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Volvo Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1970-1989 Repair Guide
CARBURETOR OVERHAUL COMPONENT TESTING & ADJUSTMENT REMOVAL & INSTALLATION COMPON
ENT REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
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Fuel System:
Carbureted Fuel Systems Mechanical Fuel Pump Carburetors Gasoline Fuel Injection
Systems Diesel Fuel Systems
COMPONENT TESTING & ADJUSTMENT
Fuel Tank Carbureted engines have incorporated many pollutant control devices, s
uch as Specification Charts a temperature-regulated fuel jet, an air/fuel mixtur
e preheating chamber, and a throttle bypass or over-rev valve. Measures have als
o been taken to improve the operation and driveability of emission controlled en
gines such as a cold start device, a constant intake air temperature device and
a hot start valve. The temperature-regulated fuel mixture is accomplished differ
ently on the Zenith-Stromberg carburetor than on the SU carburetor.
On the Zenith-Stromberg carburetor, a temperature sensitive bimetal spring (in t
he temperature compensator) actuates an air valve that varies the air supplied t
he venturi area, maintaining a constant air/fuel ratio. This ratio is maintained
despite changing fuel temperature. Within the SU carburetor, a temperature sens
itive bimetal spring raises or lowers an adjustable jet to maintain the proper a
ir/fuel ratio at changing fuel temperatures. The air/fuel mixture preheating cha
mber used on pre-1972 models is located between the primary throttles in the car
buretors and the secondary throttles in the intake manifold.
Temperature Compensator
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR
See Figures 1 and 2
Please refer to the component legend (following) for the Zenith-Stromberg carbur
etor. This procedure refers to components by number which makes the legend to wh
ich they are keyed necessary. If the idle speed drops off sharply during extende
d periods of idling, especially during warm weather, the temperature compensator
may be in need of adjustment or replacement. Use the accompanying diagram to he
lp you.
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Fig. 1: Component legend for the Zenith-Stromberg temperature compensator
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Fig. 2: Component legend for the Zenith-Stromberg carburetor
1. Remove the screws (7) holding the plastic cover (5) to the compensator and re
move the cover. 2. With the ambient temperature at or above 85F (29C), the valve (
3) should be able to be pressed inward with light finger pressure and then retur
n to its position without jamming. If the valve jams and/or is stiff in operatio
n, the temperature compensator should be replaced as a unit. See Temperature Com
pensator Replacement.
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3. If properly adjusted, the valve will begin to open at 70-77F (21-25C), and will
be fully open at 85F (29C). The valve may be adjusted while the temperature compe
nsator is still on the carburetor by loosening one of the cross-slotted screws (
8) for the bimetal spring (4), and centering the valve so that it opens and clos
es at the proper temperature. If necessary, the temperature compensator may be r
emoved and isolated at 70-77F (21-25C) then adjusted with the nut (9) for the bime
tal spring so that the valve is loose in its seat at this temperature. 4. Replac
e the cover and retaining screws on the compensator and check its operation duri
ng idling.
Bypass Valve
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR If the engine does not return to idle speed soon aft
er the throttle is released, and the throttle control linkage is properly adjust
ed, the bypass valve may be in need of adjustment or replacement. 1. If the engi
ne refuses to lower its rpm to idle speed when the throttle is released, turn th
e bypass adjusting screw on the front carburetor to the left, and manually lower
the idle. 2. Run the engine briefly up to approximately 2000 rpm, then release
the throttle. If the engine returns to idle speed, turn the screw 1/2 turn furth
er to the left. If the engine does NOT return to idle, replace the bypass valve
as a unit. 3. Remove the air cleaner. While looking into the carburetor bores, o
bserve the air valves. Briefly race the engine and then release the throttle. Th
e air valve of the front carburetor should normally go down to the bridge slower
than the air valve of the rear carburetor. Turn the bypass adjusting screw to t
he right until the normal function is obtained. If the valve cannot be adjusted
so that the front air valve goes down to the bridge slower than the rear air val
ve, the bypass valve must be replaced as a unit. See Bypass Valve Replacement.
Hot Start Valve
ZENITH STROMBERG CARBURETOR With the throttle at idle, adjust the valve control
of the hot start valve so that the valve is against the carburetor lever with th
e valve piston in the upper position. Coat the contact surfaces on the valve and
carburetor with high temperature white grease such as Molykote. Test the operati
on of the hot start valve by confirming that the engine returns to idle after se
veral brief periods of racing the engine. SU CARBURETOR
See Figure 3
To adjust the hot start valve, press the control rods down to the bottom positio
n and measure the distance (A) between the rod and the adjusting screw. Adjust t
he distance to a maximum of 0.04 in. (1mm). Test the operation of the control ro
ds. Make sure that they do not jam.
