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MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction

Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia















MODUL KIMIA SPM 2014/2015
KERTAS 2
[100 markah]



KELAS INTENSIF
Sekolah Kluster Kecemerlangan
Kimia A+











Written by: Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh
M.Sc. Ed USM
BSc (hons) Ed (Chemistry) USM
GURU CEMERLANG KIMIA
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5

CHAPTER 1: RATE OF REACTIONS
KADAR TINDAK BALAS
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
CHAPTER 1: RATE OF REACTIONS
Kadar Tindak Balas

A Rate of Reaction
Kadar tindak balas

Activity 1: What is rate of reaction?
Apa itu kadar tindak balas?

Rate of reaction is the at which reactants are converted into . in a
chemical reaction.
Kadar tindak balas berlaku dengan .. di mana bahan tindak balas ditukar ke dalam
.. tindak balas kimia.

The rate of reaction is a measurement of the change in the quantity of . or
. against time.
Kadar tindak balas adalah ukuran perubahan dalam kuantiti .. atau
dalam satu unit masa.

Activity 2: Determine the slow and fast reactions
Tentukan tindak balas perlahan dan cepat




















[6 markah]
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Activity 3: Observable changes for measuring the rate of reaction
Perubahan yang dapat diperhatikan untuk mengukur kadar tindak balas

The change in amount of reactant / product that can be measured by:
Perubahan dalam jumlah bahan tindak balas / hasil yang boleh diukur oleh:











For each of the reactions below, write a chemical equation and state the observable change/changes
can be used as selected quantities to measure the rate of reaction:
Bagi setiap tindak balas berikut, tuliskan satu persamaan kimia dan nyatakan perubahan yang dapat diperhatikan/
perubahan yang boleh digunakan sebagai kuantiti untuk mengukur kadar tindak balas:

Example 1: The reaction between marble chip with hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide gas and
chloride salt.
Tindak balas antara serpihan marmar dengan asid hidroklorik untuk menghasilkan gas karbon
dioksida dan garam klorida.


Chemical Equation: .
Persamaan kimia

Changes:

(i) ...(reactants/ bahan tindak balas)
(ii) ..(product/ hasil)

Example 2: Reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution with sulphuric acid to produce yellow
precipitate of sulphur, water, sulphur dioxide and sodium sulphate solution.
Tindak balas antara larutan natrium tiosulfat dengan asid sulfurik untuk menghasilkan mendakan
kuning sulfur, air, sulfur dioksida dan larutan natrium sulfat.

Chemical equation: ..
Change:
(i) (product/ hasil)
.. in the mass of
reactant
.............................................. jisim bahan tindak
balas

.. in mass of product
.............................................. jisim hasil tindak
balas

.. in volume of gas
released
.............................................. isi padu gas yang
dibebaskan
.. of precipitate
............................................. mendakan
sebagai hasil tindak balas

Change in pH, temperature or electrical
conductivity
Perubahan pH, suhu atau kekonduksian elektrik


.. pressure

tekanan
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Example 3: Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce water and oxygen gas.
Penguraian hidrogen peroksida untuk menghasilkan air dan gas oksigen.

Chemical equation: ..
Change:
(i) (product / hasil)

Activity 4: Measusement of the Rate of Reaction.
Pengukuran Kadar Tindak Balas

Average Rage of Reaction/ Kadar Tindak Balas Purata





Instantaneous Rate of Reaction = Gradient of the graph
Kadar Tindak Balas Pada Masa Tertentu = kecerunan tangen pada graf






The reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid,
HCl release 25 cm
3
of hydrogen gas and the gas is
collected in 60 seconds.
Tindak balas antara zink dengan asid hidroklorik, HCl
membebaskan 25 cm
3
gas hidrogen dan gas
dikumpulkan dalam masa 60 saat.






0.2 g of magnesium ribbon reacts completely with
dilute hydrochloric acid in 40 seconds. What is the
rate of reaction?
0.2 g pita magnesium bertindak balas sepenuhnya
dengan asid hidroklorik cair dalam 40 saat. Berapakah
kadar tindak balas?
Calculate the average rate of reaction for the
reaction between 2.6 g of zinc and 50 cm
3
of 1.0
mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid.
Hitung kadar tindak balas purata bagi tindak balas
antara 2.6 g zink dengan 50 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 1.0
mol
-3
.








