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PROBLEM 1.

5

KNOWN: Inner and outer surface temperatures of a glass window of prescribed dimensions.

FIND: Heat loss through window.

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state
conditions, (3) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: Subject to the foregoing conditions the heat flux may be computed from
Fouriers law, Eq. 1.2.


( )
T T
q k
L
15-5 C
W
q 1.4
m K 0.005m
q 2800 W/m .
1 2
x
x
2
x

=
=



Since the heat flux is uniform over the surface, the heat loss (rate) is


q = q
x
A
q = 2800 W/ m
2
3m
2

< q = 8400 W.

COMMENTS: A linear temperature distribution exists in the glass for the prescribed
conditions.


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PROBLEM 1.7

KNOWN: Dimensions of freezer compartment. Inner and outer surface temperatures.

FIND: Thickness of styrofoam insulation needed to maintain heat load below prescribed
value.

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Perfectly insulated bottom, (2) One-dimensional conduction through 5
walls of area A =4m
2
, (3) Steady-state conditions, (4) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: Using Fouriers law, Eq. 1.2, the heat rate is

q = q A = k
T
L
A
total




Solving for L and recognizing that A
total
=5W
2
, find

L =
5 k T W
q
2




( )
( )
5 0.03 W/m K 35 - -10 C 4m
L =
500 W
2



< L = 0.054m = 54mm.

COMMENTS: The corners will cause local departures from one-dimensional conduction
and a slightly larger heat loss.


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PROBLEM 1.10

KNOWN: Thickness, diameter and inner surface temperature of bottom of pan used to boil
ater. Rate of heat transfer to the pan. w

F

IND: Outer surface temperature of pan for an aluminum and a copper bottom.
SCHEMATIC:



A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conduction through bottom of pan.
ANALYSIS: From Fouriers law, the rate of heat transfer by conduction through the bottom
of the pan is


T T
1 2
q kA
L

=

Hence,


qL
T T
1 2
kA
= +

where ( )
2 2 2
A D / 4 0.2m / 4 0.0314 m . = = =

Aluminum:
( )
( )
600W 0.005 m
T 110 C 110.40 C
1
2
240 W/m K 0.0314 m
= + =


<

Copper:
( )
( )
600W 0.005 m
T 110 C 110.24 C
1
2
390 W/m K 0.0314 m
= + =


<

COMMENTS: Although the temperature drop across the bottom is slightly larger for
aluminum (due to its smaller thermal conductivity), it is sufficiently small to be negligible for
both materials. To a good approximation, the bottom may be considered isothermal at T
110 C, which is a desirable feature of pots and pans.

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PROBLEM 1.18
K

NOWN: Chip width and maximum allowable temperature. Coolant conditions.
F

IND: Maximum allowable chip power for air and liquid coolants.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Negligible heat transfer from sides and
bottom, (3) Chip is at a uniform temperature (isothermal), (4) Negligible heat transfer by
adiation in air. r

ANALYSIS: All of the electrical power dissipated in the chip is transferred by convection to
he coolant. Hence, t



P =q
a

nd from Newtons law of cooling,
P =hA(T - T

) =h W
2
(T - T

).

n air, I

P
max
=200 W/m
2
K(0.005 m)
2
(85 - 15) C =0.35 W. <

n the dielectric liquid I

P
max
=3000 W/m
2
K(0.005 m)
2
(85-15) C =5.25 W. <


COMMENTS: Relative to liquids, air is a poor heat transfer fluid. Hence, in air the chip can
dissipate far less energy than in the dielectric liquid.
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PROBLEM 1.27

KNOWN: Hot plate suspended in vacuum and surroundings temperature. Mass, specific heat, area
and time rate of change of plate temperature.

FIND: (a) The emissivity of the plate, and (b) The rate at which radiation is emitted from the plate.

SCHEMATIC:


T
s

st
E
q
rad
q
rad
T =25
sur
C
T
s
=225C
Plate, 0.3 m 0.3 m
M =3.75 kg, c
p
=2770 J kg K
T(t)
t t
0
dT
K
= -0.022
s
dt

T
s

st
E
q
rad
q
rad
T
s

st
E
q
rad
q
rad
T =25
sur
C
T
s
=225C
Plate, 0.3 m 0.3 m
M =3.75 kg, c
p
=2770 J kg K
T(t)
t t
0
dT
K
= -0.022
s
dt
T(t)
t t
0
dT
K
= -0.022
s
dt












ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Plate is isothermal and at uniform temperature, (2) Large surroundings, (3)
Negligible heat loss through suspension wires.

ANALYSIS: For a control volume about the plate, the conservation of energy requirement is

(1)
in out st
E - E =E


where
st p
dT
E =Mc
dt

(2)

and for large surroundings (3)

4 4
in out sur s
E - E =A(T - T )

Combining Eqns. (1) through (3) yields

p
4 4
sur s
dT
Mc
dt
=
A
(T - T )


Noting that T
sur
=25C +273 K =298 K and T
s
=225C +273 K =498 K, we find
-8 4 4 4
2 4
J K
3.75 kg 2770 (-0.022 )
kg K s
= =0.42
W
2 0.3 m 0.3 m 5.67 10 (498 - 298 ) K
m K

<
The rate at which radiation is emitted from the plate is
4
rad,e s
q =AT
-8 4
2 4
W
=0.42 2 0.3 m 0.3 m 5.67 10 (498 K)
m K
=264 W <

COMMENTS: Note the importance of using kelvins when working with radiation heat transfer.
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PROBLEM 1.28
KNOWN: Length, diameter, surface temperature and emissivity of steam line. Temperature
and convection coefficient associated with ambient air. Efficiency and fuel cost for gas fired
urnace. f

F

IND: (a) Rate of heat loss, (b) Annual cost of heat loss.
SCHEMATIC:









=0.8 =0.8

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steam line operates continuously throughout year, (2) Net radiation
ransfer is between small surface (steam line) and large enclosure (plant walls). t

A

NALYSIS: (a) From Eqs. (1.3a) and (1.7), the heat loss is
( )
( )
4 4
conv rad s s sur
q q q A h T T T T


= + = +



where ( )
2
A DL 0.1m 25m 7.85m. = = =

H

ence,
( )
( )
2 2 8 2 4 4 4
q 7.85m 10 W/m K 150 25 K 0.8 5.67 10 W/m K 423 298 K


= +

4


( ) ( )
2 2
q 7.85m 1,250 1,095 W/m 9813 8592 W 18,405 W = + = + = <

(

b) The annual energy loss is

11
E qt 18,405 W 3600 s/h 24h/d 365 d/y 5.80 10 J = = =

With a furnace energy consumption of the annual cost of the loss is
11
f f
E E/ 6.45 10 J = = ,

<
5
g f
C C E 0.01 $/MJ 6.45 10 MJ $6450 = = =

COMMENTS: The heat loss and related costs are unacceptable and should be reduced by
insulating the steam line.

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PROBLEM 1.59

KNOWN: Thermal conductivity, thickness and temperature difference across a sheet of rigid
extruded insulation. Cold wall temperature, surroundings temperature, ambient temperature and
emissivity.

FIND: (a) The value of the convection heat transfer coefficient on the cold wall side in units of
W/m
2
C or W/m
2
K, and, (b) The cold wall surface temperature for emissivities over the range
0.05 0.95 for a hot wall temperature of T
1
=30 C.

L=20 mm
T
1
=30C
T
2
=20C=293 K
x
q
cond q
rad
q
conv
T
sur
=320 K
T

=5C
Air
k=0.029

W
m K
L=20 mm
T
1
=30C
T
2
=20C=293 K
x
q
cond q
rad
q
conv
T
sur
=320 K
T

=5C
Air
k=0.029

W
m K
SCHEMATIC:











ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state
conditions, (c) Constant properties, (4) Large surroundings.

