloi
Lo adolod foi conuloi inul syslons. His oiiginal
dovico holod lo analyzo lho dala of lho 1S US consus.
1ho nachino usod an olocliical caid-ioadoi lo liansfoi
infoinalion fion unchod caids lo a soiios of counlois.
ln lhis nachino, lho caids had lo Lo fod in ono Ly ono,
Lul laloi voisions of lho nachino includod aulonalic
caid-foodois, as voll as syslons lo add and suLliacl
dala. Holloiilhs 1aLulaling Machino Conany
laloi Locano lho conuloi gianl lBM.
KEYING IN
1ho QWER1Y loyLoaid is lho nosl
connon inul dovico. Modoin loyLoaids
dovolood fion lho onos foi lyoviilois.
1ho loys in loyLoaids aio nol aiiangod
in alhaLolical oidoi Locauso, in lho fiisl
lyoviilois, lho nochanical loys oasily
jannod if lhoso lhal voio noxl lo oach
olhoi voio lyod in guicl succossion. So,
lho loys voio aiiangod so lhal lollois lhal
aio oflon usod logolhoi aio fai aail.
QWER1Y solls oul lho lollois lhal
aoai fiisl in lho soguonco of loys.
Dia| has tuc hands
and ccuntcd thc
nun|cr cf cards
uith thc sanc
pattcrn cf hc|cs
!|cctrica| card rcadcr
ccntains pins that pass
thrcuh hc|cs in a card
fcd intc it. a||cuin
rcadcr tc rcccni.c
pattcrn cf hc|cs
I|ap cpcns autcnatica||. cn a sina|
frcn thc card rcadcr. sc hunan scrtcr
can drcp card intc ccrrcct s|ct
Caid soiloi
Iincr disrupts
c|cctrica| fic|d at
pcint cf ccntact.
shcun | pca|
cn ncsh
Dislay unil
Disp|a chancs
acccrdin tc
tcuch input
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
1
TOUCH AND TYPE
1ouchscioon lochnology allovs usois
lo inloiacl hysically vilh vhal is shovn
on a scioon. lnsido lho louchscioons of
nany conulois and coll honossuch
as lhis iFhonois a glass layoi coalod vilh
a giid of lhioads lhal conducl olocliicily.
1his giid gonoialos an olocliical fiold. Whon
fingois louch lho scioon, lho olocliical fiold
changos noai lho oinls of conlacl. 1ho giid
is connoclod lo sonsilivo doloclois lhal inoinl
lho localions of lhoso changos, cioaling a na
of lho louch inullho honos conuloi usos
lhis as ils inul dala.
HOW'S THE
WEATHER?
Nol all inul
lo conulois conos
fion oolo. Sono is sonl
diioclly Ly olhoi dovicos, such
as iadiosondos. 1hoso noasuio
voalhoi condilions high aLovo lho giound
and liansnil infoinalion lo voalhoi slalions Ly
noans of iadio signals. A conuloi dovnloads
lhis infoinalion foi sloiago and analysis and usos
il lo gonoialo voalhoi foiocasls. 1ho conuloi
also sloios lho lino, localion, and alliludo al
vhich lho noasuiononls voio nado.
MIGHTY MOUSE
1ho conuloi nouso vas invonlod in 16`lho
fiisl nouso had vhools lo novo ovoi a suifaco. Eaily
nodols usod a iuLLoi Lall Lonoalh lho dovico lo liacl lho
novononl of lho nouso. A nodoin
ono usos olical sonsois lo
dolocl novononl, vhich
is lhon lianslalod inlo
inul signals. 1ho
nouso nado il oasy
foi usois lo navigalo
acioss lho scioon and
solocl diffoionl ilons.
!rctccti.c |acr
cn scrccn
!|cctrica|| charcd
tcuchscrccn ccntains
dctcctcrs that rcad
disrupticn in c|cctrica|
fic|d and dctcrninc
|ccaticn cf tcuch
3a||ccn fi||cd
uith hdrccn
carrics radicscndc
Radicscndc
Wavofoin ioiosonling
hunan sooch
Mcsh is a rcprcscntaticn
cf thc c|cctrica| fic|d
Spi|c in ua.cfcrn rcprcscnts
an instantanccus| |cud scund.
such as a|rupt t' cr p'
JOYSTICKS
Aiilanos usod lho fiisl joyslicls
aLoul a conluiy ago. 1oday,
conulois uso joyslicls foi
naling fasl and accuialo
novononls vilh an on-scioon
cuisoi. Many conuloi ganos
uso lhoso, loo. Sono
joyslicls havo sovoial
Lullons, alloving
nany funclions
lo Lo conliollod
vilh ono hand.
Cianos and
indusliial
assonLly linos also
nalo uso of joyslicls.
RECOGNIZING LANGUAGE
Conulois iocognizo hunan sooch Ly conaiing il vilh
dala sloiod in a dalaLaso. Solon voids havo dislinclivo
alloins of loudnoss and ilch, and a conuloi usos
lhoso alloins lo idonlify voids fion lhoii sounds.
1ho conuloi can lhon convoil lhis audio
inul inlo loxl lhal is dislayod on
lho scioon oi a connand lo
slail an alicalion.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
20
Output
CoxiU+ins Niii oU+iU+ iivicis lo iolay lho iosulls
of lhoii calculalions lo lhoii usois. 1ho iinloi is ono
of lho oailiosl lyos. Fiinlois voio invonlod
Lofoio conuloi scioons and aio slill vidoly
usod. Dislay scioons havo dovolood fion
iinilivo, Lully, nonochiono dislays, lo
lodays full-coloi flal-scioon voisions. 1oday,
conulois aio usod foi nany uiosos and
nany noio linds of oulul dovico aio
availaLlo. Culul dala slails as olocliical
signals liansnillod via viios oi iadio
vavos lo lhoso dovicos, vhich convoil
lho signals inlo lhoii diffoionl final foins.
Rod, gioon, and
Lluo suL-ixols
Scft fcan cc.crs thc
hcadphcnc spca|cr
tc prctcct car
LISTENING IN
Whon a conuloi sonds dala lo a hoadhono,
il nusl fiisl Lo convoilod fion a digilal foin
(in lho foin of Linaiy codo) lo a vaiying alloin
of olocliical signals, vhich ninics lhal of a
sound vavo. ln lho hoadhono, lho olocliical
alloin nalos a nolal lalo, callod a diahiagn,
viLialo, and lhoso viLialions liavol lhiough lho
aii lo lho usois oai in lho foin of sound.
LIGHTING UP
Mosl conuloi scioons in uso loday aio
liguid ciyslal dislays (LCDs). 1ho
olical iooilios of liguid ciyslals
can Lo conliollod Ly olocliical
signals. LCDs conlain lhousands
of liny aioas, callod ixols. Evoiy
ixol is fuilhoi dividod inlo
lhioo suL-ixols. Each suL-ixol
is covoiod vilh a iod, gioon, oi
Lluo filloi. Whon an olocliical
signal caiiying icluio dala
(a slioan of nunLois) is sonl
lo a ailiculai ixol, lho liguid
ciyslal changos lo allov lighl lo
shino lhiough a filloi. 1ho valuos
in lho dala conliol lho suL-ixolsin
lhis caso, lho signal aclivalos lho gioon
suL-ixols alono, ioducing lho
gioon coloi of lho loaf.
Hoadhonos
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
21
PAPER OUTPUT
Chailos BaLLago invonlod lho
fiisl conuloi iinloi noio lhan
a conluiy ago. 1oday, nany linds
aio availaLlo, oach socializod foi
a ailiculai uso. 1his inljol holo
iinloi is dosignod lo iinl inagos
lhal aio dolailod, shai, and Liighlly
coloiod. Bul il is guilo slov and usos
a lol of inl. Lasoi iinlois aio nuch
fasloi Lul noio oxonsivo. Sono
dovicos conLino iinling,
holocoying, and scanning
funclions in a singlo unil. Fiinlois
and olhoi dovicos, such as inago
scannois and soalois, aio
lnovn as oiihoials.
Rcprcducticn cf c|jcct.
nadc | 3-D printcr
3-D diita|
ncdc| cf c|jcct
Criina| c|jcct
G|css papcr na|cs
inac appcar |rihtcr
^a.iaticn |c
Spca|cr prc.idcs
audic cutput
3rai||c cutput tcrnina|
Icns fccuscs
|cans cf |iht
PRINTING IN DEPTH
Cidinaiy iinlois oulul dala
on flal shools of aoi, Lul `-D
iinlois oulul solid oLjocls.
Usois can oilhoi nalo shaos
lhal aio dosignod on-scioon, oi
iinl `-D coios of ioal oLjocls
lhal havo Loon scannod in `-D
lo cioalo `-D digilal nodols.
1o do lhis, a lasoi fiisl scans
an oLjocl lo doloinino ils shao
accuialoly. A conuloi iogian
ioconsliucls lhis dala inlo a
digilal nodol and convoils il
inlo lhin slicos. linally, a `-D
iinloi oululs lhoso slicos
in lho foin of shaod laslic
shools, laid on lo of oach
olhoi and slucl logolhoi.
TEA TIME?
A conuloi oflon usos soclols loinod univoisal
soiial Lus (USB) lo novo oi coy dala lo and fion
iinlois and olhoi oiihoial dovicos. ln addilion lo
liansfoiiing dala, a conuloi can uso lhoso soclols
lo ovoi dovicos. 1hoso can Lo snall ioading lighls,
cooling fans, oi ovon novolly dovicos, such as lhis
loa vainoi. Hovovoi, sinco USBs suly only
2.5 valls of ovoi (an olocliic lolllo usos 1,
linos noio ovoi), lho vaining offocl is snall.
PROJECTED DATA
Fiojoclois convoil lho flicloiing
alloins of lighl lhal nalo u lho
oulul on a dislay scioon inlo Loans
of lighl lhal can Lo iojoclod onlo any
suifaco, such as a vall. 1hoio aio nany
lyos of conuloi iojoclois, Lul nosl
of lhon aio Lasod on LCD lochnology.
Fiojoclois aio Liighloi lhan conuloi
dislay scioons and havo a lons lo
focus lho inagos shaily.
BiailloNolo Aox
Wirc
ccnnccts tc
US3 scc|ct
cn ccnputcr
TOUCH AND READ
1ho BiailloNolo Aox is an oxanlo of an oulul dovico foi
oolo vho aio visually inaiiod Lul can ioad an alhaLol
callod Biaillo. 1his alhaLol consisls of alloins of Luns,
oach alloin Loing a diffoionl chaiacloi. Roadois liaco lhoii
fingois ovoi lhoso Luns lo iocognizo lho chaiaclois. Rods
insido lho dislay loininal of lhis Biaillo dovico ioss u
againsl lho sofl suifaco lo cioalo Biaillo chaiaclois. Hovovoi,
ialhoi lhan Loing oinanonl lilo lhoso in a iinlod Lool,
lho alloins chango iaidly, ioviding lho usoi vilh a flov
of loxl, nuch lilo a conuloi scioon. Eighl lhunL-sizod
Lullons allov lho usoi lo accoss nonus and filos. 1his
Biaillo dovico can also iovido sound via soalois,
offoiing anolhoi lyo of oulul lo lho usoi.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
22
Inox oUiiiNo xiii+.nv i+s lhiough sloo divos lo
iodicling a iiso in iicos on lho slocl nailol, conulois
aio al voil ovoiyvhoio. Conulois can oifoin nany lasls
noio accuialoly and officionlly lhan hunans can. 1hoy can
Lo iogiannod lo sloio and iocoss laigo anounls of dala
and lhoy hol sloioovnois lo loo liacl of lhoii slocl. ln
nany counliios, oolo Luy and soll goods nol vilh aoi
nonoy, Lul Ly lolling conulois lo insliucl Lanls lo
liansfoi nonoy acioss conuloi nolvoils. Conulois
can also liacl voalhoi alloins and can sonolinos iodicl
voalhoi condilionsvilh hil-and-niss succoss!
Computers at work
FETCHING AND CARRYING
1his ioLol has liavolod dovn ils
liacl lo a socific localion in an
innonso sloiago facilily lo ioliiovo
dala on a cailiidgo of nagnolic
lao. Hov doos il lnov vhoio lo
go` ll is connoclod lo a conuloi
conlaining a dalaLaso of onliios
caiiying lho hysical localions of
oach cailiidgo in lho vaiohouso.
Usois nooding lho dala nalo ioguosls
lo lho conuloi, vhich insliucls
lho ioLol aulonalically. Banls
of dala lilo lhis can Luild u in
aichivos of iosoaich facililios,
such as ailiclo accoloialois
(soo ago `1). Hovovoi, ioLols
and dalaLasos can Lo usod
in any laigo vaiohouso
lo ioliiovo anylhing
lhal is sloiod lhoio.
RoLol voiling in
conuloi filo ioon
Rc|ctic hand. cr
cnd-cffcctcr.' is
spccia|| dcsincd
fcr raspin fi|cs
!i|ct ccntrc|s aircraft
usin a ccnputcr
ccnncctcd tc scnscrs
in aircraft
jcint a||cus
rc|ct tc rcach thc
rcuircd pcsiticn
Scrics cf ccnputcr scrccns disp|a
stcc| priccs acrcss thc |c|c
SHARE TRADING
ln a slocl nailol, oolo Luy and soll shaios in conanios. Unlil
lho 1Ss, shaio liading vas dono faco-lo-faco on lho Lusy liading
floois of slocl nailols. Bul nov, alnosl all shaio liansaclions lalo
laco ovoi conuloi nolvoils. Conulois also analyzo slocl
nailol dala, ioviding infoinalion on lho iico of shaios foi
liadois lo docido vhal lo Luy and vhon lo soll.
Jol oifoining a
ioll nanouvoi
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
23
FLYBYWIRE
1o achiovo lhis slunl,
onginoois havo nado
lhis l/A-1S Hoinol jol
fighloi so unslaLlo lhal
a hunan ilol could nol
conliol il. 1his nalos il noio
nanouvoiaLlo, Lul il noods
a conuloi lo loo il flying.
1ho conuloi iocoivos inul fion
nolion sonsois. ll iosonds guiclly
lo uso lhis dala lo slaLilizo lho aiiciafl,
fiooing lho ilol lo conconlialo on
lighl luins and iolls. 1ho ilols
joyslicl sonds ils novononls as dala
lo lho conuloi, vhich liansfois il lo
lho conliol suifacos (iuddoi, flas, and
ailoions) Ly olocliical viios, giving lhis
lochnology lho nano fly-Ly-viio.
Mosl nodoin jol fighlois and aiilinois
nov uso fly-Ly-viio.
LANDING AT SEA
lion his osilion on an aiiciafl caiiioi al soa, an aii
liaffic conliolloi usos a conuloi lo noniloi lho shis
72 aiiciafl. 1ho conulois inul conos fion a iadai
dovico lhal liacls lho aiiciafls novononls. ll usos lhis
lo dislay a na of aiiciafl osilions on ils scioon. A
dalaLaso iovidos dolailod Laclgiound infoinalion
aLoul lho aiiciafl, lhoii 115 ilols, and lhoii nissions,
and vhilo in lho aii, oach lano nay Lo laggod vilh
dala, such as ils idonlificalion, sood, and hoading.
1ho conliolloi usos all lhis dala lo nalo suio lho
aiiciafl aio alvays al safo dislancos and lhal lhoio is
saco foi lhon lo land on lho caiiioi. 1ho conuloi
also iocoivos dala fion voalhoi slalions lhal allovs
lho conliolloi lo vain ilols of aioaching sloins.
Yc||cu ||ip cn radar scrccn
rcprcscnts an aircraft
I|apcrcn cn uin
is ccntrc||cd | thc
ccnputcr tc |an|
thc aircraft fcr
chanin dirccticn
3ar ccdc rcadcr uscs a |ascr
tc scan |ar ccdc data.
uhich is thcn natchcd
aainst a data|asc
TAKING STOCK
A Lolllo of oiango juico, lilo nosl
ilons on salo in a suoinailol, has
a conuloi-ioadaLlo Lai codo lhal is
uniguo lo il. 1hoso Lai codos idonlify
oach ilon and allov lho suoinailols
conuloi syslon lo loo liacl of all of
ils slocl, fion vhon il is Loughl unlil
lho nononl il is sold. 1hoso syslons
nol only indicalo vhon sulios aio
iunning lov, Lul lhoy also chocl
lhal lho goods havo nol assod lhoii
soll-Ly dalos and calculalo iofil, loo.
STORM WARNING
ln 25, a conuloi gonoialod lhis voalhoi na using
salollilo inagos of Huiiicano Rila. Conulois lhal foiocasl
lho voalhoi iocoss a vasl anounl of dala fion nullilo
souicos, such as salollilos and voalhoi slalions. Using
conlox nalhonalical ogualions Lasod on hov lho
alnoshoio Lohavos, lhoso conulois gonoialo a lisl of
ossiLlo voalhoi foiocasls. Allhough lhoy aio ovoiful,
lhoso conulois cannol judgo vhon lhoy havo gollon il viong.
Hunan voalhoi foiocaslois nood lo slo in and uso
connon sonso lo chooso vhich of lho aulonalic
voalhoi foiocasls is lho nosl liloly.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
24
Computers all around us
IN nion-+icn socii+iis, coxiU+ins .iiic+ ivinv .siic+ of oolos
livos Lul oflon go unnolicod, voiling Lohind lho sconos. Conulois nol
only onsuio lhal ovoi lanls suly ovoi lo honos, Lul lhoy also
noniloi and conliol indusliial oulul and liaffic flov. Sono aio no noio
lhan liny nicioiocossois Luill inlo gadgols, vohiclos, and housohold
aliancos. 1hoso aio callod onLoddod conulois and oach ono is
dosignod lo caiiy oul a socific funclion voiy officionlly. Eloclionic
dovicos lhal conlain onLoddod conulois, such as suivoillanco
canoias, niciochi idonlificalion lags, oi A1Ms, aio usually linlod
lo a noio ovoiful conuloi lhal voils lo conliol and cooidinalo
lho ooialions of lhon all.
Scans of a assongoi
BABY WATCH
ln sono counliios, conulois loo liacl of
oolo fion lho day lhoy aio Loin. 1ho
conuloiizod lag on lhis novLoin LaLys log
conlains dala aLoul lho LaLy, such as ils
dalo of Liilh, voighl, and lho nanos of
ils aionls. 1o iolocl il fion lho iisls
of lidnaing oi nislacononl, a
niciochi inslallod on lho lag can localo
lho LaLy using a liacling syslon. Sinilai
niciochis can also hol localo ol dogs
and cals lhal havo sliayod fion hono.
CAUGHT ON CAMERA
1his suivoillanco canoia has an
onLoddod conuloi lhal aulonalically
novos il lo liacl vohiclos oi oolo
ciossing lho canoias fiold of viov.
Aulhoiilios uso lhoso canoias lo noniloi
ciovds oi liaffic oi lo valch foi ciininal
aclivily. A nolvoil of lhoso canoias can
hol liacl slolon vohiclos oi ovon chocl
if lho diivoi has aid a loll (foo) lo uso
lho ioad. 1ho conuloi idonlifios oach
cai Ly ils liconso laloioading lho
chaiaclois Ly alloin iocognilion. ll
lhon chocls vilh a dalaLaso lo soo
if lho diivoi has aid lho foo. ln lho
fuluio, lho canoias conuloi could
ovon Lo linlod lo a dalaLaso of lho facos
of lnovn ciininals and could aloil lho
aulhoiilios if il calchos inagos of ono.
SCANNING FOR SAFETY
Safoly is a Lig concoin loday, osocially duiing aii
liavol. Many aiioils ioguiio lhal all liavolois Lo
soaichod. A vholo-Lody scannoi is a guicl vay of
doing lhis. ll usos iadio vavos lhal ass lhiough
clolhing Lul ioflocl off lho Lody and sono oLjocls
lhal lho liavoloi nay Lo caiiying. Diffoionl naloiials
aLsoiL and ioflocl iadio vavos in diffoionl vays
and can Lo lold aail. 1ho conuloi in lho Loolh
noasuios lho iofloclod vavos lo Luild an inago
fion lho scan. ll iocossos lho dala and lhon
highlighls susicious oLjocls foi invosligalion,
as shovn Ly lho yollov LloL suoiinosod on
lo of a slandaid inago of a hunan Loing.
Suspicicus c|jcct is
nar|cd as c||cu
||c| | ccnputcr
Disp|a shcus tcta|
distancc tra.c|cd
Ccntrc| fcr
audic sstcn
Disp|a
shcus
spccd
Disp|a shcus
fuc| status
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
LOOPING THE LOOP
Anusononl ail iidos havo lo Lo safo as
voll as scaiy, and conulois nalo suio
lhoy aio. Cn iolloi coaslois, sonsois
allachod lo lho liacls noniloi lho
localion of all cais, onaLling
lho iidos conulois lo aclivalo
onoigoncy Lialos if a
Lioaldovn loads lo
lho iisl of a collision.
Conulois also hol
dosign and losl
nov iidos.
CASH ON DEMAND
Bofoio aulonalod lolloi nachinos (A1Ms) voio
inlioducod in lho 16s, oolo could only vilhdiav
nonoy Ly going lo Lanls oi osl officos al ailiculai
linos of day and vailing in long linos. Nov nonoy is
availaLlo al any lino al nany noio lacos. Evoiy A1M
conlains a conuloi lhal is linlod lo a Lanls conlial
conuloi. 1ho nachino liacls lho anounl of nonoy
vilhdiavn Ly a usoi and aulonalically udalos lho
usois Lanl accounl. 1ho conuloi can also oxchango
cuiioncios foi usois if lhoy vilhdiav nonoy in lacos
vilh diffoionl cuiioncios lhan lhoii Lanl accounls.
TOYING WITH COMPUTERS
liisl launchod in 17, Big 1ial is slill availaLlo,
naling il lho voilds oldosl conuloiizod loy.
ll can Lo iogiannod lo novo a coilain dislanco,
fiio ils voaons, and lhon ioluin lo ils oiiginal
localion. Many loys loday conlain onLoddod
conulois lhal allov lho loys lo iosond
lo a solon voico, louch, oi lighl.
DIGITAL DRIVING
1his dashLoaid of a Honda lnsighl cai
is aclod vilh conuloi dislays lhal
iovido dala fion diffoionl syslons.
Modoin cais can havo noio lhan 5
onLoddod conulois, vhich conliol
nosl of lho cais syslons, including
lho Lialos and lhiolllo. Conulois
fino-luno lho ongino fion socond
lo socond, naling il iun as
officionlly as ossiLlo.
Ccntrc| fcr
rcu|atin
tcnpcraturc
1rac| has suitchcs
and |ra|cs that
arc ccntrc||cd
| ccnputcrs
^a.iaticn disp|a
uscs infcrnaticn
frcn G!S tc instruct
thc dri.cr hcu tc
rcach dcstinaticn
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
26
Gadgets on the go
Tnini .ni Ni.niv .s x.Nv ciii inoNis in lho voild
loday as lhoio aio oolo. ln lho lalo 2lh conluiy, snall,
choa conulois iovolulionizod lho voild of gadgols, naling
lhon noio ovoiful and voisalilo. 1hoso gadgols had a vido
iango of alicalionsMF` layois layod nusic on lho novo,
salollilo navigalion dovicos holod oolo find lhoii vay, and
coll honos Locano snail, onaLling oolo lo uso lhon as
oclol conulois. Cadgols Locano oulai, so nanufacluiois
Logan lo find vays of ioducing lhon choaly lo nool lhis
donand. 1oday, noio and noio gadgols of nany linds can
accoss lho lnloinol (soo agos 4445), sonding and iocoiving
infoinalion all ovoi lho voild in soconds.
1apc casscttc
TABLET COMPUTERS
FoilaLlo dovicos vilh louch-sonsilivo
scioons (soo agos 1S1) onoigod
in 21 as a nov lyo of gadgola
laLlol conuloi. A laLlol conuloi can
dislay a loyLoaid if noodod. loi olhoi
lasls, usois can also uso a on-shaod
insliunonl callod a slylus. Bul foi nosl
lasls, usois jusl uso lhoii fingois. Sono
laLlol conulois, such as lho Alo iFad,
iogisloi nullilo louchos al lho sano lino.
Mullilouch lochnology nalos il oasy
foi lho usoi lo givo inul connands. loi
oxanlo, lvo fingois can Lo lacod closo
logolhoi on an inago on lho scioon and
lhon diavn aail. 1ho conuloi inloiiols
lhis aclion as a zoon connand and
nagnifios lho inago. 1ho iFad
is dosignod lo voil Lolh as
a oisonal conuloi and a
nodia dovicodislaying
novios, holos, and o-Lools.
WHERE ARE YOU?
Many conuloiizod
gadgols conlain
iocoivois lhal can accoss
lho gloLal osilioning
syslon (CFS), including
laLlol conulois, coll
honos, and digilal valchos.
CFS usos a giou of salollilos
in Eailh oiLil, oach of vhich
Lioadcasls a voiy accuialo lino
signal using iadio vavos. A CFS dovico
iocoivos lhoso signals and usos lho lining
infoinalion lhoy caiiy lo calculalo ils
oxacl osilion. ln ioalily, an oxlia fouilh
salollilo signal is noodod lo hol lho
CFS iocoivoi chocl ils ovn clocl.
MUSIC WHILE YOU WALK
1ho Sony Wallnan vas a oulai nusic
layoi in lho 1Ss. ll usod lao cassollos
and lol oolo lislon lo nusic anyvhoio.
1odays MF` layois sloio nusic as digilal
dala on flash diivos (soo ago 17). Unlilo
laos lhal nood lo Lo vound lo lho coiiocl
sol, flash diivos can dolivoi any liacl lho
usoi dosiios and can sloio lhousands of
songs and iocos. 1ho dovicos lay
MF` filos, vhoso dala has Loon
coniossod so lhal il occuios
only ono-lonlh of lho saco of
iav sound dala. MF` layois
ioduco highoi gualily
sound Locauso sloiing
nusic digilally olininalos
noiso, hoaid as lao
hiss on Wallnans.
!ccn fcr an
app|icaticn
Salollilo 1
Sina| frcn first satc||itc hc|ps
ca|cu|atc tinc diffcrcncc
|ctuccn satc||itc and
G!S rccci.cr. uhich
dctcrnincs that
thc uscr nust |c
scncuhcrc cn thc
rccn dcttcd |inc
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
27
184
Moloiola
Dyna1AC
SX
Salollilo 2
Salollilo `
182
Nolia
MoLiia
Sonaloi
187
Nolia
MoLiia
Cilynan
1t
Moloiola
Slai1ac
2002
Nolia
6`1i
200
BlaclBoiiy
72
2007
Alo
iFhono
1hc ncar futurc
Nolia Moih
concol hono
GOING MOBILE
lov oolo lool coll honos soiiously vhon lhoy fiisl aoaiod in lho 17s.
1hoy voio laigo, hoavy, and had shoil Lalloiy livosand naling calls on lhon
vas oxonsivo and nol voiy ioliaLlo. Sinco lhon, coll honos havo Locono a
gloLal honononon and noio lhan half lho voilds oulalion has al loasl
ono. Eaily noLilo honos had voiy lilllo conuloi ovoi, Lul duiing lho
2s, naling hono calls on lho novo Locano only a liny oiconlago of
lho dovicos caaLilily. 1odays snail hono is a oclol conuloi vilh
lnloinol accoss, canoia, and nusic layoi, Lul il also haons lo Lo a hono!
COMPUTERS ON YOUR WRIST
1ho liny conulois onLoddod in
digilal valchos havo liansfoinod
lhon fion sinlo linolooois lo
gadgols lhal includo calculalois,
vidoo ganos, MF` layois, and
digilal canoias. Soon, sono
viislvalch-sizod dovicos vill Lo
liuo conulois, collocling dala fion
lhoii suiioundings oi fion olhoi
dovicos and conulois, oi conliolling
ionolo syslons Ly Wi-li (soo ago 4`).
SAY CHEESE!
1ho lonsos in digilal canoias
focus inconing lighl on lo a sonsoi
lhal convoils il inlo olocliical signals. A
conuloi lhon convoils lhoso signals inlo
digilal inagos. ln a digilal canoia, lho inagos
can Lo odilod oi dololod and liansfoiiod oasily fion
lho canoia lo conulois oi olhoi dovicos. 1housands
can Lo sloiod on lho canoia ilsolfusually on a
flash nonoiy caid.
SHOWING THE WAY
Salollilo navigalion (sal-nav)
dovicos aio oclol-sizod
conulois vilh a CFS iocoivoi.
1hoy iovido a na of lho
local aioa conloiod on lho
usois osilion. 1hoy do lhis
Ly using CFS lo doloinino
lho usois localion on Eailhs
suifaco. ln addilion, lhoy
can voil oul ioulos lo
iogiannod-in doslinalions.
Sal-navs caiiy oul conlox
calculalions vhon voiling
oul lho shoilosl ioulo Lolvoon
lvo lacos. 1hoy can also vain
usois of uconing liaffic ioLlons.
Sina| frcn scccnd satc||itc
narrcus dcun uscrs |ccaticn
tc cnc cf thc p|accs uhcrc thc
||uc and rcd dcttcd |incs ncct
ICD scrccn
disp|as
thc inac
a|ncst instant|
just cnc ccntrc| is uscd tc
disp|a and .ccn in cn
stcrcd phctcs. and tc sc|cct
frcn ncnus cf cpticns
Uscrs |ccaticn is dctcrnincd usin
sina| frcn third satc||itc as thc p|acc
uhcrc thc thrcc dcttcd |incs ncct
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
28
THE FIRST APPLE
1ho Alo 1 hono conuloi lools iinilivo
loday, Lul vhon il vas launchod in 176, il vas
a Lioallhiough in nany vays. loi ono lhing,
lhoso Alo conulois voio sold as conlolo
ciicuil Loaids, vhich noodod only a scioon
and loyLoaid lo Lo addod. Many usois
Luill lhoii ovn casos foi lho Alo 1 and
connoclod cassollo layois lo sloio iogians.
1ho conulois could also Lo iogiannod
in BASlC, a conuloi languago lhal vas
nuch noio lilo English lhan lho nachino
codos lhal oailioi hono conulois usod.
VALLEY OF COMPUTERS
Many of lho voilds laigosl conuloi and
infoinalion lochnology (l1) conanios aio
Lasod in a singlo valloy noai San liancisco,
Califoinia. Nov lochnology has Loon
dovolood hoio sinco lho lalo 1lh conluiy,
laigoly duo lo lho voil of iosoaichois al
Slanfoid Univoisily. Sinco lho 17s, nany
conuloi ionoois havo voilod hoio,
including Slovo Woznial and Slovo JoLs,
vho slailod lho conany callod Alo lnc.,
vhich vas ono of nany lhal Logan naling
conulois. Al lhal lino oolo gavo il lho
nano Silicon Valloy, afloi lho silicon lhal
vonl inlo naling conulois niciochis.
Majoi conanios al
Silicon Valloy:
1. You1uLo
2. Ciaclo
`. lacoLool
4. Mozilla
5. Cooglo
6. Hovloll Faclaid
7. Yahoo
S. AMD
. Asus
1. lnlol
11. Nvidia
12. AdoLo
1`. oBay
14. Alo lnc.
15. Synanloc
16. Quanlun Coioialion
17. Aliod Maloiials lnc.
1S. Soagalo 1ochnology
1. SanDisl
2. Nalional Soniconducloi
Slanfoid Univoisily
Making computers
E.niv coxiU+ins wini n.Ni-nUii+, consliuclod ono
al a lino, and so oxonsivo lhal only govoinnonls oi hugo
conanios could affoid lhon. Conulois foi oisonal uso
had lo Lo assonLlod al hono and, foi a long lino, ionainod
nainly a hoLLy. 1odays conulois aio Luill iaidly on
aulonalod ioduclion linoslaigoly Ly ioLolsand in
hugo nunLois, vhich is vhy lhoso conlicalod dovicos
aio so affoidaLlo nov. Conulois sloio and iocoss dala on
niciochis, vhich aio oloclionic ciicuils nado Ly doosiling
chonical layoisin caiofully olchod alloinson iocos
of silicon. Miciochis aio nuch loss dolicalo lhan oldoi
conononls such as valvos, and so lodays conulois
aio also fai noio ioliaLlo and sluidioi lhan ovoi.
MAKE YOUR OWN COMPUTER
1ho Mail-S vas a hononado conuloi Luill
in 17` Ly lho Anoiican sludonl Jon 1ilus. Al
fiisl, ho found il difficull lo gonoialo nuch inloiosl
in his nachino, Lul afloi ho dononslialod il lo
lho uLlishois of Radic-!|cctrcnics nagazino, lhoy
agiood lo foaluio il in lhoii July 174 issuo. 1ho
Mail-S vas advoilisod as a DlY (Do-ll-Youisolf)
iojocl. 1ilus suliod lho nicioiocossoi on
a ciicuil Loaid, Lul usois had lo Luy all lho
olhoi oloclionics and ails soaialoly.
Wccdcn casc addcd
| uscr
Ccnncctcr fcr
1V disp|a
!cucr ccnncctcr
Ic|card addcd
| uscr
`
6
4
5
2
1

