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# Introduction to Wind Energy

Generation
J ulio Lemaitre
Infrastructure - Power
February 5, 2009
Renewable Generation
Example of Renewable Sources:
Hydro (large small)
Wind
Geothermal Heat
Bio-Fuels
Water Sea Waves, Sea Tides, Rivers
Introduction
Wind Power:
Wind Power, derived through the kinetic energy of
the wind, utilizes wind blowing over the blades of a
turbine to create a lift which makes the blades
rotate.
The turning blades of the wind turbine rotate the
connected shaft which drives the generator,
converting the mechanical energy into electricity.
The power generated in the individual wind turbine
generators (WTGs) is collected at a substation
which steps up the voltage to the grid level.
Wind Turbines
Nacelle
Tower
Rotor Hub
Generator
Gear-Box
Hub height
Yaw drive
System
Pitch
System
The three blade WTG is the predominant technology used
Wind Power
Wind Power is determined by:
oWind speed at hubheight
oWind direction
oWind distribution: Weibull k-factor
oAir density
oTurbulence
oPower curve of Wind Turbine Generators
oLosses
oUncertainties
Wind Power (cont.)
Wind Power is calculated from:
P=*
air
*A*V
3
*C
p
(Watt)
P = Power (Watt)

air
=air density (kg/m
3
)
A= rotor area (m
2
)
V= wind speed (m/s)
C
p
= power coefficient (dimensionless)
E = Energy (kWh)
E
max-annual
=P*8.76 (kWh)

air
= air density (kg/m
3
) depends mainly on:
Air temperature (average on site)
Altitude (topography + hubheight)
C
p
= coefficient depending on WTG design and speed.
C
p aver
= 0.3 to 0.4 (C
p max
=0.59 theoretical max)
V = annual averaged 10minute-average windspeed
Wind speed is measured using special measurement masts that
are installed at the wind farm location (usually more than one) to
register wind speed, wind direction and air temperature.
Wind mast have anemometers (of a certain accuracy class for
wind speed measurment) at 2 or 3 altitudes on the mast, a wind
wane (for wind direction measurement) and thermometers.
Wind speed is measured at least 1 time each 2 seconds (IEC).
Wind Power (cont.)
Wind power is directly proportional to:
Air density (lower density at higher altitudes)
Rotor area (harvested wind area in m
2
)
(latest average rotor diameters are 80 100m)
Wind Power (cont.)
The
harvested
power
increases
with the
rotor
swept
area
Source: Danish Wind Industry Association
Wind Power (cont.)
And increases with the cube of:
Wind speed (v
3
)
(Wind speed is the key evaluation factor for wind projects, as it
is water for hydroprojects)
Definition of Plant Factor (or Capacity Factor):
The plant factor (pf) is the annual energy output divided by the
theoretical maximum output, if the machine were running at its
rated (maximum) power during all of the 8766 hours of the year.
It measures the effective use of the investment (installed power)
in the production of energy over a period of time (usually a year).
pf =E
real
(kWh)/ P (kW)*8766(h)
The wind resource is usually
classified in the range of 1 7,
increasing the class with
stronger wind resources.
Wind and Turbine Class
.
Wind Wind Speed
Power Class (m/s) @ 50m
1 <5.6
2 5.6-6.4
3 6.4-7.0
4 7.0-7.5
5 7.5-8.0
6 8.0-8.8
7 >8.8
IEC standard comprises four categories that divide the
turbines into different levels that reflect the design load of
the turbines.
Turbine Wind Speed 50 year gust 50 year wind
IEC Class (m/s) (m/s) (m/s)
1 <10.0 <70.0 <50
2 <8.5 <59.5 <42.5
3 <7.5 <52.4 <37.5
S Special design for specific site conditions
General Layout of a WTG
WTG with gearbox.
The gearbox is one
of most stressed
components of the
WTG. It increases the
operate the generator.
The pitch regulation
allows for optimal
conditions (speed).
The yaw control
positions the nacelle
(rotor) to the wind
direction.