ANALYSIS:
(a) An energy balance on the control surface shown in the schematic yields

or
in out
E =E

cond conv rad
q =q +q

Substituting from Fouriers law, Newtons law of cooling, and Eq. 1.7 yields


4 4 1 2
2 2
T - T
k =h(T - T ) +(T - T )
L
sur
(1)

or
4 4 1 2
2 sur
2
T - T 1
h = [k - (T - T )]
(T - T ) L



Substituting values,
o
-8 4 4 4
o 2
1 W (30 - 20) C W
h = [0.029 - 0.95 5.67 10 (293 - 320 ) K ]
m K 0.02 m
(20 - 5) C m K


4


h =12.2
2
W
m K
<



Continued.
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PROBLEM 1.59 (Cont.)

(b) Equation (1) may be solved iteratively to find T
2
for any emissivity . IHT was used for this
purpose, yielding the following.

Surface Temperature vs. Wall Emissivity
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Emissivity
280
285
290
295
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
K
)



COMMENTS: (1) Note that as the wall emissivity increases, the surface temperature increases
since the surroundings temperature is relatively hot. (2) The IHT code used in part (b) is shown
below. (3) It is a good habit to work in temperature units of kelvins when radiation heat transfer is
included in the solution of the problem.

//Problem 1.59

h =12.2 //W/m^2K (convection coefficient)
L =0.02 //m (sheet thickness)
k =0.029 //W/mK (thermal conductivity)
T1 =30 +273 //K (hot wall temperature)
Tsur =320 //K (surroundings temperature)
sigma =5.67*10^-8 //W/m^2K^4 (Stefan -Boltzmann constant)
Tinf =5 +273 //K (ambient temperature)
e =0.95 //emissivity

//Equation (1) is

k*(T1-T2)/L =h*(T2-Tinf) +e*sigma*(T2^4 - Tsur^4)


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PROBLEM 1.63
KNOWN: Dimensions, average surface temperature and emissivity of heating duct. Duct air
inlet temperature and velocity. Temperature of ambient air and surroundings. Convection
oefficient. c

F

IND: (a) Heat loss from duct, (b) Air outlet temperature.
SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) Constant air properties, (3) Negligible potential and
kinetic energy changes of air flow, (4) Radiation exchange between a small surface and a
arge enclosure. l

ANALYSIS: (a) Heat transfer from the surface of the duct to the ambient air and the
urroundings is given by Eq. (1.10) s

( )
( )
4 4
q hA T T A T T
s s s s sur
= +



w

here A
s
=L (2W +2H) =15 m (0.7 m +0.5 m) =16.5 m
2
. Hence,
( ) ( )
2 2 2 8 2 4 4 4
q 4 W/m K 16.5 m 45 C 0.5 16.5 m 5.67 10 W/m K 323 278 K

= +
4


< q q q 2970 W 2298 W 5268 W
conv rad
= + = + =

b) With i =u +pv, =0 and the third assumption, Eq. (1.11d) yields, W

(

( ) ( ) m i i mc T T q
i o p i o
= =

where the sign on q has been reversed to reflect the fact that heat transfer is from the system.
With the outlet temperature is ( )
3
m VA 1.10 kg/m 4 m/s 0.35m 0.20m 0.308 kg/s,
c
= = =


q 5268 W
T T 58 C 41
o i
mc 0.308 kg/s 1008 J /kg K
p
= = =

C <

COMMENTS: The temperature drop of the air is large and unacceptable, unless the intent is
to use the duct to heat the basement. If not, the duct should be insulated to insure maximum
delivery of thermal energy to the intended space(s).

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PROBLEM 2.20
KNOWN: Temperature distribution, T(x,y,z), within an infinite, homogeneous body at a given
nstant of time. i

F

IND: Regions where the temperature changes with time.
SCHEMATIC:


A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) Constant properties of infinite medium and (2) No internal heat generation.
ANALYSIS: The temperature distribution throughout the medium, at any instant of time, must satisfy
the heat equation. For the three-dimensional cartesian coordinate system, with constant properties and
o internal heat generation, the heat equation, Eq. 2.19, has the form n

2 2 2
1 T
x
T
y
T
z
T
t
2 2 2
+ + = . (1)

If T(x,y,z) satisfies this relation, conservation of energy is satisfied at every point in the medium.
ubstituting T(x,y,z) into the Eq. (1), first find the gradients, T/x, T/y, and T/z. S

( ) ( ) ( )
1 T
2x-y 4y-x+2z 2z+2y .
x y z t


+ + =



P

erforming the differentiations,
2 4 2
1
+ =

T
t
.

H

ence,

T
t
= 0

w

hich implies that, at the prescribed instant, the temperature is everywhere independent of time. <
COMMENTS: Since we do not know the initial and boundary conditions, we cannot determine the
temperature distribution, T(x,y,z), at any future time. We can only determine that, for this special
instant of time, the temperature will not change.
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PROBLEM 2.22
KNOWN: Steady-state temperature distribution in a cylindrical rod having uniform heat generation
of . q W/
1
3
= 5 10
7
m

FIND: (a) Steady-state centerline and surface heat transfer rates per unit length, q
r
. (b) Initial time
rate of change of the centerline and surface temperatures in response to a change in the generation rate
from
8 3
1 2
q to q =10 W/m.

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the r direction, (2) Uniform generation, and (3)
Steady-state for . q = 5 10 W/ m
1
7 3


A

NALYSIS: (a) From the rate equations for cylindrical coordinates,
= q k
T
r
q=-kA
T
r
r r

.

H

ence,
( )
r
T
q k 2 rL
r

=

o

r
= q kr
T
r
r
2

(1)

w

here T/r may be evaluated from the prescribed temperature distribution, T(r).
A

t r =0, the gradient is (T/r) =0. Hence, from Equation (1) the heat rate is
< ( )
r
q 0 0 = .

A

t r =r
o
, the temperature gradient is

( )
( )
( )
o
o
5 5
o
2
r=r
5
r=r
T K
2 4.167 10 r 2 4.167 10 0.025m
r
m
T
0.208 10 K/m.
r

= =



Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.22 (Cont.)
H

ence, the heat rate at the outer surface (r =r
o
) per unit length is
( ) [ ]( )
5
r o
q r 2 30 W/m K 0.025m 0.208 10 K/m

=




< ( )
5
r o
q r 0.980 10 W/m. =

(b) Transient (time-dependent) conditions will exist when the generation is changed, and for the
prescribed assumptions, the temperature is determined by the following form of the heat equation,
quation 2.24 E


2 p
1 T
kr q c
r r r t
T



+ =




H

ence

2
p
T 1 1 T
kr q .
t c r r r



= +






However, initially (at t =0), the temperature distribution is given by the prescribed form, T(r) =800 -
.16710
5
r
2
, and 4


( )
5
1 T k
kr r -8.334 10 r
r r r r r




=







( )
5
k
16.668 10 r
r
=


5 2
30 W/m K -16.668 10 K/m

=




( )
7 3
1
5 10 W/m the original q=q . =

H

ence, everywhere in the wall,

7 8
3
T 1
5 10 10 W/m
t
1100 kg/m 800 J /kg K
3


=



+

o

r

T
t
K / s. = 5682 . <

COMMENTS: (1) The value of (T/t) will decrease with increasing time, until a new steady-state
ondition is reached and once again (T/t) =0. c

(2) By applying the energy conservation requirement, Equation 1.11c, to a unit length of the rod for
the steady-state condition, Hence

. + = E E E
in out gen
0 ( ) ( )
( )
2
r r o 1 o
q 0 q r q r = .
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PROBLEM 2.25

