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Naing Naw Than


naingmawthan@gmail.com
December, 2010
!"#$% "! %'!()*"+$ ($","(-
2
Content
!) The Geological Formations in Singapore
!!) A Brief Description of Formation
!!!) Stratigraphy
3.1.Stratigraphy of the Paleozoic Geology in Singapore
(5+2 - 251 m.y)
3.2.Stratigraphy of the Nesozoic Geology in Singapore
(251 - 65 m.y)
3.3.Stratigraphy of the Cenozoic Geology in Singapore
(65 m.y- Present)
!v) Tectonic History and Structures
References
3
!) The Geological Formations in Singapore
Ten separate formations are recognized in Singapore.
1) Sajahat Formation (S) Lower Paleozoic
(Upper PaleozoicfTriassic ?)
2) Gombak Norite (GN) Lower Paleozoic
3) The Paleozoic volcanics (Pv) as Same age of (S)
+) Bukit Timah Granite (BT) Lower to Niddle Triassic
5) The Jurong Formation (Upper Triassic to Lr-Nid Jurassic)
6) Fort Canning Boulder Bed FCBB (Late Cretaceous Age)
7) The Older Alluvium (late Tertiary to early Nid-Pleistocene)
8) The Huat Choe Formation (HC) Early to Nid Plieistocene
9) The Tekong Formation (T) Nid Holocenc
10) The Kallang formation (K) Late Pleistocene (1.5 m.a) to
Present
Narine Nember (Km)
Alluvial Nember (Ka)
Littoral Nember (Kl)
Transitional Nember (Kt)
Reef Nember (Kr)
4
Geography of Singapore (NEA)
Geology of Singapore (NEA)
Data from Geology of Singapore (2009)
0
Generalized Cross section of the Central to East of Singapore
(Approximate Scale)
5
Geology of Singapore (NTU)
195 m
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Jurong Fm.
Sajahat Fm
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!!) A Brief Description of Formation
Paleozoic
1. Sajahat Formation (S) Lower Paleozoic (Upper
PaleozoicfTriassic ?)
variable metamorphosed sedimentary rock, quartz,
sandstone, and argillite found on Pulau Sajahat and Sajahat
Kachil, north of Pulau Tekong.
2. Gombak Norite (GN) Lower Paleozoic
Noritic and gabbroic rock in central Singapore and as part of
the Ophiolite suite of the Lr Pz geosyncline. But, it could be
younger if GN is interpreted as basic differentiate of Triassic
magma.
3. The Paleozoic volcanics (Pv) as Same age of (S)
Partially metamorphosed volcanic agglomerates unit of
andesitic fragments, ash and tuff in eastern Singapore,
Pulau Tekong.
7
!!) A Brief Description of Formation
Nesozoic
+. Bukit Timah Granite (BT) Lower to Niddle Triassic
Granite, Granodiorite, Norite, adamalite
The BT was emplaced by two phases that can be grouped
Older acid group assumed to be a cooling phase and
slightly younger basic group seem cutting the older Acid
dykes. Both groups cut older formations.
5. The Jurong Formation (Upper Triassic to Lr-Nid Jurassic)
Sandstone, Silts, Nudstones, conglomerate and
Limestone with various metamorphism (Shale, Slate,
Narble).
!t overlies the granite though contact is never seen that
can be divided seven facies deposited in terrestrial,
transitional and shallow marine.
Facies : (Queens Town, Jong, Ayer Chawan,Pandan,
Rimau, St.John, Tengah)
volcanics of tuff, spilitic lava, dykes are contemporaneous
with the formations.
The Nurai schist is a product of dynamic metamorphism
within the formation found as a zone of well developed
cleavage in rocks at Pasir Laba ridge and within Jong
facies.
6. Fort Canning Boulder Bed FCBB (Late Cretaceous Age)
(known as S 3, Boulder Clay or Boulder bed)
Small Colluvial deposits of boulders in soil matrix (hard,
Silty Clay 8 weathered rocks derived from the Jurong Fm.)
lied on the Juorng Fm. at central districts and downtown
of Singapore.