Source: Dirk Kooman
Power Curve
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
13579
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
7
1
9
2
1
2
3
2
5
P

i
n

k
W
Va in m/s
Cut in Wind speed
Cut out Wind speed
Nominal Wind speed
The power curve
gives the relation of
wind speed vs. power
for a given WTG.
The WTG requires a
minimum speed to
start generating (cut in
wind speed).
The power produced
will depend on the
wind speed until
reaching the nominal
value.
When the wind
reaches the cut out
wind speed, the WTG
stops generating to
avoid mechanical
stresses.
Wind speed is very variable and changes permanently with the
time of day, the seasons and the years, as well as with the altitude
above the ground. To evaluate the wind potential at a site, at least
one year of wind data (speed and direcction) is required (two or
more years are optimal at hub height of the WTG).
The measured wind data (1-2 sec sampling) is filtered and
averaged (10-min averages) per wind direction sector.
The measured wind data is than correlated to a long term data
source of 5-10 years (e.g. close by metheorological station).
Once the wind speed data is available, a wind speed distribution is
calculated at hub height of the specified turbine.
From the wind distribution curve, the WTG power curve, the wind
farm layout + topography, the gross energy production over a
period of time (usually a year) can be calculated.
Wind Data and Energy Yield
Using industry software tools (e.g. WASP
1
), that account for
topografy, surface roughness, etc., the gross energy yield of the
wind farm is calculated.
The net energy production is calculated after considering all
elements affecting the energy production (losses, unavailability,
etc.)
Wind Data and Energy Yield (cont.)
The wind speed distribution shows
the frequency (in hours or per unit-
pu) of occurrence of the measured
wind speeds. Combined with the
power curve of the WTG, the gross
energy production over a period of
time can be calculated.
Note 1: WASP is a PC program for predicting wind climates, wind resources and power productions from wind turbines and wind farms.
Frequency of occurrence
The P50 value corresponds to the annual expected (mean)
net value calculated from the gross output of the measured
data minus the losses.
Main Losses: Range Typical
- Wake effect (wind shade effect from other WTGs) 3% - 10% (7%)
- Electrical losses (cables, grid, etc.) 2% - 4% (3%)
- Non Availability of WTG
1
2% - 4% (3%)
- Non Availability of Grid & SS 1% - 4% (1%)
- Icing and blade contamination 0.5% - 1% (1%)
- Others (bird migration, local issues)
- TOTAL 12% - 18% (14%)
Note 1: For Offshore ~10%
Note 2: In some calculations the topographic/roughness effect is included in the total losses increasing them up to ~25%-30%
Energy Yield
Uncertainties for the calculation of higher probability of
exceedance values (e.g. P75, P90) are assumed
independent and normal distributed around P50, for 1 year
and 10 year energy yield periods.
Main Uncertainties: Typical
- Wind speed statistics 5% - 8%
- Power curve performance 3% - 5%
- Model (topography, wake effect) 2% - 3%
- Metering 0.5% - 1%
- Others (array losses, special issues)
- TOTAL Standard Deviation (SD) 11% - 17%
The main uncertainties result in a SD value
Usually the uncertainty (SD) is calculated for a 1year and a 10year period (SD
1year
>SD
10year
)
Energy Yield (cont.)
Energy Yield (cont.)
P
50
best estimate 50% probability of exceedance
Based on a normal distribution and a Standard Deviation (SD),
the 75%, 90% or 95% probability of exceedance values can be
calculated.
The SD is calculated from the uncertainties of the data and
P50 energy yield calculation.
P
75
=P
50
- 0,675*SD
P
90
=P
50
- 1,28*SD
P
95
=P
50
- 1,64* SD
Example: output calculated gross: 100 GWh
Losses: 13% so P
50
=87 GWh
Uncertainty SD calculated as 7.3% =6.35 GWh
P
75
=87-4.3=82.7 GWh
P
90
=87- 8.1=78.9 GWh
=>In the financial evaluation, the P90
10year
is often used as the base case with
sensitivities ensuring that P90
1year
(or P95
1year
) still enables debt service.