KNOWN: Analytical expression for the steady-state temperature distribution of a plane wall
experiencing uniform volumetric heat generation while convection occurs at both of its surfaces. q

FIND: (a) Sketch the temperature distribution, T(x), and identify significant physical features, (b)
Determine , (c) Determine the surface heat fluxes, q
( )
x
q L

and ( )
x
q L

+ ; how are these fluxes


related to the generation rate; (d) Calculate the convection coefficients at the surfaces x =L and x =
+L, (e) Obtain an expression for the heat flux distribution, ( )
x
q explain significant features of the
distribution; (f) If the source of heat generation is suddenly deactivated ( =0), what is the rate of
change of energy stored at this instant; (g) Determine the temperature that the wall will reach
eventually with q determine the energy that must be removed by the fluid per unit area of the wall
to reach this state.
x ;

q
0; =

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Uniform volumetric heat generation, (3) Constant
roperties. p

ANALYSIS: (a) Using the analytical expression in the Workspace of IHT, the temperature
distribution appears as shown below. The significant features include (1) parabolic shape, (2)
maximum does not occur at the mid-plane, T(-5.25 mm) =83.3C, (3) the gradient at the x =+L
surface is greater than at x =-L. Find also that T(-L) =78.2C and T(+L) =69.8C for use in part (d).
Temperature distribution
-20 -10 0 10 20
x-coordinate, x(mm)
70
75
80
85
90
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T
(
x
)

(
C
)













(b) Substituting the temperature distribution expression into the appropriate form of the heat diffusion
quation, Eq. 2.19, the rate of volumetric heat generation can be determined. e

( )
2
d dT q
0 where T x a bx c
dx dx k

+ = = + +



x

( ) ( )
d q
0 b 2cx 0 2c 0
dx k k
+ + + = + + =
q

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.25 (Cont.)

<
( )
4 2 5
q 2ck 2 2 10 C/ m 5W/ m K 2 10 W/ m = = =
3

(c) The heat fluxes at the two boundaries can be determined using Fouriers law and the temperature
distribution expression.

( ) ( )
2
x
dT
q x k where T x a bx cx
dx
= = + +

( ) [ ] [ ]
x
x L
q L k 0 b 2cx b 2cL k
=
= + + =

( )
( )
4 2
x
q L 210 C/ m 2 2 10 C/ m 0.020m 5W/ m K 2950W/ m

= =



2
,
2
<

( ) ( )
2
x
q L b 2cL k 5050W/ m + = + = + <

From an overall energy balance on the wall as shown in the sketch below,
in out gen
E E E 0 + =


( ) ( )
?
2 2 2
x x
q L q L 2qL 0 or 2950W/ m 5050W/ m 8000W/ m 0 + + + = + =

where so the equality is satisfied
5 3
2qL 2 2 10 W/ m 0.020 m 8000W/ m , = =







conv,l
q
conv,r
q

conv,l
q
conv,r
q

(d) The convection coefficients, h
l
and h
r
, for the left- and right-hand boundaries (x =-L and x=+L,
respectively), can be determined from the convection heat fluxes that are equal to the conduction
fluxes at the boundaries. See the surface energy balances in the sketch above. See also part (a) result
for T(-L) and T(+L).
( )
conv, x
q q =

L
< ( ) [ ]
2 2
l l l
h T T L h 20 78.2 K 2950W/ m h 51W/ m K

= = =

( )
conv,r x
q q = +L
< ( ) [ ]
2 2
r r r
h T L T h 69.8 20 K 5050W/ m h 101W/ m K

+ = = + =


(e) The expression for the heat flux distribution can be obtained from Fouriers law with the
emperature distribution t

( ) [ ]
x
dT
q x k k 0 b 2cx
dx
= = + +

( )
( )
4 2 5
x
q x 5W/ m K 210 C/ m 2 2 10 C/ m x 1050 2 10 x

= + = +


<

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.25 (Cont.)

The distribution is linear with the x-coordinate. The maximum temperature will occur at the location
where ( )
x max
q x 0 = ,


2
3
max
5 3
1050W/ m
x 5.25 10 m 5.25mm
2 10 W/ m

= = =

<

(f) If the source of the heat generation is suddenly deactivated so that q =0, the appropriate form of
the heat diffusion equation for the ensuing transient conduction is


p
T T
k c
x x t


=




At the instant this occurs, the temperature distribution is still T(x) =a +bx +cx
2
. The right-hand term
epresents the rate of energy storage per unit volume, r

[ ] [ ]
( )
4 2 5
st
E k 0 b 2cx k 0 2c 5W/ m K 2 2 10 C/ m 2 10 W/ m
x

= + + = + = =

3
0.
x

<

(g) With no heat generation, the wall will eventually (t ) come to equilibrium with the fluid,
T(x,) =T

=20C. To determine the energy that must be removed from the wall to reach this state,
apply the conservation of energy requirement over an interval basis, Eq. 1.11b. The initial state is
that corresponding to the steady-state temperature distribution, T
i
, and the final state has T
f
=20C.
eve used T

as the reference condition for the energy terms. W




in out st f i in
E E E E E with E = = =

( )
L
out p i
L
E c T T d
+



L
L
2 2 3
out p p
L
L
E c a bx cx T dx c ax bx / 2 cx /3 T x
+
+



= + + = + +



3
out p
E c 2aL 0 2cL /3 2T L


= + +




( )
3 4
C
out
E 2600kg/m 800J /kg K 2 82 C 0.020m 2 2 10 / m

= +
2


( ) ( )
3
0.020m /3 2 20 C 0.020m



<
6
out
E 4.94 10 J / m =
2

COMMENTS: (1) In part (a), note that the temperature gradient is larger at x =+L than at x
=- L. This is consistent with the results of part (c) in which the conduction heat fluxes are
evaluated.

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.25 (Cont.)

(2) In evaluating the conduction heat fluxes, ( )
x
q x , it is important to recognize that this flux
is in the positive x-direction. See how this convention is used in formulating the energy
alance in part (c). b

(3) It is good practice to represent energy balances with a schematic, clearly defining the
system or surface, showing the CV or CS with dashed lines, and labeling the processes.
eview again the features in the schematics for the energy balances of parts (c & d). R

(

4) Re-writing the heat diffusion equation introduced in part (b) as

d dT
k q
dx dx

+ =


0

recognize that the term in parenthesis is the heat flux. From the differential equation, note
that if the differential of this term is a constant ( ) q/ k , then the term must be a linear function
f the x-coordinate. This agrees with the analysis of part (e). o

(5) In part (f), we evaluated the rate of energy change stored in the wall at the instant the
volumetric heat generation was deactivated. Did you notice that is the
same value of the deactivated q? How do you explain this?
st
E ,

5
st
E 2 10 W/ m =

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PROBLEM 2.29
KNOWN: Steady-state temperature distribution in a one-dimensional wall of thermal
onductivity, T(x) =Ax
3
+Bx
2
+Cx +D. c

FIND: Expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall
aces (x =0,L). f

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional heat flow, (3)
omogeneous medium. H

A

NALYSIS: The appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is

d T
dx
q
k
or q=-k
d T
dx
2
2
2
2
+ =

. 0

H

ence, the generation rate is

2
d dT d
q=-k k 3Ax 2Bx +C +0
dx dx dx


= +






[ ]
q=-k 6Ax +2B <

which is linear with the coordinate x. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from
ouriers law, F


2
x
dT
q k k 3Ax +2Bx +C
dx

= =




u

sing the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. Hence, the heat fluxes are:
S

urface x=0:
( )
x
q 0 kC = <

S

urface x=L:
( )
2
x
q L k 3AL +2BL +C .