12
1`
S
7
2
17
14
15
1
1S 1
16
11
United States
of Anerica
San
liancisco
Cutcut tit|c uas a
pcrscna| tcuch addcd
| this App|cs cuncr
C|ip hc|d
disp|a ncnitcr
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
HANDBUILT BY ROBOTS
1his indusliial ioLol is nanufacluiing
ciicuil Loaids in an aulonalod facloiy
in Sooul, Soulh Koioa. 1ho uso of
ioLols is ossonlial lo lho ioduclion
of conulois loday. Nol only do
ioLols Luild conulois fasloi, Lul
lhoy also voil noio accuialoly lhan
hunans. Fiogiannod insliuclions
onsuio lhal lho ioLol lacos lho
conononls on lho ciicuil Loaids
iocisoly. 1hough voiy oxonsivo
lo inslall and sol u, ioLolic
ioduclion linos aio noio
officionl and choaoi lo iun
lhan lhoso onloying
hunan voilois. BUILDING MICROCHIPS
Miciochis aio hysically liny and nado fion
naloiials lhal aio chonically oxlonoly uio. Evon
voiy snall anounls of unvanlod chonicals oi
singlo giains of dusl can iovonl lhon fion
voiling iooily. Miciochis aio Luill
in chanLois callod cloan ioons,
vhoio lho aii is caiofully filloiod
and choclod lo onsuio il has
voiy lov lovols of dusl and
chonical vaois. 1ho voilois
voai social clolhos such as
covoialls, nasls, and glovos
lo onsuio lhoy do nol inlioduco
conlaninalion lhonsolvos.
TINY GEARS
MicioEloclioMochanical Syslons
(MEMS) aio nicionachinos
Luill on silicon chis and
aio usually loss lhan .4 in
(1 nn) acioss. 1hoy aio
nado Ly lho sano iocossos
usod lo Luild nicioiocossois
and olhoi iinlod ciicuil
olononls. Micioscoic
cogs, nagnifiod hoio
on a hunan aln, foin
ail of sono MEMS
dovicos. 1hoso aio usod in
lho accoloionolois lhal loll
snail honos vhich vay u
lhoy aio, and in cai aiiLags.
Circuit |card Rc|ctic arn p|accs
ccnpcncnt at thc
ccrrcct |ccaticn
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
30
Supercomputers
IN +ni i.niv vi.ns oi coxiU+iNo, alnosl
ovoiy nachino vas fasloi and noio ovoiful
lhan lhoso lhal oxislod Lofoio. By lho 16s,
oolo voio Luilding conulois of nany
linds, vilh chaiacloiislics lhal vaiious
usois vanlodchoanoss, conaclnoss,
ioliaLilily, oi high sood. lion
lhon on, lho conulois lhal
voio dosignod foi lho highosl
ossiLlo soods Locano
lnovn as suoiconulois.
1ho hiaso suoi conuling
vas coinod long Lofoio lho
fiisl oloclionic conulois
voio nadoil vas fiisl
usod in 12 Ly lho ^cu
Ycr| Wcr|d novsaoi
lo dosciiLo laLulaling
nachinos nado Ly lBM
foi ColunLia Univoisily.
SUPERCOMPUTER OR NOT?
Nol ovoiy laigo and fasl conuloi
is a suoiconuloi. 1ho oolo
soon hoio aio voiling in lho conliol
ioon of a lBM `6 conuloi (Luill
1647S), vhich is a nainfiano
ono of a class of nachinos lhal nany
usois can connocl lo via loininals.
A nainfiano can oifoin nany
ooialions al lho sano lino,
as donandod Ly ils usois. A
suoiconuloi, in conliasl, can
handlo a laigo anounl of dala
lo caiiy oul a singlo conlox
nalhonalical lasl al a lino.
TOP OF THE LEAGUE
1his Ciay Jaguai Locano lho faslosl suoiconuloi in lho
voild in NovonLoi 2. 1ho Ciay Coioialion Luill il foi
lho Cal Ridgo Nalional LaLoialoiy in lho US. Scionlisls uso
il foi iosoaich in nany aioas of scionco, including alloinalivo
onoigy, aslionony, clinalo chango, and nucloai fusion. 1ho Ciay
Jaguai has Loon ugiadod nany linos sinco il vas inslallod in
25, and is nov 75 linos fasloi lhan il vas al lho slailcaaLlo
of oifoining ovoi 2 guadiillion calculalions oi socond.
Anazingly, il housos aiound 45, nicioiocossois!
!ninccr uscs
an infrarcd
.icucr tc scarch
fcr c.crhcatin
in a Cra
supcrccnputcr
SHAPED FOR SPEED
ln lho 17s and 1Ss, lho Ciay Coioialion in lho US
Luill nany suoiconulois lhal voio lho faslosl in lho voild
al lho lino. Many of lhoso voio cylindiicalsuch as lhis Ciay
1-S suoiconuloi dovolood in 17in oidoi lo ioduco
lho longlhs of lho connoclois Lolvoon diffoionl ciicuils. 1his
noanl lhal signals liavolod Lolvoon lho ciicuils as guiclly
as ossiLlo. ll also gavo Ciay suoiconulois an iconic
aoaianco lhal has alvays Loon a ail of lhoii aoal.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Vocloi iocossing DisliiLulod nonoiy iocossing
MADE TO ORDER
Unlilo hono conulois, nosl
suoiconulois loday aio socially
Luill foi socific cuslonois and aio oflon
dosignod lo oifoin ono ailiculai lasl.
1hoso lasls alnosl alvays involvo a gioal
doal of nunLoi ciunchingiunning
conlox nalhonalical calculalions on
onoinous sols of dala. Suoiconuloi
soods aio noasuiod in floaling oinl
ooialions oi socond (lLCFS). A floaling-
oinl ooialion is a sinlo ioLlon vilh
docinals. 1odays suoiconulois havo
soods of sovoial olalLCFSono
olalLCF is 1 guadiillion lLCFS.
THINKING FAST
Whilo oidinaiy CFUs iocoss nunLois ono Ly ono, suoiconulois
iocoss dala nuch fasloi Ly choing u a Lig lasl inlo chunls of dala
lo Lo iocossod al lho sano lino. 1hoy usually do lhis in ono of lvo
vaysvocloi iocossing oi disliiLulod nonoiy iocossing. Vocloi
iocossois iun lhoii iogian on nany chunls of dala al onco, alying
oach slo of lho iogian in soguonco. ln disliiLulod nonoiy iocossing,
sovoial FC-lilo nachinos callod nodos voil logolhoi on lho sano lasl,
oach nodo iunning a conlolo iogian on a laigoi chunl of dala. 1hoy
aio cooidinalod via high-sood connoclions so lhal logolhoi
lhoy conlolo lho vholo lasl. 1oday, nosl
suoiconulois uso disliiLulod nonoiy,
vhoioas ullia-fasl giahics chis
uso vocloi iocossing.
CHECKMATE
Eaily valvo-Lasod conulois could lay
choss, Lul il vas nany docados Lofoio
lho Losl soflvaio and lho nosl advancod
conulois could Loal lho lo hunan
layoi. 1his finally haonod in 17,
vhon lho suoiconuloi Doo Bluo
dofoalod choss chanion Caiy Kasaiov.
SMOOTH TRAVEL
Enginoois uso suoiconulois lo dosign
officionl cais. 1ho conulois iodicl hov
lho shaos of lho cais vill affocl lho diag
causod Ly lho aii lhal flovs ovoi lhon
vhon lhoy novo. 1his hols onginoois lo
undoisland hov lo ioduco diag as nuch as
ossiLlo, in oidoi lo cul fuol consunlion.
PROBING MATTER
Nucloai hysicisls cioalo iociso
sinulalions insido suoiconulois of
hov nalloi Lohavos al a scalo snalloi
lhan an alon. 1ho suoiconuloi calculalos
vhal haons, accoiding lo lhooiy, vhon
suLalonic ailiclos collido. 1ho hysicisls
conaio lhis lo lhoii oxoiinonls vilh
ioal ailiclos in ailiclo accoloialois.
^cdc. a !C-|i|c dc.icc uith
prcccsscrs and ncncr. runs a
ccnp|ctc prcran cn a chun| cf data
Chun| cf data
uithin ncdc
Hih-spccd nctucr| ccnnccticn
tc sharc data if rcuircd
Micrcprcccsscr carrics cut .cctcr
prcccssin-| pcrfcrnin cnc
stcp cf a prcran cn nan
chun|s cf data at cncc
Chun| cf
data uithin
nicrcprcccsscr
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
32
Software
OPERATING SYSTEM
1ho soflvaio lhal conliols lho conulois
Lasic funclions is callod ils ooialing syslon
(CS). ll is lho nasloi soflvaio, conliolling
hov all olhoi iunning soflvaio usos
lho iocossing ovoi of lho CFU and lho
conulois nonoiy. ll is lol in lho RAM
and iun Ly lho CFU vhonovoi lho conuloi
is on. 1ho CS also conliols inul and oulul.
ll inloiiols lho noaning of lho loys iossod
on lho loyLoaid and lho clicls on lho
nouso, lianslaling lhon inlo signals lhal
iogians can uso. Sinco lho oaily 1Ss,
ooialing syslons havo connunicalod vilh
lhoii hunan usois lhiough a giahical usoi
inloifaco (CUl). Miciosofl Windovs is lho
nosl vidoly usod CS soiios lodaylho CUl
hoio Lolongs lo Windovs 7.
ORGANIZING DATA
Conuloi usois sloio dala in Llocls callod filos.
lilos aio oflon giouod logolhoi inlo foldois, oi
diiocloiios, lo nalo finding lhon oasioi. 1ho icon
soon aLovo ioiosonls a foldoi in Windovs 7lho
diiocloiy icon is nodifiod lo shov lho linds of filo il
conlains. Diffoionl lyos of filos can Lo dislinguishod
Ly lho lasl fov lollois of lhoii nanoslhoii filo
oxlonsion. Exlonsions aio usod Ly lho CS lo solocl
iolovanl alicalions lo oon diffoionl filos. A filo
lhal onds vilh .vav oi .n`, foi inslanco, is
a lyo of audio filo, vhilo .Ln, .jg, oi .gif
aio oxlonsions of diffoionl inago filos.
SURFING THE WEB
Whon usois nood lo accoss infoinalion on lho
lnloinol (soo agos 4445), lhoy uso iogians callod
voL Liovsois lhal allov lhon lo soaich oi suif
lho voL. Whon accossing a voL ago, lho Liovsoi
sonds a ioguosl foi lho ago and lhon dislays lho
dala il iocoivos. 1his is lho logo of Mozilla liiofox,
a voL Liovsoi socond only lo lnloinol Exloioi in
oulaiily. liiofox is an oxanlo of fioovaioa lyo
of soflvaio lhal can Lo usod vilhoul aying a foo.
liiofox is nol lho oiiginal nano of lho Liovsoiil
vas ioviously callod Fhoonix and lhon liioLiid, Lul
Lolh nanos had alioady Loon usod foi olhoi soflvaio.
Mozilla liiofox logo
1as| Manacr
app|icaticn
shcus hcu C!U
is |cin uscd and
hcu |us it is
Tni wiicoxi' scniiN +n.+ iois Ui vhon sonoono svilchos on
a conuloi vould nol aoai vilhoul soflvaio. Soflvaio iofois lo lho
sols of codod insliuclionsiogiansand lho dala lhal lhoy nood.
1his is diffoionl fion haidvaio, vhich is a conulois ciicuiliy, casing,
and lho iosl of ils hysical
ails. Mosl oolo uso
soflvaio lhiough a
giahical usoi inloifaco
(CUl) vilh dio-dovn
nonus, vindovs, and a
novoaLlo oinloi. 1ho
CUl acls as a visual aiona
vhoio lho usoi inloiacls
vilh lho conuloi.
App|icaticns
currcnt|
runnin arc
disp|acd cn
thc scrccn
1as||ar iccn rcprcscnts
app|icaticn that is runnin
Start |uttcn
i.cs acccss tc a
ncnu that |ists
a|| app|icaticns
!cintcr is ccntrc||cd | thc ncusc. and
its pcsiticn |cts thc uscr |ncu uhcn
tc c|ic| thc ncusc tc sc|cct an cpticn
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
33
SECURING YOUR SYSTEM
Conulois, osocially lhoso
connoclod lo lho lnloinol,
aio vulnoiaLlo lo a vido
iango of socuiily lhioals,
including viiusos and
voins (soo ago 4).
Social soflvaio is
ossonlial lo iolocl
conulois, lho dala
lhoy conlain, and
lhoii usois. liiovalls
and anliviius iogians
(soo ago 51) hol usois
dofond lhonsolvos againsl
conuloi-Loino lhioals.
MEDIA CENTERS
Usois oflon iun iogians such
as i1unos and Winan lo
lay nusicnainly of lho
coniossod .n` filo lyo.
1o Lo usoful, a nodia layoi
has lo Lo aLlo lo iun nany
vidoo filo lyos, including
high-dofinilion (HD) vidoo,
vhich is of high gualily and
highly coniossodlo savo
saco. Many of lhoso iogians
allov usois lo uichaso and
dovnload audio and vidoo conlonl
fion sloios on lho lnloinol.
WORKING HARD
Many lyos of soflvaio havo dovolood nainly foi uso in
Lusinoss. Foolo uso sioadshool iogians lo sloio and analyzo
dala, such as salos figuios. Cnco a usoi onlois figuios, lho
iogian calculalos slalislics such as lolals and avoiagos, and
dislays lho dala in a vholo iango of chailssuch as lhis `-D
chail lhal shovs lho nunLoi of ilons of diffoionl ioducls sold
oach nonlh. Sludonls connonly uso iogians such as void
iocossois and iosonlalion soflvaio foi lhoii schoolvoil.
CS scnds prcccsscd
data tc thc printcr
uhcn rcuircd. and
thc printcr |ccps thc
CS infcrncd a|cut
its prcrcss
CS scnds dctai|cd instructicns tc thc
disp|a scrccn tc shcu thc raphica|
uscr intcrfacc (GU!). uhich prc.idcs an
cas ua fcr thc uscr tc intcract uith
thc CS and cthcr app|icaticns
Mc.cncnts cf thc ncusc pcintcr
pass dircct|. as input data. tc
thc CS in thc C!U
Fiinloi
CaLinol caiiios lho
nolhoiLoaid vilh
CFU and RAM
Modia alicalion laying a novio
Mouso
CHANGING THE PICTURE
Fholo odiling iogians, such as AdoLo Fholosho, allov
usois lo alloi inagos in vays lhal only socialisls could
ioviously achiovo. Such soflvaio is nol only aLlo lo
iniovo lho aoaianco of an inago Ly changing ils
conliasl oi coloi Lalanco, Lul can also aly a vido iango of
social offocls. ll is nov ossiLlo lo noigo nany icluios
offoillossly lo cioalo an inaginaiy, Lul ioalislic, scono.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
34
Programming
CoxiU+ins ixis+ +o nUN inoon.xs. A iogian is a
soiios of insliuclions lhal lolls a conuloi vhal lo do noxl.
ln a sinlo iogian, a lasl is Liolon dovn inlo ils nosl
Lasic slos. 1ho conuloi doosnl undoisland vhal linls
oach slo and jusl follovs lho insliuclions. A noio conlox
iogian is dividod inlo soclions callod suLioulinos. Each
ono oifoins a snalloi ail of lho iogian, can Lo usod
nany linos, and oxchangos dala vilh olhoi suLioulinos.
1his nalos lho iogian snalloi and oasioi lo undoisland.
Fiogiannois viilo lhoii iogians in ono of nany
socializod conuloi languagos, vhich lhoy call
codo. Rogaidloss of lho iogianning languago,
a conuloi convoils, oi conilos, lho iogian
inlo nachino codoa sliing of nunLois lhal
nicioiocossois iocognizo. Sono iogiannois
viilo sniols of codo and sloio lhon in liLiaiios
on lho lnloinol. Clhois uso lhoso fiagnonls
lo Luild lhoii ovn iogians oasily, vilhoul
having lo slail fion scialch oach lino.
Falloin
cioalod 1uillo ioLol
PUNCH CARDS
ln 1S1, lho lionch invonloi Josoh Maiio Jacguaid
invonlod a loon lhal could voavo finoly alloinod clolh
aulonalicallyand do il nuch noio guiclly lhan Ly hand.
Allhough lhis loon vas nol a conuloi, oolo could
iogian il using unch caids. 1hoso voio long sliis of
caidLoaid fillod vilh holos lhal coiiosondod lo lho
lhioads naling u oach alloin. ln lho 15s and 16s,
oolo usod unch caids in a sinilai vay lo inul lho
iogians lhal ian on oaily conulois.
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Fiogiannois, oi soflvaio onginoois, viilo
lhoii insliuclions using a iogianning
languago. Sovoial languagos aio usod, oach ono
suilod lo a diffoionl uioso. 1ho BASlC languago vas
nado lo Lo sinlo onough lo uso on oisonal conulois.
FHF hols iogian voLsilos, vhilo C++ hols viilo laigo
iogians. 1his snalo gano vas viillon in a languago
callod Java, vhich allovs iogiannois lo viilo codo
lhal voils on alnosl any lind of conuloi.
THE FIRST PROGRAMMER
ln lho 1S4s, Lady Ada Lovolaco,
lho daughloi of lho English
ool Loid Byion, voilod
vilh Chailos BaLLago, lho
invonloi of sono oaily
nochanical conulois
(soo ago 7). Sho cioalod
a iogian on unch caids
foi ono of BaLLagos
nachinos, lho Analylical
Engino. 1his conlicalod
nachino vas novoi Luill
and lho iogian vas nol
usod. Novoilholoss, Ada
Lovolaco is iogaidod as lho
fiisl conuloi iogiannoi.
ln 17, lho US nililaiy
nanod a nov iogianning
languago Ada in hoi honoi.
A TURTLE'S DESIGNS
ln lho 1Ss, snall ioLolscallod
luillosvoio usod lo loach lho
lyo of voiy iociso insliuclions
noodod in iogianning. 1ho
ioLols diov alloins on lho flooi
accoiding lo lhoii iogian and could
nalo lhis siial Ly folloving a fov
slosdislanco oguals ono unil,
novo foivaid ono unil, luin
iighl, iooal slos 2 and `,
dislanco oguals 2 unils, and so
on. Fiogians could aly lho
sano lochniguo on a scioon
lo nalo a lino giahic.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
35
An Aiiano 5 ioclol
launchos inlo saco
A snalo in a gano
iogiannod in Java
lcon ioiosonling
Millonniun Bug
KNOWING WHEN TO STOP
1his ioLol has Loon iogiannod lo vash cus. ll lools
foi and soos lho cu, novos ils ain lo il, icls il u,
luins on lho faucol, and slails vashing lho cu. Hovovoi,
lho iogian nusl also includo a final slo lhal lolls
lho ioLol lo ul lho cu dovnand nol vash il again.
Wilhoul lhis ond connand, lho ioLol vould loo vashing
lho sano cu foiovoi.
THE MILLENNIUM BUG
Fiogians nood lo Lo cloaiod of nislalos. Hovovoi, Lugs,
oi oiiois, slill gol lhiough. As lho yoai 2 aioachod,
oxoils found an oiioi lhal cano lo Lo callod lho Millonniun
Bug. Cld iogians iocoidod a yoai as jusl lvo nunLois1
vas , and lho folloving yoai vould Lo . So lhoio vas a
ossiLilily lhal lho voilds conulois vould iocoid yoai
as 1 nol 2, causing conulois lo slo voiling
iooilyoi al all! Fiogiannois voilod haid lo Loal
lho Lug Ly naling conulois iocoid a yoai as
foui nunLois. Whon 2 iollod in, no
najoi ioLlons voio found.
ROCKETING TO DISASTER
A Ladly dosignod iogian can causo a
disasloi. 1ho Euiooan Saco Agoncy usos
Aiiano 5 ioclols lo launch sacociafl. ln
16, an Aiiano 5 ioclol oxlodod on ils
fiisl losl flighl. 1ho guidanco iogian vas
viillon foi an oldoi ioclol and did nol
voil vilh lho Aiiano 5 ioclols nov
launch syslon. Sacociafl oflon iun using
old-fashionod conuloi syslons, Locauso
onginoois aio confidonl lhoii iogians do
lho joL voll and naling a nov ono is
iisly and oxonsivo. NASAs Saco
Shulllos usod a conuloi dosignod
in lho 17s vilh loss iocossing
ovoi lhan nosl noLilo honos!
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Computer-generated imagery
CoxiU+in on.inics n.vi iiviioiii n.iiiiv sinco lho
1Ss, liansfoining lho voild of visual offocls in conuloi ganos
and filns. Bofoio conuloi-gonoialod inagoiy (CCl), ganos voio
jusl iovs of loxl, sonolinos vilh voiy iinilivo giahics Lasod
on a fov chaiaclois. 1hanls lo CCl, conuloi ganos nov includo
giahics lhal aio alnosl lifolilo, and filns ioly on CCl lo cioalo
highly dolailod digilal nodols of cioaluios and lacos lhal lool
anazingly ioal. CCl is also vidoly usod in olhoi indusliios,
such as aichilocluio, uLlishing, and onginooiing.
Cioaling and naniulaling inagos noods
fasl conulois, a lol
of nonoiy, and
sohislicalod
dislay syslons.
BEFORE CGI
1his aninaloi is using his ovn iofloclion lo iovido
lho iighl oxiossion foi his diaving of a chaiacloi
fion lho aninalod filn 1hc Iicn Iin. Unlil CCl
vas dovolood, aninalois had lo hand-diav
chaiaclois nany linos, vilh slighl diffoioncos
Lolvoon oach voision. Whon hologiahod and
layod Lacl in guicl succossion, lho soguonco of
inagos vould lool lilo a singlo noving inago.
VIRTUALLY REAL
A CCl chaiacloisuch as Masloi Chiof fion lho Ha|c soiios
of vidoo ganoslalos shao in slagos. ln lho fiisl slago, an
ailisl dofinos lho `-D oullino of lho chaiacloi using a nosh
of linos. Noxl, lho ailisl ovoilays a suifaco on lhis nosh and
adds a souico of lighl, cioaling shadovs. ln lho final slago,
ho oi sho Luilds u full dolails of coloi and loxluio. Cnco
cioalod, lho chaiacloi can Lo viovod fion diffoionl anglos
and nado lo novovilhoul lho nood lo iodiav il.
!ach dct hc|ps in crcatin
a facia| nap fcr accuratc|
rcccrdin cxprcssicns cn
thc ccnputcr
Charactcr is
i||uninatcd
3asic rid
nadc cf
ccnctric
shapcs
1cxturc
na|cs thc
charactcr
ncrc |ifc|i|c
Rcf|ccti.c nar|cr
fcrns part cf a
scrics that spccifics
thc |cds pcsiticn
3|uc cc|cr cf |cdsuit na|cs
it cas tc diita|| rcnc.c
thc actcr |atcr. |ca.in thc
nap cf his |cd
G|c.c naps thc
dctai|s cf thc fincrs
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
BUILDING IN AIR
CCl has iovolulionizod lho vay
aichilocls voil. Ralhoi lhan
ioducing hand-diavn ailvoils,
lhoy can nov cioalo giahics
lhal can Lo oasily nodifiod al
lho louch of a Lullon and viovod
fion any diioclion. Cnco lho
ovoiall layoul and dinonsions
aio agiood uon, lho aichilocls
can add colois, loxluios, and
olhoi dolails. Sonding CCl filos
lo colloaguos via onail is oasioi
and fasloi lhan sonding aoi
diavings lhiough lho nail.
A VIRTUAL WORLD
1rcn vas lho fiisl novio lo nalo oxlonsivo uso of CCl
lochnology. Allhough nol voiy succossful vhon il vas
ioloasod in 1S2, 1rcn lod lo lho uso of CCl in nany
olhoi filns. ln nany of ils sconos, hunan aclois voio
addod lo CCl Laclgiounds. 1ho CCl lighl cyclosoi
digilal noloi cyclossoon hoio voio cioalod foi lho
novio, in vhich hunan layois oxloio a viilual
voild of conuloi ganos. As lhoy novo, lhoso cyclos
loavo Lohind coloiod valls of lighl, vhich lhoy nusl