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Fig. 3: Hot start valve clearance-SU carburetor
Constant (Intake) Air Temperature Device
See Figure 4
If the flap for the constant air temperature device sticks in one position, engi
ne operation will suffer. Normally, the flap is closed to cold air (intake hose)
at an ambient temperature of 70-77F (21-25C) and closed to hot air (ducted from t
he exhaust manifold) at 95-105F (35-40C). Depending on the temperature, the flap ca
n remain in a partially open position, blending the warm and cool air to achieve
the proper intake air temperature. 1. The operation of the flap may be checked
with the housing installed on the car. When the small tab on the flap housing po
ints toward the mark closest to the exhaust heat hose, the flap is open for hot
(preheated) air. When the tab points to the mark nearest the cold air intake, th
e flap is open for cold (outside) air. If the tab indicates that the flap is ope
ning and closing the air sources at the right temperatures, it is operating corr
ectly. If not, check the operation of the flap control thermostat.
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Fig. 4: Details of the air temperature flap
2. Disconnect the flap housing from the air intake hoses. Immerse the thermostat
in lukewarm water. At a water temperature of 70-77F (21-25C), the thermostat shou
ld be in its upper (toward the flap housing) position. At 95-105F (35-40C), the th
ermostat should be in its lower position (away from the flap housing). If correc
t operation cannot be obtained, replace the thermostat and flap housing as a uni
t. 3. Replace the flap housing and thermostat assembly, making sure that the the
rmostat is centered in the middle of the air flow. Secure the hose clamp screw o
n top of the flap.
Float Adjustment
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR
See Figure 5
1. Remove the carburetor. 2. Invert the carburetor and remove the float chamber.
3. While referring to the Zenith-Stromberg float adjustment drawing, adjust the
float so that the high point (distance B) of the float is 5/8 in. (16mm), and t
he low point (distance A) of the float is 1/2 in. (13mm), from the sealing surfa
ce of the carburetor housing.
Fig. 5: Adjust the float level by precisely measuring the high and low points-Ze
nith-Stromberg carburetor
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4. To adjust the float level, bend the tab at the float chamber inlet valve. Do
not bend the arm between the float and the pin. 5. When the proper adjustment ha
s been made, install the float chamber to the housing with a new gasket. 6. Rein
stall the carburetor on the intake manifold. SU CARBURETOR
See Figure 6
1. Remove the carburetor. 2. Invert the carburetor and remove the float chamber.
3. The float is correctly adjusted when the distance A between the float valley
and the housing flange is approximately 0.02-0.06 in. (0.50-1.50mm). 4. The flo
at is adjusted by bending the metal tab at the float chamber inlet valve.
Fig. 6: Bend the metal tab to adjust the float level
5. When the correct adjustment has been made, install the float chamber to the h
ousing with a new gasket. 6. Install the carburetor.
Fast Idle Adjustment
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR Pull out the choke control one inch from the dash. I
f the choke is adjusted correctly, the mark on the fast idle cam (see illustrati
on) should be opposite the centerline of the fast idle screw. Adjust the fast id
le with the fast idle screw to 1100-1300 rpm. For cars with dual carburetors, ma
ke sure you set the fast idle on both carburetors. SU CARBURETOR Pull out the ch
oke control 0.8 in. (20mm) from the dash. Adjust the fast idle (with the fast id
le screw) to 1100-1600 rpm. Remember to set both carburetors if so equipped.
Throttle Linkage Adjustment
See Figures 7 and 8
On each carburetor, the link rods should maintain a 0.004 in. (0.1mm)-clearance
A-between the lever and the throttle spindle flange when the throttle control is
against the intake manifold bracket. To adjust this clearance, remove the ball-
and-socket link from the carburetor stud, and turn the
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socket on the threaded rod until the adjustment is correct. Remember that you ar
e seeking a clearance measured in thousandths of an inch; the link should not re
quire a great amount of turning.
Fig. 7: Carefully turn the socket on the threaded rod to adjust the linkage to t
he proper clearance-Stromberg carburetor
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Fig. 8: Only minute adjustments should be necessary for adjusting the carburetor
linkage-SU carburetor
COMPONENT REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Temperature Compensator
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR Please refer to the component legend for the Zenith-
Stromberg carburetor. This procedure refers to components by number which makes
the legend to which they are keyed necessary. 1. Remove the retaining screw (6)
and lift off the compensator. 2. Discard the old rubber seals (1, 2) and replace
them with new ones. 3. Position the compensator to the side of the carburetor a
nd install the retaining screws. 4. Check the operation of the compensator durin
g idle.