!t could have probably deposited when the Jurong
formation was deposited and deformed during late
Triassic to late Tertiary.
8
!!) A Brief Description of Formation
Cenozoic
7. The Older Alluvium (late Tertiary to early Nid-Pleistocene)
The OA is composed of Fluvio-Deltaic sediments. The
upper section is completely weathered CLAY and Lower
section is Silty to Clayey Sand, coarse, angular, poorly
lithified, quartzo feldspathic with some layers of pebbles.
Block faulting and renewed movement along the pre-
existing faults resulted downwarp occurred and trough was
back filled with fluvial sediments with some embayment
sediments. !t lies unconformably on older rock units or in
fault contact with them.
8. The Huat Choe Formation (HC) Early to Nid Plieistocene
The kaolin rich clay in fault controlled depression formed
as small lacustrine deposits unconformably on the Jurong
Fm.
9. The Tekong Formation (T) Nid Holocenc
Coastal terrace deposits with marine and littoral area,
unconsolidated sand with some cobbles.
!ts upper surface is lying at elevations ranged (3.6 to 6.5m)
above present sea level.
10. The Kallang formation (K) Late Pleistocene (1.5 m.a) to
Present
!t consists of both marine and terrestrial deposits that is
found in onshore incised river valleys, offshore and coastal
areas.
The Kallang Formation
Narine Nember (Km)
Alluvial Nember (Ka)
Littoral Nember (Kl)
Transitional Nember (Kt)
Reef Nember (Kr)
9
!!) A Brief Description of Formation
10.1. Narine Nember (Km)*
Dominantly blue grey, clayey Nud, Sandstone, peat
Unconsolidated but slightly consolidated beds occur
10.2. Alluvial Nember (Ka) *
A variable terrestrial sediments ranged from pebbles beds
through Sand, muddy Sand and Clayey to Peat. !t is
usually unconsolidated to consolidated.
F 1 granular Sand, F2 non-granular Silty Clay
10.3. Littoral Nember (Kl) *
Well sorted unconsolidated beach Sand and near-shore
quartz Sand with minor lateritic, shell and lithic fragments,
iron-cemented beach rock
10.+. Transitional Nember (Kt)
Unconsolidated black to bluish grey estuarine mud,
muddy Sand or Sand withsome high organic content and
peat layers
10.5. Reef Nember (Kr)
Coral, unconsolidated calcareous Sand and lesser quartz,
ferruginous and lithic sand
(*possibly part of other members and Tekong Fm.)
10
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!n this context, presents with distributions, age, geological
setting and occurrences, collected samples on site and core
samples, some available cross-sections and developments.
3.1) Stratigraphy of the Paleozoic Geology in Singapore
(5+2 - 251 m.y)
Distribution of Singapore's Paleozoic Rocks (K.W. Lee, 2010)
11
3.1.1 ) The Sajahat Formation and Paleozoic volcanics
Geological setting of the Sajahat and Paleozoic volcanic rocks in
Singapore (K.W. Lee,2010)
3.1.2) The Gombak Norite
Geological setting of the Gombak Norite in Singapore (K.W. Lee,2010)
Small Basic !ntrusions
Roots of
Basic
!ntrusions
Ophiolitics
Dolerite
Dykes
Nicrogranite
Dykes
Noritic
Gabbro
12
Bukit Gombak Norite in closed view B as later intrusion
(courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin)
B
Granodiorite intruded by Norite (C, drak colour) and Jointed
Granodiorite D in Bukit Gombak (courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin)
D
C
13
3.2) Stratigraphy of the Nesozoic Geology in Singapore
(251-65 m.y.)
(K.W. Lee, 2010).
14
3.2.1) Bukit Timah Granite
Bukit Timah Granite and Sakudu Granite rocks in Singapore
(K.W. Lee, 2010).
Bukit Timah Hill natural reserve and old Quarry
15
Poorly jointed massive Sakudu granite at Pulau U Bin
(Courtesy by U Kyaw Htin Khine)
Sakudu_Eastern Granite outcrops showing spheroidal
weathering at Pulau Ubin island
(0172/8 from the Bartley 8 Kim Chuan Road (After Ong, Noe
Sein 8 et al., 2003).