=


<

C

OMMENTS: (1) From an overall energy balance on the wall, find
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
in out g
2
x x g g
2
g
E E E 0
q 0 q L E kC k 3AL 2BL+C E 0
E 3AkL 2BkL.
+ =

+ = + +


=

=

From integration of the volumetric heat rate, we can also find as

E
g

( ) [ ]
L
L L
2
g
0 0
0
2
g
E q x dx= -k 6Ax+2B dx=-k 3Ax 2Bx
E 3AkL 2BkL.

= +


=


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PROBLEM 2.40


KNOWN: Steady-state temperature distribution for hollow cylindrical solid with volumetric heat
eneration. g

FIND: (a) Determine the inner radius of the cylinder, r
i
, (b) Obtain an expression for the volumetric
rate of heat generation, (c) Determine the axial distribution of the heat flux at the outer surface, q,
( )
r o
q r , ,z

and the heat rate at this outer surface; is the heat rate in or out of the cylinder; (d)
Determine the radial distribution of the heat flux at the end faces of the cylinder, and
, and the corresponding heat rates; are the heat rates in or out of the cylinder; (e)
Determine the relationship of the surface heat rates to the heat generation rate; is an overall energy
balance satisfied?
( )
z
q r, z

+
o
)
o
(
z
q r, z



SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction with constant
roperties and volumetric heat generation. p

ANALYSIS: (a) Since the inner boundary, r =r
i
, is adiabatic, then ( )
r i
q r z 0. ,

= Hence the
temperature gradient in the r-direction must be zero.

i i
r
i
T
0 2br c/r 0 0
r

= + + + =




1/ 2 1/ 2
i
2
c 12 C
r
2b
2 150 C/m

= + = =


0.2m <

(b) To determine substitute the temperature distribution into the heat diffusion equation, Eq. 2.24,
for two-dimensional (r,z), steady-state conduction
q,

1 T T q
r 0
r r r z z k

+ +




=
[ ] ( ) ( )
1 q
r 0 2br c/r 0 0 0 0 2dz 0
r r z k

+ + + + + + + + =



[ ]
1 q
4br 0 2d 0
r k
+ + + =


[ ]
( )
2 2
q k 4b 2d 16W/m K 4 150 C/m 2 300 C/m 0W/m

= + = + =

3
<

(c) The heat flux and the heat rate at the outer surface, r =r
o
, may be calculated using Fouriers law.
( ) [ ]
r o, o o
r
o
T
q r z k k 0 2br c/ r 0
r

= = + + +


Continued ..

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PROBLEM 2.51

KNOWN: Temperature distribution in a plane wall of thickness L experiencing uniform volumetric
heating having one surface (x =0) insulated and the other exposed to a convection process
characterized by T
q

and h. Suddenly the volumetric heat generation is deactivated while convection


ontinues to occur. c

FIND: (a) Determine the magnitude of the volumetric energy generation rate associated with the
initial condition, (b) On T-x coordinates, sketch the temperature distributions for the initial condition
(T 0), the steady-state condition (t ), and two intermediate times; (c) On - t coordinates,
sketch the variation with time of the heat flux at the boundary exposed to the convection process,
calculate the corresponding value of the heat flux at t =0; and (d) Determine the amount of
energy removed from the wall per unit area (J /m
x
q

( )
x
q L, t

;
2
) by the fluid stream as the wall cools from its initial
o steady-state condition. t

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, and (3) Uniform internal
olumetric heat generation for t <0. v

ANALYSIS: (a) The volumetric heating rate can be determined by substituting the temperature
istribution for the initial condition into the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation. d

( )
2
d dT q
0 where T x,0 a b
dx dx k

+ = = +



x

( )
d q
0 2bx 0 2b 0
dx k k
+ + = = + =
q



( )
4 2 6
q 2kb 2 90W/ m K 1.0 10 C/ m 1.8 10 W/ m = = =
3
<

(b) The temperature distributions are shown in the sketch below.



Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.51 (Cont.)

(c) The heat flux at the exposed surface x =L, ( )
x
q L,0

,
2
is initially a maximum value and decreases
with increasing time as shown in the sketch above. The heat flux at t =0 is equal to the convection
heat flux with the surface temperature T(L,0). See the surface energy balance represented in the
chematic. s

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 5
x conv
q L,0 q t 0 h T L,0 T 1000W/ m K 200 20 C 1.80 10 W/ m


= = = = = <

where ( ) ( )
2 2 4 2
T L,0 a bL 300 C 1.0 10 C/ m 0.1m 200 C. = + = =



(d) The energy removed from the wall to the fluid as it cools from its initial to steady-state condition
can be determined from an energy balance on a time interval basis, Eq. 1.11b. For the initial state, the
wall has the temperature distribution T(x,0) =a +bx
2
; for the final state, the wall is at the temperature
of the fluid, T
f
=T

. We have used T

as the reference condition for the energy terms.




in out st f i in
E E E E E with E 0 = = =

( )
x L
out p
x 0
E c T x,0 T
=

=
=

dx

2


L
x L
2 3
out p p
x 0
0
E c a bx T dx c ax bx /3 T x
=

=

= + = +


( )
3 3 4
out
E 7000kg/ m 450J / kg K 300 0.1 1.0 10 0.1 /3 20 0.1 K m

=




<
7
out
E 7.77 10 J / m =

COMMENTS: (1) In the temperature distributions of part (a), note these features: initial condition
has quadratic form with zero gradient at the adiabatic boundary; for the steady-state condition, the wall
has reached the temperature of the fluid; for all distributions, the gradient at the adiabatic boundary is
ero; and, the gradient at the exposed boundary decreases with increasing time. z

(2) In this thermodynamic analysis, we were able to determine the energy transferred during the
cooling process. However, we cannot determine the rate at which cooling of the wall occurs without
solving the heat diffusion equation.
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PROBLEM 3.7
KNOWN: A layer of fatty tissue with fixed inside temperature can experience different
utside convection conditions. o

FIND: (a) Ratio of heat loss for different convection conditions, (b) Outer surface
temperature for different convection conditions, and (c) Temperature of still air which
chieves same cooling as moving air (wind chill effect). a

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction through a plane wall, (2) Steady-state
conditions, (3) Homogeneous medium with constant properties, (4) No internal heat
generation (metabolic effects are negligible), (5) Negligible radiation effects.

P

ROPERTIES: Table A-3, Tissue, fat layer: k =0.2 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: The thermal circuit for this situation is



Hence, the heat rate is


s,1 s,1
tot
T T T T
q .
R L/kA 1/ h


= =
+ A


Therefore,


windy
calm
windy
calm
L 1
k h
q
.
L 1 q
k h

+

=

+




Applying a surface energy balance to the outer surface, it also follows that


cond conv
q q = .