Bypass Valve
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR
See Figure 9
1. Remove the three retaining screws (6) and lift off the bypass valve. 2. Disca
rd the old bypass valve-to-carburetor housing gasket.
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Fig. 9: Components comprising the bypass valve
3. Position a new gasket and bypass valve to the carburetor, making sure that th
e orifices and mating surfaces of the valve and gasket align and install the thr
ee retaining screws. 4. Check the operation of the bypass valve. (See Bypass Val
ve Testing and Adjustment.)
Hot Start Valve
ZENITH STROMBERG CARBURETOR The hot start valve on the Zenith-Stromberg carburet
or is riveted to the air cleaner. If the valve requires cleaning, it must be don
e with the assembly in place on the engine. SU CARBURETOR
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1. Remove the two retaining screws and lift off the valve. 2. Discard the old ga
sket and clean the channels in the carburetor with a low pressure air line. 3. P
osition the valve and new gasket to the carburetor, making sure that the gasket
is aligned properly, then install the two retaining screws. 4. Adjust the positi
on of the control rod and test the operation of the valve. (See Hot Start Valve
Testing and Adjustment.)
Constant Air Temperature Device Flap Housing
1. Loosen the hose clamps and disconnect the flap housing and thermostat assembl
y from the hoses for the intake air, heated air, and intake manifold. 2. Install
the new flap housing assembly in position and reconnect the three hoses. Make s
ure that the thermostat is centered in the middle of the intake air flow. Secure
the hose clamp screw on top of the flap. 3. Check the operation of the new flap
housing. (See Constant Air Temperature Device Testing and Adjustment.)
Cold Start Device Seals
SU CARBURETOR 1. Pry off the lockwasher for the cold start device and unscrew th
e channel disc nut. 2. Disconnect the return spring and remove the channel disc
and spring. 3. Remove the two retaining screws and the spring retainer. 4. Lift
the cold start device away from the carburetor. Press the spindle out of the col
d start device housing. Remove the gasket the rubber ring, and rubber seal from
the spindle, and discard them. Clean all metal parts with kerosene (not gasoline
) and clean the fuel channels with an compressed air. 5. Install a new rubber ri
ng and seal on the housing and oil them with light engine oil (use 10W, or if th
is is not available, 10W-30 will suffice). Install the spindle into the housing.
6. Position the housing assembly, with a new gasket, on the carburetor. Fit the
spring retainer and install the retaining screws. 7. Position the return spring
in its retainer so that the spring's short end fits into the retainer slot. 8.
Hook the channel disc onto the spring's longer end and install the disc on the s
pindle. Install the channel disc retaining nut and snap on the lockwasher.
Damping Piston Replacement
See Figure 10
If the engine stumbles upon acceleration, and the damping cylinders are filled t
o their proper level with oil, the problem may be with the damping pistons thems
elves. Unscrew the black knobs on top of the carburetors and remove the damping
pistons. If the axial clearance A between the bottom of the piston and the retai
ning clip is not 0.04-0.08 in. (1.0-2.0mm), the piston must be replaced as a uni
t.
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Fig. 10: Damping piston axial clearance is measured between the retaining clip a
nd the bottom of the piston
Carburetor Diaphragm Replacement
ZENITH-STROMBERG CARBURETOR ONLY The Stromberg carburetor differs from the SU ca
rburetor in that it has a rubber diaphragm attached to the air valve. Vacuum fro
m the intake manifold acts upon the diaphragm to raise and lower the air valve.
Obviously, if the diaphragm rips (which can happen due to age and/or chemical de
terioration), engine performance will suffer measurably. This procedure is done
with the carburetor on the engine. 1. Remove the damper piston from the top of t
he carburetor. 2. Remove the four screws and remove the top of the carburetor. 3
. Remove the large spring and remove the air valve complete with rubber diaphrag
m. 4. Check the diaphragm for rips and brittleness. If no rips or deterioration
are evident, reuse the diaphragm. 5. If the diaphragm is ripped or damaged, remo
ve the four screws and remove the diaphragm washer and the diaphragm. To install
: 6. Fit a new diaphragm. The diaphragm will fit on the air valve only one way:
it has a notch in it which must be inserted in the notch on the air valve. 7. Fi
t the air valve and diaphragm on the carburetor. You may have to remove the air
cleaner to guide the needle on the air valve into its jet. Place the air valve i
nto the carburetor so that the notch in the outside of the diaphragm fits into t
he notch in the carburetor body. 8. Reinstall the spring and carburetor top. Fil
l the damper with ATF fluid and install the damper piston.
REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
Two different types of carburetors were used on 1970-72 Volvos. A pair of sidedr
aft
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Zenith-Stromberg 175 CD2 SE units were used on 1970 140 series models, and on 19
70-72 164 models. A pair of sidedraft SU HIF units were used on 1971-72 140 seri
es models. All wires and hoses should be labeled at the time of removal. The amo
unt of time saved during reassembly makes the extra effort well worthwhile. 9. O
n the Zenith-Stromberg carburetor, disconnect the hot start valve control. Separ
ate the air cleaner halves and remove the inner half from the carburetors. 10. D
isconnect the throttle linkage by removing the link rod ball joints from the car
buretors. Disconnect the choke cable, taking note of its proper routing and adju
stment. 11. Disconnect and plug the fuel lines at the float chambers. Remove the
vacuum hose for the distributor. On the SU carburetor, disconnect the hot start
valve hose. 12. Remove the four nuts retaining the carburetor to the intake man
ifold. Remove the carburetors, gaskets, and protection plate. Keep the carbureto
r vertical and remove it from the engine are. Safely drain the remaining fuel wi
thin the bowls of the carburetor and cap the container. When repairing the carbu
retor on the workbench, keep the area clean and free from dirt and dust. To inst
all: 13. Position the protection plate, new gaskets, and carburetor on the intak
e manifold studs. Install the carburetor retaining nuts and tighten them evenly
until they are snug against the manifold. 14. Connect the vacuum hoses, fuel hos
es, choke, and throttle linkage. On the SU carburetor, connect the hot start val
ve hose. 15. Install the inner half of the air cleaner to the carburetors. Adjus
t the idle speed and mixture of the carburetors. (see Engine Electrical .) 16. F
it the air cleaner halves together and, on the Stromberg carburetor, connect the
hot start valve control.
CARBURETOR OVERHAUL
See Figures 11 and 12
Carburetors are relatively complex. Proper performance depends upon the cleanlin
ess and proper adjustment of all internal and external components. In addition t
o the usual adjustments performed at the regular tune-up intervals, it eventuall
y becomes necessary to remove, disassemble, clean, and overhaul the entire carbu
retor in order to restore its original performance.
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Fig. 11: Exploded view of the Zenith-Stromberg carburetor
To overhaul a carburetor, first purchase the proper rebuilding kit. Read the ins
tructions and study the exploded view of the carburetor thoroughly prior to the
actual removal and disassembly. After reading the detailed carburetor rebuilding
instructions, the following general procedure may be used. Remove the carbureto
r and place it on a clean work table. Disassemble the carburetor by removing the
screws securing the upper and lower sections together. Remove the damping pisto
n, air valve, spring, metering needle, fuel jet (SU only), and float assembly.
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Fig. 12: Exploded view of the SU carburetor
Soak all metal parts in carburetor cleaning solvent. Scrape all old gasket mater
ial from the mating surfaces. After the metal parts have been soaked to remove a
ll gum, varnish, and dirt, rinse them off with a clean, uncontaminated, solvent
solution. Blow out all passages with compressed air and allow them to air dry. D
o not use drills or wire to clean the passages. Check the throttle shaft and cho
ke disc for excessive wear. Inspect the float hinge pins for distortion. All non
-metal parts that are not being replaced should be wiped clean with a lint-free
cloth. After all of the parts have been sufficiently cleaned or replaced, assemb
le the carburetor using new gaskets and seals, and, on Zenith-Stromberg carburet
ors, a new air valve diaphragm. If any of the replacement seals in an SU carbure
tor are cork, they must first be soaked in penetrating oil for a minimum of a ha
lf hour to avoid splitting during installation. Assemble the float chamber and a
djust the float height. Assemble the air valve, spring, and metering needle into
the upper housing. Join the upper and lower housing together, taking care to pr
operly align the metering needle and fuel jet. When the jet and needle are insta
lled correctly, the air valve should drop to the bridge with a distinctive click
. Any binding of these two parts will result in poor carburetor performance. Ins
tall the damping piston. Install the carburetor on its manifold with a new gaske
t. Adjust the choke and throttle linkage, and the idle speed. Run the engine thr
ough a full cold start, warm up and hot restart cycle to check for proper functi
on of all carburetor systems. Make adjustments as necessary.
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