16
3.2.2) The Jurong Formation
Facies Distribution of the Jurong Formation in Singapore
(k.W. Lee, 2010).
Brecciated Fault plane A and Conglomeratic Sandstone B of
Jurong Fm. at Kent Ridge road (Courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin)
A
B
17
Tuffaceous Sandstone A and Jointed, thin bedded Siltstone B of Jurong
Fm. at Kent Ridge road (Courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin 8 U Khin Latt)
A
B
Pebbly Gritty Sandstone D with fining upward cycle and med to thick
bedded Sst with mud drapes E shown a break of sedimentation of
Jurong Fm. at Labradore park (Courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin 8 U Khin Latt)
D
E
Gritty Sandstone F altered with Sst G and bidirectional X stratification H
of Jurong Fm. at Labradore park (Courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin 8U Khin Latt)
F
G
H
18
Stratigraphy of the Jurong Formation (After Redding 8 et al,
1999).
Facies Distribution of the Jurong Formation changes from SW to
NE in Singapore (Lee, 2010).
19
Locations of the Pandan Limestone in Singapore (K.W. Lee, 2010).
Cross Section along East Jurong Fairway(Chiam et al., 2003)
20
*17917 ,2:8;/<78 in Singapore is generally light to dark grey,
yellowish to Brownish with purplish stains (Chiam et al., 2003).
21
Basin development of the Jurong Formation (After Redding 8 et
al, 1999).
22
Fort Canning Boulder Bed underlying the Jurong Fm.At along the
Fort Canning Rise Depth marked from BGL(RL 121.07m).(Shirlaw
8 et. al. 2003)
Collected Fort Canning Boulders and !n-situ outcrop (Shirlaw
8 et. al. 2003)
3.2.3) Fort Canning Boulder Bed
23
A cross section of Fort Canning Boulder bed and associated rocks
from Raffles City toRaffles Quay showing upper and lower
boundaries of FCBB (Shirlaw 8 et. al. 2003)
24
3.3) Stratigraphy of the Cenozoic Geology in Singapore
(65 m.y - Present) (k.W. Lee, 2010).
25
3.3.1) The Old Alluvium
OA Clay wedged by Esturarine Deposits, Bartley Road Deep Excavation
Upper OA wedged by puplish Shale, Punggol area
(Courtesy of U Sai Naw Kham)
. Cross Bedded Sand with Scour and filled structure, Bartley Rd.
26
Gullies as ridges and furrows in upper OA Clays A and Cross bedded fine
Sand B stacked by another Channel with Coarse Sand C at Bartley Rd.
A
B
C
Thinly laminate Sand layers A and a boulder sit on the bed B at just east
of Changi airport run way.
A
B
27
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%2>/6 %179
=>1686
%179
%2>/
(01@8>>6 %179
Batley Deport
Marina South
Depositional variations From Bartley Rd. To Narina South
Description
55
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Correlation of Soil Profile from Bartley Road to Narina South
43
29
Key points of the OA development
The OA was probably dominant by fluvial condition with subordinate
marine sediments during Pliocene to Nid-Pleistocene (correlated with
Lower Pleistocene Low eustatic sea level).
The Kallang river was main channel characterized by low-sinuous
braided channels at earlier and hi-sinuous at later stage caused
aggradation, multi-stacked channel deposits.
Deposited in faulted trough with repeated vertical movement and
small block faulting.
A bay line (Place where ceased fluvial dominance ) is probably
passed at the junction of Upper Payaleber road way and Nac
Pherson road.
Shore Line : Contact between Coastal Plain and Sea
Shelf : Part of the Continental margin between the Shoreline and
Continental slope
Depositional variations of the Old Alluvium 8 Kallang Fm.
Naing Naw Than (2010)
Narina South,
RL 101m
Bartley Rd
RL 120m
OA
>+5m
KL Fm.