Calculate the average rate? / hitung kadar tindak
balas purata?
Time 0 20 40 80 120
Mass of
CaCo
3

0.0 0.048 0.116 0.164 0.164
Rate of reaction = Change in quantity of reactant or Product / perubahan bahan tindak balas atau hasil
Kadar tindak balas Time taken/ masa diambil
Instantaneous rate = Change of volume in y axis / perubahan isi padu paksi y
Change of volume in x axis / perubahan isi padu paksi x
V
2
V
1

T
2
T
1

MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
The results for the experiment of decomposition of hydrogen gas liberated are given below.
Keputusan eksperimen tentang penguraian gas hidrogen dibebaskan seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah.

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
Volume of
gas liberated
(cm
3
)

0

7.50

11.75

14.50

16.50

18.25

19.75

21.00

21.75

22.50

23.25

23.75

24.00

Calculate the average rate of reaction in the first 2
minutes.
Kirakan kadar tindak balas purata dalam masa 2 minit
pertama.

















Calculate the average rate of reaction in the
second minute.
Kirakan kadar tindak balas purata dalam minit kedua.
Calculate the instantaneous rate of reaction at 30
seconds.
Kira kadar tindak balas pada masa tertentu dalam masa
30 saat.




















Calculate the instantaneous rate of reaction at 90
seconds.
Kira kadar tindak balas pada masa tertentu dalam masa
90 saat.









MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
A graph of the volume of hydrogen gas liberated against time
Graf isi padu gas hidrogen dibebaskan melawan masa

MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
B FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF REACTION
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas

Activity 6: Factors affecting the rate of reaction.
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.

State five factors that affect the rate of reaction / Nyatakan lima faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak
balas:

(a) . (b) ..
(c) . (d) ..
(e) .


Activity 7: What is catalyst? Apa itu pemangkin?







State three characteristics of the catalyst / Nyatakan tiga ciri-ciri pemangkin:

1.


2.


3.



Industrial applications of Catalysts
Penggunaan mangkin di dalam aplikasi industri
















MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Activity 8: Shapes of curve depend on the volume and concentration of reaction
Bentuk lengkung bergantung kepada isi padu dan kepekatan tindak balas

Experiment

Initial rate of reaction
Kadar tindak balas awal
Maximum volume of
hydrogen gas
I si padu maksimum gas
hidrogen
Graph
Set I
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 50 cm
3
of
0.10 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 50 cm
3
0.10 mol dm
-3

HCl

Set II
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 30 cm
3
of
0.20 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+30 cm
3
0.20 mol dm
-3

HCl

The initial rate of set I is l
.. than that of
set II.
Kadar awal set I adalah
lebih . daripada
set II.


This is because the
concentration of HCl in
set I is .. than that
in set II.
Kerana kepekatan HCl
dalam set I adalah lebih
.. daripada set
II.
Zinc is excess.
zink berlebihan.
Set I

= ..

Set II

=


The number of mole HCl in
set I is l than that in
set II.
Bilangan mol HCl dalam set I
adalah lebih
daripada set II.

Hence, maximum volume of
H
2
released in set I is
.. than that in set II.
Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum
H
2
dibebaskan dalam set I
adalah lebih .. daripada
set II.









Set I
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 50 cm
3
of
0.10 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 50 cm
3
0.10 mol dm
-3

HCl

Set III
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 150 cm
3
of
0.05 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 150 cm
3
0.05 mol dm
-3

HCl

The initial rate of set I is
.. than that of
set III.
Kadar awal set I adalah
lebih .. daripada
set III.

This is because the
concentration of HCl in
set I is .. than
that in set III.
Kerana kepekatan HCl
dalam set I adalah lebih
.. daripada set III.
Zinc is excess.
zink berlebihan.
Set I = ..

Set II = ...

The number of mole HCl in
set I is than that
in set III.
Bilangan mol HCl dalam set I
adalah lebih .
daripada set III.

