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Van Der Waals Interactions

Van der Waals forces are driven by induced electrical interactions between two or more atoms or
molecules that are very close to each other. Van der Waals interaction is the weakest of all
intermolecular attractions between molecules. However, with a lot of Van der Waals forces
interacting between two objects, the interaction can be very strong.
Dipole-Dipole Interaction
Dipole-Dipole interactions occur between molecules that have permanent dipoles; these
molecules are also referred to as polar molecules. The figure below shows the electrostatic
interaction between two dipoles.
Induced Dipoles
An induced dipole moment is a temporary condition during which a neutral nonpolar atom (i.e.
Helium) undergo a separation of charges due to the environment. When an instantaneous dipole
atom approaches a neighboring atom, it can cause that atom to also produce dipoles. The
neighboring atom is then considered to have an induced dipole moment.
Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole Interaction
Induced dipole-induced dipole interactions are also known as dispersion or London forces (name
after the German physicist Fritz London). They are large networks of intermolecular forces
between nonpolar and non-charged molecules and atoms (i.e. alkanes, noble gases, and
halogens). Molecules that have induced dipoles may also induce neighboring molecules to have
dipole moments, so a large network of induced dipole-induced dipole interactions may exist. The
image below illustrates a network of induced dipole-induced dipole interactions.
Dipole moments
The intermolecular forces have important contribution in helping us to understand the interaction
between atoms in same or different kind of molecules. The interaction can involve polar or non
polar molecules and ions. There are three common intermolecular forces and this module will
focus more in-depth the interaction involving polar molecules and interaction between polar
molecules and ions.
Polar molecules and Dipole-Dipole Interaction
A polar molecule is a molecule where one end has a positive electrical charge and the other end
has a negative charge due to the arrangement or geometry of its atoms. Because polar molecules
have a positive and negative charge ends, the positive charge end of a molecule will attract to the
negative end of adjacent molecule with the same or different kind of molecule. The attraction
beween two polar molecules is called dipole-dipole interaction. The attraction between two
dipoles create a very strong intermolecular force, which have great influence in the evaporation
of liquid and condensation of gas.
For example, Since water are polar molecules, the interaction between water molecules are so
strong that it takes a lot of energy to break the bond between the water molecules. Therefore, the
boiling point of polar substances are higher than those of nonpolar substance due to stronger
intermolecular force among polar molecules.
Polar molecules and Ions Interaction
When a polar molecule is mixed with ion, the positive charge end of the polar molecule will be
attracted to the negative charge called anion on the ion. Also, the positive charge called cation on
the ion will be attracted to the negative charge end of the polar molecule. This ion-dipole
interaction is stronger than the dipole-dipole interaction between polar molecules, but is weaker
than the ion-ion interaction.
Dipole-Dipole Interactions
Dipole-Dipole interactions result when two polar molecules approach each other in space. When
this occurs, the partially negative portion of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the
partially positive portion of the second polar molecule. This type of interaction between
molecules accounts for many physically and biologically significant phenomena such as the
elevated boiling point of water
Polarizability allows us to better understand the interactions between nonpolar atoms and molecules
and other electrically charged species, such as ions or polar molecules with dipole moments.
The polarizability is used to describe the tendency of molecules to form charge separation.
Induced dipole occurs when a molecule with an instantaneous dipole induces a charge separation
on other molecule. The result is a dipole-dipole attraction. The strength of the induced dipole
moment, , is directly proportional to the strength of the electric field, E with a proportionality
constant called the polarizability. The strength of the electric field causes the distortion in the
molecule. Therefore, greater the strength of the electric field, the greater the distortion, and result
to a larger polarizability:

London Dispersion Interactions

The attractive forces that exist between molecules are known as intermolecular forces. These
include ionic interactions, dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion or London dispersion forces.
Dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces are weaker than thermal energy (2.4 kJ/mole) at
room temperature and are referred to as Van der Waals Force. The London dispersion force is
the weakest intermolecular force. It is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons
in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.
Hydrogen Bonding
Table of Contents
1. 1. The evidence for hydrogen bonding
2. 2. The origin of hydrogen bonding
3. 3. Hydrogen bonding in alcohols
4. 4. Hydrogen bonding in organic molecules containing nitrogen
5. 5. Donors and Acceptors
6. 6. Types of hydrogen bonds
7. 7. Properties and effects of hydrogen bonds
8. 8. Factors preventing Hydrogen bonding
9. 9. Hydrogen Bonding in Nature
10. 10. References:
11. 11. Contributors
A hydrogen bond is a weak type of force that forms a special type of dipole-dipole attraction
which occurs when a hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom exists in the
vicinity of another electronegative atom with a lone pair of electrons. These bonds are generally
stronger than ordinary dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, but weaker than true covalent and
ionic bonds
aliphatic compounds:
Acyclic or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated carbon compounds, excluding aromatic compounds.
Alkenes can easily be oxidized by potassium permanganate and other oxidizing agents. What products
form depend on the reaction conditions. At cold temperatures with low concentrations of oxidizing
reagents, alkenes tend to form glycols.

This reaction is sometimes referred to as the Baeyer test.