lhon avoid. Vidoo ganos voio also ioloasod Lasod
on 1rcn. A soguol, 1rcn. Icacfoaluiing fai
noio advancod CClvas ioloasod in 21.
FILMS WITHOUT PEOPLE
1c Stcr, ioloasod in 15, vas
lho fiisl full-longlh foaluio novio
lo Lo nado onliioly using CCl.
1ho filnnalois choso lo uso
loys as chaiaclois Locauso lhoy
aio faiily oasy lo nodol and
aninaloCCl lochnology al lho
lino vas nol adogualo foi cioaling
hunan chaiaclois. 1his vas
ailly Locauso hunan Lodios
aio conlox and ailly Locauso
ovoiyono is faniliai vilh hov
oolo lool and novo, so
inoifoclions in hunan CCl
chaiaclois aio oasy lo sol.
FROM REAL TO REEL
Acloi Andy Soilis vas liansfoinod
inlo a cioaluio nanod Collun in
1hc Icrd cf thc Rins novio liilogy using
CCl nolion-caluio lochnology. Soilis
voio a social suil vhilo onacling his
iolo. Social canoias and soflvaio
caluiod dolails of his shao and
novononls. Ailisls lhon cioalod
lho CCl figuio of Collun. 1his
oxislod in a `-D foin insido lho
conulois nonoiy, lho `-D
osilions of Colluns Lody
ails coiiosonding
lo Soiliss. Collun
vas aninalod
Ly naling hin
ninic Soiliss
novononls.
Iincrs and cthcr
cxtrcnitics arc
cxtcndcd
Gc||uns facc is
aninatcd uith
cxprcssicns frcn
thc actcrs facc
Iin| |cnth natchcs
that cf thc actcr
Aichilocls discussing CCl dosign of Luildings
Buzz Lighlyoai,
a chaiacloi fion
1c Stcr
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
38
XLox `6
conliolloi
Stic| ccntrc| |cnds
in a|| dirccticns
tc nc.c an itcn
cn scrccn
Games and consoles
Tni coxiU+in o.xis iNiUs+nv is nUoi, oaining
noio nonoy lhan novios. Foolo fion aiound lho voild
can lay againsl oach olhoi via lho lnloinol. Sono onlino
ganos involvo lhousands of layois in a viilual voild.
A slaggoiing 12 nillion oolo lay lho Wcr|d cf Warcraft
gano alono! Canos and iogians havo ono lhing in
connonlhoy Lolh follov a sol of iulos. So il is nol
suiiising lhal sono of lho oailiosl iogians holod io-cioalo
sinlo ganos on a conuloi. By lho 17s, vidoo gano
nachinos voio anong lho fiisl conulois lo Lo oulai in
honos. Fovoiful niciochis
havo onhancod ganing,
naling ganos voiy lifolilo.
ATTACK AND SINK
An oaily uso of conulois vas lo onhanco
oulai Loaid ganos, such as choss and
3att|cship. Flayois could lay a gano of choss
againsl a conuloi Ly onloiing lhoii novos
on a sinlo loyad. lnvonlod in lho oaily
1s, 3att|cshipsoon hoio in a Loaid
voisionvas oiiginally layod vilh jusl
oncil and aoi. Hovovoi, Ly lho 17s,
a conuloiizod voision had addod
sounds and lighls lo lho gano.
1oxl-Lasod ganos, such as
Cc|cssa| Ca.c Ad.cnturc, voio
connon in lho oaily days
of ganing. Sinco lhoy didnl
nood giahics, lhoy voio
oasioi lo iogian.
NOT JUST CHILD'S PLAY
ln 177, lho Alaii 26 consolo changod lho vay vidoo ganos could
Lo layod. lnsload of having a singlo gano iogiannod inlo il, lho
Alaii 26 layod a vaiioly of ganos sloiod on inloichangoaLlo lug-in
cailiidgos. Flayois could uso ono nachino lo lay sovoial ganos, such
as 3rca|cut and 3|ac|jac|. 1hoy could lay alono oi vilh anolhoi layoi.
By lho 1Ss, vidoo ganing had ovon Locono a soil. 1ho Losl vidoo
gano layoisnany of vhon voio childionconolod in louinanonls
lo Locono voild chanions. 1hoso ovonls ovon alliaclod lho allonlion of
lo soilsnon of lho day, such as Ron Coy, a 1Ss LasoLall slaisoon
hoio valching a gano of Astcrcids al an Alaii louinanonl.
Rcd pc
rcprcscnts a hit
Whitc pc
rcprcscnts a niss
PONG
Vidoo ganos slailod lo Locono oulai in
lho 17s. 1ho fiisl ganos voio voiy sinlo
Locauso nosl conulois could sloio only liny
iogians. Cno of lho nosl succossful oaily
ganos vas !cn. 1vo layois using joyslicls
novod a addlo u and dovn on a scioon lo
Lounco a Lall inlo lhoii oononls goal. 1his
gano vas fiisl layod on coin-ooialod aicado
conulois, Lul Ly 175, onginoois dovolood a
consolo lhal luggod inlo an oidinaiy lolovision.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
3
Fac-Man
oaling dols
3uttcn can ccntrc|
cthcr functicns fcr a
anc charactcr. such as
crcuchin cr junpin
!|acr can racc thc
cthcrs cr p|a a|cnc
PACMAN
Eaily vidoo ganos voio insiiod Ly lho
ioal voild in lhoii giahics. Hovovoi,
Ly lho 1Ss, nany ganos had lilllo
connoclion vilh lho ioal voild. 1ho
nosl oulai vas !ac-Man, dovolood
in Jaan in 1S. 1ho Fac-Man chaiacloi
had lo oal all lho dols sol oul insido a
nazo, vhilo avoiding Loing louchod
Ly ghosllilo ononios. Fac-Man vas
so oulai lhal il soon Locano noio
lhan a gano, vilh a cailoon soiios
and Fac-Man clolhos and loys.
ALL ABOUT CONTROL
1ho nosl oxciling vidoo ganos aio layod on
consolos. A consolos conuling ovoi Loals lhal
of nosl oisonal conulois loday. 1hal iocossing
ovoi is usod lo cioalo dolailod giahics and
high-sood aclion. Eaily consolos voio layod vilh a
addlo (vhoolod conliolloi) oi a joyslicl. Modoin consolo
conliollois allov layois lo oifoin sovoial funclions al
onco. 1hoy can also Lo oguiod vilh a acl lhal nalos
lhon juddoi, oi viLialo, adding a nov dinonsion lo lho gano.
AT THE ARCADE
ln lho 1Ss, lho Losl laco lo lay vidoo ganos vas
in an aicado. Canos aicados voio nol a nov idoa, Lul
Ly lhis lino, nochanical ganos such as slilllos and
inLall had Loon laigoly iolacod Ly coin-ooialod
vidoo ganos. Aicado nachinos can Lo nuch Liggoi
lhan a hono consolo, and nany aio dosignod lo nalo
lho gano oxoiionco as ioal as ossiLlo. 1his iacing
gano, foi oxanlo, has conliols sinilai lo a ioal cai.
PLAYING ON THE MOVE
Handhold ganing nachinos havo Loon aiound sinco lho oaily
days of conuloi ganing. 1hoy Locano oulai Locauso lhoy
gavo usois lho fioodon lo lay vidoo ganos anyvhoio.
ln lho 1s, lho Ninlondo CanoLoy Locano lho fiisl ioally
succossful handhold consolo, loading diffoionl ganos fion
cailiidgos. Modoin oilaLlo consolos, such as lho Sony
FlaySlalion FoilaLlo (FSF)shovn aLovoaio oguiod vilh
viioloss lochnology, so layois can connocl lo ganos laying
in conulois noaiLy, as voll as dovnload nusic and vidoos.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
40
!ach arca cf dancc
pad. cr stac. is
scnsiti.c tc prcssurc
Conliolloi usod
in Guitar Hcrc
MORE THAN A GAME
ln lho 1Ss, vidoo ganos voio oflon Lasod on novios. Star
Wars, !.1., and lho !ndiana jcncs filns all gavo iiso lo ganos, and
Ly lho 1s, vidoo ganos and filns voio oflon cioalod al lho
sano lino. As vidoo ganos Locano noio oulai, filnnalois
Logan naling filns Lasod on lhon. Supcr Maric 3rcs., lho fiisl of
lhoso novios, vas ioloasod in 1`. Laloi, Sonic lho hodgohog
aoaiod in an aninalod filn and Laia Ciofl insiiod lvo
novios Lasod on lho 1cn| Raidcr soiios. ln 21, lho filn !rincc
cf !crsia. Sands cf 1inc io-cioalod sovoial sconaiiossuch
as lho svoidfighl shovn aLovofion lho long-iunning
!rincc cf !crsia gano soiios, vhich dalos Lacl lo 1S.
EXERGAMING
Sinco lho slail of conuloi
ganing, aionls havo conlainod
lhal lhoii childion sonl loo long
silling in fionl of vidoo gano scioons,
insload of Loing noio aclivo. 1ho
invonlion of oxoiganing has conLinod
lho Lonofils of oxoiciso vilh lho fun
of ganing. Exoiganing noodod a
nov lyo of conliolloi, as lho layois
usod lhoii vholo Lodios lo conliol
lho gano. ln Dancc Dancc Rc.c|uticn,
ioloasod in 1S, layois dancod
on a ad lo nusic. Clhoi oxoiganos
uso handhold conliollois lhal
dolocl nolion, and layois can
uso lhoso lilo a Lal oi iaclol.
ADDING A NEW DIMENSION
1ho Maiio chaiacloi has Loon aoaiing in vidoo
ganos sinco 1S1, vhon ho vas lho hoio of lho
Dcn|c Icn ganos. 1o Login vilh, Maiio
aoaiod as a 2-D giahic, lnovn as a siilo,
noving lofl and iighl along flal lalfoins. ln
16, Maiio vonl `-D, and could liavol in all
diioclions. 1ho iaidly incioasing iocossing
ovoi of giahics niciochis allovod lho oxlia
nalhonalical calculalions noodod foi cioaling `-D
ganos. 1his vas lho advanco in lochnology lhal
nailod a Lig slo foivaid in lho vay ganos loolod
and voio iogiannod. ln a `-D gano, ovoiy ilon
on scioon is a `-D oLjocl, and vhonovoi a chaiacloi
in lho gano novos aiound, ils shadov shifls.
An inflalaLlo nodol
shovs off lho lalosl
`-D Maiio figuio
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
41
ALMOST THE REAL THING
Lionol Mossi, Aigonlinas soccoi slai,
lools anazingly ioal in lhis !rc !.c|uticn
Sccccr 2011 gano. Caning nachinos
havo a niciochilho CFU (giahics
iocossing unil)lhal is dodicalod lo
ioducing, oi iondoiing, giahics on
lho scioon. lnagos and giahics in a
conuloi gano aio nado of lilllo
alchos of coloi aninalod in `-D
in a viilual voild in lho consolos
nonoiy. Modoin CFUs can
iondoi hundiods of nillions
of lhoso alchos in ioal
lino, naling lodays
vidoo ganos noio
lifolilo lhan ovoi.
LOOK, NO HANDS!
Flayois using 211s ganing nachinos aio no longoi connoclod
Ly viios lo lho consolo, loaving lhon fioo lo novo aiound lho
ioon as lhoy lay. Sono nachinos havo handhold viioloss
nolion doloclois lhal sond connands lo lho consolo lhiough
iadio signals. 1ho Kinocl syslon dovolood Ly Miciosofl foi lho
XLox `6 consolo doos avay vilh conliollois onliioly. lnsload,
canoias caluio lho novononls of layois, ulling
lhoii gosluios inlo aclion on lho scioon.
GUITAR HEROES
Mosl vidoo ganos aio dosignod
lo voil vilh a consolos noinal
conliolloi. Hovovoi, sono of lho
lalosl ioloasos uso socific conliollois lo
nalo lho nosl of a gano. ln 25, layois of Guitar Hcrc gol lo Lo
iocl slais Ly sliunning along lo songs on a guilai-shaod conliolloi.
1ho Iarac|c Rc.c|uticn gano, ioloasod in 2, iovidos niciohono
conliollois foi layois lo sing inlo. 1ho layois scoio ioflocls hov
closo lhoii singing voico is lo lho coiiocl nolody.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
42
Networks
Ni+wonis coNNic+ coxiU+ins +ooi+nin, holing lhon
shaio dala oi olhoi iosouicos. 1ho conulois can Lo linlod lo
oach olhoi, and lo olhoi dovicos, such as iinlois. 1his can Lo
dono oilhoi Ly viios oi fiLoisfoining a viiod nolvoiloi
viiolossly, using iadio signals. Local aioa nolvoils (LANs),
vhich can Lo viiod oi viioloss, covoi snall aioas and aio usod
vilhin schools, officos, and olhoi uLlic lacos. LANs
can Lo connoclod lo oach olhoi ovoi vido aioa
nolvoils (WANs). 1ho nunLoi of nolvoilod
conulois and olhoi dovicos is sloadily
gioving, and so is lho anounl of dala lhoy
shaio vilh oach olhoi. ll is oui insaliaLlo
hungoi foi Landvidlhlho caacily lo
liansfoi dalalhal diivos lho guosl
foi Lolloi lochnology.
1
PEERTOPEER
Mosl conulois cono loadod vilh lho
soflvaio noodod lo sol u a ooi-lo-ooi nolvoil.
Each conuloi is lnovn as a ooi. 1hoso
nolvoils aio iono lo Loing haclod Locauso
lho oois only handlo lhoii ovn socuiily and nol
lhal of lho nolvoil. Fooi-lo-ooi nolvoils can
also Lo slov Locauso oach ooi handlos ioguosls
fion lho usoi as voll as fion olhoi oois.
2
CLIENTSERVER
ln a clionl-soivoi nolvoil, lho soivoi conliols
socuiily and disliiLulos soflvaio ugiados acioss
lho nolvoil, so lho usois of lho clionl conulois
do nol nood lo voiiy aLoul lhoso lhings. 1his nalos
lhoso nolvoils noio socuio. Clionlsoivoi nolvoils
aio oflon fasloi, and il is usually oasioi lo add nov
conulois lo lhon. Hovovoi, soivois can Lo
oxonsivo and conlox lo nainlain.
TYPES OF NETWORK
1hoio aio lvo nain vays lo connocl conulois logolhoi so lhal
iosouicos such as filos and alicalions can Lo shaiodooi-lo-ooi
and clionl-soivoi connoclions. ln a ooi-lo-ooi nolvoil, oach
conuloi shaios all oi ail of ils iosouicos, and all lho conulois
on lho nolvoil havo ogual inoilanco. Clionl-soivoi nolvoils havo
a conlial conuloilho soivoilhal nanagos iosouicos such as
sloiago saco and voL accoss on lho nolvoil and sonds dala lo
olhoi conuloisclionls.
WHY NETWORK?
Conulois aio nolvoilod ailly so lhal oolo
can uso lhon as connunicalion dovicos, sonding
nol only loxl-Lasod nossagos lo oach olhoi, Lul
inagos, audio filos, and vidoos, loo. Nolvoiling
also allovs conulois lo voil logolhoiin lhis
offico, foi inslancoLy shaiing dala, soflvaio,
and iocossing ovoi, and Ly accossing olhoi
dovicos, such as iojoclois and scannois.
Nolvoilod conulois aio loss liloly lo loso dala,
sinco il can oasily Lo coiod Lolvoon nachinos.
Ii|cr is nadc cf f|cxi||c
strand cf |ass
Scr.cr
C|icnt
!ccr
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
43
WIRELESS NETWORKS
ln a viioloss nolvoil, iadio vavos linl conulois logolhoi. Dovicos callod
viioloss ioulois sond and iocoivo lho iadio vavos. Foolo oflon uso viioloss LANs,
oi WLANs, in honos and uLlic lacos, such as cafos, aiioil loungos, oi ovon
ails. 1hough WLANs aio nuch noio convonionl lhan viiod nolvoils, lhoy aio
loss ioliaLlo and loss socuioiadio vavos can suffoi inloifoionco fion olocliical
oguinonl and can Lo inloicolod Ly anyono vilh lho iighl soflvaio on lhoii
viioloss lalo. Cno oulai viioloss lochnology is callod Wi-lia social
viioloss connunicalion syslon lhal allovs dovicos lo connocl lo oach olhoi
and iovidos lnloinol accoss.
MOVING QUICKLY
Sono viioloss nolvoiling syslons aio dosignod
lo voil ovoi shoil dislancos. 1iansfoiJol is
ono such lochnologyil nalos uso of
iadio vavos and has a iango of only a
coulo of inchos. Sinly louching lvo
1iansfoiJol-onaLlod dovicos logolhoi
liiggois a liansfoi of dala Lolvoon lhon.
Each dovico can idonlify olhoi dovicos
noaiLy lhal aio onaLlod and usois can
sol lhon u lo liansfoi only lo and fion
soloclod dovicos. loi oxanlo, lacing
lhis digilal canoia on lo of lhis nodia
sloiago dovico liansfois lho conlonls of
lho canoia lo lho dovico al a voiy high sood.
PATHWAYS OF LIGHT
Clical fiLois aio usod
in nany long-dislanco
conuloi nolvoils. Lighl
liavols dovn lho fiLois ovoi
gioal dislancoslhis is ossiLlo
Locauso il liavols dovn lho coio
of an olical fiLoi Ly conslanlly
Louncing off lho sidos of lho
fiLoi, using a iincilo callod
lolal inloinal iofloclion. Lighl
liansnils all linds of dala as
shoil flashos aiiangod in codod
alloins. Undoisoa Lundlos of fiLois
can liansfoi as nuch as 1 gigaLils
of dala oi socond (soo ago 47).
ln nany casos, olical fiLois
havo iolacod nolal viios, Locauso
lhoy aio unaffoclod Ly olocliical
inloifoionco and lho dala signals
can lyically liavol 6 nilos
(1 ln) Lofoio fading.
LET'S SHARE
1hoso coll honos
aio shaiing dala via
Bluoloolh. 1his is anolhoi shoil-iango
viioloss nolvoiling lochnology dosignod
lo voil Lolvoon dovicos of diffoionl lyos.
Bluoloolh lochnology usos fioguoncy-hoing,
a syslon in vhich lho iadio fioguoncy usod lo
sond dala changos iaidly. lioguoncy-hoing
signals aio loss affoclod Ly iadio inloifoionco and also
do nol inloifoio vilh signals sonl Ly olhoi syslons.
WIRED NETWORKS
ln nany schools and officos, lho conulois lhal nalo u
a LAN aio connoclod logolhoi Ly viios. Dovicos callod
huLs, svilchos, oi ioulois connocl conulois inlo viiod
nolvoils. Usually, such viiod nolvoils uso lho olhoinol
syslon, in vhich aclols of dala, callod fianos, aio
oxchangod. Each fiano has a dala hoadoi lhal idonlifios
ils slailing oinl and doslinalion on lho nolvoil.
Data |cin scnt
.ia 3|uctccth
Data |cin
rccci.cd
!thcrnct ca||c ccnnccts
suitch tc ccnputcr
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
44
The Internet
A coxiU+in oN . Ni+woni iolios on a diiocl connoclion
lo a conlial soivoi oi lo olhoi nolvoilod conulois in oidoi lo
liansfoi dala. Whon a connoclion snas, connunicalion vilhin
lho nolvoil is affoclod. ln lho 16s, lho US govoinnonl
ioalizod lhal ils conuloi nolvoil vas vulnoiaLlo lo allacla
fov disconnoclions could iovonl lho nolvoil fion funclioning,
vhich could Lo a soiious ioLlon duiing vailino. 1ho solulion
lo lhis ioLlon vas an inloinolvoila nolvoil of nolvoils lhal
ovonlually Locano lnovn as lho lnloinol. lf ono connoclion
vas Liolon, dala could liavol via anolhoi ioulo. 1his
inloinolvoil ian accoiding lo a sol of iuloslho
sano onos lhal onsuio lho snoolh flov of
dala on lho lnloinol loday.
BREAK IT UP AND BUILD IT UP
A conuloi sonds dala lhiough lho lnloinol
in snall Lundlos, oi aclols. Each aclol has
an addioss shoving vhoio il is hoadod and
hos along nany lnloinol soivois, dovn
nilos of caLlo, unlil il ioachos ils doslinalion.
1ho dala aclols fion ono dalasol, such
as fion a holo, do nol havo lo liavol lho
sano ioulo, oi ovon aiiivo in lho coiiocl
oidoi. Cnco all lho aclols aiiivo al lho
doslinalion conuloi, il ioassonLlos
lhon inlo lhoii oiiginal foin.
As it is scnt. inac
is |rc|cn up intc
chun|s cf data
!ach pac|ct ccntains
dcstinaticn addrcss
Hauaii
Icndcn
Diffcrcnt pac|cts.
indicatcd | thc
cc|crs. ta|c diffcrcnt
rcutcs tc thc dcstinaticn
July 177
ARFANE1 connocls lo
London and Havaii
Maich 172
ARFANE1 giovs fuilhoi
Juno 17
ARFANE1 giovs
DoconLoi 16
ARFANE1 foinod
Dala sol sonl
BUILDING THE INTERNET
1ho fiisl syslon lo voil lilo
lodays lnloinol vas lho Advancod
Rosoaich Fiojocl Agoncy Nolvoil
(ARFANE1). 1his Logan in 16,
vhon foui Anoiican univoisilios
joinod lhoii nolvoils, foining lho
fiisl connoclion oinls, oi nodos.
1ho nolvoil giov sloadily, and
Ly 1S1, hundiods of nodos had
sioad acioss Noilh Anoiica and
vosloin Euioo, and had ovon
ioachod as fai as Hong Kong and
Auslialia. ln lho lalo 1Ss, sovoial
sinilai nolvoils noigod vilh
ARFANE1 lo Locono a nolvoil of
nolvoilslho lnloinol vas Loin.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
45
SERVING A PURPOSE
Soivois aio lho infoinalion
vaiohousos of lho lnloinol. 1hoso
socializod conulois sloio dala, such
as onails and voL agos, vhich can Lo
accossod Ly olhoi conulois and
dovicos, oi clionls (soo ago 42),
connoclod lo lho lnloinol. Koy
soivois of lho lnloinol handlo so
nuch liaffic lhal lhoy ioguiio
soivoi fainslhousands of
individual soivois voiling
logolhoi. Soivois aio usually lol
in a socuio and soaialo ioon.
1hoy nood a cool onviionnonl,
sinco all lho conulois voiling
logolhoi can gol voiy hol.
DATA CONNECTIONS
1ho lnloinol onloys a iango of connoclion
lyos. Many honos aio connoclod lhiough
cooi lolohono linos oi lolovision caLlos.
Coll honos and lalos iocoivo lnloinol liaffic ovoi
viioloss iadio linls. Clical fiLois caiiy dala along lho
lnloinols LaclLonoslhicl caLlos lhal connocl nodos
and ovon iun ovoi lho soaLod. A singlo caLlo caiiios
hundiods of high-sood olical fiLois Lundlod
logolhoi, oach soo-lhiough fiLoi
caiiying dala in lho foin of
flicloiing lasoi lighl.
!c|cth|cnc
cc.crin prctccts ca||c
Strandcd ncta| uirc
prc.idcs strcnth tc ca||c
!ctrc|cun jc|| acts as
uatcrprccf cc.cr fcr
cptica| fi|crs
Cptica| fi|cr
nadc cf |ass
!nac rcccnstructcd
at rccci.crs cnd
A|| pac|cts arri.c
at thc sanc pcint
1raffic rcutc
unuscd | data is
shcun in uhitc
!ac|ct ccdin
indicatcs uhcrc it
|c|cns in criina|
inac fi|c
Undoisoa
lnloinol caLlo
THE INTERNET REVOLUTION
loi lho fiisl 2 yoais of ils lifo, only govoinnonls, conuloi
oxoils, and laigo oiganizalions usod lho lnloinol. ln lho 1s,
lho invonlion of lho Woild Wido WoL (soo ago 46) nado lho
lnloinol usoful foi oidinaiy oolo. Al fiisl, connoclion
soods voio slov. ln lho oaily and nid-1s, only
a fov liloLils of dala could Lo liansfoiiod in a
socond, naling usois vail ninulos foi a laigo
icluio lo dovnload. By 15, lho lnloinol had
16 nillion usois.` oiconl of lho voilds
oulalion. As voL lochnologios
iniovod, noio oolo gol
connoclod. By oaily 211,
aLoul 2 Lillion oolo
voio using lho lnloinol.
Yoai
15 1S 21 24 27 21
1.S
1.2
1.4
1.6
1
S
6
4
2