Hence, maximum volume of
H
2
released in set I is
. than that in set
III.
Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum
H
2
dibebaskan dalam set I
adalah lebih ..
daripada set III.

MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Set I
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 50 cm
3
of
0.10 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 50 cm
3
0.10 mol dm
-3

HCl

Set IV
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 25 cm
3
of
0.15 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 25 cm
3
0.15 mol dm
-3

HCl

The initial rate of set I is
.. than that of
set IV.
Kadar awal set I adalah
lebih .. daripada
set IV.


This is because the
concentration of HCl in
set I is .. than
that in set IV.
Kerana kepekatan HCl
dalam set I adalah lebih
.. daripada set IV.
Zinc is excess.
zink berlebihan.
Set I

= ..

Set IV

=


The number of mole HCl in
set I is than that in
set IV.
Bilangan mol HCl dalam set I
adalah lebih
daripada set IV.

Hence, maximum volume of
H
2
released in set I is l
than that in set IV.
Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum
H
2
dibebaskan dalam set I
adalah lebih
daripada set IV.

Set I
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 50 cm
3
of
0.10 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 50 cm
3
0.10 mol dm
-3

HCl

Set V
1 g of excess Zn
powder + 100 cm
3
of
0.05 mol dm
-3
HCl
1 g serbuk Zn berlebihan
+ 100 cm
3
0.05 mol dm
-3

HCl

The initial rate of set I is
.. than that of
set V.
Kadar awal set I adalah
lebih ..daripada
set V.

This is because the
concentration of HCl in
set I is .. than
that in set V.
Kerana kepekatan HCl
dalam set I adalah lebih
.. daripada set V.
Zinc is excess.
zink berlebihan.
Set I

= ..


Set V

=


The number of mole HCl in
set I is than that in
set V.
Bilangan mol HCl dalam set I
adalah lebih
daripada set V.

Hence, maximum volume of
H
2
released in set I is l
than that in set
V.
Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum
H
2
dibebaskan dalam set I
adalah lebih ..
daripada set V.


MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Activity 9: Shapes of curve depend on the volume and temperature of reaction
Bentuk lengkung bergantung kepada isi padu dan suhu tindak balas


Experiment

Initial rate of reaction Kadar tindak
balas awal
Maximum volume of carbon dioxide
gas liberated
I si padu maksimum gas karbon dioksida
dibebaskan

Set I
3 g of excess marble
chips + 50 cm
3
of 0.5
mol dm
-3
nitric acid at
temperature of 27.0
o
C
3 g ketulan marmar
berlebihan + 50 cm
3
0.5
mol dm
-3
asid nitrik
pada suhu 27.0
o
C

Set II
3 g of excess marble
chips + 50 cm
3
of 0.5
mol dm-
3
nitric acid in
hot water bath a
constant at
temperature of 60.0
o
C
3 g ketulan marmar
berlebihan + 50 cm
3
0.5
mol dm
-3
asid nitrik
dalam air panas yang
tetap pada suhu 60.0
o
C

The initial rate of set I is l ..
than that of set II.
Kadar awal set I adalah lebih .
daripada set II.


This is because the temperature of the
reaction for set I is
than that for set II
kerana suhu tindak balas bagi set I adalah
lebih . daripada set II
Marble chips are excess.
Ketulan marmar berlebihan.
Set I



= ..

Set II






=


Quantities of marble and nitric acid used,
in mol, in both sets I and II are the
.
Kuantiti marmar dan asid nitrik digunakan,
dalam mol, kedua-dua set I dan II adalah
...................

Hence, maximum volume of carbon
dioxide gas liberated in both sets I and II
are the
Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum gas karbon
dioksida dibebaskan dalam kedua-dua set I
dan II adalah ...............
Graph













MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Activity 10: Shapes of curve depend on the volume and catalyst of reaction
Bentuk lengkung bergantung kepada isi padu dan pemangkin tindak balas


Experiment

Initial rate of reaction Kadar tindak
balas awal
Maximum volume of hydrogen gas
liberated
I si padu maksimum gas hydrogen dibebaskan

Set I
2 g of granulated zinc
+ 25 cm
3
of 0.1 mol
dm
-3
of copper(II)
sulphate solution.
2 g pasir zink + 25 cm
3

0.1 mol dm
-3
larutan
kuprum (II) sulfat.