12 Km
NE
OA Clay
Estuarine
Shelf Area
Bay Line
Ncpherson 8 Up
Payaleber Rd
30
(after Shanley and McCabe 1993))
tidal sediments
high gradient,
low sinuosity
channel
deposits
high sinuosity
floodplain
One example is the
progression that results
from a relative sea level
rise
High gradient, low
sinuosity streams occupy
incised valleys at a
lowstand
Stream gradient decreases
and sinuosity increases
during transgression,
forming amalgamated
channel deposits
The highstand succession
consists of channel
deposits from low gradient,
high sinuosity streams
isolated within floodplain
sediments
31
Granites found under the Old Alluvium (After Ong, Noe Sein 8
et al., 2003).
(0172/8 Core runs at the Loyang Ave. (After Ong, Noe Sein 8 et al., 2003).
32
3.3.2) The Huat Choe Formation
During the period of early Pleistocene faulting, the kaolin-
rich clay in fault controlled depression formed as small
isolated ponds and lacustrine deposits unconformably on the
Jurong Fm.
,
33
Distribution of Quaternary sediments in Singapore with
bathymetric levels (Bird 8 et. al. 2003)
3.3.3) The Kallang Formation
B10278 =>16 *81/6 =>16 EF K %2>/6 =,)6 EGK %)!C
34
Stratigraphic relationship of Quarternary sediments in Singapore
(Bird 8 et. al. 2003)
Deposition of the Kallang Formation Nembers (Lee. 2010)
35
Development of The Kallang Formation
(Upper Quaternary)
!t consists of both marine and terrestrial deposits that is
found in onshore incised river valleys, offshore and coastal
areas.
The Kallang Formation
Narine Nember (Km)
Alluvial Nember (Ka)
Littoral Nember (Kl)
Transitional Nember (Kt)
Reef Nember (Kr)
These deposits covers much of the coastal plane The most
important unit is Narine Nember that covers one quarter of
Singapore with variable thickness with a maximum record of
35m.
!t comprises upper and lower part. The Narine Clay is pale
grey to dark blue in colour, soft, silty, kaolinite-rich and shell
fragments.
The low sea levels associated with the penultimate glacial
(Riss) stage. Rivers downcut their valleys to at least -55m.
As sea level rose following glacial Riss stage about 1+,000
BP, the lower member was deposited (Bird et al. 2003).
The transitional member (Kt) and the Littoral memebr (kl)
were deposited near the shore line and the Alluvial member
was deposited in river valleys on shore.
36
When the sea level stood at - 120m during the last Glacial
Nax at about 20,000 BP stiff, reddish brown clay F2 was
developed at the top of the lower member. vegetation
grown on F2 layer and became Peat layer E that was in turn
capped with sandy, shallow water deposits F1 Sand.
At the end of the last Glacial Nax (during the closing phase
of the last glacial Wurn stage), sea level rose rapidly and
Singapore was flooded when it was about -25m at about
10,000 BP.
The Transitional (Kt) and Littoral (Kl) members were
deposited repeatedly near advancing shoreline with similar
facies of Tekong formation.
Further offshore, the Upper Narine Nember was deposited
over the Transitional and Littoral Nember, and onshore,the
Alluvial Nember was deposited.
The sea level stand at about 2 to 2.5m above present sea
level at 6,000 BP allowed the deposition of Tekong
Formation.
Since 6000, sea level declined steadily to the present and
Upper Narine Nember was overlain by the Alluvial Nember
and transitional Nember.
37
The Paleozoic sedimentary structures indicate a longer and more
complex tectonic history. The intrusion and uplift of the granite
presumably started in the Upper Paleozoic and become strongly
evident in the Triassic time.
The Triassic sediments were laid down in a mobile N_W
trending trough bounded on either side by rising granitic hills
(coarse clasts in sedimentary rocks suggests the bulk of the
granite was buried at the same time).
The rate of uplift of the main range granite in the SW of trough
appears to have been more rapid. This lopsided uplift caused
the trough and tilt NE and gave way sediments against the uplift
of Bukit Timah granite.
The dynamic metamorphism that gave rise to Nurai schist
accompanied with this sliding and assumed that Nalay penisular
was raised above sea level from that time.