l
n
l
o
i
n
o
l

u
s
o
i
s
16
nillion
147
nillion
51`
nillion
S17
nillion
1.26
Lillion
1.65
Lillion
Dala sol iocoivod
!ntcrnct scr.cr cn thc
traffic rcutc uscd | data
is shcun in cc|cr
n
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
L
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
46
http is cnc cf thc ru|cs that
ccntrc| uc| data transfcr
Randcn francnt
cf tcxt pu||cd frcn
thc WWW
FATHER OF THE WEB
1ho Biilish scionlisl 1in
Boinois-Loo invonlod lho Woild
Wido WoL (WWW) in 1S
as a vay of shaiing dala. His
syslon allovod usois lo viov
infoinalion on olhoi conulois,
so a voL-onaLlod conuloi could
accoss fai noio dala lhan could
Lo sloiod in il. Boinois-Loo nado
his invonlion uLlic, and lho
voL has sinco changod lho
voild dianalically.
LISTENING TO THE WWW
WoL liaffic suiging lhiough lho lnloinol conlains
fiagnonls of loxl and inagos. Each lilllo ioco noans
sonolhing lo sonoono, Lul vhon ul logolhoi, il is
jusl a nixluio of iav dala. 1hc Iistcnin !cst dislay
al lho Scionco Musoun in London, England, ulls
iandon sliings of loxl fion chalioonslacos
on lho voL vhoio oolo can havo convoisalions
vilh ono anolhoiand flashos lhon on a soiios
of scioons. 1ho dislayod fiagnonls of loxl aio oflon
noaningloss, Lul occasionally sonolhing ioadaLlo
aoais. 1his ail inslallalion highlighls lho nillions
of inloiaclions lhal occui on lho voL and
shovs hov lho lnloinol has connoclod
oolo unlilo anylhing Lofoio.
SEARCHING THE WEB
As lho nunLoi of voL agos giov, il Locano haidoi lo
find infoinalion of inloiosl. Soaich onginos voio dovolood
lo inoinl lho iighl voL agos. Eaily onginos usod voL
ciavloissoflvaio lhal ioads loxl on a voL ago and
indoxos il, Lofoio noving lo lho noxl ono. Modoin soaich
onginos, such as Cooglo, slill uso voL ciavlois lo find agos,
and also conlox nalhonalics lo highlighl lho onos lhal
nighl Lo nosl suilaLlo in iosonso lo a ailiculai soaich.
SHARING RESOURCES
1ho lnloinol can Lo usod lo shaio dala and iosouicos
in nany vays. Scionlific iosoaich iogians
nood ovoiful conulois lo oifoin conlox
calculalions lo hol solvo ioLlons guiclly. 1ho
EinsloinHono iojocl usos lho lnloinol lo
hainoss lho ovoi of conulois volunlooiod
Ly usois. Whon lho nachinos aio nol Loing
usod, EinsloinHono iuns a iogian on
lhon, using lhoii saio caacily lo iocoss
dala colloclod Ly asliononois soaiching foi
ulsaissnall suoidonso slais lhal sin
aiound hundiods of linos in a socond. 1ho
iogian dislays a shoiical na of lho slyas
soon on lho iighlvilh lnovn ulsais shovn in
nagonla. Cn Augusl 12, 21, lho EinsloinHono
syslon announcod a ioviously unlnovn ulsai.
SEARCH
Eyovilnoss Conuloi
Mar|cr indicatcs
thc arca cf thc s|
undcr stud
Diaran cf s| shcus ccnstc||aticns
cf stars .isi||c frcn diffcrcnt parts cf !arth
Connecting the world
To x.Nv iioiii, +ni iN+inNi+ and lho Woild Wido WoL (WWW)
aio lho sano lhing. Hovovoi, lho lnloinol is lho hysical nolvoil lhal
sans lho gloLoincluding lho aclual caLlos and conulois, and lho sol
of iulos lhal allovs dala lo flov soanlossly. Cno of lho fiisl alicalions of
lho lnloinol vas lho Bullolin Boaid Syslon lhal Logan in lho 17s, lolling
usois loavo nossagos foi oach olhoi on uLlic conulois, and ovonlually
gavo iiso lo chalioons. Anolhoi vas lho filo liansfoi iolocol (l1F) syslon
foi oxchanging laigo filos. And of couiso, lho lnloinol nov caiiios nillions
of onails ovoiy day. Mosl oolo connocl lo lho lnloinol
lo accoss lho voL, an ovoi-gioving colloclion of
inloiconnoclod agos, caiiying a nix of
loxl, inagos,
and vidoos.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
47
WWW is uscd in ncst
URIs |ut nct a||
NCR1H
AMERlCA
SCU1H AMERlCA
AlRlCA
ASlA AND
FAClllC
1,S51 CLs
`,47 CLs

1
,
4
7


C
L

s
BROWSERS
Usois viov voL agos lhiough
alicalions callod Liovsois. 1hoso
sond oul a ioguosl foi a coilain voL
ago inlo lho lnloinol and dislay
lho dala lhal conos Lacl. 1in
Boinois-Loo iogiannod lho
fiisl voL Liovsoilnovn sinly
as WoildWidoWoLLul noio
advancod Liovsois, such as
Mosaic, Collo, and WoLRunnoi,
follovod. 1hoso Liovsois aio nov
dofuncl. Conolilion Lolvoon
nodoin Liovsois lo alliacl lho
nosl nunLoi of usois is inlonso.
WEB ADDRESSES
Evoiy voL ago has a uniguo addioss callod ils URL,
oi unifoin iosouico localoi. WoL agos aio dolivoiod
fion soivois lo Liovsois using a sol of iulos callod lho
hyoiloxl liansfoi iolocol (hll), so a voL agos URL
alvays Logins vilh hll. 1ho donain nano conos noxl
and oflon slails vilh vvv lo shov hunan usois il is
ail of lho voild vido voL. Many connoicial donain
nanos ond in .con. 1ho donain-nano ail of
lho URL lolls a conuloi vhich soivoi
il should conlacl lo accoss
lho voL ago.
A WEBBED WORLD
1ho voL is nov ail of oui daily
lifo. 1ho lnloinol connocls lolohonos,
gano consolos, and ovon iofiigoialois.
Scionlisls aio dovoloing nov vays
of connocling lo lho lnloinol. loi
inslanco, lho Sixlh Sonso syslon
allovs oolo lo accoss lho lnloinol
Ly iojocling a loyLoaid oi a scioon
anyvhoio. A usoi can ovon dial a
hono nunLoi via a loyad lhal
is iojoclod on lho usois hand.
22 2` 24 25 26 27 2S 2 21

1
2
`
4
5
6
7
S

1
lnloinol Exloioi
Mozilla liiofox
Cooglo Chiono
Safaii
Coia
Januaiy of oach yoai
M
a
i
l
o
l

s
h
a
i
o

o
f

L
i
o
v
s
o
i
s

(

o
i
c
o
n
l
a
g
o
)
HYPERLINKS
1in Boinois-Loo includod hyoilinls in his fiisl voL agos. 1hoso
connoclod coilain voids and icluios on a ago vilh olhoi
agos. lnsload of ioading fion lho fiisl ago lo lho lasl, voL
usois could svilch Lolvoon agos Ly clicling on lho linls
lhal inloioslod lhon. WoL iogiannois oncodo agos
using a languago callod H1ML (hyoiloxl nail-u
languago), vhich nails socific voids and
inagos lhal vill foin hyoilinls.
HOW MUCH IS OUT THERE?
No ono lnovs hov nuch dala
is sloiod on lho lnloinol. 1hoio
nay Lo aiound 6 Lillion
voL agosalnosl 1 foi
ovoiy oison alivo loday. Cno
lhing lhal can Lo noasuiod
is lnloinol liaffic. 1ho sood
of dala liansfoi Lolvoon
conulois is noasuiod nol in
Lylos Lul in Lils sonl in a socond.
1his diagian shovs lho lnloinols
Landvidlh, oi caacily lo caiiy
dala, Lolvoon lho voilds
conlinonls, noasuiod in
gigaLils oi socond (CLs).
!nac is a hpcr|in|
and |cads tc a ncu pac
URI cf
uc|sitc
^anc cf thc uc| pac
appcars cn tcp cf a
|rcuscr uindcu