Set II
2 g of granulated zinc
+ cm
3
of 0.1 mol dm-3
hydrochloric
2 g pasir zink + 25 cm
3

0.1 mol dm-3 hidroklorik

The initial rate of set I is l ..
than that of set II.
Kadar awal set I adalah lebih .
daripada set II.


This is because copper(II) sulphate
solution in set I acts as a catalyst to
speed up the reaction.
kerana larutan kuprum (II) sulfat dalam
set I bertindak sebagai pemangkin untuk
mempercepatkan tindak balas

.The use of copper(II) sulphate as a
catalyst does not change the amount
of products formed.
Penggunaan kuprum (II) sulfat sebagai
pemangkin tidak mengubah jumlah hasil
yang terbentuk.
Marble chips are excess.
Ketulan marmar berlebihan.
Set I





= ..


Set II





=


Quantities of zinc and hydrochloric acid
used, in mol, in both sets I and II are the
.
Kuantiti zink dan asid hidroklorik digunakan,
dalam mol, kedua-dua set I dan II adalah
...................

Hence, maximum volume of hydrogen gas
liberated in both sets I and II are the

Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum gas hidrogen
dibebaskan dalam kedua-dua set I dan II
adalah ...............
Graph












MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Activity 11: Solving problems involving the factors effecting the rate of reaction
Penyelesaian masalah faktor-faktor yang melibatkan kadar tindak balas

Set Reacting condition / keadaan tindakan
I 5 g of excess zinc powder + 100 cm
3
of 0.4 mol dm
-3
sulphuric acid + 5 cm
3
of 1 mol dm
-3

copper(II) sulphate solution at room temperature
5 g serbuk zink berlebihan + 100 cm
3
0.4 mol dm
-3
asid sulfurik + 5 cm
3
1 mol dm
-3
larutan kuprum
(II) sulfat pada suhu bilik
II 5 g of excess zinc powder + 50 cm
3
of 0.4 mol dm
-3
sulphuric acid at room temperature
5 g serbuk zink berlebihan + 50 cm
3
0.4 mol dm
-3
asid sulfurik pada suhu bilik
III 5 g of excess zinc powder + 70 cm
3
of 0.4 mol dm
-3
sulphuric acid at room temperature
5 g serbuk zink berlebihan + 70 cm
3
0.4 mol dm
-3
asid sulfurik pada suhu bilik

Sketch the graphs of volume of hydrogen gas liberated against time for sets I, II, and III on the same
axes. Explain how you obtain your answer.
Lakarkan graf isi padu gas hidrogen dibebaskan melawan masa untuk set I, II, dan III pada paksi yang sama.
Terangkan bagaimana anda mendapatkan jawapan tersebut.

Solution / penyelesaian:

Step 1: Compare the yield / bandingkan hasil:

Set Mass of zinc / jisim zink Number of moles of sulphuric acid / bilangan mol asid sulfurik
I



II



III




Number of moles of sulphuric acid reacted in set . > .. >
Bilangan mol asid sulfurik bertindak balas dalam set
Hence, the maximum volume of hydrogen gas liberated in set > > ..
Oleh itu, isi padu maksimum gas hidrogen dibebaskan dalam set

Step 2: Compare the rate / bandingkan tidak balas:

Set Surface area of zinc
Luas permukaan zink
Concentration of hydrochloric acid /
kepekatan asid hidroklorik
Catalyst / mangkin
I



II



III





MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Initial rate of reaction for set > set because of the pressure of catalyst in set
Kadar tindak balas awal bagi set ......> set ...... kerana tekanan pemangkin dalam set ......

Initial rate of reaction for set > set because of the total surface area of zinc used in set
.. is larger than that in set .
Kadar tindak balas awal bagi set ......> set ...... kerana isi padu luas permukaan zink yang digunakan
dalam set .............. adalah lebih besar daripada set ..........

Hence, the initial of reaction for set ... > set .. . > set .
Oleh itu, tindak balas awal bagi set .........> set ......... > set .......