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 3.7 (Cont.)
H

ence,

( ) ( )
s,1 s,2 s,2
s,1
s,2
k
T T h T T
L
k
T T
hL
T .
k
1+
hL

=
+
=


To determine the wind chill effect, we must determine the heat loss for the windy day and use
it to evaluate the hypothetical ambient air temperature, which would provide the same
eat loss on a calm day, Hence,

T ,
h

s,1 s,1
windy calm
T T T T
q
L 1 L 1
k h k h


= =

+ +




F

rom these relations, we can now find the results sought:
(a)
2
calm
windy
2
0.003 m 1
q 0.2 W/m K 0.015 0.0154
65 W/m K
0.003 m 1
q 0.015 0.04
0.2 W/m K
25 W/m K
+
+

= =
+
+





calm
windy
q
0.553
q

<

(b)
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
s,2
calm
2
0.2 W/m K
15 C 36 C
25 W/m K 0.003 m
T 22.1 C
0.2 W/m K
1
25 W/m K 0.003 m

= =

o o
o
<


( )
( )
( )
( )
2
s,2
windy
2
0.2 W/m K
15 C 36 C
65 W/m K 0.003m
T 10.8 C
0.2 W/m K
1
65 W/m K 0.003m

= =

o o
o
<

(c) ( )
( )
( )
0.003/0.2 1/ 25
T 36 C 36 15 C 56.3 C
0.003/0.2 1/ 65

+
= + =
+
o o o
<

COMMENTS: The wind chill effect is equivalent to a decrease of T
s,2
by 11.3C and
increase in the heat loss by a factor of (0.553)
-1
=1.81.
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PROBLEM 4.32


KNOWN: Internal corner of a two-dimensional system with prescribed convection boundary
onditions. c

FIND: Finite-difference equations for these situations: (a) Horizontal boundary is perfectly insulated
and vertical boundary is subjected to a convection process (T

,h), (b) Both boundaries are perfectly


nsulated; compare result with Eq. 4.41. i

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant
roperties, (4) No internal generation. p

ANALYSIS: Consider the nodal network shown above and also as Case 2, Table 4.2. Having
defined the control volume the shaded area of unit thickness normal to the page next identify the
heat transfer processes. Finally, perform an energy balance wherein the processes are expressed using
ppropriate rate equations. a

(a) With the horizontal boundary insulated and the vertical boundary subjected to a convection
rocess, the energy balance results in the following finite-difference equation: p


in out 1 2 3 4 5 6
E E 0 q q q q q q 0 = + + + + + =


( ) ( )
m-1,n m,n m,n-1 m,n
m,n
T T T T
x y
k y 1 k 1 h 1 T T
x 2 y 2



+ +





( )
m+1,n m,n m,n+1 m,n
T T T T
y
0 k 1 k x 1 0.
2 x y


+ + + =





Letting x =y, and regrouping, find

( ) ( )
m-1,n m,n+1 m+1,n m,n-1 m,n
h x h x
2 T T T T T 6 T 0.
k k


+ + + + +


=
=
<

(b) With both boundaries insulated, the energy balance would have q
3
=q
4
=0. The same result
ould be obtained by letting h =0 in the previous result. Hence, w
<
( ) ( )
m-1,n m,n+1 m+1,n m,n-1 m,n
2 T T T T 6 T 0. + + +

Note that this expression compares exactly with Equation 4.41 when h =0, which corresponds to
insulated boundaries.
PROBLEM 4.34

KNOWN: External corner of a two-dimensional system whose boundaries are subjected to prescribed
onditions. c
FIND: Finite-difference equations for these situations: (a) Upper boundary is perfectly insulated and
side boundary is subjected to a convection process, (b) Both boundaries are perfectly insulated;
ompare result with Eq. 4.43. c
SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant
roperties, (4) No internal generation. p
ANALYSIS: Consider the nodal point configuration shown in the schematic and also as Case 4,
Table 4.2. The control volume about the node shaded area above of unit thickness normal to the
page has dimensions, (x/2)(y/2)1. The heat transfer processes at the surface of the CV are
identified as q
1
, q
2
. Perform an energy balance wherein the processes are expressed using the
ppropriate rate equations. a
(a) With the upper boundary insulated and the side boundary subjected to a convection process, the
nergy balance has the form e
(1,2)
in out 1 2 3 4
E E 0 q q q q 0 = + + + =


( )
m-1,n m,n m,n-1 m,n
m,n
T T T T
y x y
k 1 k 1 h 1 T T 0
2 x 2 y 2



+ +



0. + =

Letting x =y, and regrouping, find

m,n-1 m-1,n m,n
h x 1h x
T T T 2 1 T
k 2 k


+ + +


0. = (3) <

(b) With both boundaries insulated, the energy balance of Eq. (2) would have q
3
=q
4
=0. The same
esult would be obtained by letting h =0 in the finite-difference equation, Eq. (3). The result is r
<
m,n-1 m-1,n m,n
T T 2T 0. + =

Note that this expression is identical to Eq. 4.43 when h =0, in which case both boundaries are
nsulated. i
COMMENTS: Note the convenience resulting from formulating the energy balance by assuming that
all the heat flow is into the node.
PROBLEM 4.37


KNOWN: Two-dimensional cylindrical configuration with prescribed radial (r) and angular ()
pacings of nodes. s

F

IND: Finite-difference equations for nodes 2, 3 and 1.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction in cylindrical
oordinates (r,), (3) Constant properties. c

ANALYSIS: The method of solution is to define the appropriate control volume for each node, to
dentify relevant processes and then to perform an energy balance. i
(a) Node 2. This is an interior node with control volume as shown above. The energy balance is
Using Fouriers law for each process, find
in a b c d
E q q q q

= + + + =

0.


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 2 3 2
i
i
i 2 1 2
i
i
T T T T
3
k r r k r
2 r r r
T T T T
1
k r r k r 0.
2 r r r




+ + +


+




+ + + =

+





Canceling terms and regrouping yields,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2
i 2 i 5 3 1 i i
2 2
i
i
r r 1 3 1
2 r r T r r T T T r r T 0.
r r 2 2
r r

+ + + + + + + + =
+
+








(b) Node 3. The adiabatic surface behaves as a symmetry surface. We can utilize the result of Part (a)
o write the finite-difference equation by inspection as t
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
2 2
i 3 i 6 2 i
2 2
i
i
r 2 r 1 3 1
2 r r T r r T T r r T
r r 2 2
r r

+ + + + + + + =
+
+






i
0.
.


(c) Node 1. The energy balance is
a b c d
q q q q 0

+ + + = Substituting,


( )
( )
( )
( )
4 1 2 1
i
i
T T T T
3
k r r k r
2 2 r r r



+ + +

+





( )
( )( )
i 1
i 1
T T
1
k r r h r T T 0
2 2 r


+ + + =




<

This expression could now be rearranged.
PROBLEM 4.41


K

NOWN: Two-dimensional grid for a system with no internal volumetric generation.
FIND: Expression for heat rate per unit length normal to page crossing the isothermal
oundary. b

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional heat transfer, (3)
onstant properties. C

ANALYSIS: Identify the surface nodes (T
s
) and draw control volumes about these nodes.
Since there is no heat transfer in the direction parallel to the isothermal surfaces, the heat rate
ut of the constant temperature surface boundary is o


a b c d e f
q q q q q q q = + + + + +

For each use Fouriers law and pay particular attention to the manner in which the cross-
ectional area and gradients are specified.
i
q ,
s


( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 s 2 s 3 s
5 s 6 s 7 s
T T T T T T
q k y/2 k y k y
x x
T T T T T T
k x k x k x/2
y y

= + +


+ + +

x
y

]
d



R

egrouping with x =y, find
<
[
1 2 3 5 6 7 s
q k 0.5T T T T T 0.5T 5T . = + + + + +

COMMENTS: Looking at the corner node, it is important to recognize the areas associated
with (y and x, respectively).
c
q and q
PROBLEM 4.45


K

NOWN: Steady-state temperatures (K) at three nodes of a long rectangular bar.
FIND: (a) Temperatures at remaining nodes and (b) heat transfer per unit length from the bar using
nodal temperatures; compare with result calculated using knowledge of q.