.
C
L

s

1
1
S

C
L

s
2
S

C
L

s
746 C
Ls
EURCFE
Hono voL ago of
Doiling Kindoisloy
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
The wild wild net
Tni IN+inNi+ n.s cni.+ii . wnoii Niw w.v foi oolo lo
nool, voil logolhoi, and ovon sho. Unfoilunaloly, lhis has also
allovod ciininals lo uso lho lnloinol foi sloaling and choaling.
Allhough ovoiy conuloi on lho lnloinol has an ovnoi, no ono is
in chaigo of lho onliio nolvoil. 1his nalos il lough foi lnloinol
socuiily oxoils lo liacl dovn hacloisoolo vho Lioal inlo
olhoi oolos conuloi syslons. 1ho Lalllo foi lav and oidoi
on lho lnloinol is oflon conaiod lo lho Anoiican Wild Wosl,
vilh gunslingois, shoiiffs, and innoconl Lyslandois.
THE TROJAN HORSE
ln Ciool nylhology, lho 1iojan Hoiso
allacl vas a loy Ly vhich Ciool soldiois
gol asl lho socuiily of lho cily of 1ioy
and doslioyod il. 1hoy hid insido a gianl
voodon hoiso, sonl as a gifl. A conuloi
1iojan doos lho sano lhing. ll aoais
as a lyo of holful soflvaio Lul onco
inslallod, il allovs haclois lo Lioal
inlo and oslaLlish a connoclion vilh
lho usois conuloi lo conliol il.
Mcaphcnc |ccsts
thc scund cf s|cans
HACKING IN
Cno of lho fiisl hacls vas dono using a vhisllo!
ln lho 17s, US lolohono oxchangos usod social
lonos lo connunicalo vilh oach olhoi. John Diaoi,
a conuloi iogiannoi, discovoiod lhal lho sound
of a vhisllofound in a coioal Loxvas lilo ono of
lhoso lonos. Bloving lho vhisllo liiclod oxchangos
inlo lhinling lhal an ongoing call had finishod, vhich
lol Diaoi nalo calls vilhoul Loing chaigod foi lhon.
Modoin hacls gonoially involvo ciacling a assvoid.
Haclois iun iogians lhal liy ovoiy conLinalion of lollois
and nunLois unlil lhoy find lho iighl ono. 1hoy also uso
nalicious soflvaio, such as syvaio, lo liicl usois inlo
giving oul assvoids. Hovovoi, olhoi soflvaio, such
as anli-syvaio and fiiovalls (soo ago 51), hols
usois dofond lhonsolvos againsl such allacls.
Music sstcn p|as
s|cans durin
prctcst narch
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
4
WATCHMEN OF THE NET
Nol all haclois Lioal inlo
conuloi syslons foi oisonal
gain. Sono haclois aio hiiod
Ly oiganizalions lo hol
losl lho slionglh of socuiily
syslons. Clhoi gious of
haclois aio solf-aoinlod
valchnon of lho lnloinol.
1hoy oiganizo iolosl naichos
and dosign allacls againsl
oiganizalions lhal, lhoy Loliovo,
aio Loing unjusl. Anonynous is
ono of lhoso gious. ll has no loadois
and ils nonLois nay nol ovon lnov
lho nanos of ono anolhoi. Duiing uLlic
iolosls, nonLois voai nasls lilo
lhal voin Ly Va ficlional hoio
vho usod hacling foi good causos
in lho filn V fcr Vcndctta. 1ho nasls
also hido lhoii idonlilios.
1
CREATING A BOT ARMY
1ho hacloi vho dovolos a Lolnol is callod a hoidoi. Ho oi sho
gains accoss lo conulois lhiough a 1iojan hoisousually sioad
Ly san onails. Whon usois launch lho 1iojan soflvaio, lhoy
unlnovingly gianl accoss lo lho hoidoi, and lhoii conulois
Locono zonLio syslons undoi lho conliol of lho hoidoi.
2
THE ATTACK
1ho Lolnols zonLio conulois Locono aclivo only vhon lhoy
iocoivo a connand fion lho hoidoi. 1ho hoidoi can also uso lho
zonLios lo sond infoclod onails lo olhoi conulois, cioaling noio
Lolnol nonLois. ln a DCS allacl, all lho zonLios aio insliuclod lo
conlacl lho sano lnloinol soivoi ovoi and ovoi again. 1his hugo
and suddon donand foi soivico jans lho soivoi and il shuls dovn.
3ct scftuarc
hidcs insidc
1rcjan prcran
Acti.atc
ccnnand scnt
| hcrdcr
Hcst ccnputcr
infcctcd | thc |ct
Ccnputcr scnds cut cnai|s
tc cthcr ccnputcrs tc add
thcn intc thc |ctnct
UNWANTED MESSAGES
MailLoxos in lho ioal voild can Locono
ovoifillod vilh unvanlod junl nail. ll is fioo
lo sond junl nail on lho lnloinol, so in lho
digilal voild, usois can oasily iocoivo hoidos
of onails and nossagos lhal aio oilhoi
usoloss oi conlain hainful viiusos. 1hoy aio
colloclivoly callod san. San clogs u
a usois onail inLox, naling il haid foi
lho usoi lo connunicalo iooily and
iovonling nossagos fion Loing sonl oi
iocoivod. Many san onails caiiy linls
lo falo voLsilos lhal asl usois foi
oisonal dolails, such as Lanl accounl
nunLois and assvoids. 1his lind of
fiaud on lho nol is callod hishing.
ATTACK OF THE ZOMBIES
Anong lho nosl ovoiful lools usod Ly oolo allonling cyLoi-ciinos
aio Lolnols, shoil foi ioLol nolvoils. 1hoso aio nolvoils of lhousands,
ovon nillions, of oidinaiy conulois lhal havo Loon hijaclod Ly haclois,
vilhoul lhoii ovnois lnovlodgo. Bolnols aio usod foi sonding oul
nillions of san onails in a shoil lino. 1hoy aio also usod foi
donial-of-soivico (DCS) allacls, vhoio lho conLinod ovoi
of lho Lolnol is usod lo ovoiload lnloinol soivois and iovonl
usois fion accossing voLsilos.
COMPUTER INFECTIONS
Malvaio is lho nano givon
lo conuloi viiusos and
voinsconuloi iogians
dosignod lo causo ioLlons lo
any usoi on lho lnloinol. Conuloi
voins do nol allacl an individual
conuloi. lnsload, lhoy svain
lhiough lho lnloinol Ly naling uso
of lho vay conulois connunicalo.
Woin allacls clog u lho lnloinol,
sloving liaffic lhiough lho ioulois.
Cn May 4, 2, lho lLCVEYCU
voin, sloiod in lhis floy disl, sioad
acioss lho voild, causing vidosioad
danago. Viiusos danago a conuloi
Ly viing ils nonoiy oi iovonling il
fion luining on. Unlilo a voin, a viius
aclivalos only vhon lho iocoivoi oons il.
CYBER WARFARE
Sonolinos, vais can Lo vagod on
lho nol. 1ho US CyLoi Connand
(CYBERCCM) is in chaigo of
dofonding Anoiican nililaiy
conulois, vhich aio undoi
iogulai lhioal fion iogians
dosignod lo sloal nililaiy
sociols. ln 27, Eslonias voL
soivicos voio lnoclod oul
Ly hugo DCS allacls fion
Russiaafloi lho Eslonian
govoinnonl docidod lo novo a
Russian vai nonoiial. ln 21,
an lnloinol voin callod Sluxnol
danagod lho conulois in an
lianian facloiy lhoughl lo Lo
naling nucloai voaons.
CYBERCCM onLlon
Cvoifillod
nailLox
Hoidois conuloi
ZonLio conulois
Hoidois conuloi
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
50
Defense and security
A io+ oi +ni iNionx.+ioN sloiod on conulois is
iivalo, vholhoi il is oisonal docunonls, Lanl dolails,
oi govoinnonl sociols. As a iosull, conulois nood lo
idonlify lhoii coiiocl usois and loo lhoii iivalo
filos socuio. 1ho sinlosl idonlificalion syslon is
lho assvoid, inhoiilod fion lho valchvoids
usod Ly Ronan guaids. Cnly oolo vho
lnov lho iighl valchvoid voio allovod
lhiough. Bul no conuloi is ovoi
conlololy socuio. Haclois (soo ago 52)
can oxloil voalnossos in socuiily
syslons, oi sinly sloal assvoids, lo
gain accoss illogally. Conuloi oxoils
aio cioaling nov lochnologios lo nalo
usoi idonlificalion noio accuialo.
EVERYDAY ENIGMAS
Fiivalo conuloi filos aio onciylod,
oi liansfoinod inlo unioadaLlo codos,
using a sol of iulos, oi cihoi. ln Woild
Wai ll, lho Coinan nililaiy onciylod
ils nossagos using oloclionochanical
dovicos, such as lhis Enigna nachino.
Mossagos voio oncodod vilh a cihoi sol
using a soiios of nunLoiod cogs, oi goais.
lls dosignois nislalonly Loliovod lhal
only anolhoi Enigna nachino, sol u
using lho sano cihoi, could docodo
lho nossagos. Modoin conuloi
onciylion usos nalhonalical cihois
lhal nalo lho codos voiy haid lo ciacl.
CAPTCHA IF YOU CAN
Calcha slands foi Conlololy Aulonalod FuLlic
1uiing losl lo loll Conulois and Hunans Aail.
Usois lalo lho Calcha losl lo gain accoss lo a
fioo soivico, such as onail. 1ho usoi lyos in lho
chaiaclois shovn in a icluio, vhich is vaiod so
lhal only a hunan can figuio lhon oul. Hunans
ass lhis losl, Lul Calcha fillois oul conulois
using iogians dosignod lo hacl inlo lhoso fioo
soivicoslo sond oul san, foi inslanco.
1his rctcr is cnc cf 3t
that cna||cd thc |cn|c
tc chcc| c.cr pcssi||c
!nina ciphcr
CRACKING CODES
Foolo can uso conulois
lo liy lo docodo sociol oi
iivalo dala. Cno of lho
voilds oailiosl conulois vas
usod lo docihoi lho Enigna
codos duiing Woild Wai ll.
Biilish nalhonalician Alan 1uiing
usod docodois callod LonLos lo
losl all 17,576 ossiLlo Enigna
cihois unlil lho codod nossagos
voio ciaclod. Ho also dovolood
lho idoa Lohind Colossus, an
onoinous, iogiannaLlo, digilal
codo-ciacloi, vhich vas Luill in
14` lo ciacl ovon loughoi codos.
1cchnician scttin thc
rctcrs cf thc |cn|c
A LonLo docodoi
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
51
BODY IMAGE
Conuloi syslons can also conliol accoss
in lho hysical voild. 1ho shao of lho
faco, lho fingoiiinl alloins, and
lho sound of a voico aio all uniguo
lo a oison. Conulois can uso
lhis Lionoliic infoinalion as a
socuiily idonlificalion lhal is alvays
availaLlo foi chocling. loi oxanlo, a
conuloi can iocognizo a usois faco Ly
convoiling ils shao inlo a `-D na of
liianglos. 1his can lhon Lo conaiod
lo a iofoionco na of lho usois faco
sloiod in lho socuiily syslon. Sono
noasuiononls, such as lho longlh of
lho noso and dislanco Lolvoon lho
oyos, aio lho sano ovon if lho oison
is sniling oi fiovningand vill hol
lho conuloi confiin a usois idonlily.
Bionoliic socuiily syslons aio an
inoilanl ail of socuio govoinnonl
inslallalions, such as nucloai ovoi
lanls, nissilo silos, and conlois
foi inlolligonco agoncios.
FIREWALLS
A nolvoil caiiios infoinalion Lolvoon conulois,
Lul il nusl also slo unvanlod liaffic, such as viiusos
oi sy iogians, fion golling lhiough. 1his is dono
vilh a viilual Laiiioi, callod a fiiovall, vhich
iolocls a conuloi syslon fion unaulhoiizod
accoss. 1ho liaffic Lolvoon conulois assos
lhiough lho fiiovall, vhich scans and fillois
lho assing aclagos of dala lo chocl
foi danaging soflvaio.
HEALTH CHECKS
Evoiy conuloi noods
a iogulai hoallh chocl
in lho foin of a viius
scan. Anliviius soflvaio
doos lhis Ly chocling
all lho filos sloiod in lho
conuloi. ll lools foi alloins
lhal nighl indicalo viiusos, voins
(soo ago 4), oi olhoi unvanlod
soflvaio. Sinco nov lhioals and
infoclions aio discovoiod ovoiy
day, an anliviius iogian iogulaily
dovnloads socuiily udalos lo
onsuio il is alvays looling foi
lho iighl lhings.
LOOK INTO YOUR EYES
Many Lionoliic syslons aio slill undoi
dovolononl. 1ho iocognilion syslons
slill gol il viong loo oflon lo uso on
a laigo scalo jusl yol. ln lho fuluio,
Lionoliic socuiily scans vill Lo
ioulino ovoiyvhoio. Cno of lhoso
scans could involvo a oisons oyos.
1ho alchos of coloi in lho iiis
aiound lho uil can Lo naod,
as can lho nosh of Llood vossols
covoiing lho iolina al lho Lacl of
lho oyoLolh of vhich aio uniguo
lo oach individual. Evon idonlical
lvins lhal shaio idonlical DNA and
sinilai fingoiiinls can Lo lold aail
oasily Ly such a scan. Eyo scannois aio
alioady Loing loslod al sono aiioils.
1rustcd
ccnputcr
a||cucd acccss
thrcuh fircua||
Unauthcri.cd
ccnputcr sstcn
Ccnputcr acccss
||cc|cd | fircua||
Graphic disp|acd |
anti.irus scftuarc tc shcu
that it is |us scannin
Iircua||
^ctucr| cf trian|cs
fc||cus thc shapc cf thc
facc in thrcc dincnsicns
liis scannoi
!rctcctcd
ccnputcr
sstcn
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
52
Living on the net
Toi.v .ixos+ oNi-+nini oi +ni iioiii on Eailhnoaily
2 Lillion oolohavo accoss lo lho lnloinol. 1ho lnloinol vas
sol u lo caiiy infoinalion Lolvoon conulois, Lul ils invonlois
had lilllo idoa of hov il vould chango lho vay lhal oololho
conulois usoislivod. 1hoso nolizons, oi cilizons of lho nol, do
lho sano lhings as oolo vilhoul accoss lo lho nol. 1hoy voil, loain,
sho, and chal vilh lhoii fiionds. 1ho diffoionco is lhal an onlino
conuloi oi hono allovs
lhon lo do all lhis fion
anyvhoionaling il oasy
lo chal vilh a fiiond on
anolhoi conlinonl, go lo
classos in lhoii living
ioons, oi shaio lhoii
viovs vilh nillions
of lilo-nindod oolo.
Ca||crs facc
appcars cn thc
scrccn as shc ta||s
!ncticcn hc|ps ccn.c a
|asic cncticn. na|in thc
intcracticn ncrc pcrscna|
Iacc|cc|
prcfi|c
pac
!M app|icaticn
uindcu shcuin
|ist cf fricnds
IN THE BEGINNING
1ho fiisl onail lo onloy lho sign
vas sonl in 171. Ray 1onlinson
invonlod lho syslon lo sond nossagos
lo any conuloi connoclod lo lho
infanl lnloinol. Eailioi oloclionic
nossagos could nol liavol oulsido
ono nolvoil. 1ho sign vas addod
lo indicalo lo vhich nachino, oi
donain, an onail vas lo Lo sonl.
WEB 2.0
Social nolvoiling voLsilos, such as
lacoLool and Cilul, onaLlo oolo lo
connocl and inloiacl vilh all lhoii fiionds al
onco. MonLois can chooso lo chal iivaloly
oi join in vilh giou discussions. 1his vay of
using lho nol, in vhich ovoiy connunicalion
is channolod lhiough ono syslon, and lho
usois lhonsolvos ioduco lho conlonls of
a silo, is lnovn as WoL 2.. A vili is
anolhoi oxanlo of a WoL 2.
soivico. ll is an infoinalivo
voLsilo lhal can Lo addod
lo oi odilod Ly anyono.
TALK NOW!
lnslanl nossaging (lM) is a vay foi
oolo lo connunicalo lhiough a
conuloi nolvoil in ioal lino. 1his
ionovos lho nood lo vail foi guoslions
and ansvois lo liavol Lacl and foilh.
Foolo havo Loon using lM foi noaily 5
yoais. Al fiisl il voilod only on conulois
on lho sano nolvoil. 1oday, lho lyod
nossagos liavol in lho Llinl of an oyo
lo any conuloi on lho lnloinol. Usois
of lM alicalions, such as MSN
and Yahoo! Mossongoi (lofl), can
connocl only lo nonLois on a
lisl of fiiondsno ono olso can
Lo a ail of lho convoisalions.
Usois in onlino chal ioons,
hovovoi, can connocl lo any
usoi in lhoso chal ioons.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
53
!hcncs tin
cancra prc.idcs
a |i.c .idcc fccd
RSS icon
!nfcrnaticn a|cut
a p|acc cf intcrcst is
disp|acd instant| !ccn indicatcs a p|acc cf
intcrcst cn thc structurc
Sna||cr .idcc
uindcu shcus
uhat thc cthcr
pcrscn is
sccin
STAYING UPDATED
Wilh so nuch lo soo and do on lho lnloinol, nolizons
havo lo voil haid lo slay u lo dalo. A nunLoi of soflvaio
dovoloois havo cioalod lochnology lo hol usois slay
udalod. Roally sinlo syndicalion (RSS) voils foi any silo
caiiying lhis oiango icon. A soflvaio callod a RSS ioadoi
liacls udalos on usois favoiilo voLsilossuch as novs
soivicos and Llogs (oisonal, voL-Lasod logs)and dislays
lhon foi lho usois in lho foin of RSS foodsdynanic lisls
lhal aulonalically udalo lhonsolvos vilh nov ilons on
lho voLsilos. lnsload of having lo soaich foi inloiosling
infoinalion, lho usois can sinlo clicl on vhal calchos
lhoii oyo on an RSS food.
SEE YOU, SEE ME
1ho idoa of sooing lho oison on lho olhoi ond of lho lolohono has alvays inliiguod
oolo. Scionco ficlion sloiios of lho 16s doiclod vidoo honos long Lofoio oolo
had conulois in lhoii honos. Livo vidoo nossagos conlain noio dala lhan a sinlo
voico call, and il vas nol unlil lho 21sl conluiy lhal good gualily vidoos could Lo
nado snall onough lo sond lhiough lho lnloinol guiclly. ll is oasy lo nalo vidoo
calls Lolvoon lvo iFhono 4 dovicos, foi inslanco, using Wi-li lo accoss lho lnloinol.
LEARNING AT A DISTANCE
Loaining on youi ovn is a difficull joL. Having a loachoi
oxlain lhings and ansvoi guoslions has alvays Loon
lho Losl vay of doing il. 1hal usod lo noan lhal oolo
living in ionolo connunilios, fai fion lho noaiosl school,
had lo sond a lol of lino living avay fion hono. 1oday,
voL lochnologios, such as vidoo confoioncing, can cioalo
a classioon vhoiovoi lhoio is a conuloi. Sludonls and
loachois lall via vidoo linls, and honovoil is dolivoiod Ly
onail. ln lho fuluio, il nighl Lo guilo noinal foi loachois
lo givo classos lhioughoul lho day fion acioss lho voild.
AUGMENTED REALITY
An lnloinol connoclion doos nol jusl nalo aclivilios oasioi, il can
also augnonl, oi onhanco, lhon. 1his is osocially liuo of noLilo
dovicos lhal can accoss lho lnloinol, such as snailhonosvhich
can inoinl a usois localion. Augnonlod ioalily alicalions ull
infoinalion fion olsovhoio on lho nol and dislay il as layois on
lo of a canoia inago of lho suiioundings. loi oxanlo, vhon
louiisls oinl lhoii honos al a fanous landnail, lhoy can nol
only soo oxlia dolails aLoul il, Lul alsoas in lhis caso of lho
Eiffol 1ovoi in Faiis, liancosoo lho Losl local ioslauianl,
and ovon doloinino if any fiionds aio noaiLy.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
Virtual worlds
Ix.oiNi niiNo .nii +o ixiioni foigollon iuins in a faiavay
conlinonl, oi Luning acioss lho suifaco of Mais on a duno
Luggy. Conulois loday cioalo voilds lhal soon inciodiLly
ioal, Lul aio ail of viilual ioalily (VR). Viilual noans alnosl,
and in conuloi loins, il iofois lo sonolhing lhal aoais lo
Lo lhoio Lul is cioalod vholly Ly a iogian. Viilual ioalily
nalos ganos soon noio lifolilo and onlino inloiaclions fool
noio ioal, Lul VR has soiious usos, loo. ln 27, a slonach
suigoon in lho US ooialod on a alionl localod lhousands
of nilos avay in Aigonlina! A ioLol nado lho culs and
slilchos. 1hanls lo VR lochnology, lho suigoon could
soo ovoiy dolail of lho alionl, and conliol lho
ioLol lhiough lho lnloinol. Viilual
ioalily nay, in lho fuluio, Locono
ail of ovoiyday lifo.
FEELING EVERY BUMP
Viilual ioalily nol only
cioalos sighls and sounds,
Lul also iosonds lo
lho usois novononls.
Molion doloclois lol
oolo uso lhoii hands
and fool in a VR voild.
1his snovLoaidoi is sooing
a viilual couiso in his visoi
and lho scono changos
vilh ovoiy novo of his
hoad. Using his fool, ho
lills lho Loaid lo slooi,
and il voLLlos vilh ovoiy
viilual Lun and jun.
A VIRTUAL LIFE
Socond Lifo is an onlino VR voild, vhoio anyono can sol u a hono, nalo
nov fiionds, slail a Lusinossoi jusl fly aiound lilo a suoihoio. 1ho
iosidonls of Socond Lifo aio aninalod chaiaclois callod avalais. Moio
lhan 21 nillion avalais havo sliollod aiound Socond Lifo sinco il
vas cioalod in 2`, and nany ioal-voild oiganizalions havo
sol u hoadguailois lhoio. ln 26, lho Boilnan Conloi, a
iosoaich inslilulo lhal sludios lho lnloinol, invilod oxoils lo
discuss viilual ioalilyal a nooling hold in Socond Lifo!
Sinco 26, Socond Lifos giahics havo
Loon sloadily iofinod.
Viscr has scrccns fcr
cach cc. tc i.c a
stcrccsccpic (3-D) .icu
3cr|nan Ccntcr
|ui|din in Scccnd Iifc
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved. (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
SIMULATORS
VR syslons havo Loon ailiculaily usoful as
liaining sinulalois. lnsload of using ioal guns,
soldiois nay iaclico vilh a VR syslonas
shovn hoiovhich loachos lhon lo
iosond in lho iighl vay duiing conLal.
Filols nay also uso VR coclils lo
sinulalo lhoso in lanos foi iaclicing
vhal lo do in onoigoncios lhal aio loo
dangoious lo io-cioalo in ioal lifo. 1ho
coclil iocls and iolls as lho ilol sloois.
Anolhoi sinulaloi ovon luins salollilo
nas of dislanl lanols inlo `-D sconos,
so saco scionlisls can oxloio lhon.
ENTER THE MATRIX
Conuloi-gonoialod voilds havo Loon
oxloiod in sloiios foi yoais. ln lho 1rcn
filns (soo ago `7), hunan usois liavol lo
a digilal voild and Lalllo ovil iogians.
1ho Matrix filns havo lalon lho idoa of
VR sovoial slos fuilhoi. A viilual voild,
callod lho Maliix, is oicoivod as lho ioal
voild Ly onslavod hunans. 1hoy aio jusl
avalais, lol in oidoi Ly lho nachinos.
ln lho novios, hunan ioLols can hacl
inlo lho Maliix and chango ail of ils
iogianning, Londing lho lavs of
hysics accoiding lo lhoii villas
soon hoio. As VR lochnology Loconos
noio lifolilo, lhoio is a dangoi lhal
usois could loso louch vilh ioalily.
!ach a.atar rcprcscnts a
uscr sittin at a ccnputcr in
cnc cf a ranc cf |ccaticns
acrcss thc ucr|d
A.atar can |c nadc tc
|cc| |i|c anthin thc uscr
uants-c.cn an a|icn crcaturc
1ho ioLol Noo (lofl) Lalllos a nachino agonl in 1hc Matrix
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
56
Robots
Pioiii wini ix.oiNiNo x.cniNis lhal did lho voil of hunans
as oaily as 2,4 yoais ago. Hovovoi, Luilding a voiling ioLol
iovod lo Lo difficull unlil lho aiiival of conulois. A ioLols
conuloi Liain can Lo iogiannod lo oifoin a sinlo joL nany
linos ovoi. ln lho 1Ss, ioLols Logan iolacing hunan voilois
in indusliial assonLly linos. Suoisliong ioLol ains nov Luild
cai Lodios nuch fasloi lhan a hunan loan could. Hovovoi, ioLols
aio no good al solving ioLlons. lf an insliuclion is nol in lho
iogian, lhoy cannol oifoin il. Scionlisls aio figuiing oul
vays of naling ioLols noio voisaliloand noio inlolligonl.
LEARNING TOGETHER
Cno vay conuloi scionlisls aio liying lo nalo ioLols noio inlolligonl is
Ly golling lhon lo conolo againsl oach olhoi. Sinco 1, ioLol loans
havo Loon conoling in lho RoLoCu soccoi louinanonl. ln nosl
of lho nalchos, lho loans aio nado u of idonlical ioLols,
and lho conolilion is ovoi hov voll lho ioLols aio
iogiannod lo voil logolhoi in vays lhal Loal
lho olhoi sido. Evon lhough lho ioLols aio
only aLoul 12 in (` cn) lall, and
novo slovly, il is slill oxciling
lo soo lhon ninic
hunan Lohavioi!
BEFORE ROBOTS
1ho idoa lhal ioLols could lighlon
lho voilload of hunans has alvays
insiiod oolo. ln lho 1Ss, Canadian
onginooi Cooigo Mooio dosignod Sloan
Man, a nochanical nachino ovoiod
Ly a sloan ongino, vhich could vall
on lvo logs and vas sliong onough
lo ull cails. Allhough undouLlodly
a slillful ioco of onginooiing, Sloan
Man, lilo olhoi oaily ioLols, vas alnosl
conlololy usoloss Locauso sinloi
nachinos, such as vhoolod vohiclos,
did lho sano joLs Lolloi.
Cancra in hcad
a||cus rc|ct tc
scc and rcact
tc |a|| and ca|
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
57
NO BRAINER
Hunans can novo vilhoul lhinling Ly using a syslon of iofloxos,
oi iosol novononls. ln 1S, scionlisls dosignod lho Conghis
ioLol lo coy lhis syslon. lnsload of having conlial conuloi
conliol, ils insocllilo logs voil indoondonlly, alloving il lo
shufflo foivaid. Each log is connoclod lo lvo nolois voiling
in oosilo diioclions. Whon a log louchos lho giound, il ushos
againsl ono noloi and so is novod Ly lho olhoi. As a iosull
lho ioLols logs sving Lacl and foilhand vall.
WHERE NO MAN HAS GONE
Hunan aslionauls havo only
Loon as fai as lho Moon, vhilo
ioLol oxloiois havo Loon sonl
nuch failhoi, ovon lo olhoi lanols.
Sovoial vhoolod ioLols, oi iovois,
havo oxloiod Mais. 1hoy aio
iogiannod lo lan safo ioulos
lhiough iough giound vilhoul
hunan hol and oguiod vilh diills,
scoos, and liny laLoialoiios foi
analyzing lho iod lanols iocls.
Sinco 24, a NASA iovoi callod
Coilunily has Loon diiving
aiound Mais. ln 21S, a sinilai
iovoi, callod ExoMais, vill Lo
launchod Ly lho Euiooan Saco
Agoncy (ESA) lo soaich foi
signs of lifo on lho lanol.
MILITARY ROBOTS
RoLols aio sonl inlo
lacos lhal aio loo
dangoious foi
hunans, such as
inlo nucloai ioaclois
oi collasod Luildings.
1his ionolo-conliollod ioLol,
callod lho Diagon Runnoi, can dolocl
and disaLlo ninos in vai zonos. ll digs u
lho hiddon oxlosivos vilh a ioLolic ain
and caiiios lhon lo a safo laco. ll is snall and
lighl onough lo caiiy and is oguiod vilh
canoias, niciohonos, and nolion doloclois
lo sy on hoslilo foicos in an aioa.
THE STORY OF ROBOTS
1ho void ioLol conos
fion lho Czoch void rc|cta,
noaning haid voil. ln 12,
Czoch viiloi Kaiol Caol
coinod lho loin in his lay
lillod R.U.R. Sinco lhon, ioLols
havo aoaiod in sloiios, novios,
and on lolovision, oflon dislaying
inlolligonco and aLililios Loyond
lhoso of hunan Loings. 1vo
oulai oxanlos foaluio in
1ransfcrncrs and Star 1rc|-soiios
lhal san lolovision and filn.
BunLloLooa liansfoinoi
ioLolis ail of an alion iaco
callod lho auloLols lhal can
liansfoin inlo cais, vhilo Dala
in Star 1rc| is an andioida
ioLol Luill lo iosonLlo and
acl lilo a hunan Loing.
BunLloLoo
!rcssurc-scnsiti.c
uhis|cr tcuchcs
c|jccts tc hc|p
rc|ct a.cid
c|stac|cs
!nc|incnctcr tc||s
rc|ct uhcn it
ccs uphi|| cr
rc||s sidcuas
jcstic|
ccntrc|s rc|cts
nc.cncnts
Catcrpi||ar trac|s ta|c
rc|ct c.cr rcuh rcund
Cancra rcccrds thc
surrcundins and
a||cus ccntrc||cr tc pic|
tarcts fcr !xcMars
Sc|ar panc|
pcucrs
!xcMars
Mctcr attachcd
tc |c hc|ps rc|ct
nc.c fcruard
Hcat scnscr
dirccts rc|ct
tcuard
scurccs
cf uarnth
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
58
Stronger and better
Tnini is n.niiv .Nv .ni. of hunan hoallh
lhal cannol Lo iniovod Ly conuloiizod
dovicos. 1hoy hol lho visually inaiiod
lo soo, iolaco losl linLs, hol oigans voil
iooily, and can ovon onhanco slionglh.
Bul advancod conulois alono aio nol
onough. Sliong, lighlvoighl naloiials aio
noodod, loo, and foi nany alicalions,
accuialo and officionl nolois. 1ho scionco
of Lionics doals vilh lho inlanlalion of
conuloiizod dovicos inlo lho Lody,
Lul ioLolics also lays a ail Ly
ioviding nochanical caiogivois,
nuisos, and ovon suigoons.