This means that the initial gradient of the curve for set . > set . > set .
Ini bermakna kecerunan awal lengkung bagi set ....... > set ....... > set .......


Step 3: sketch the graph / lakar graf:














C COLLISION THEORY / TEORI PERLANGGARAN

Activity 12: What is an Effective Collision / Apa itu Perlanggaran Berkesan?




What is definition of Activation Energy / Takrifan bagi Tenaga Pengaktifan?




Draw an energy profile diagram for the reaction/ lukis satu gambar rajah profil tenaga untuk tindak balas
Activation energy without a catalyst / Tenaga pengaktifan tanpa mangkin, E
a

Activation energy with a catalyst / Tenaga pengaktifan dengan mangkin, E
a









MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
Activity 13:
Two sets of experiments are carried out as shows below:
Dua set eksperimen yang telah dijalankan seperti di bawah:

Set I 1.0 g of granulated zinc is added to 20 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
-3
sulphuric acid at 27.0
o
C
Set II 1.0 g of zinc powder is added to 20 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
-3
sulphuric acid at 27.0
o
C
Set I 1.0 g ketulan zink ditambah kepada 20 cm
3
0.5 mol dm
-3
asid sulfurik pada 27.0
o
C
Set II 1.0 g serbuk zink ditambah kepada 20 cm
3
0.5 mol dm
-3
asid sulfurik pada 27.0
o
C

The initial rate of liberation of hydrogen gas in set II is higher than that in Set I. Explain the difference in
rate using the collision theory.
Kadar awal pembebasan gas hidrogen dalam Set II adalah lebih tinggi daripada di Set I. Terangkan perbezaan
dalam kadar dengan menggunakan teori perlanggaran.
[5 marks]
Particle size of zinc powder in Set II is .. than that of granulated zinc in Set I.
Saiz Zarah serbuk zink di dalam Set II adalah lebih daripada pasir zink di Set I.

Thus, the total exposed surface area of 1.0 g of zinc powder in Set II is ..than that of
1.0 g granulated zinc in Set I.
Oleh itu, jumlah luas permukaan terdedah 1.0 g serbuk zink di dalam Set II adalah lebih
daripada 1.0 g ketulan zink dalam Set I.

As a result, the frequency of collision between the hydrogen ions from sulphuric acid and the
zinc atoms at the surfare of zinc powder in Set II is . than that occurring at the
surface of granulated zinc in Set I.
Hasilnya, kekerapan perlanggaran antara ion-ion hidrogen daripada asid sulfurik dan atom zink di
surfare serbuk zink di dalam Set II adalah lebih daripada yang berlaku di permukaan pasir
zink di Set I.

This causes the frequency of effective collision between hydrogen ions and zinc atoms in Set
II to be .. than that in Set I.
Ini menyebabkan kekerapan perlanggaran berkesan antara ion hidrogen dan atom zink dalam Set II lebih
daripada yang di Set I.

Hence, the initial rate of liberated of hydrogen gas in Set II is .. than that in Set I.
Akhir, kadar awal bagi gas hidrogen yang dibebaskan dalam Set II adalah lebih .. daripada
di Set I.

Summary: Teori Perlanggaran Frekuensi Perlanggaran Berkesan dengan Kadar Tindak Balas
Factors
Faktor-faktor
Effecting
Kesan
frequency of collision
Frekuensi Perlanggaran
frequency of effective
collision
Frekuensi Perlanggaran
Berkesan
Rate of reaction
Kadar tindak balas
Saiz bahan tindak
balas
Semakin kecil bahan, semakin
luas jumlah permukaan yang
terdedah kepada pelanggaran
Meningkat Meningkat Meningkat
Kepekatan larutan Semakin tinggi kepekatan
larutan, semakin banyak
bilangan zarah per unit isi
padu
Meningkat Meningkat Meningkat
Suhu larutan Semakin tinggi suhu, semakin
tinggi tenaga kinetik
Meningkat Meningkat Meningkat
Mangkin Mangkin menyediakan laluan
alternative bagi tindak balas
berlaku dengan merendahkan
tenaga pengaktifan, Ea
Meningkat Meningkat Meningkat
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
BAHAGIAN A
SPM 2011
In an experiment to investigate the rate of reaction, 50.0 cm
3
of 2.0 mol dm
-3
sodium thiosulphate
solution and 5.0 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
of sulphuric acid, are used. The sulphur formed can be used to
measure the rate of reaction.
Dalam satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kadar tindak balas, 50.0 cm
3
larutan natrium tiosulfat 2.0 mol dm
-3
dan 5.0
cm
3
asid sulfurik 1.0 mol dm
-3
digunakan.Sulfur yang terbentuk boleh digunakan untuk mengukur kadar tindak
balas itu.