SCHEMATIC:

A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, 2-D conduction, (2) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: (a) The finite-difference equations for the nodes (1,2,3,A,B,C) can be written by
inspection using Eq. 4.35 and recognizing that the adiabatic boundary can be represented by a
symmetry plane.
( )
2 7 3
2
2
neighbors i
5 10 W/m 0.005m
q x
T 4T q x / k 0 and 62.5K.
k 20 W/m K

+ = = =



Node A (to find T
2
):
2
2 B A
2T 2T 4T q x / k 0 + + =
( )
2
1
T 2 374.6 4 398.0 62.5 K 390.2K
2
= + = <
Node 3 (to find T
3
):
2
c 2 B 3
T T T 300K 4T q x / k 0 + + + + =
( )
3
1
T 348.5 390.2 374.6 300 62.5 K 369.0K
4
= + + + + = <
Node 1 (to find T
1
):
2
C 2 1
300 2T T 4T q x / k 0 + + + =
( )
1
1
T 300 2 348.5 390.2 62.5 362.4K
4
= + + + = <
(b) The heat rate out of the bar is determined by calculating the heat rate out of each control volume
around the 300 K nodes. Consider the node in the upper left-hand corner; from an energy balance

in out g a a,in g g
E E E 0 or q q E where E qV. + = = + =


Hence, for the entire bar
bar a b c d e f
q q q q q q q , = + + + + + or

bar
C 1
a b
C 3 B
d e
T 300 y T 300 x y x x y
q k q k y q y q
2 x 2 2 x 2 2 2
T 300 T 300 y y x T 300 x y
k x q x k x q x k q
y 2 y 2 2 y 2 2

= + + + + +


+ + + + +












f
.
c



Substituting numerical values, find
bar
q 7,502.5 W/m. = From an overall energy balance on the
bar,
( ) ( )
bar
2 7 3
g
q E qV/ q 3 x 2 y 5 10 W/m 6 0.005m 7,500 W/m. = = = = =

<
As expected, the results of the two methods agree. Why must that be?
PROBLEM 4.33

K

NOWN: Plane surface of two-dimensional system.
FIND: The finite-difference equation for nodal point on this boundary when (a) insulated; compare
esult with Eq. 4.42, and when (b) subjected to a constant heat flux. r
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Two-dimensional, steady-state conduction with no generation, (2) Constant
roperties, (3) Boundary is adiabatic. p
ANALYSIS: (a) Performing an energy balance on the control volume, (x/2)y, and using the
onduction rate equation, it follows that c
(1,2)
in out 1 2 3
E E 0 q q q 0 = + + =


( )
m-1,n m,n m,n-1 m,n m,n+1 m,n
T T T T T T
x x
k y 1 k 1 k 1 0
x 2 y 2 y


+ + =



.

(3)

Note that there is no heat rate across the control volume surface at the insulated boundary.
ecognizing that x =y, the above expression reduces to the form R
(4) <
m-1,n m,n-1 m,n+1 m,n
2T T T 4T 0. + + =

The Eq. 4.42 of Table 4.2 considers the same configuration but with the boundary subjected to a
onvection process. That is, c

( )
m-1,n m,n-1 m,n+1 m,n
2h x h x
2T T T T 2 2 T 0.
k k


+ + + + =


(5)

Note that, if the boundary is insulated, h =0 and Eq. 4.42 reduces to Eq. (4).
(b) If the surface is exposed to a constant heat flux,
o
q ,

the energy balance has the form


and the finite difference equation becomes
1 2 3 o
q q q q y

+ + + = 0


o
m-1,n m,n-1 m,n+1 m,n
2q x
2T T T 4T .
k

+ + = <

COMMENTS: Equation (4) can be obtained by using the interior node finite-difference equation,
q. 4.29, where the insulated boundary is treated as a symmetry plane as shown below. E


PROBLEM 1.5

KNOWN: Inner and outer surface temperatures of a glass window of prescribed dimensions.

FIND: Heat loss through window.

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state
conditions, (3) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: Subject to the foregoing conditions the heat flux may be computed from
Fouriers law, Eq. 1.2.


( )
T T
q k
L
15-5 C
W
q 1.4
m K 0.005m
q 2800 W/m .
1 2
x
x
2
x

=
=



Since the heat flux is uniform over the surface, the heat loss (rate) is


q = q
x
A
q = 2800 W/ m
2
3m
2

< q = 8400 W.

COMMENTS: A linear temperature distribution exists in the glass for the prescribed
conditions.


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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 1.7

KNOWN: Dimensions of freezer compartment. Inner and outer surface temperatures.

FIND: Thickness of styrofoam insulation needed to maintain heat load below prescribed
value.

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Perfectly insulated bottom, (2) One-dimensional conduction through 5
walls of area A =4m
2
, (3) Steady-state conditions, (4) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: Using Fouriers law, Eq. 1.2, the heat rate is

q = q A = k
T
L
A
total




Solving for L and recognizing that A
total
=5W
2
, find

L =
5 k T W
q
2




( )
( )
5 0.03 W/m K 35 - -10 C 4m
L =
500 W
2



< L = 0.054m = 54mm.

COMMENTS: The corners will cause local departures from one-dimensional conduction
and a slightly larger heat loss.


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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 1.10

KNOWN: Thickness, diameter and inner surface temperature of bottom of pan used to boil
ater. Rate of heat transfer to the pan. w

F

IND: Outer surface temperature of pan for an aluminum and a copper bottom.
SCHEMATIC:



A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conduction through bottom of pan.
ANALYSIS: From Fouriers law, the rate of heat transfer by conduction through the bottom
of the pan is


T T
1 2
q kA
L

=

Hence,


qL
T T
1 2
kA
= +

where ( )
2 2 2
A D / 4 0.2m / 4 0.0314 m . = = =

Aluminum:
( )
( )
600W 0.005 m
T 110 C 110.40 C
1
2
240 W/m K 0.0314 m
= + =


<

Copper:
( )
( )
600W 0.005 m
T 110 C 110.24 C
1
2
390 W/m K 0.0314 m
= + =


<

COMMENTS: Although the temperature drop across the bottom is slightly larger for
aluminum (due to its smaller thermal conductivity), it is sufficiently small to be negligible for
both materials. To a good approximation, the bottom may be considered isothermal at T
110 C, which is a desirable feature of pots and pans.

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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 1.18
K

NOWN: Chip width and maximum allowable temperature. Coolant conditions.
F

IND: Maximum allowable chip power for air and liquid coolants.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Negligible heat transfer from sides and
bottom, (3) Chip is at a uniform temperature (isothermal), (4) Negligible heat transfer by
adiation in air. r

ANALYSIS: All of the electrical power dissipated in the chip is transferred by convection to
he coolant. Hence, t



P =q
a

nd from Newtons law of cooling,
P =hA(T - T

) =h W
2
(T - T

).

n air, I

P
max
=200 W/m
2
K(0.005 m)
2
(85 - 15) C =0.35 W. <

n the dielectric liquid I

P
max
=3000 W/m
2
K(0.005 m)
2
(85-15) C =5.25 W. <


COMMENTS: Relative to liquids, air is a poor heat transfer fluid. Hence, in air the chip can
dissipate far less energy than in the dielectric liquid.
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United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 1.27

KNOWN: Hot plate suspended in vacuum and surroundings temperature. Mass, specific heat, area
and time rate of change of plate temperature.

FIND: (a) The emissivity of the plate, and (b) The rate at which radiation is emitted from the plate.

SCHEMATIC:


T
s

st
E
q
rad
q
rad
T =25
sur
C
T
s
=225C
Plate, 0.3 m 0.3 m
M =3.75 kg, c
p
=2770 J kg K
T(t)
t t
0
dT
K
= -0.022
s
dt

T
s

st
E
q
rad
q
rad
T
s

st
E
q
rad
q
rad
T =25
sur
C
T
s
=225C
Plate, 0.3 m 0.3 m
M =3.75 kg, c
p
=2770 J kg K
T(t)
t t
0
dT
K
= -0.022
s
dt
T(t)
t t
0
dT
K
= -0.022
s
dt












ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Plate is isothermal and at uniform temperature, (2) Large surroundings, (3)
Negligible heat loss through suspension wires.