A STEADY BEAT
liisl usod in 15S, aconalois aio inlanlod
oloclionic dovicos lhal suly iogulai ulsos
of olocliicily lo lho hoail, coiiocling lho
iiiogulai ihylhns of danagod hoails.
Modoin aconalois conlain niciochis
lhal can liacl lho hoailLoal and
aulonalically adjusl lho ulsos
sonl lo lho hoail duiing
aclivilios such as oxoiciso
oi hoavy lifling. Doclois
can uso iadio linls lo
adjusl aconalois
fion oulsido lho
Lody if noodod.
A HELPING ARM
1ho nosl advancod ailificial linLs conlain niciochis
lhal can Lo conliollod Ly lho usois Liain. 1his LasoLall
layois noivos aio connoclod lo lho viios of lho
ailificial linL, alloving hin lo givo insliuclions
diioclly vilh his Liain lo lhiov lho Lall. Sonsois
in lho hand sond foodLacl aLoul osilion and
iossuio lo lho Liain lhiough lho noivos,
holing lho usoi judgo hov
haid his ailificial hand is
giiing lho Lall.
I|csh-
cc|crcd
prcsthctic
arn
COMPUTERS THAT CARE
ln nany ails of lho voild, lho nunLoi of
oldoily oolo is iaidly incioasing and nany
of lhon nood lo Lo caiod foi. 1hoio is an
incioasod donand foi caiogivois, vhich is nol
Loing nol. Bul conuloiizod assislanco is nov al
handioLols, such as lho Rollin Juslin shovn hoio,
can oifoin voiy sinlo housohold lasls oi hol
oolo novo aiound lhoii honos. 1hoy can also
iovido conany, as ols do. Hovovoi, iolacing
hunan holois vilh ioLols also noans lhal oldoily
oolo vill Locono noio isolalod fion socioly
lhan lhoy alioady aio. RoLols aio nol a gioal
suLslilulo foi hunan fiiondshi.
Iincr is c|csc|
ncdc|cd cn
hunan fincr
Cancra trac|s
nc.in c|jccts
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
5
Artificia|
rctina
ccnncctcd
tc cptic ncr.c
Scft-cndcd
c|anp
a||cus fcr a
cnt|c rip
Mctcr nc.cs
jcint tc
prccisc an|cs
Hcadrcst Ccnputcr scrccn disp|as
|ists cf ucrds that arc
sc|cctcd | Hau|in and
spc|cn | spccch snthcsi.cr
Icctrcst
SEEING WITH A NEW EYE
1ho iolina linos lho Lacl of lho oyo, and ils
funclion is lo convoil lho lighl lhal onlois
lhiough lho uil inlo liny olocliical signals.
1hoso signals liavol along lho olic noivo
lo lho Liainalloving us lo soo. Whon
danago oi disoaso inloifoios vilh lhis
iocoss, niciochis can sonolinos Lo
inlanlod insido lho oyo. Ralhoi lhan
changing lighl lo olocliicily, lhoso ailificial
iolinas iocoivo signals fion oxloinal canoias,
vhich aio lhon usod lo liiggoi inulsos in
lho olic noivo. 1o lho usoi, il soons as if lho
canoia inul is coning fion lho oyo ilsolf.
ENABLING PEOPLE
Tho Biilish scionlisl Slohon Havling, vho has
alnosl no conliol of his Lody and cannol soal,
is aLlo lo voil and connunicalo lhanls lo
lochnology. A sonsoi lianslalos liny novononls
of his chool inlo olocliical signals lhal conliol a
sooch synlhosizoia dovico lhal gonoialos an
ailificial voico. Allhough iniovod synlhosizois
havo sinco Loon dovolood, Havling has
docidod nol lo ugiado his, Locauso
ho fools ils voico is nov his ovn.
SUPER STRENGTH
Conuloiizod nachinos
can do noio lhan iolaco
losl hunan funclions.
Exoslololons, such as
lhis iololyo, conLino
lho onoinous slionglh of
nachinos vilh lho dolicacy
and fino conliol of hunan
linLs. Usois sinly novo lhoii
hands and ains as lhoy usually
do, and conuloiizod sonsois in
lho oxoslololon dolocl lhoso
aclions, naling lho oxoslololon
novo in lho sano vay via a
soiios of iods and nolois.
1hoio aio nany aioas
vhoio oxoslololons
could Lo usod, such
as ioscuo ooialions
vhoio hoavyyol
iocisolifling
is ioguiiod.
HEARING COLOR
Foolo vilh inaiiod sonsos can onhanco
lhoii ionaining sonsos vilh conuloiizod
hol. ln lho oyoLoig, oloclionic sonsois
in lho dovico dolocl diffoionl colois and
lhoii alloins, oach inago liiggoiing a
dislincl sound. By loaining vhich sound
is associalod vilh vhich inago, visually
inaiiod usois can iocognizo lho oLjocls
and sconos aiound lhon. Using lho dovico
ioguiios no suigoiylho usoi jusl voais a
sinlo hoad-nounlod holdoi. Ailisl Noil
HaiLinsson usos lho oyoLoig lo cioalo
sound ainlings of lacos and oolo.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
60
SWARM INTELLIGENCE
Sinco conulois havo nol yol
nalchod hunan Liain ovoi,
scionlisls aio oxloiing olhoi
foins of inlolligonco. 1ho
SynLiion iojocl consisls of a
svain of liny ioLols lhal can
connocl logolhoi. 1ho ioLols
lnov and iononLoi oach olhois
localions, conslanlly loaining
hov lo aiiango lhonsolvos
inlo laigoi sliucluios lo novo
aiound oLslaclos. 1aclling
lhis lasl logolhoi indicalos a
Lasic foin of vhal is callod
svain inlolligonco.
Artificial intelligence
Ix.oiNi . wonii wnini x.cniNis havo iolacod hunan voilois.
Conuloi-conliollod ioLols do lalo lho laco of oolo loday in sono
fiolds, lifling hoavy cai conononls oi dofusing LonLs. Hovovoi,
nosl of lhon follov a sliicl iogian oi ioguiio hunan suoivision.
1hoy aio nol inlolligonl onough lo lhinl foi lhonsolvos. Machinos
lhal havo ailificial inlolligonco (Al) aio iogiannod lo loain lo do
jusl lhal. Sono Al iogians uso conlox nalhonalics lo solvo
ioLlons lhal do nol havo a singlo ansvoi, vhilo Al loys can loain
voids and iooal lhon. Hovovoi, no conuloi Liain can yol nalch
lho inlolligonco of lho hunan Liain, vhich voils in noio floxiLlo
vays lhan lodays nosl advancod conulois. Scionlisls aio nol ovon
suio hov lho hunan Liain lhinls, so Al iogiannois aio conslanlly
having lo find nov vays of Luilding snail nachinos.
THE TURING TEST
ln 15, Alan 1uiing suggoslod a sinlo
losl lo chocl a conulois inlolligonco.
1ho losl conaios an Al conuloi
vilh a hunan. Bolh aio in soaialo
ioons, vhilo a socond hunanlho
inloiiogaloiasls guoslions fion a
lhiid ioon. lf lho inloiiogaloi cannol
dislinguish Lolvoon lho hunan and
lho conuloi on lho Lasis of lho
ansvois, lho nachino has assod
lho losl. No conuloi has yol
foolod a hunan inloiiogaloi.
AN ARTIFICIAL BRAIN
A lyo of Al soflvaio callod an ailificial nouial nolvoil (ANN) ninics hov lho
hunan Liain usos ils Liain colls, oi nouions, lo loain. 1o liain an ANN, iogiannois
givo il lols of oxanlos of a lasl, such as dislinguishing Lolvoon nalo and fonalo
facos, Lul also loll il lho ansvoi lo oach ono. ll loains lho iulos lo loll facos aail Ly
adjusling lho sollings in ils niddlo layoi of ailificial nouions lo gol lho iighl ansvoi.
1hon il can aly vhal il has loainod lo idonlify lho gondoi of nov facos Ly ilsolf.
EVIL AI
Al conulois foaluio hoavily in
scionco ficlion, voiy oflon in lho iolo
of a villain. ln lho 1crninatcr novios,
lho Al syslon Slynol viovs hunanily
as a lhioal and cioalos an ainy of ioLols
callod loininaloissuch as lho ono
shovn on lho lofllo doslioy all
hunans. 1his idoa of a nachino
lhal can lhinl and fool foi ilsolf
is fascinaling, yol fiighloning.
lf scionco can, ono day, cioalo
an Al nachino lilo lhis,
lhon vill oolo Lo
aLlo lo conliol il`
Whcc| hc|ps
rc|ct nc.c
Cutput
ncurcn
rcpcrts
na|c' cr
fcna|c' facc
!nput ncurcn
fccds in facc data
^curcn frcn nidd|c
|acr pcrfcrns
ccnputaticn
Rcp| frcn hunan
Rcp| frcn
ccnputcr
Mu|tirc|ct fcrncd
| ccnncctcd rc|cts
nc.cs as cnc unit
C|stac|c that
nccds tc |c crcsscd
Nolvoil of nouions Ailificial nouial nolvoil
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
61
LEARNING LIKE A HUMAN
Cog vas a ioLol Luill in lho 1s al lho
Massachusolls lnslilulo of 1ochnology (Ml1).
Cog vas iogiannod lo sonso lho voild in lho sano
vay as hunans. Scionlisls hood lhal lhis vould allov
Cog lo loain aLoul lhings nuch lilo a snall child doos.
1his ioLol vas Luill lo lool lilo a hunan, vilh a hoad
and ains, naling il oasioi foi oolo lo inloiacl vilh il.
Cog could luin ils hoad lovaid sounds, lool al oLjocls
vilh ils canoia oyos, and icl lhon u vilh ils
louch-sonsilivo hands. By shoving Cog a
Lall and saying lho void Lall, scionlisls
could loach il lo iocognizo a Lall. 1his
vasnl ionailaLlo in ilsolf, Lul an Al
nachino lhal Logan lo loain in lhis
vay could oihas ono day
nalch hunan inlolligonco.
ROBOT CHAMPION
Cno day lho 1CFlC ioLol nighl Lo a iofossional ing-ong
layoi, Loaling hunan oononls. lls Violnanoso dosignois havo
givon il a Lody lhal can lvisl and sving in ` diffoionl vays
and oyos lhal can follov fasl-noving Lalls. Hovovoi, 1oio slill
noods lo iaclico lilo a hunan soilsoison. lls Al iogian
iononLois ovoiy Lall Lounco and addlo sving and
usos lho dala lo loain hov lo lay Lolloi.
AI OR NOT?
1ho idoa of a nachino lhal can
lhinl is nol a nov ono, and
lhoio aio nany oxanlos of
nachinos lhal havo al loasl
aoaiod inlolligonl. 1ho
Mochanical 1uil, Luill in
177, anazod lho voild
Ly aoaiing lo Lo aLlo lo
layand Loaloolo al
choss. Hovovoi, in lho 1S2s,
il vas iovoalod lhal lho 1uil
vas a hoaxallhough an
ingonious ono. A hunan
layoi vas hiddon in lho Lox,
conliolling lho 1uils novononls.
Mctcr fcr |cft cc
Mctcr fcr riht cc
Hcad sui.c|s cn
ncc| and can |cc|
up and dcun
1crsc franc
Iincr scnscs
prcssurc uhcn
tcuchin c|jcct
Mcchanica| hand
can rasp c|jccts
Cancra hc|ps
cc tc fccus
cn c|jccts
1ho Mochanical 1uil
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
62
Tomorrows computers
MoviNo onic+s nv +noUon+, nicoxiNo iNvisinii, oi Luilding ioLols
loo snall lo Lo sollod Ly lho hunan oyo, aio idoas lhal havo fascinalod
scionco ficlion viilois. Hovovoi, scionlisls loday aio dovoloing conulois
lhal vill soon nalo lhoso idoas a ioalily. Conulois aio Loconing snalloi,
yol noio ovoiful. Rosoaichois Loliovo lhal sono fuluio conulois nay
calculalo using lighl, nol olocliicily, insido lhoii CFU. Clhois nay Lo
conliollod Ly Liain vavos, and yol olhois nay ovon lhinl foi lhonsolvos!
Cnco lho Lonofils of nov lochnologios aio voll oslaLlishod, consunois vill
donand lhon. 1his vill oncouiago conanios lo dovolo lhon fuilhoi,
naling lhon choaoi in lho iocossholing lo chango oui livos.
ROBO SEE, ROBO DO
1his ioLolic faco canl soal, Lul il can slill connunicalo.
ll usos facial oxiossions insload, jusl lilo hunans do, and il
can iosond lo hunan facos, loo. NonvoiLal inloiaclion can Lo
nuch Lolloi and guicloi lhan using voids foi connunicaling
foolings, sinco nany foolings shaio lho sano facial oxiossions
in diffoionl languagos and culluios. Kisnol, as lhis syslon is
callod, can also analyzo lho lonos of hunan voicos and voil
oul vhich onolions nay lio Lohind lhon. 1ochnology lilo lhis
nay hol Luild ioLols lhal can loain lo connunicalo
vilh oolo vilhoul lho nood lo Lo iogiannod.
AT MY FINGERTIPS
Augnonlod ioalily
lochnologyvhich adds layois of
infoinalion on lo of oLjocls in lho
ioal voildcould chango lho vay
conulois iovido infoinalion. ln salial
augnonlod ioalily (SAR) dislays, such as
lho nocl-u dislay shovn on lho lofl, a
canoia vould liacl a usois novononls,
fooding lho dala inlo a conuloi. 1his vould
voil oul vhal lho usoi is oinling loin
lhis caso, lho sly Liidgo of lho Folionas
1ovois in Kuala Lunui, Malaysia. 1ho
syslon vould lhon iojocl infoinalion
aLoul lho foaluio on lo lho vindov.
NANOBOTS
A nanoLol is a
liny ioLol, nuch loo
snall lo soo. NanoLols
could Lo ioducod lo
oifoin nodical lasls
insido lho Lody, such as
doslioying cancoi colls and iidding
lho Lloodslioan of dangoious Lacloiia.
1hoy could also Lo iogiannod lo
solf-iolicalo, ioducing liillions lhal
could Lioal dovn nassivo oil sills al
lho soa. Wo alioady havo lho lochnology
lo Luild nachinos only .4 in
(.1 nn) acioss, lhough so fai
lhoy aio sinly colloclions of goais.
^anc|ct
hcad ccntains
scnscrs tc dctcct
discasc-causin
cranisn
Micrccranisn
jau nc.cncnt can
ninic a hunan jau
uhcn spca|in
Raiscd cc|rcu
ninics hunan
cxprcssicn cf surprisc
Arn cnds in rapp|in
dc.icc tc hc|d
nicrccranisn
!ar
nc.cncnt
indicatcs
surprisc
!c nc.cs tc
|cc| at pcrscn thc
rc|ct fccuscs cn
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
63
MIND OVER MATTER
1houghls aio olocliical inulsos in lho Liain, sono of vhich can Lo doloclod
Ly sonsois lacod on lho scal. By voiling oul lho olocliical alloins
associalod vilh ailiculai lhoughls, lho Liain could Lo usod lo conliol
diffoionl gadgolssuch as iunning a noloi-conliollod fan lo lovilalo a
Lall, as shovn aLovo. So fai, il is nol ossiLlo lo ioad lhoughls, Lul lovols of
Liain aclivily and ails of lho Liain associalod vilh coilain lyos of nonlal
iocossos can Lo voilod oul. So, foi inslanco, lo svilch on a dovico, lho usoi
nighl havo lo inagino a Liighl lighl ialhoi lhan lho hiaso svilch on.
REINVENTING THE TAPE
Conulois aio sloiing ovoi noio dala as lhoii
lasls Locono noio donanding. Digilal lao, usod
foi docados, has hugo sloiago caacily, Lul il is
inconvonionl Locauso of lho nood lo vind and
unvind. Clical lao could Lo lho ansvoi. 1his
liny ioll sloios 1 CB, Lul il is liansaionl, so
a lasoi can ioach doo inlo ilLy changing ils
dolh of focuslo sloio oi ioliiovo dala fion any
ail of lho lao. 1ho lasoi viilos dala Ly changing
lho olical iooilios of ninulo oilions, oi unils,
of lho lao, nodifying lho vay lho unils Lond lighl.
HELPFUL HOMES
Building ioLols lo lool afloi oui honos
is a voiy challonging lasl. An
alloinalivo aioach is lo
Luild honos lhal lool afloi
lhonsolvos insload, using
snail funclions. Snail
honos could Lo nado of
solf-cloaning naloiials,
such as glass lhal iools
diil. Walls could shov
oxloiioi viovs oi dislanl
landscaos, oi voil as 1V
scioons. 1hoso honos vould Lo
full of dovicos lhal could Lo iun Ly
a univoisal conliolloi such as lhis ono.
HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT
Conuloi-conliollod snail clolhos vill ono day Lo aLlo lo ioacl
lo lho suiiounding lonoialuio, looing lho voaioi vain oi
cool, and also chango coloi oi alloin on connand. By oguiing
such clolhos vilh a sol of canoias, lhoy could also Lo nado lo
dislay a ioal-lino inago of lho scono Lohind lho voaioilho
offocl vould Lo lo nalo lho voaioi liansaionlas in lho caso
of lhis iololyo jaclol. lf lho clolhing covoiod lho hoad and
hands, loo, lho voaioi vould Locono invisiLloalnosl.
Gcar nc.cncnt
ccntrc|s nanc|ct arns
Lasoi viiling olical dala
onlo adhosivo lao
Modol of
inaginaiy nanoLol
Suitch tc chanc
intcnsit cf |iht in
diffcrcnt rccns
!ccns a||cu acccss tc
diffcrcnt adcts in a
particu|ar part cf hcusc
lan lovilalos Lall
in Mindf|cx loy
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
64
History of computing
CoxiU+ins n.vi iiviioiii iN w.vs lhal lhoii
invonlois could novoi havo anlicialod and havo
Locono nunoious and vidosioad in jusl a fov
docados. 1ho lnloinol is lho laigosl nolvoil of
conulois and has connoclod oolo unlilo anylhing
Lofoio. Conulois havo liansfoinod lho livos of usois
all ovoi lho voildin lho vay vo can voil, shaio
lnovlodgo, connunicalo, and ovon lay, using a
gioving aiiay of ovoiful consolos and lifolilo ganos.
14
15
145 MEMEX
Vannovai Bush ioosos
MEMEXa syslon lo iocoid
docunonls on liny hologiahs
foi localing lhon guicllyan
idoa lhal influoncos lho voL.
The Internet
1ho uigo lo connocl
vilh oolo ovoi long
dislancos, guiclly and
in lho choaosl vay
ossiLlo, has lod lo
nany gioal invonlions.
1hoso includo lho
inloinalional nolvoil
of conulois callod
lho lnloinol, and lho
syslon il iunslho
voild vido voL.
Enginooi Vannovai Bush
178 SPACE INVADERS
Spacc !n.adcrs is launchod.
ll guiclly Loconos oulai
in vidoo gano aicados.
16
1 17 15
151 WHIRLWIND
1ho Whiilvind
conuloi is dovolood
as a flighl sinulaloi. ll
is lho fiisl conuloi
vilh an inloiaclivo
vidoo dislay.
172 PONG LAUNCHED
!cn, an oloclionic voision of
ing-ong (laLlo lonnis) goos
on salo. ll is lho fiisl conuloi
gano lo onjoy vido oulaiily.
162 SPACEWAR!
Spaccuar| is ioloasod
Lul nol alonlod. ll
is vidoly coiod and
influoncos nany laloi
conuloi ganos.
Gaming
Choss vas ono of lho fiisl ganos lhal oaily conulois
could lay. Usois of lho lino vould havo Loon
anazod al lho vasl iango and onoinous oulaiily
of conuloi ganos nov availaLlo. Dodicalod ganing
dovicos callod consolos nov havo lho iocossing
ovoi nocossaiy lo iun fasl, dolailod `-D giahics.
Saco
lnvadois
Fong
1S 1S2 1SS
1S1 1S 1S`
1822 DIFFERENCE ENGINE
BaLLago dosigns lho Diffoionco Enginoa
nochanical calculaloi. Ho oxlonds his idoas lo
iooso lho Analylical Engino, vhich vould
havo Loon lho fiisl conuloi, had il Loon Luill.
1886 TABULATING MACHINE
Holloiilhs laLulaling
nachino ioads unch caids
aulonalically. lls lochnology
vill Lo usod lo inul dala inlo
nany oaily conulois.
Computers
1ho idoa of a conuloi, and
nany of lho loy invonlions
ioguiiod lo Luild ono, voio
dovolood long Lofoio lho
fiisl conulois voio Luill
in lho 14s. Sinco lhon,
conulois havo advancod
iaidly, Loconing voiy
oulai in lho iocoss.
1801 JACQUARD'S LOOM
Josoh Maiio Jacguaids
loon usos unch caids
lhal dofino lho alloins
il voavos, naling il lho
fiisl iogiannaLlo dovico.
Foolo vill laloi uso unch
caids as inul dovicos foi
conulois.
Jacguaids loon
Fiololyo of
Diffoionco Engino
Holloiilhs
laLulaling nachino
Vacuun luLo
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
65
16 1S 2
21
17 1
160 SABRE
lBM sols u lho SABRE
iosoivalion syslon foi
Anoiican Aiilinos, lho
fiisl syslon lo iocoss
dala ovoi a nolvoil.
16 ARPANET
Enginoois cioalo lho ARFANE1
in lho US lhal vill laloi dovolo
inlo lho lnloinol.
171 FIRST EMAIL
1ho fiisl onail is sonl Lolvoon
conuloi nolvoils. 1ho chaiacloi
soaialos lho nano of lho usoi
fion lho iosl of lho addioss.
17 GOOGLE
Cooglo is launchod. ll vill
soon Locono ono of lho voilds
nosl oulai soaich onginos.
10 WWW
1ho fiisl connunicalion ovoi lho
voild vido voL lalos laco al lho
laLoialoiy of lho Euiooan Conloi foi
Nucloai Rosoaich, also callod CERN.
13 MOSAIC
1ho Mosaic Liovsoi is
launchod. ll is oasy lo
uso and handlo and suis
lho oulaiily of lho voL.
2004 FACEBOOK
Social nolvoiling voLsilo
lacoLool is launchod. By
oaily 211, il has noio
lhan 6 nillion usois.
2006 TWITTER
Foulai nicioLlogging silo 1villoi
is launchod. Usois can osl shoil
nossagos on il callod lvools.
lacoLool
logo
CRAY-1
suoiconuloi
iFad
Cooglo logo
SABRE lochnicians
S 2 21 1
2005 XBOX 360
Miciosofls XLox `6
consolo is ioloasod.
By oaily 211, il
solls noio lhan
5 nillion unils.
2006 WII
Ninlondo launchos Wii,
vhich includos a oinling
dovico lhal dolocls nolion
in lho usois aclions and
usos lhon as inul.
180 PACMAN
is ioloasod and
guiclly Loconos ono of
lho nosl oulai aicado
ganos. Many voisions
vill Lo dovolood ovoi
lho noxl docados.
188 MEGA DRIVE
1ho Soga Moga
Diivo vidoo gano
consolo is ioloasod.
ll vill Lo oulai
foi nany yoais.
2010 KINECT
Miciosofl ioloasos
Kinocl, vhich usos a
canoia syslon lo inul
hunan novononls
and sooch.
14 PLAYSTATION
Sony launchos lho
FlaySlalion, a highly
succossful consolo, vhich
can Lo usod lo lay
CDs as voll as ganos.
185 GAMEBOY
Ninlondos
handhold consolo
callod CanoLoy
goos on salo. ll
solls 1 nillion
unils in ono
nonlh in lho US.
Fac-Man
FlaySlalion
XLox `6
Ninlondo Wii
12 14 16 1S 2
21 17 1 15 1` 11
106 VACUUM TUBE
John AnLioso lloning invonls
lho vacuun luLo, lho fiisl
aclivo oloclionic conononl.
ll vill laloi Lo loy lo lho fiisl
gonoialion of conulois.
118 ECCLESJORDAN
TRIGGER CIRCUIT
1ho EcclosJoidan
liiggoi ciicuil is
alonlod. ll is lho
fiisl oloclionic sloiago
dovico caaLlo of
holding an oloclionic
oguivalonl of a zoio
oi a ono. 1ho idoa vill
laloi Locono lho Lasis
of all conuloi nonoiy.
143 COLOSSUS
Biilish onginoois
Luild Colossus, a
gianl, iogiannaLlo
vacuun-luLo calculaloi. ll
hols Lioal onony codos
duiing Woild Wai ll.
141 Z3
Koniad Zuso
conlolos lho
Z`, lho voilds
fiisl aulonalic
iogiannaLlo
conuloi. lnsload
of valvos, il usos
oloclionagnolic
svilchos
callod iolays.
147 TRANSISTOR
1ho liansisloi is invonlod and doos
lho sano joL as a vacuun luLo, Lul
is snalloi, fasloi, and noio ioliaLlo.
176 APPLE 1
1ho Alo 1 lil conuloi is ioloasod. ll is
follovod Ly nany olhoi nachinos, naling Alo
ono of lho voilds laigosl conuloi conanios.
171 MICROPROCESSOR
lnlol 44, lho fiisl connoicial
nicioiocossoi, goos on salo. ll
oifoins nosl of lho funclions
of a CFU, vhich noans
conulois Locono
nuch snalloi
and choaoi.
2010 APPLE IPAD
Alo launchos a laLlol conuloi, lho
iFad, vhich incoioialos nosl funclions
of a lalo. lunclions can Lo addod lo il
Ly using as fion an onlino sloio.
184 APPLE MAC
1ho fiisl oulai
conuloi vilh a
giahical usoi inloifaco
(CUl) is ioloasod.
176 CRAY1
1ho CRAY-1 suoiconuloi is inslallod
al Los Alanos Nalional LaLoialoiy.
ll noods a social cooling syslon lo
iolocl il fion lho hoal ioducod Ly
ils ooialions.
181 IBM'S PC
lBMs oisonal conuloi (FC) goos
on salo. ll Loconos ono of lho nosl
oulai lyos of conuloi.
lnlol
nicioiocossoi
62 nilos
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
66
Computers in numbers
Tni wonii oi coxiU+ins is .ii .noU+ laigo nunLois.
1hoio aio ovoi 1 Lillion oisonal conulois in lho voild,
and oach ono can hold lho sano anounl of infoinalion
as lhousands of Lools and liansfoi il lo olhoi
conulois al a ialo of sovoial Lools oi socond.
Cvoi lho yoais, lho nunLoi and ovoi of
conulois has giovn iaidlylhoio aio
noio lhan 1 linos as nany oisonal
conulois in 211 as lhoio voio in 171.
A BYTESIZED WORLD
Conulois sloio dala as unils of infoinalion
lnovn as Lilsshoil foi Linaiy digils. A Lil
can havo only lvo ossiLlo valuoszoio oi
ono. Eighl Lils nalo ono Lylo, vhich can
sloio a singlo chaiacloi of loxl oi a singlo
nunoial. Cno liloLylo (1 KB) is nol 1,
Lylos, Lul 1,24. 1his is Locauso conulois
donl counl in 1,s, Lul in Linaiy. A
conuloi can viilo lho nunLois 1,2`
vilh 1 digils in Linaiy (1,2` in Linaiy is
1111111111). 1o viilo 1,24, il vould nood
an olovonlh digil, naling 1.
ll oiganizos ils dala Ly allocaling dala lo
nonoiy slols in nullilos of 1,24 foi
lhis ioason. 1his idoa is lho sano al lho
noxl lovols, vhoio 1 nogaLylo is 1,24 KB,
and so on. Soon, oui conuloi alicalions
vill Lo using olaLylos (oi 1,24 FB),
lhon oxaLylos, zollaLylos, and
yollaLylosoach 1,24 linos
laigoi lhan lho lasl.
HELLO WORLD
Allhough il lool lhon sovoial yoais lo calch on,
coll honos havo giovn iaidly in oulaiily ovoi
lho lasl fov docados. lnilially, lho laigosl giovlh vas
in lho dovolood voild. ln ioconl yoais, lho naxinun
giovlh in lho uso of coll honos has Loon soon in lho
dovoloing voild. Hoio, lho oulalion is gioving
fasloi, and solling-u noLilo connoclions is nuch
choaoi lhan consliucling land-Lasod nolvoils.
Dovoloing voild Dovolood voild
Yoai 21, 5.` Lillion usois
Yoai 2,
71 nillion usois
A SOCIAL WEB
1ho invonlion of lho voL in
1 has allovod oolo lo
connunicalo oasily vilh oach olhoi
acioss lho gloLo. Social nolvoiling
voLsilos, such as lacoLool, MySaco,
and Cilul, allov oolo lo slay
connoclod vilh fiionds, nool nov oolo,
lay ganos, and shaio icluios and vidoos.
1his na shovs lho nosl oulai social
nolvoiling voLsilos in diffoionl ails
of lho voild. Local social nolvoils aio
oulai in sono ails of lho voild. 1his
is nainly Locauso oolo find il oasioi
lo connunicalo vilh lhoii fiionds in
lhoii ovn languago. Bul vilh lho
dovolononl of aulonalic languago
lianslalion soflvaio, lho oulaiily of
lhoso local voLsilos nay Login lo vano.
1 Lil
1 Lylo (S Lils)
1 liloLylo,
oi KB
(1,24 Lylos)
1
nogaLylo,
oi MB
(1,24 KB)
1 gigaLylo, oi CB
(1,24 MB)
1 loiaLylo,
oi 1B
(1,24 CB)
Yoai 25, 2.2 Lillion usois
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
67
RACING ONLINE
lion counliy lo counliy, infoinalion flovs
ovoi lho lnloinol al voiy diffoionl soods. ln lalo
2, lho loadoi in loins of sood vas Jaan.
1ho lnloinol sood vas so fasl in Jaan lhal an
S-nogaLylo filo could Lo dovnloadod in jusl
ovoi a socond. 1ho ioason foi Jaans fasl lnloinol
sood is lho govoinnonls villingnoss lo invosl
in lochnologios foi inioving lho ialo of
dala liansfoi. Conaiod lo Jaan,
lho US and UK lag fai Lohind.
THE LAW OF THE COMPUTER
Evoi sinco lho inlogialod ciicuil vas invonlod in 15S, lho
nunLoi of liansislois lhal can Lo ciannod onlo a chi
(a ninialuiizod inlogialod ciicuil) has ioughly douLlod
ovoiy lvo yoais. Coidon E. Mooio, a foundoi of lnlol
Coioialion, connonlod on lhis lind of liond in 165.
Allhough ho viongly iodiclod lho incioaso vould Lo
lvico as fasl in lho fuluio, lho douLling-ovoiy-lvo-yoais
iulo has Locono lnovn as Mooios Lav. ll is nov so voll
accolod lhal conuloi conanios lan fuluio ioducls
Lasod on lhis assunlion. 1ho sizos of liansislois
conlinuo lo fall. lf Mooios Lav holds liuo, lhon Ly
22, conulois nay Lo using liansislois lho sizo
of noloculoslho liny unils lhal nalo u nalloi!
Yoai
S
6
2
2.2
4
1.S
2
1.6
N
u
n
L
o
i