The equation for the reaction is given below.
Persamaan tindak balas itu diberi di bawah.


Na
2
S
2
O
3
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ SO
4
+ S + H
2
O

(a) What is the colour of sulphur?
Apakah warna sulfur?


[1 mark]
(b) The number of moles of a solute can be calculated using formula, n = MV.
[n= Number of moles of solute (mol), M= Molarity of solution (mol dm
-3
),
V= Volume of solution (dm
3
)]
Bilangan mol suatu zat terlarut boleh dihitung menggunakan rumus,n=MV.
n=Bilangan mol zat terlarut (mol, M= Kemolaran larutan (mol dm
-3
),
V= isi padu larutan (dm
3
)]
Calculate / Hitung:
(i) The number of mole of sodium thiosulphate in the solution.
Bilangan mol bagi natrium tiosulfat dalam larutan itu.
[1 mark]








(ii) The number of mole of sulphuric acid.
Bilangan mol bagi asid sulfurik.
[1 mark]






MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
(c) Based on the answers in (b)(i) and (b)(ii),name the reactant which determines the quantity of
sulphur formed at the end of the reaction.
Berdasarkan jawapan di (b)(i) dan (b)(ii), namakan bahan tindak balas yang
menentukan kuantiti sulfur yang terbentuk pada akhir tindak balas itu.

..
[1 mark]

(d) (i) State three factors that can affect the rate of reaction in this experiment.
Nyatakan tiga faktor yang boleh mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas itu dalam eksperimen ini.

1

2

3
[3 marks]

(ii) Using the collision theory, explain how any one of the factors in (d)(i) increases the rate of
reaction.
Menggunakan teori perlanggaran,terangkan bagaimana mana-mana satu daripada
faktor di (d)(i) meningkatkan kadar tindak balas itu.


[2 marks]





























MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
BAHAGIAN B
SPM 2013
Diagram shows the energy profile diagram for the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. Copper
(II) sulphate solution is added to the reactants mixture to increase the rate of reaction.
Rajah menunjukkan rajah profil tenaga bagi tindak balas antara zink dengan asid hidroklorik. Larutan
kuprum(II)sulfat ditambahkan kepada campuran bahan tindak balas untuk meningkatkan kadar tindak balas.















Diagram
Rajah
(i) Which of the values r or s represents the activation energy for the reaction after adding copper(II)
sulphate solution?
Antara nilai r atau s yang manakah yang mewakili tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas itu selepas
penambahan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat?
[1 markah]
(ii) By using collision theory,explain how copper(II) sulphate solution increase the rate of reaction.
Dengan menggunakan teori perlanggaran,terangkan bagaimana kuprum(II) sulfat meningkatkan kadar
tindak balas.
[4 markah]
(iii) 100 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid and excess zinc are used in the reaction.
Write the chemical equation for the reaction and calculate the volume of hydrogen gas released at
room conditions.
[1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm
3
at room condition]
100 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm
-3
dan zink berlebihan digunakan dalam tindak balas itu.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas itu dan hitung isi padu pada gas hydrogen yang dibebaskan pada
keadaan bilik.
[1 mol gas menempati 24 dm
3
pada keadaan bilik]
[5 markah]













Products
Hasil tindak balas
Reaction path
Lintasan tindak balas
Reactants
Bahan tindak balas
Energy
tenaga _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
r
s
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
(b) Table shows the information for three sets of experiment to investigate factors affecting the rate of
reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.
Jadual menunjukkan maklumat bagi tiga set eksperimen untuk menyiasat faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar
tindak balas antara kalsium karbonat dengan asid hidroklorik.

