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AMBEDKAR INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED COMMUNICATION

TECHNOLOGIES AND RESEARCH


GEETA COLONY
DELHI-110031



Synopsis of
Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithms in Wireless
Sensor Networks

Presented by:

MAYANK CHANDRA
Enrollment number: 14010102811
Electronics and Communications Engineering
4
th
Year

PRASHANT SAINI
Enrollment number: 14210102811
Electronics and Communications Engineering
4
th
Year


ABSTRACT:
To maximize network lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) the paths for data transfer
are selected in such a way that the total energy consumed along the path is minimized. To
support high scalability and better data aggregation, sensor nodes are often grouped into
disjoint, non-overlapping subsets called clusters. Clusters create hierarchical WSNs which
incorporate efficient utilization of limited resources of sensor nodes and thus extends network
lifetime. The objective of this paper is to present a state of the art survey on clustering
algorithms reported in the literature of WSNs. Our paper presents taxonomy of energy efficient
clustering algorithms in WSNs. And also present timeline and description of LEACH and its
descendant in WSNs.

1. INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed
autonomous devices that use sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions.
Communication takes place with the help of these spatially distributed, autonomous sensor
nodes equipped to sense specific information to create a typical WSN system. Currently,
Under the guidance of:

Mrs. MANJU KHARI
Assistant Professor
Ambedkar Institute of Advanced
Communications Technologies and
Research
wireless sensor networks are beginning to be deployed at an accelerated pace. It is not
unreasonable to expect that in 10-15 years that the world will be covered with wireless sensor
networks with access to them via the Internet (Figure-1). This can be considered as the Internet
becoming a physical network. This new technology is exciting with unlimited potential for
numerous application areas including environmental, medical, military, transportation,
entertainment, crisis management, homeland defense, and smart spaces.


Figure-1: Accessing WSNs through Internet.

2. CHALLENGES TO WSN
In WSN sensor nodes have limited processing power, communication bandwidth, and storage
space. This gives rise to new and unique challenges in data management and information
processing. In-network data processing techniques, such as data aggregation, multicast and
broadcast need to be developed. Network lifetime
[1]
is the key characteristics used for
evaluating the performance of any sensor network. A lifetime of the network is determined by
residual energy of the system, hence main and most important challenge in WSN is the efficient
use of energy resources.

3. HIERARCHICAL ROUTING IN WSNs
The main target of hierarchical routing or cluster based routing is to efficiently maintain the
energy usage of sensor nodes by involving them in multi-hop communication within a particular
cluster
[2]
. Cluster formation is generally based on the energy reserve of sensors and sensors
proximity to the Cluster Head (CHs). Clustering plays an important role for energy saving in
WSNs. With clustering in WSNs, energy consumption, lifetime of the network and scalability can
be improved. Because only cluster head node per cluster is required to perform routing task
and the other sensor nodes just forward their data to cluster head. Clustering has important
applications in high-density sensor networks, because it is much easier to manage a set of
cluster representatives (cluster head) from each cluster than to manage whole sensor nodes. In
WSNs the sensor nodes are resource constrained which means they have limited energy,
transmit power, memory, and computational capabilities. Energy consumed by the sensor
nodes for communicating data from sensor nodes to the base station is the crucial cause of
energy depletion in sensor nodes.


4. CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS IN WSNs
LEACH: Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy
CACC: Clustering Algorithm based on Cell Combination
VAP-E: Energy-Efficient Clustering
FoVs: Overlapped Field of View
PDCH: Pegasis Algorithm Improving Based on Double Cluster Head
HSA: Harmony Search Algorithms

5. OBJECTIVE
The hierarchical cluster structures facilitate the efficient data gathering and aggregation
independent to the growth of the WSN, and generally reduce the total amount of
communications as well as the energy spent. We have found that some of the energy efficient
algorithms increase the network lifetime. In future we can work on LEACH protocol, which is
integrated with clustering, to get the energy efficient results.

REFERENCES:
1. Yunxia Chen and Qing Zhao, On the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks.
(www.ece.ucdavis.edu/~qzhao/ChenZhao05COML)
2. Vinay Kumar, Sanjeev Jain and Sudarshan Tiwari, Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithms
in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. (www.ijcsi.org/papers/IJCSI-8-5-2-259-268)