Example of Energy Yield
Turbine V90 3MW
Hub Height (m) 105
Rated Capacity (MW) 3
Number of Turbines 52
Site Capacity (MW) 156
Hub Height Wind speed (m/s) 7.1
Gross Wind Farm Energy Production (GWh/annum) 387.3
Gross Plant Factor 28.3%
Corrections and Losses
Topographic/Roughness Effect 0.997
Wake Losses 0.933
Electrical Transmission Efficiency 0.980
Substation Maintenance 0.998
Grid downtime 0.990
Turbine Availability 0.970
Power Curve Performance 0.980
Wake from existing wind farms 0.998
Bird Migration Effect 0.990
Overall Conversion Efficiency 0.842
P - Values
Net P50 Wind Farm Yield (GWh/annum) 325.99
Net P50 Plant Factor 23.9%
Uncertainty over 1 year (incl. annual wind speed variation)
Standard error in result 17.60%
P90 Energy Yield over 1 year (GWh/annum) 252.55
P90 Plant Factor over 1 year 18.5%
Uncertainty over 10 years (incl. annual wind speed variation)
Standard error in result 12.00%
P75 Energy Yield over 10 years (GWh/annum) 299.58
P75 Plant Factor over 10 years 21.9%
P90 Energy Yield over 10 years (GWh/annum) 275.92
P90 Plant Factor over 10 years 20.2%
The final wind farm energy yield calculation can only be done
once the micrositting has been completed.
Micrositing is the process of optimally locating the individual WTGs
in the available land spaces to maximize the wind farm energy
production and minimize the wake and array losses
1
.
Appropiate spacing between WTGs is essential to achieve balance
between wake losses and construction costs (roads, electrical
network)
The adequate ditance will depend on the prevailing wind speed
and direction distribution at the site (wind rose).
A spacing of 5 9 rotor diameters is recommended in the
prevailing wind direction.
A spacing of 3 5 rotor diameters is recommended in the
directions perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction.
Note 1: Array losses originate from wind distortions created by close by located WTGs.
Wind Farm Layout
Wind Farm Layout (cont.)
Prevailing wind direction
5-9 rotor diameters apart
in the wind direction
3-5 rotor diameters apart
Source: Danish Wind Industry Association
In the construction and financing of a Wind Farm, several
contractual arrangements and legal aspects play an important
role:
Land Agrements (Lease or Purchase)
Turbine Supply Agreement (TSA)
Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) &
Installation or Balance of Plant (BOP)
Operation and Maintenance Agreement (O&M)
Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)
Grid Interconnection Agreement (GIA)
Warranties and Guaranties, Insurance, etc.
Contractual Arrangements
Vestas (DENMARK)
GE Energy (USA)
Gamesa (SPAIN)
Enercon (GERMANY)
Suzl on (INDIA)
Si emens (GERMANY)
Gol dwi nd (CHINA)
Si novel (CHINA)
Nordex (GERMANY)
Others
2007 Market Share of Top 10 Global WTG
Manufacturers
Top 10 WTG Manufactures
21%
15%
14%
13%
7%
10%
21%
4%
3%
3%
Source: BTM Consult Aps
Based on wind farms developed so far we can comment on
some reference values for the main topics:
Investment costs
O&M costs
Performance
Schedule
Benchmarking Values
Investment Costs
Benchmarking Values