Experiment
Eksperimen
Reactants
Bahan tindak balas
Time taken to collect
40 cm
3
carbon
dioxide gas (s)
Masa yang diambil
untuk mengumpul 40
cm
3
gas karbon
dioksida (s)
Set I 5 g calcium carbonate
powder
5 g serbuk kalsium karbonat
50 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
hydrocloric acid
50 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 1.0
mol dm
-3

33
Set II 5 g calcium carbonate
chip
5 g ketulan kalsium karbonat
50 cm
3
of 1.0 mol dm
-3
hydrocloric acid
50 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 1.0
mol dm
-3

45
Set III 5 g calcium carbonate
5 g serbuk kalsium karbonat
25 cm
3
of 2.0 mol dm
-3
hydrocloric acid
25 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 2.0
mol dm
-3

25
Table
Jadual

Based on the information in Table, compare the rate of reaction between
(i) Set I and Set II
(ii) Set I and Set III
By using the collision theory, explain your answers.

Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual, banding kadar tindak balas antara
(i) Set I dan Set II
(ii) Set I dan Set III
Dengan menggunakan teori perlanggaran,terangkan jawapan anda
[10 markah]










MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia
BAHAGIAN C
SPM 2012
A student carried out three sets of experiments to investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction.
Time taken to collect 40 cm
3
of hydrogen gas is recorded in Table.
Seorang pelajar menjalankan tiga set eksperimen untuk mengkaji faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.
Masa yang diambil untuk mengumpul 40 cm
3
gas hidrogen direkodkan dalam Jadual.

Set Reactant
Bahan tindak balas
Temperature
of the mixture
Suhu campuran
Time taken to collect
40 cm
3
of hydrogen
gas (s)
Masa yang diambil
untuk mengumpul 40
cm
3
gas hidrogen (s)
I 25 cm
3
of 0.2 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid
25 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm
-3

+
excess zinc powder
serbuk zink berlebihan


30
o
C


90
II 25 cm
3
of 0.4 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid
25 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 0.4 mol dm
-3

+
excess zinc powder
serbuk zink berlebihan


30
o
C


55

II 25 cm
3
of 0.2 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid
25 cm
3
asid hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm
-3

+
excess zinc powder
serbuk zink berlebihan


40
o
C


30
Table
Jadual

(a) Zinc, Zn reacts with hydrochloric acid, HCI to produce zinc chloride, ZnCI
2
and hydrogen gas, H
2
.
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction and calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen
gas produced in set I.
[Relative atomic mass: Zn =65; 1 mol of any gas occupies 24 dm
3
mol
-1
at room conditions]
Zink, Zn bertindak balas dengan asid hidroklorik, HCI menghasilkan zink klorida, ZnCI
2
dan gas hydrogen, H
2
.
Tulis persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas itu dan hitung isi padu maksimum
gas hydrogen yang dihasilkan dalam set I.
[Jisim atom relatif: Zn =65; 1 mol bagi sebarang gas menempati 24 dm
3
pada keadaan bilik]
[4markah]
MODUL 1 TINGKATAN 5 Chapter 1: Rate of Reaction
Copy Cikgu Marzuqi Mohd Salleh Guru Cemerlang Kimia

(b) Based on Table, compare the rates of reaction
Berdasarkan Jadual, bandingkan kadar tindak balas

(i) between set I and set II
antara set I dan set II


(ii) between set I and set III
antara set I dan set III



By referring to collision theory, explain your answer in (b)(i) or (b)(ii).
Dengan merujuk kepada teori perlanggaran,terangkan jawapan anda di (b)(i) atau (b)(ii).
[6 markah]

(c) Catalyst and size of reactants can also affect the rate of reaction between acid and zinc. Choose one
of these two factors and describe an experiment to show how this factor affects the rate of reaction.
Mangkin dan saiz bahan tindak balas juga dapat mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas antara asid dan zink. Pilih
satu daripada dua faktor ini dan huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menunjukkan bagaimana faktor ini dapat
mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.
[10 markah]
























Good Luck!