o
f

o
i
s
o
n
a
l

c
o
n

u
l
o
i
s

1.4
1.2
1
1 15 2 25 21 215
1.2
Lillion`
noio lhan
2 Lillion`
COMPUTER GROWTH
Fiodicling lho fuluio is liicly, osocially vhoio conulois aio
concoinod. Many oolo in lho asl clainod lhal lhoio vas no
ioason vhy oolo vould vanl conulois in lhoii honos. 1hoso
oolo and lhoii Loliofs voio iovon viong and lho nunLoi of
oisonal conulois giov fion 11 nillion in 1 lo noio lhan
1 Lillion in 21. Evon loday, oolo aio unsuio if lhis Loon vill
conlinuo. Sono Loliovo lhal lho giovlh in conuloi nunLois
vill soon slov Locauso nosl oolo vill alioady ovn conulois.
Clhois, hovovoi, iodicl lhal lho nunLoi
of conulois vill conlinuo lo
iiso dianalically.
lacoLool
Diaugion
Cilul
V Konlallo
Hyvos
QZono
Cdnollassnili
Zing
MallooL
Mixi
ClooL No Dala
Jaan
61 MLs
Soulh Koioa
46 MLs
linland
22 MLs
Svodon
1S.2 MLs
lianco
17.6 MLs

N
u
n
L
o
i

o
f

C
o
o
g
l
o

s
o
a
i
c
h
o
s

1
2
`
4
5
6
7
S

1
HOT TOPICS
Cooglingsoaiching foi
infoinalion on Cooglos soaich
onginois an inloinalional
haLil. Each soaich causos a snall
anounl of hoal lo Lo ioducod
in lho nain Cooglo soivois, Lul
hov snall is snall` Accoiding
lo Cooglo, lhis anounl is aLoul
1 lilojoulo of hoal onoigylho
oxanlos on lho iighl aio Lasod
on lhis oslinalo. ln addilion lo
lhis, noio hoal is gonoialod
Ly lho usois conuloi
and lho caLlos
lhal linl il lo lho
Cooglo conulois.
1 Cooglo soaichos
gonoialos hoal in Cooglos
soivois oguivalonl lo lho
onoigy usod in iiding a
Lilo foi 2` ninulos
5 Cooglo soaichos
gonoialos hoal
oguivalonl lo a hoail
Loaling foi 7 houis
1.`
Lillion
11
nillion
2`5
nillion
5
nillion
SS
nillion
Cno Cooglo soaich
gonoialos hoal oguivalonl
lo lho onoigy ioloasod
Ly a 1-vall LulL
in 1 soconds
!rcjcctcd cstinatcs fcr thc
nun|cr cf ccnputcrs in 201
ranc frcn a cauticus 1.2 |i||icn
tc ncrc than 2 |i||icn
1iansisloi
n
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
L
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Glossary
Bluoloolh
hoadsol foi
coll hono
Digilal canoia
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Conuloi inlolligonco cioalod Ly iogians
lhal allov conulois lo nalo docisions and
loain on lhoii ovn.
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
A conuloi iogian lhal is sol u lo loain hov
lo iosond lo inul in a vay sinilai lo hov lho
Liain colls, oi nouions, voil.
AVATAR
1ho giahical ioiosonlalion of a hunan
usoi in a viilual onviionnonl, such as a
foiun, chal ioon, oi viilual-ioalily voild.
1ho void is doiivod fion lho ancionl
Sansliil void foi incainalion.
BINARY
A nunLoi syslon, also lnovn as Laso lvo, lhal
usos only s and 1s. 1ho Linaiy codo usod Ly
conulois iolalos lo lho on and off osilions
of oloclionic svilchos in a nicioiocossoi.
BIT
Shoil foi Linaiy digil, Lil slands foi ono digil
in a conuloi codo. Eaily conulois accolod
a 4-Lil codo, vilh jusl foui Linaiy digils in
oach lino. Modoin conuloi iocossois aio
64-Lil and can handlo 64-digil codos.
BLOG
Shoil foi voL log, iofoiiing lo a diaiy oi
oisonal accounls uLlishod on lho voL.
BLUETOOTH
A shoil-iango iadio syslon lhal connocls
conulois, lolohonos, and nany
olhoi dovicos.
BOTNET
A nolvoil of nany conulois,
connoclod lhiough lho
lnloinol, vhich is undoi
lho conliol of ono
oison, vho is
oflon a hacloi,
callod a hoidoi.
BROWSER
An alicalion usod lo viov lho conlonls of lho
voild vido voL. 1ho Liovsoi sonds oul ioguosls
foi voL agos lo lnloinol soivois, vhich localo
lho filos and sond lhon Lacl lo lho Liovsoi.
BUG
A nislalo in a iogian lhal slos il fion
voiling oi nalos il voil incoiioclly.
CALCULATOR
A nachino lhal oifoins nalhonalical
calculalions.
CGI
Shoil foi conuloi-gonoialod inagoiy, CCl
iofois lo lho social visual offocls usod in ganing
and novios, anong olhoi alicalions.
CLIENTSERVER
A vay of solling u a nolvoil lhal usos conlial
conulois (soivois) lo nanago liaffic ovoi lho
nolvoil and sloio filos. lilos and alicalions
aio lhon disliiLulod lo clionl conuloislho
onos oolo usoon ioguosl.
COMPUTER
A dovico lhal can iocoivo and sloio infoinalion
and givo a iosonso vhon ioguiiod, vhilo
folloving a iogiana sol of insliuclions.
COMPUTER VIRUS
A ioco of nalicious soflvaio, oi nalvaio,
dosignod lo coy and disliiLulo ilsolf lo nany
conulois. ln lho iocoss, lho viius nay allacl
oi danago a conulois nonoiy oi soflvaio.
CPU
Shoil foi conlial iocossing unil, CFU
is lho conononl lhal caiiios oul
conuloi iogians and conliols lho
iosonsos of all lho olhoi conononls,
such as lho dislay scioon, nonoiy,
and nolvoiling syslons.
CYBERCRIME
A ciininal acl connillod using
conulois. Many cyLoi-ciinos
involvo sloaling infoinalion Ly
Lioaling inlo iivalo conuloi filos.
CYBER WARFARE
Uso of hacling lochniguos lo
ovoivholn, confuso, oi liicl
lho conuloi nolvoils of
an onony, sloing lhon
fion connunicaling
offoclivoly.
3D
Having lhioo dinonsions (longlh, hoighl,
and dolh), oilhoi in lho ioal voild, oi
in lho viilual voild of conuloi nodols
oi giahics.
ABACUS
An ancionl calculaling dovico lhal ioiosonls
nunLois using novaLlo Loads on a soiios of
lovols. Each lovol usually conlains nino Loads.
ALGORITHM
A sol of iulos lhal dividos a ioLlon inlo sinlo
slos and is ioiosonlod as nalhonalical codo.
ANALOG
A dovico is analog if il iocoivos inul on a
conlinuous scalo, insload of lho lvo-slalo 1s
and s of digilal inuls.
APP
Shoil foi alicalion and iofoiiing lo a snall
iogian lhal iuns on a handhold dovico,
such as a coll hono, oi a voLsilo.
APPLICATION
A iogian vilh a usoi inloifaco (a dislay
foi inloiacling vilh a syslon), dosignod lo
oifoin a sol of usoful funclions. laniliai
alicalions includo void iocossois and
nodia-laying soflvaio.
CCl iocioalion
of iohisloiic
flying iolilo
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

llash diivo
Syslon of
goai vhools
High-dofinilion dislay on LCD scioon
DATUM (, DATA)
A ioco of infoinalion lhal has Loon iocoidod
Locauso il is usoful lo lnov.
DATABASE
A conuloi filo lhal conlains a colloclion
of dala. DalaLasos aio aiiangod so lhal
lhoii onliios can Lo ciosschoclod,
conaiod, and adjuslod oilhoi all
al onco, oi in socific gious.
DEBUG
1o losl a iogian in oidoi lo find and
fix ils nislalos, oi Lugs.
DIGITAL
A syslon lhal Lioals dovn ovoiy nunLoi oi
connand inlo Linaiy codo, nado of 1s and
s. Digilal infoinalion is usod lo conliol
lho lvo-slalo svilchos vilhin conulois,
luining lhon on oi off. A svilch can
Lo in only ono of lhoso lvo slalos.
DIGITAL CAMERA
A canoia lhal icls u an inago using a digilal
lighl sonsoi. 1ho sonsoi convoils lho inago inlo
a digilal filo, vhich can Lo io-cioalod on a scioon
oi iinlod.
DIRECTORY
A syslon usod lo oiganizo lho
vay conulois sloio filos. Also
lnovn as foldois, a diiocloiy
nay conlain ono oi noio
filos, oi sovoial
noio diiocloiios.
ENCRYPTION
A nolhod lo oncodo a nossago using a sol of iulos
callod a cihoi. Wilhoul lho dolails of lho cihoi,
docoding a nossago vould lalo a long lino.
ETHERNET
A conuloi nolvoiling syslon in vhich
conulois aio joinod logolhoi Ly caLlos.
Elhoinol connoclions aio usod in
local aioa nolvoils (LANs)
vhoio sovoial conulois in lho
sano aioa aio joinod logolhoi.
FILE
A aclago of digilal
infoinalion lhal can Lo
oonod, viovod, and odilod
Ly a iogian.
FIREWALL
A soflvaio Laiiioi lhal slos
unvanlod iogians and usois
fion accossing a iivalo
conuloi nolvoil.
FIRMWARE
1ho snall iogians lhal
conliol lho funclions of
conuloi conononls, such
as haid diivos, and olhoi
conuloiizod dovicos such as coll
honos and ionolo conliols.
FLASH DRIVE
RonovaLlo dala sloiago oi conuloi nonoiy
dovico lhal sloios dala on a niciochi using
oloclionic conononls, insload of on a
nagnolizod haid disl diivo. Flug-in flash
diivos, oi nonoiy slicls, aio an oasy vay
of noving dala. llash nonoiy is also usod
in canoias, gano nonoiy caids, and sono
lalos and nodia layois.
FLOPS
Shoil foi floaling oinl ooialions oi socond,
a vay of noasuiing a conulois sood. A
floaling oinl ooialion (lLCF) is a
connon lyo of calculalion.
GEAR
A syslon of inloilocling vhools lhal liansnils
sinning nolion fion ono lo lho olhoi. Coai
vhools of diffoionl sizos alloi lho sood and
ovoi of lho nolion. ln a nochanical conuloi,
a snall novononl of ono vhool is convoilod
inlo a laigoi novononl in anolhoi.
GPS
Shoil foi gloLal osilioning syslon, CFS is a
navigalion nolvoil lhal icls u signals fion a
nunLoi of salollilos lo inoinl lho osilion of
a oison using a dovico lhal can accoss CFS.
GRAPHIC
Any inago, Lul oflon iofoiiing lo a
conuloi-gonoialod ono.
GUI
Shoil foi giahical usoi inloifaco, CUl allovs a
usoi lo inloiacl vilh a conuloi Ly dislaying
Lullons and vindovs on a conuloi scioon lhal
aio oonod, closod, oi novod using a nouso oi
louchscioon lochnology.
HACKER
Sonoono vho usos liicloiy oi socializod
soflvaio lo Lioal inlo anolhoi oisons
conuloi syslon vilhoul lhoii consonl.
HARD DISK
A lyo of nonoiy sloio in a conuloi. Dala
is sloiod on lho disl as alloins of nagnolizod
oi donagnolizod unils. ll is haid conaiod
lo ionovaLlo floy disls onco usod lo
sloio dala.
HARDWARE
1ho hysical conononls of a conuloi,
such as lho CFU and haid disl diivo.
HIGHDEFINITION DISPLAY
A dislay scioon nado u of a voiy laigo
nunLoi of ixols, ioducing cloai and
shai inagos. 1his lind of dislay has
a voiy high iosolulion and gualily.
HYPERTEXT
A soclion of loxl linlod lo olhoi
docunonls iolaling lo lhal suLjocl.
Hyoiloxl linls aio usod in voL agos
on lho voild vido voL. Clicling on
ono lalos lho usoi lo a iolalod ago.
INPUT
Any infoinalion lhal onlois a
conuloi via a dovico, such as a
nouso, loyLoaid, niciohono,
oi inago scannoi.
INSTANT MESSAGING
A nossaging syslon in
vhich usois connocl lo
oach olhoi lhiough lho
lnloinol and shaio lyod
nossagos, vidoos, oi inagos
alnosl inslanlly.
DISPLAY
1ho scioon oulul dovico of a conuloi.
ll is oflon callod a noniloi.
DISTRIBUTED MEMORY PROCESSING
A lyo of dala iocossing usod Ly
suoiconulois in vhich nany nodos
(FC-lilo dovicos vilh lhoii ovn nonoiy
and nicioiocossois) voil logolhoi on
lho sano lasl, Lioaling il u inlo laigo
chunls on vhich onliio iogians aio
iun lo iocoss lho dala.
DRIVER
Shoil foi dovico diivoi, lhis is a snall iogian
lhal allovs a conulois nain iogians, such
as a void iocossoi, lo sond connands lo
dovicos connoclod lo lho conuloi, such
as iinlois.
EMAIL
Shoil foi oloclionic nail, onail is a nossago
syslon lhal sonds loxl, icluios, and snall
filos Lolvoon conulois lhiough lho lnloinol.
Enail addiossos includo lho iociionls nano
and lhoii addioss on lho lnloinol.
EMBEDDED COMPUTER
A conuloi lhal conliols a dovico such
as a lolovision, cai ongino, oi dishvashoi.
ll is iogiannod lo oifoin socific
funclions and is nol gonoially accossiLlo
lo lho oison using lho dovico.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
A snall oloclionic ciicuil nado of an
assonLly of olononls, nado fion a
singlo ioco of soniconducling naloiial,
such as silicon.
IRIS
1ho ciiculai nusclo lhal suiiounds an oyos
uil. ll oons and closos lo conliol lho anounl
of lighl onloiing lho oyo. A conuloi can iocoid
lho alloin of a oisons iiis, using il foi
idonlifying lho usoi.
JOYSTICK
A conliol dovico usod Ly ganois. Joyslicls
novo Lacl and foilh and fion sido lo sido,
and havo a soiios of Lullons foi conliolling
foaluios of lho gano.
LAN
Shoil foi local aioa nolvoil, LAN is a
conuloi nolvoil lhal connocls conulois
and olhoi dovicos in a linilod googiahical aioa.
LASER
A lighl souico conlaining
lighl vavos having only
ono vavolonglh, oi a
conLinalion of a fov.
Lasois ioflocl in voiy
iociso vays and can
ioad dala fion olical
disls, such as CDs
and DVDs.
MICROCHIP
A conuloi ciicuil nado fion a singlo ioco,
gonoially a vafoi, oi chi, of a soniconducloi,
such as silicon, also lnovn as chi. A
niciochi is a ninialuiizod inlogialod ciicuil.
MICROWAVES
Wavos of iadialion vilh longoi vavolonglhs
lhan infiaiod iadialion and lighl vavos.
Miciovavos aio so nanod Locauso lhoy aio a
giou of iadio vavos vilh shoil vavolonglhs.
1hoy aio usod in nany connunicalion syslons,
such as Bluoloolh, Wi-li, and coll honos.
MOTHERBOARD
1ho nain ciicuil Loaid of a conuloi
conlaining lho CFU and RAM.
MP3 PLAYER
A handhold nusic layoi lhal sloios songs
and olhoi audio filos in a coniossod digilal
foinal lnovn as MF`.
MULTIMEDIA
A colloclion of diffoionl foins of connunicalion
lhal aio conLinod inlo ono docunonl, such as a
voL ago vilh voids, icluios, and sounds.
NETWORK
A sol of conulois connoclod lo oach olhoi so
lhoy can shaio lhoii conlonls and alicalions,
as voll as iocossing ovoi.
OPERATING SYSTEM
1ho nain iogian lhal nanagos a conulois
haidvaio, soflvaio, and
sloiod filos.
PIXEL
1ho Lasic unil of an inago. ll iofois lo
lho dala sloiod in an inago filo oi lho oinl
on a conuloi dislay lhal is luinod on oi
off lo ioduco lho inago.
PROGRAM
A soiios of insliuclions lhal a conuloi
follovs lo oifoin a coilain lasl.
PROTOTYPE
1ho fiisl voiling voision of a dovico oi a
nachino. Fiololyos aio Luill lo soo if lho
dosign voils as voll as inlondod.
PUNCH CARD
A slii of caidLoaid covoiod in a alloin of
holos unchod lhiough il. 1ho alloin
of holos is a sinlo nolhod of sloiing
a conuloi iogian oi conuloi dala.
Funch caids voio usod in lho
oaily days of conuling.
OUTPUT
Fiocossod dala lhal is givon oul Ly a conuloi
lhiough dovicos, such as dislay scioons,
soalois, and iinlois.
PACKET
A snall soclion of a conuloi filo. lilos aio
slil inlo aclols so lhoy can Lo sonl lhiough
lho lnloinol. Each aclol has an addioss
shoving vhoio il is going, vhoio il cano
fion, and vhoio il fils vilh all lho olhoi
aclols, so lhoy can Lo ioassonLlod inlo
lho oiiginal filo onco lhoy all aiiivo.
PERIPHERAL
A dovico lhal is connoclod lo a
conuloi. Foiihoials includo
voLcans and iinlois.
PERSONAL
COMPUTER
A conuloi dosignod
lo Lo usod Ly ono
oison. ll is snall
onough lo sil
on a dosl and
is gonoially
usod in honos
and officos.
Miciochi
RoLol
Joyslicl
LCD
Shoil foi liguid ciyslal dislay, LCD is a
high-gualily scioon lhal cioalos inagos Ly
olocliifying liguid ciyslals. Elocliic cuiionls alloi
lho coloi of lhoso suLslancos, and inagos aio
cioalod fion dozons of LCD dols, oi ixols.
LOGIC GATE
An oloclionic svilch lhal voils accoiding
lo a nalhonalical funclion. 1ho galo nay
liansnil, Llocl, oi iodiiocl an olocliic
cuiionl, oi flov of dala, doonding
uon lho condilions.
MAGNETIC TAPE
A laslic lao coalod in a layoi of iion
ailiclos, vhich can Lo nagnolizod in
a alloin lo sloio infoinalion.
MAINFRAME
A conlial conuloi lhal sloios dala as
voll as iogians, and can Lo usod Ly
nany oolo al ono lino, via loininals,
oach vilh a loyLoaid and dislay.
Mainfianos aio voiy ovoiful and
aio gonoially usod Ly laigo oiganizalions.
Mainfianos can caiiy oul nany
sinlo lasls sinullanoously.
MEMORY
Any nunLoi of syslons, such as RAM
oi haid disl diivos, vhich conulois
uso lo sloio infoinalion, such as
iogians and filos.
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