Alternatively, the Triassic sediments of Jurong Formation could
have been uplifted, tilted, dislocated, piled on top of one
another in late Cretaceous when the Wyola continental fragment
collided with the east Nalaysia block that may caused the Fort
Canning Boulder Bed.
'L. #8?/<72? M2;/<06 179 %/0J?/J08;
38
That was also widespread shallow thrust faulting, shallow folded
and metamorphism such as slates, phyllites, and schistose
sandstone at many locations away from Nurai Schist.
Tectonic activity recommended the late Tertiary with block
faulting and warping.
The Old Alluvium and Huat Choe Formation were deposited in
the depression that had formed. After the cessation of warping,
river valleys were cut in the Old Alluvium and older rocks.
The valleys and coastal areas are subsequently backfilled with
sediments of the Kallang Formation during late Pleistocene and
Holocene.
During mid-Holocene, coastal area were covered with Tekong
Formation and The Kallang Formation continue to be deposited
except the Lower Narine member in present day.
'L. #8?/<72? M2;/<06 179 %/0J?/J08;
%$ );21 N1;27; O #8?/<72? E01:8P<0Q
Nee Soon
Seletar
Pasir
Pajang
Nanyang
Tg.
Gadong
Tg.
Lokos
Faults alignments in Singapore
(From K.W. Lee, 2010)
40
Wrench Faulting in Singapore during Late Cretaceous (From K.W. Lee, 2010)
41
Parallel A and oblique B joint sets in eastern granite at Pulau U Bin
(Courtesy of U Kyaw Htin Khine)
A
B
Quartz vein along with syn sedimentary fault (?) at Labrador park
(Courtesy of Dr.Kyi Khin, U Khin Latt)
42
The lines shown are real trend
lines, mostly representing the
regional strike of regional folds or
strike of beds.
The regional pattern swings
southeastwards through Singapore
and then due east from Billiton.
This bending can be achieved only
by slippage on each vertical plane.
There are therefore many right-
lateral wrench faults. Rotations and
trans-extension and trans-pression
follow.
Geological Evolution of SE AS!A, C.S. Hutchison (1996), Pg 61
43
References:
1. Bird N.J., J.N.Shirlaw 8 et.al. The Age and Origin of quaternary
Sediments of Singapore with emphasis on the Narine Clay,
Proceeding of Underground Singapore 2003, Engineering Geology
Workshop
2. Chiam.S.L., K.S. Wong 8 et.at., The Old Alluvium , Proceeding of
Underground Singapore 2003, Engineering Geology Workshop
3. DSTA, Geology of Singapore (2nd Ed, 2009)
+. Lee K.W. 8 et.at Limestones of the Jurong Formation, Proceeding of
Underground Singapore 2003, Engineering Geology Workshop,
5. J.J. Lambiase. Lecture Notes on Reservoir Sedimentology (Universiti
Brunei, 2005)
6. K.S.Wong 8 et al. Old Alluvium Engineering Properties and Braced
Excavation Performance, Proceedings of Underground Singapore 2001
7. Lee kim Woon, SRNEG_GEOSS Workshop on Geology of Singapore
5th April 2010
8. Noe Sein, J.C.W. Ong 8 et al. Buried Granite Ridges in Old Alluvium
Proceeding of Underground Singapore 2003, Engineering Geology
Workshop
9. Naing Naw Than,The Occurrences of Old Alluvium, Singapore
(presented at NGSS 1st technical Seminar, June 2010)
10.Shirlaw J.N. 8 et.at., Fort Canning Boulder Bed, Proceeding of
Underground Singapore 2003, Engineering Geology Workshop
44
Thank You !
- Sincere thanks to NGS personnel to arrange this
presentation and other social networks for Nyanmar
Geology Society.
- This presentation is a comprehensive note dedicated to
persons who resume to understand on neighborhood
geology of SE Asia and resume to work with Singapore.
- !t is based on previous works and just a jig-saw work of
scattered data of (Bartley Rd. viaduct, KPE, Narina
South) and knowledge shared by colleagues that still
need additional findings.
Best Regards,
Naing Naw Than
naingmawthan@gmail.com