Project WTG-Type WTG Total WTG
MW MW # Total Inv \$/kW /kW Hard Cost Soft Cost Non EPC
\$ million % CAPEX
Kavarna V90 - 3MW 3.0 156.0 52 378.0 2,423 1,731 84% 16% 4.6%
(Bulgaria)
Totoral V90 - 2MW 2.0 46.0 23 136.0 2,957 2,112 91% 9% 12.0%
(Chile)
Zorlu GE - 2.5MW 2.5 135.0 54 294.0 2,178 1,556 85% 15% 10.0%
(Turkey)
Samana E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 100.8 126 126 1,250 893 N/A N/A 10.0%
Saundatti E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 82.4 103 106.0 1,286 919 N/A N/A 10.0%
(India)
Typical 2,000-3,000 1,400-2,200 80% 20% 10%-15%
1U\$ = 1.4 India 1,200-1,600 860 - 1,150
3.6% Funded +
7% under PFA
Funds
2.8% Development Fee
CAPEX
5% Funded +
Contingency
O&M Costs (per year)
Benchmarking Values
Project WTG-Type WTG Total WTG Total Inv
MW MW # \$ million Type of \$/kW \$/kWh \$/WTG % CAPEX Total
O&M \$/year
Kavarna V90 - 3MW 3.0 156.0 52 378.0 WTG Supplier 44.4 2.11 133,135 1.83% 6,923,000
(Bulgaria) Own (after 4y) 21.8 1.04 65,520 0.90% 3,407,040
Totoral V90 - 2MW 2.0 46.0 23 136.0 WTG Supplier 43.0 1.80 86,000 1.45% 1,978,000
(Chile) Own (after 3y) 33.5 1.40 66,990 1.13% 1,540,770
Zorlu GE - 2.5MW 2.5 135.0 54 294.0 Own 37.4 1.25 93,411 1.72% 5,044,200
(Turkey)
Samana E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 100.8 126 126 WTG Supplier 14.1 0.57 11,288 1.13% 1,422,225
Saundatti E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 82.4 103 106.0 WTG Supplier 14.1 0.62 11,288 1.10% 1,162,613
(India)
Typical WTG Supplier 42 - 46 1.7 - 2.4 80k - 130k 1.5% - 2.5%
1U\$ = 1.4 Own 20 - 37 1.0 - 1.4 40k - 90k 1.0% - 1.5%
India 15 - 20 0.5 - 1.0 10k - 30k 1.0% - 1.5%
O&M
Performance
Benchmarking Values
Project WTG-Type WTG Total WTG Total Inv Total Losses Availability Average P50 Energy
MW MW # \$ million % % P50 P90 Wind Speed per MW inst.
m/s P50 P90 MWh/year
Kavarna V90 - 3MW 3.0 156.0 52 378.0 15.8% 96.0% 23.9% 20.2% 7.10 326.6 276.0 2094
(Bulgaria)
Totoral V90 - 2MW 2.0 46.0 23 136.0 26.3% 95.0% 27.3% 21.0% 6.65 110.0 84.6 2391
(Chile)
Zorlu GE - 2.5MW 2.5 135.0 54 294.0 12.6% 95.0% 34.2% 28.1% 7.20 404.2 332.2 2994
(Turkey)
Samana E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 100.8 126 126 20.7% 96.0% 28.5% 22.5% 6.90 251.4 198.4 2492
Saundatti E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 82.4 103 106.0 19.2% 96.0% 25.8% 18.7% 6.80 186.5 135.4 2262
(India)
1U\$ = 1.4 Typical 12%-18% 95% - 97% 25%-35% 20%-25% 6.0 - 8.0
* High value due to Topographic/Roughness effect (*) 15%-25%
Plant Factor - pf Energy
GWh/year
Project Schedule (*)
Benchmarking Values
(*) From Permitting to Commercial Op.
(Resource Assessment & Site Selection
could add 6 12 months to the process)
Project WTG-Type WTG Total WTG Total Inv
MW MW # \$ million
Kavarna V90 - 3MW 3.0 156.0 52 378.0
(Bulgaria)
Totoral V90 - 2MW 2.0 46.0 23 136.0
(Chile)
Zorlu GE - 2.5MW 2.5 135.0 54 294.0
(Turkey)
Samana E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 100.8 126 126
Saundatti E57 - 0.8MW 0.8 82.4 103 106.0
(India)
Typical
1U\$ = 1.4
19 - 22
23 - 25
23 - 24
(Months)
19 - 22
Total Project Schedule
24 - 26
26 - 27