ANALYSIS: For a control volume about the plate, the conservation of energy requirement is

(1)
in out st
E - E =E


where
st p
dT
E =Mc
dt

(2)

and for large surroundings (3)

4 4
in out sur s
E - E =A(T - T )

Combining Eqns. (1) through (3) yields

p
4 4
sur s
dT
Mc
dt
=
A
(T - T )


Noting that T
sur
=25C +273 K =298 K and T
s
=225C +273 K =498 K, we find
-8 4 4 4
2 4
J K
3.75 kg 2770 (-0.022 )
kg K s
= =0.42
W
2 0.3 m 0.3 m 5.67 10 (498 - 298 ) K
m K

<
The rate at which radiation is emitted from the plate is
4
rad,e s
q =AT
-8 4
2 4
W
=0.42 2 0.3 m 0.3 m 5.67 10 (498 K)
m K
=264 W <

COMMENTS: Note the importance of using kelvins when working with radiation heat transfer.
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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 1.28
KNOWN: Length, diameter, surface temperature and emissivity of steam line. Temperature
and convection coefficient associated with ambient air. Efficiency and fuel cost for gas fired
urnace. f

F

IND: (a) Rate of heat loss, (b) Annual cost of heat loss.
SCHEMATIC:









=0.8 =0.8

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steam line operates continuously throughout year, (2) Net radiation
ransfer is between small surface (steam line) and large enclosure (plant walls). t

A

NALYSIS: (a) From Eqs. (1.3a) and (1.7), the heat loss is
( )
( )
4 4
conv rad s s sur
q q q A h T T T T


= + = +



where ( )
2
A DL 0.1m 25m 7.85m. = = =

H

ence,
( )
( )
2 2 8 2 4 4 4
q 7.85m 10 W/m K 150 25 K 0.8 5.67 10 W/m K 423 298 K


= +

4


( ) ( )
2 2
q 7.85m 1,250 1,095 W/m 9813 8592 W 18,405 W = + = + = <

(

b) The annual energy loss is

11
E qt 18,405 W 3600 s/h 24h/d 365 d/y 5.80 10 J = = =

With a furnace energy consumption of the annual cost of the loss is
11
f f
E E/ 6.45 10 J = = ,

<
5
g f
C C E 0.01 $/MJ 6.45 10 MJ $6450 = = =

COMMENTS: The heat loss and related costs are unacceptable and should be reduced by
insulating the steam line.

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PROBLEM 1.59

KNOWN: Thermal conductivity, thickness and temperature difference across a sheet of rigid
extruded insulation. Cold wall temperature, surroundings temperature, ambient temperature and
emissivity.

FIND: (a) The value of the convection heat transfer coefficient on the cold wall side in units of
W/m
2
C or W/m
2
K, and, (b) The cold wall surface temperature for emissivities over the range
0.05 0.95 for a hot wall temperature of T
1
=30 C.

L=20 mm
T
1
=30C
T
2
=20C=293 K
x
q
cond q
rad
q
conv
T
sur
=320 K
T

=5C
Air
k=0.029

W
m K
L=20 mm
T
1
=30C
T
2
=20C=293 K
x
q
cond q
rad
q
conv
T
sur
=320 K
T

=5C
Air
k=0.029

W
m K
SCHEMATIC:











ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state
conditions, (c) Constant properties, (4) Large surroundings.

ANALYSIS:
(a) An energy balance on the control surface shown in the schematic yields

or
in out
E =E

cond conv rad
q =q +q

Substituting from Fouriers law, Newtons law of cooling, and Eq. 1.7 yields


4 4 1 2
2 2
T - T
k =h(T - T ) +(T - T )
L
sur
(1)

or
4 4 1 2
2 sur
2
T - T 1
h = [k - (T - T )]
(T - T ) L



Substituting values,
o
-8 4 4 4
o 2
1 W (30 - 20) C W
h = [0.029 - 0.95 5.67 10 (293 - 320 ) K ]
m K 0.02 m
(20 - 5) C m K


4


h =12.2
2
W
m K
<



Continued.
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PROBLEM 1.59 (Cont.)

(b) Equation (1) may be solved iteratively to find T
2
for any emissivity . IHT was used for this
purpose, yielding the following.

Surface Temperature vs. Wall Emissivity
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Emissivity
280
285
290
295
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
K
)



COMMENTS: (1) Note that as the wall emissivity increases, the surface temperature increases
since the surroundings temperature is relatively hot. (2) The IHT code used in part (b) is shown
below. (3) It is a good habit to work in temperature units of kelvins when radiation heat transfer is
included in the solution of the problem.

//Problem 1.59

h =12.2 //W/m^2K (convection coefficient)
L =0.02 //m (sheet thickness)
k =0.029 //W/mK (thermal conductivity)
T1 =30 +273 //K (hot wall temperature)
Tsur =320 //K (surroundings temperature)
sigma =5.67*10^-8 //W/m^2K^4 (Stefan -Boltzmann constant)
Tinf =5 +273 //K (ambient temperature)
e =0.95 //emissivity

//Equation (1) is

k*(T1-T2)/L =h*(T2-Tinf) +e*sigma*(T2^4 - Tsur^4)


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PROBLEM 1.63
KNOWN: Dimensions, average surface temperature and emissivity of heating duct. Duct air
inlet temperature and velocity. Temperature of ambient air and surroundings. Convection
oefficient. c

F

IND: (a) Heat loss from duct, (b) Air outlet temperature.
SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) Constant air properties, (3) Negligible potential and
kinetic energy changes of air flow, (4) Radiation exchange between a small surface and a
arge enclosure. l

ANALYSIS: (a) Heat transfer from the surface of the duct to the ambient air and the
urroundings is given by Eq. (1.10) s

( )
( )
4 4
q hA T T A T T
s s s s sur
= +



w

here A
s
=L (2W +2H) =15 m (0.7 m +0.5 m) =16.5 m
2
. Hence,
( ) ( )
2 2 2 8 2 4 4 4
q 4 W/m K 16.5 m 45 C 0.5 16.5 m 5.67 10 W/m K 323 278 K

= +
4


< q q q 2970 W 2298 W 5268 W
conv rad
= + = + =

b) With i =u +pv, =0 and the third assumption, Eq. (1.11d) yields, W

(

( ) ( ) m i i mc T T q
i o p i o
= =

where the sign on q has been reversed to reflect the fact that heat transfer is from the system.
With the outlet temperature is ( )
3
m VA 1.10 kg/m 4 m/s 0.35m 0.20m 0.308 kg/s,
c
= = =


q 5268 W
T T 58 C 41
o i
mc 0.308 kg/s 1008 J /kg K
p
= = =

C <

COMMENTS: The temperature drop of the air is large and unacceptable, unless the intent is
to use the duct to heat the basement. If not, the duct should be insulated to insure maximum
delivery of thermal energy to the intended space(s).

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PROBLEM 2.20
KNOWN: Temperature distribution, T(x,y,z), within an infinite, homogeneous body at a given
nstant of time. i

F

IND: Regions where the temperature changes with time.
SCHEMATIC:


A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) Constant properties of infinite medium and (2) No internal heat generation.
ANALYSIS: The temperature distribution throughout the medium, at any instant of time, must satisfy
the heat equation. For the three-dimensional cartesian coordinate system, with constant properties and
o internal heat generation, the heat equation, Eq. 2.19, has the form n

2 2 2
1 T
x
T
y
T
z
T
t
2 2 2
+ + = . (1)

If T(x,y,z) satisfies this relation, conservation of energy is satisfied at every point in the medium.
ubstituting T(x,y,z) into the Eq. (1), first find the gradients, T/x, T/y, and T/z. S

( ) ( ) ( )
1 T
2x-y 4y-x+2z 2z+2y .
x y z t


+ + =



P

erforming the differentiations,
2 4 2
1
+ =

T
t
.