RAM
Shoil foi iandon accoss nonoiy, RAM is lho
conononl of lho conuloi lhal sloios lho
infoinalion Loing iocossod Ly lho conuloi.
1his infoinalion loos changing conslanlly.
lnfoinalion can Lo accossod iandonly, unlilo
in nagnolic laos, vhich havo lo Lo vound lo
a ailiculai oinl lo accoss dala.
RETINA
1ho lighl-sonsilivo layoi al lho Lacl of
an oyo, vhich convoils lighl inlo olocliical
inulsos foi lho Liain.
SOFTWARE
A iogian oi sol of iogians lhal iovidos
insliuclions foi a conuloi, lolling il vhal
lo do and hov lo do il. Conuloi languagos
aio usod lo viilo soflvaio.
SPAM
Unvanlod onails and olhoi nossagos lhal aio
sonl lo usois nailLoxos. San oflon conlains
hainful filos, such as viiusos.
SUPERCOMPUTER
A conuloi lhal is al lho foiofionl of conuloi
aLililios, such as iocossing soods. 1ho faslosl
suoiconuloi in 21 vas a Chinoso ono
callod 1ianho-1A.
USB
Shoil foi univoisal soiial Lus, a USB connoclion
is a slandaid nolhod foi connocling oiihoial
haidvaio, such as a flash diivo, lo lho
nain conuloi.
VECTOR PROCESSING
A lyo of dala iocossing usod Ly
ullia-fasl giahics chis in vhich
dala is Liolon dovn inlo nany snall
chunls, and a iogian is iun on lhon,
oach slo of lho iogian Loing aliod
lo all lho chunls sinullanoously.
VOIP
Shoil foi voico ovoi lnloinol iolocol,
VClF is a lochnology foi naling lolohono
calls lhiough lho lnloinol, insload of using
iogulai lolohono nolvoils.
ROBOT
A nachino lhal can Lo iogiannod
lo oifoin a sol of lasls on ils ovn
vilhoul suoivision.
ROUTER
A conuloiizod dovico lhal diiocls filos
aiound a nolvoil. 1ho nodos of lho lnloinol
aio nado u of ioulois, vhilo viioloss ioulois
in honos sond and iocoivo liaffic fion all
lho conulois noaiLy.
RSS
Shoil foi ioally sinlo syndicalion, RSS is
a syslon lhal nonilois changos nado lo
soloclod voLsilos and dislays lhon, so
lhal usois do nol havo lo chocl lhon
conslanlly foi udalos.
SEMICONDUCTOR
A naloiial lhal can Lolh conducl and Llocl a
flov of olocliic cuiionl. 1ho oloclionic svilchos
of a conuloi aio nado of soniconduclois.
SILICON
1ho nosl connon soniconducloi, and
lho nain ingiodionl in niciochis and
olhoi inlogialod ciicuils. 1ho ciicuils
of a niciochi aio olchod in nicioscoic
dolail on a vafoi of silicon.
SIMULATOR
A conuloi iogian lhal io-cioalos an
oxoiionco, such as flying a lano, as
accuialoly as ossiLlo. Many ilols
iaclico flying Ly using sinulalois.
TABLET COMPUTER
A nodiun-sizod, handhold conuloi vilh a
louchscioon ooialod Ly using a digilal on
oi fingoili.
THERMIONIC VALVE
A conononl usod in conulois
Lofoio lho invonlion of ails nado
fion soniconduclois. 1ho valvo usod
Loans of oloclions lo Llocl oi anlify
an olocliic cuiionl and so voilod as
a lvo-slalo svilch.
TRANSISTOR
A ioco of a soniconducloi lhal foins ail
of a conulois oloclionic conononls.
A liansisloi can lol an olocliic cuiionl flov
oi Llocl il, acling as a lvo-slalo svilch in
nodoin conulois, oilhoi on ils ovn oi
as ail of an inlogialod ciicuil, usually
on a niciochi.
TROJAN
A viius oi olhoi nalicious soflvaio
lhal is hiddon insido anolhoi filo lhal
aoais lo Lo hainloss. 1iojans can Lo
usod lo cioalo Lolnols.
TURING TEST
A losl ioosod Ly Alan 1uiing
lhal chocls vholhoi
a conuloi has lho
inlolligonco lo nalch
hunan Loings.
URL
Shoil foi unifoin iosouico
localoi, URL is lho uniguo
addioss usod Ly ovoiy ago
on lho voild vido voL.
WAN
Shoil foi vido aioa nolvoil, WAN is a
conuloi nolvoil lhal covois laigo aioas,
ciossing iogional Loundaiios.
WEBCAM
A canoia lhal foods inagos oi vidoos inlo
a conuloi, oi a conuloi nolvoil. A
voLcan ioducos vidoo in a foinal lhal
can Lo sonl lhiough lho lnloinol and
viovod on voL Liovsois.
WIRELESS
Wiioloss iofois lo a connoclion lhal doos nol
ioguiio viios. Wiioloss connoclions usually
uso iadio vavos, allhough sono nay also uso
infiaiod vavos. Wiioloss connoclions can linl
oilhoi a conuloi lo a nolvoil oi a oiihoial
dovico, such as a nouso, lo a conuloi.
WLAN
Shoil foi viioloss local aioa nolvoil, WLAN
linls lvo oi noio dovicos using a viioloss
disliiLulion nolhod such as Wi-li, and usually
iovidos a connoclion lhiough an accoss oinl.
WORM
A conuloi iogian lhal usos nolvoils lo
liavol lhiough lho lnloinol, nullilying as il
goos. Woins clog u lho lnloinol, causing
il lo slov dovn.
WWW
Shoil foi voild vido voL, WWW
is lho nain soivico lhal iuns
on lho lnloinol, and is nado
of nillions of voL agos
lhal aio linlod lo ono
anolhoi Ly hyoilinls.
Silicon vafoi
1hoinionic valvo
Wiioloss nouso
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.
www.all-terms.com/bbs
DorIing KindersIey vouId Iike fo fhank:
Caillin Doylo foi ioofioading, Holon Folois foi
lho indox, and SuLhash Vohia foi illuslialions.

1ho uLlishoi vould lilo lo lhanl lho
folloving foi lhoii lind oinission lo
ioioduco lhoii hologiahs:

(Koy: a-aLovo, L/g-Laclgiound, L-Lolov/Lollon,
Ll-Lolov lofl, Li-Lolov iighl, c-conloi, cl-conloi
lofl, ci-conloi iighl, cla-conloi lofl aLovo, clL-conloi
lofl Lolov, cia-conloi iighl aLovo, ciL-conloi iighl
Lolov, f-fai, fLl-fai Lolov lofl, fLi-fai Lolov iighl,
fcl-fai conloi lofl, fci-fai conloi iighl, fll-fai lo lofl,
fli-fai lo iighl, l-lofl, i-iighl, l-lo, ll-lo lofl,
li-lo iighl.)
akg-inages: 1SLl, 64ciL, Nov Lino Fioduclions /
AlLun / A `6Li, AIany Inages: Al aichivo 7Li,
`7Li, Ancionl Ail & Aichilocluio Colloclion Lld SLl,
Andia 4li, By lan Milos - llashoinl Ficluios 27l/5,
Noil liasoi 26Ll, 65cia, ClFholoSlocl X 17ll, David
Ciossnan `li, lN1ERlC1C `Sci, 61li, 64Ll, Nigol
Janos 17cl, Jinx Fhologiahy Biands 52Lc, David
Loo 4-41l, Lighlly Sallod 65fLi, LouisBoil.con
1cl, Adiian Lyon 52i, 5`l, Donnis MacDonald 5`li,
Foloi Maishall 4S-4L, Maiy Evans Ficluio LiLiaiy
56li, NolFholos 52cl, Noidicholos 27cl, NoioLLo
5`ll, Cgunn `Sll, lan Faliicl 24ll, Fholos 12 6Ll,
Ficloiial Fioss Lld 2Ll, `7li, Fixollovoi RM 1 5`Li
(ovoilaid inago of iFhono), scioncoholos 71i,
Rodoiicl Snilh 24ca, Joiony Sullon-HiLLoil 61ll,
Acknowledgments
72
1ho Ail Aichivo 6Li, loy Alan King `S-`L, David
Wall 25i, linnLaii WoLsloi 65Lc, John "Pafhfinder"
Lesfer / BeCunningAndFuIIOfTricks.con: 54-55L,
The Bridgenan Arf Library: Fiivalo Colloclion /
Lool and Loain 4Sll, By HunanWare: 21cl,
"Thync Concepf" - David Chacon: 6`ci, PaoIo
Cignoni: 21Ll, Corbis: Bollnann `SLl, 64li, Rogoi
Du Buisson 7c, 1honas Hailvoll 2`li, Ed Kashi `L,
12-1`L, Faliicl van Kalvijl 22Li, Milsuloshi Kinuia
/ ananainagos 42-4`, Axol Koosloi 4ll, Kin Kulish
27l/7, Donnis Kunlol Micioscoy, lnc. / Visuals
Unlinilod 6Lc, Janos Loynso 45ll, Bonjanin Lovy
55ci, Hanl Moigan - RainLov / Scionco laclion
46ll, NASA 22-2`l, Chailos C'Roai 65cla, Louio
Fsihoyos / Scionco laclion 5Li, 57Ll, Kin Kyung-
Hoon / Roulois `5Ll, H Ainsliong RoLoils `ll,
Michaol Rosonfold / Scionco laclion 71ll, BoL
Rovan / Fiogiossivo lnago 2ll, 17i, Cooigo
Sloinnolz 2Li, 62ll, Undoivood & Undoivood 11c,
65ll, Randy M Uiy 4cl, DorIing KindersIey: Sc,
26ll, ``ll, 51ci (ovoilaid inago), 6SL, Donoliio
Caiiasco ``li (insol 1), Couilosy of lho lnoiial Wai
Musoun, London 5i, Davo King 21li, Milo Cood
6Sli, Covind Millal 2Lc, 4`Li, Couilosy of lho
Nalional Maiilino Musoun, London li, Couilosy
of 1ho Scionco Musoun, London 11ll, 1ho Scionco
Musoun S-L, 64cla, Clivo Sliooloi 2`Li,
Dreansfine.con: ELolyulova 21Li, ESA: ESA-
CNES-ARlANESFACE `5i, Facebook, Inc: 65li,
FofoIia: Soan Cladvoll 64Li, Courfesy of Fuji: 7l,
Geffy Inages: S64``S5 ``li (nain icluio), 12ll,
``Ll (nain icluio), `Li, 56L, 57Li, 65Li, AlF
24Lc, `1li, 4`li, 4`ci, 57li, 5S-5L, 5ll, 7-71L,
BloonLoig 24Ll, 25ll, 27l/2, 41li, BoL 1honas
Soils Fhologiahy 6li (insol), Buona Visla lnagos
2l (insol), 5`Li, lli Chalfanl 22l, 1ony Coidoza
6li (nain icluio), Colo Elizondo ``li (insol 2),
Don laiiall 6l, lionch School Li, luso 42ll,
Douglas CiLL 2-21l, Clovinagos 17cL, 1on Ciill
27Li, Juiloiinagos 5Sll, Kallisla lnagos 5Sli, Losloi
Loflovilz 2L, Ryan McVay 1clL, 2i, 46-47,
1honas Noilhcul ``clL, 6Sl, 71L, FlER 6L, Louio
Fsihoyos `6ll, Mail Sogal 2li, SSFL 7Ll, c, 1Ll,
12Ll, 1`li, 16l, 27l/4, `4ll, `4Ll, 64clL, SloclLylo
7l, Sloclliol 22-2`c, Slohon Svinlol 45Li, Biian
Sylnyl 62Ll, 1hinlslocl lnagos 4`ll, 1hioo lnagos
`7ll, 1iavolix Lld 27ci, Vslocl LLC 52Li (insol),
5`l (Cvoilaid onlo noLilo hono scioon),
Wiiolnago 4ll, Vicens Ginenez: 5Lc, GoogIe
Inc. Used vifh pernission: 65lc, Honda (UK):
24-25L, HuIIie: 11Li, Erik KIein of Vinfage-
Conpufer.con: 2Sll, The KobaI CoIIecfion: Nov
Lino Cinona `7Ll, Wall Disnoy Ficluios 4Ll,
Wainoi Bios 55l, Lenovo: 6l, MaffeI, Inc.:
Mindflox and associalod liadonails and liado
dioss aio ovnod Ly, and usod undoi oinission
fion, Mallol, lnc. 211 Mallol, lnc. All Righls
Rosoivod 6`Ll, Used vifh pernission fron
Microsoff: 1, `6Ll, Pranav Misfry: Lynn Baiiy 47Li,
MoziIIa: 2c, `2Lc, Museun of NafuraI Sciences,
BrusseIs: Sl, NASA: 6li, 12c, 2SLl, Courfesy of fhe
NafionaI Securify Agency: 5Ll, NavaI HisforicaI
Foundafion, Washingfon, D.C.: 11li, Nokia
Corporafion: 27l/1, 27l/`, 27l/S, PhofoIibrary:
Land of Losl Conlonl 1`ll, RuLLoiBall 52i (Cvoilaid
on lo noLilo hono), 5`Ll (insol), Larry Press:
44l/1, 44l/2, 44l/`, 44l/4, Press Associafion
Inages: Shizuo KanLyashi / AF 6`Li, Mail
Lonnihan 27l/6, PunchSfock: 2ci, 54l, Courfesy
RensseIaer PoIyfechnic Insfifufe AIunni: 52ll,
Science Museun / Science & Sociefy Picfure
Library: 16ci, 46Ll, 64-65c, Science Phofo Library:
Massino Bioga, 1ho Lighlhouso 4Ll, 5i, Andiov
Bioolos, Nalional Fhysical LaLoialoiy 51Li, Michaol
Donno 1li, EinsloinHono 46Li, Eguinox
Ciahics 5li, Euiooan Saco Agoncy / Aoos
ModialaL 57ll, Cusloinagos 1`Li, Janos King-
Holnos 5-51c, HyLiid Modical Aninalion 2-`l,
62-6`c, Edvaid Kinsnan 4Li, 1-11, Hanl
Moigan `-`1l, `1ci, San Cgdon 61L, David Failoi
2ll, Fhillio Flailly `1Li, Vicloi do SchvanLoig
`4Lc, Volloi Slogoi 6`li, Shoila 1oiiy 4li, 14Li,
Calhoiino Uisillo 16Ll, Evrin Sen: 2cla, 4Sci,
U.S. Deparfnenf of Energy, Oak Ridge NafionaI
Laborafory: `-`1L, US Deparfnenf of Defense:
4Li, Ed Ufhnan: 2Sc, VoIfage PR: 4-41L,
Vincenzo Cosenza, vvv.vincos.if: 66-67
Jackef: Ircnt. AIany Inages: Nigol Janos li,
DorIing KindersIey: Saiah Ashun ca, Geffy
Inages: Lallyscanlon L, Ciogoi Schusloi cla, SSFL
fll, Sansung: cia, 3uc|. AIany Inages: lan Faliicl
li, scioncoholos ca, Geffy Inages: 1honas
Noilhcul Lc, Science Phofo Library: Massino
Bioga, 1ho Lighlhouso Ll, Hanl Moigan cia, Li
WaIIcharf: Corbis: Ed Kashi fli, Faliicl van Kalvijl
clL, DorIing KindersIey: The Science Museun
fcla, Geffy Inages: Clovinagos cl, Honda (UK): Ll,
Museun of NafuraI Sciences, Biussols: ll, Science
Phofo Library: Massino Bioga, 1ho Lighlhouso cL,
Janos King-Holnos fcia, Edvaid Kinsnan cla, San
Cgdon Li, Shoila 1oiiy fcl, US Deparfnenf of
Defense: cia, VoIfage PR: ci


AII ofher inages DorIing KindersIey
For furfher infornafion see: vvv.dkinages.con
Index
AB
aLacusos S, 6S
addiossos, voL 47
aiiciafl 2`
algoiilhns 6, 6S
analog conulois 7, 6S
Analylical Engino , `4
aninalion `6`7
Anlilylhoia nochanisn S
anliviius soflvaio 51
Alo lnc. 2S, 65
alicalions 26, `2``,
52, 6S
ARFANE1 44, 65
ailificial inlolligonco (Al)
661, 6S
ailificial linLs 5S
ailificial nouial nolvoils
(ANN) 6, 6S
asliolaLos
A1Ms (aulonalod lolloi
nachinos) 25
augnonlod ioalily 5`, 62
avalais 54, 55, 6S
BaLLago, Chailos S, 21,
`4
Landvidlh 42, 47
Boinois-Loo, 1in 46, 47
Linaiy syslon 1, 6S
Lionoliic syslons 51
Lionics 5S
Lils (Linaiy digils) 1, 16,
66, 6S
Llogs 5`, 65, 6S
Bluoloolh 4`, 6S
Lolnols 4, 6S
Biaillo dovicos 21
Liovsois 47, 65, 6S
Lugs 11, `5, 6S
Lylos 66
CD
calculalois 6S
Caol, Kaiol 57
Calcha losls 5
caid ioadois 1S
cais 25, `1
coll honos 2627,
4`, 66
choss `1
cihois 5
ciicuil Loaids 12, 14, 15, 2
clionl-soivoi nolvoils 42,
6S
Colossus 5, 65
conuloi ganos `7,
`S41, 6465
conuloi-gonoialod
inagoiy (CCl) `6`7, 6S
conulois
Lofoio conulois S
conulois all aiound us
2425
conulois al voil 222`
conulois in nunLois
6667
hisloiy of conuling
6465
naling conulois 2S2
lonoiiov's conulois
626`
vhal is a conuloi 67
consolos `S`, 41
Conliol Dala Coioialion
(CDC) 11
conliollois 41
CFU (conlial iocossing
unil) 1`14, 15, `2, 6S
Ciay Coioialion ``1,
65
cyLoi vaifaio 4, 6S
cyLoi-ciino 4S4, 551,
6S
dala 1, 47, 6
dala connoclions 45
dala shaiing 424`, 46
dala sloiago 1617, 6`
dalaLasos 22, 6
doLugging 11, 6
dosllos 1`, 14
Diffoionco Engino , 64
digilal canoias 7, 27, 6
digilal infoinalion 7, 6
digilal valchos 27
diiocloiios 6
dislay 1`, 2, 6
disliiLulod nonoiy
iocossing `1, 6
DCS allacls 4
Diaoi, John 4S
diivois 6
EFGH
onail 46, 4, 65, 6
onLoddod conulois 7,
2425, 27, 6
onciylion 5, 6
Enigna nachinos 5
olhoinol 4`, 6
oxoiganing 4
oxoslololons 5
oyosighl 5
faiigiound iidos 25
filo liansfoi iolocol (l1F)
46
filos `2, 6
filns `6`7, 4, 55, 6
fingoiiinls 51
fiiovalls ``, 4S, 51, 6
flash diivos 17, 6
lLCFS (lloaling Foinl
Coialions) `1, 6
fly-Ly-viio 2`
gadgols 2627
ganos aicados `
goais , 2, 6
Cooglo 46, 65, 67
CFS (gloLal osilioning
syslon) 24, 2627, 6
CFU (giahics iocossing
unil) 15, 41
giahics 15, `2, `6`7,
41, 6
CUl (giahical usoi
inloifaco) `2``, 6
haclois 4S4, 5, 6
handhold ganing
nachinos `
haid disls 14, 16, 17, 6
haidvaio 6, 6
Havling, Slohon 5
hoadhonos 2
hoallh 5S5
hoaiing 5
hoal sinls 14
high-dofinilion dislay
15, 6
hyoilinls 47
hyoiloxl 47, 6
IJKL
lBM (lnloinalional
Businoss Machinos) 11,
1S, `, 65
idonlificalion syslons 5
inul 14, 1S1, 6
inslanl nossaging (lM)
52, 6
inlogialod ciicuils (lCs)
12, 1`, 67, 6
lnloinol 26, `2, 444,
525`, 6465, 67
iiis scannois 51, 7
Jacguaid, Josoh Maiio
`4, 64
JoLs, Slovo 2S
joyslicls 1, `S, `, 7
Kolvin, Loid 7
loyLoaids 1S1
Kinocl 41, 65
LAN (local aioa nolvoil)
42, 4`, 7
languago, iogianning
`4`5
lalos 1`
lasois 17, 6`, 7
LCD (liguid ciyslal dislay)
1`, 2, 7
logic galos 1, 7
Lovolaco, Lady Ada `4
MNO
nagnolic lao 16, 7
nainfianos `, 7
nalvaio 4
nalhonalical calculalions
6, S
nodia conlois ``
nonoiy 14, 15, 1617, 7
nonoiy slicls 17
MEMS (MicioEloclio
MochanicalSyslon) 2
niciochis 1`, 14, 2S, 2,
67, 7
nicioconulois 121`
nicioiocossois 121`,
14, 24, 65
Miciosofl `2, 41, 65
niciovavos 7
Millonniun Bug `5
niniconulois 12
nonilois 1`
Mooio, Cooigo 56
Mooios Lav 67
nolhoiLoaids 15, 7
nouso 1
Mozilla liiofox `2
MF` layois 26, 7
nullilouch lochnology 26
nullinodia 7
nanoLols 626`
Naioi, John
nolvoils 424`, 44, 51, 7
Ninlondo CanoLoy `, 65
noloLools 1`
ooialing syslons `2``,
7
olical disls 17
olical fiLois 424`, 45
olical lao 6`
oulul dovicos 14, 221,
7
PRS
aconalois 5S
aclols 44, 45, 7
ailiclo accoloialois 22, `1
Fascal, Blaiso
assvoids 5
ooi-lo-ooi nolvoils 42
oiihoials 221, 7
oisonal conulois (FCs)
6, 7
holo odiling ``
Filol ACE 1
ixols 2, 7
iinlois 2, 21
iogians and
iogianning 6, `2``,
`4`5, 7
iojoclois 21
iololyos 7
unch caids 1S, `4, 7
iadais 2`
iadiosondos 1
RAM (iandon accoss
nonoiy) 14, 15, 16, 7
ioLols 7, 22, 2, `4, `5,
5657, 5S, 661, 62, 71
ioulois 4`, 71
RSS (ioally sinlo
syndicalion) 5`, 71
salollilo inagos 2`
salollilo navigalion
(sal-nav) dovicos 27
scannois 24
scioons 2
soaich onginos 46, 67
socuiily ``, 4S4, 551
soniconduclois 71
soivois 45, 4
shaio liading 22
silicon 1`, 14, 2S, 2, 71
Silicon Valloy 2S
sinulalois 55, 71
snail dovicos 26, 5`, 6`
social nolvoiling 52,
6566
soflvaio 6, `2``, `4, 71
Sony FlaySlalion `, 65
sacociafl 12, `5, 57
san 4, 71
salial augnonlod ioalily
(SAR) 62
sooch iocognilion 1
sooch synlhosizois 5
sioadshool iogians ``
syvaio 4S, 4
Sloan Man 56
slocl conliol 2`
suoiconulois ``1,
65, 71
suivoillanco canoias 24
svain inlolligonco 6
TUVWZ
laLlol conulois 26, 71
laLulaling nachinos 1S,
`, 64
lagging dovicos 24
lallios S
lhoinionic valvos 1, 71
1ilus, Jon 2S
1onlinson, Ray 52
louchscioon lochnology
1S1
loys 25
1iansfoiJol 4`
liansislois 111, 1`, 65,
67, 71
liojans 4S, 4, 71
1uiing, Alan 6, 1, 5
1uiing losl 6, 71
luillo ioLols `4
URL (unifoin iosouico
localoi) 47, 71
USB (univoisal soiial Lus)
17, 21, 71
vacuun luLos 111,
6465
valvos 1
vocloi iocossing `1, 71
vidoo ganos `6, `7, `S41
vidoo nossagos 5`
vidoo RAM 15
viilual ioalily 5455
viilual voilds `7, 5455
viiusos ``, 4, 51, 6S
VClF (voico ovoi lnloinol
iolocol) 71
WAN (vido aioa nolvoil)
42, 71
voalhoi foiocasls 2`
voL Liovsois `2
voLcans 5`, 71
Wi-li (viioloss fidolily)
27, 4`, 5`
Windovs `2
viioloss 27, 41, 71
viioloss nolvoils 42, 4`
WLAN (viioloss local
aioa nolvoil) 71
void iocossing ``
voild vido voL (WWW)
4647, 65, 71
voins 4, 71
zonLio conulois 4
(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.