H

ence,

T
t
= 0

w

hich implies that, at the prescribed instant, the temperature is everywhere independent of time. <
COMMENTS: Since we do not know the initial and boundary conditions, we cannot determine the
temperature distribution, T(x,y,z), at any future time. We can only determine that, for this special
instant of time, the temperature will not change.
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PROBLEM 2.22
KNOWN: Steady-state temperature distribution in a cylindrical rod having uniform heat generation
of . q W/
1
3
= 5 10
7
m

FIND: (a) Steady-state centerline and surface heat transfer rates per unit length, q
r
. (b) Initial time
rate of change of the centerline and surface temperatures in response to a change in the generation rate
from
8 3
1 2
q to q =10 W/m.

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the r direction, (2) Uniform generation, and (3)
Steady-state for . q = 5 10 W/ m
1
7 3


A

NALYSIS: (a) From the rate equations for cylindrical coordinates,
= q k
T
r
q=-kA
T
r
r r

.

H

ence,
( )
r
T
q k 2 rL
r

=

o

r
= q kr
T
r
r
2

(1)

w

here T/r may be evaluated from the prescribed temperature distribution, T(r).
A

t r =0, the gradient is (T/r) =0. Hence, from Equation (1) the heat rate is
< ( )
r
q 0 0 = .

A

t r =r
o
, the temperature gradient is

( )
( )
( )
o
o
5 5
o
2
r=r
5
r=r
T K
2 4.167 10 r 2 4.167 10 0.025m
r
m
T
0.208 10 K/m.
r

= =



Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.22 (Cont.)
H

ence, the heat rate at the outer surface (r =r
o
) per unit length is
( ) [ ]( )
5
r o
q r 2 30 W/m K 0.025m 0.208 10 K/m

=




< ( )
5
r o
q r 0.980 10 W/m. =

(b) Transient (time-dependent) conditions will exist when the generation is changed, and for the
prescribed assumptions, the temperature is determined by the following form of the heat equation,
quation 2.24 E


2 p
1 T
kr q c
r r r t
T



+ =




H

ence

2
p
T 1 1 T
kr q .
t c r r r



= +






However, initially (at t =0), the temperature distribution is given by the prescribed form, T(r) =800 -
.16710
5
r
2
, and 4


( )
5
1 T k
kr r -8.334 10 r
r r r r r




=







( )
5
k
16.668 10 r
r
=


5 2
30 W/m K -16.668 10 K/m

=




( )
7 3
1
5 10 W/m the original q=q . =

H

ence, everywhere in the wall,

7 8
3
T 1
5 10 10 W/m
t
1100 kg/m 800 J /kg K
3


=



+

o

r

T
t
K / s. = 5682 . <

COMMENTS: (1) The value of (T/t) will decrease with increasing time, until a new steady-state
ondition is reached and once again (T/t) =0. c

(2) By applying the energy conservation requirement, Equation 1.11c, to a unit length of the rod for
the steady-state condition, Hence

. + = E E E
in out gen
0 ( ) ( )
( )
2
r r o 1 o
q 0 q r q r = .
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PROBLEM 2.25

KNOWN: Analytical expression for the steady-state temperature distribution of a plane wall
experiencing uniform volumetric heat generation while convection occurs at both of its surfaces. q

FIND: (a) Sketch the temperature distribution, T(x), and identify significant physical features, (b)
Determine , (c) Determine the surface heat fluxes, q
( )
x
q L

and ( )
x
q L

+ ; how are these fluxes


related to the generation rate; (d) Calculate the convection coefficients at the surfaces x =L and x =
+L, (e) Obtain an expression for the heat flux distribution, ( )
x
q explain significant features of the
distribution; (f) If the source of heat generation is suddenly deactivated ( =0), what is the rate of
change of energy stored at this instant; (g) Determine the temperature that the wall will reach
eventually with q determine the energy that must be removed by the fluid per unit area of the wall
to reach this state.
x ;

q
0; =

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Uniform volumetric heat generation, (3) Constant
roperties. p

ANALYSIS: (a) Using the analytical expression in the Workspace of IHT, the temperature
distribution appears as shown below. The significant features include (1) parabolic shape, (2)
maximum does not occur at the mid-plane, T(-5.25 mm) =83.3C, (3) the gradient at the x =+L
surface is greater than at x =-L. Find also that T(-L) =78.2C and T(+L) =69.8C for use in part (d).
Temperature distribution
-20 -10 0 10 20
x-coordinate, x(mm)
70
75
80
85
90
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T
(
x
)

(
C
)













(b) Substituting the temperature distribution expression into the appropriate form of the heat diffusion
quation, Eq. 2.19, the rate of volumetric heat generation can be determined. e

( )
2
d dT q
0 where T x a bx c
dx dx k

+ = = + +



x

( ) ( )
d q
0 b 2cx 0 2c 0
dx k k
+ + + = + + =
q

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.25 (Cont.)

<
( )
4 2 5
q 2ck 2 2 10 C/ m 5W/ m K 2 10 W/ m = = =
3

(c) The heat fluxes at the two boundaries can be determined using Fouriers law and the temperature
distribution expression.

( ) ( )
2
x
dT
q x k where T x a bx cx
dx
= = + +

( ) [ ] [ ]
x
x L
q L k 0 b 2cx b 2cL k
=
= + + =

( )
( )
4 2
x
q L 210 C/ m 2 2 10 C/ m 0.020m 5W/ m K 2950W/ m

= =



2
,
2
<

( ) ( )
2
x
q L b 2cL k 5050W/ m + = + = + <

From an overall energy balance on the wall as shown in the sketch below,
in out gen
E E E 0 + =


( ) ( )
?
2 2 2
x x
q L q L 2qL 0 or 2950W/ m 5050W/ m 8000W/ m 0 + + + = + =

where so the equality is satisfied
5 3
2qL 2 2 10 W/ m 0.020 m 8000W/ m , = =







conv,l
q
conv,r
q

conv,l
q
conv,r
q

(d) The convection coefficients, h
l
and h
r
, for the left- and right-hand boundaries (x =-L and x=+L,
respectively), can be determined from the convection heat fluxes that are equal to the conduction
fluxes at the boundaries. See the surface energy balances in the sketch above. See also part (a) result
for T(-L) and T(+L).
( )
conv, x
q q =

L
< ( ) [ ]
2 2
l l l
h T T L h 20 78.2 K 2950W/ m h 51W/ m K

= = =

( )
conv,r x
q q = +L
< ( ) [ ]
2 2
r r r
h T L T h 69.8 20 K 5050W/ m h 101W/ m K

+ = = + =


(e) The expression for the heat flux distribution can be obtained from Fouriers law with the
emperature distribution t

( ) [ ]
x
dT
q x k k 0 b 2cx
dx
= = + +

( )
( )
4 2 5
x
q x 5W/ m K 210 C/ m 2 2 10 C/ m x 1050 2 10 x

= + = +


<

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.25 (Cont.)

The distribution is linear with the x-coordinate. The maximum temperature will occur at the location
where ( )
x max
q x 0 = ,


2
3
max
5 3
1050W/ m
x 5.25 10 m 5.25mm
2 10 W/ m

= = =

<

(f) If the source of the heat generation is suddenly deactivated so that q =0, the appropriate form of
the heat diffusion equation for the ensuing transient conduction is


p
T T
k c
x x t


=




At the instant this occurs, the temperature distribution is still T(x) =a +bx +cx
2
. The right-hand term
epresents the rate of energy storage per unit volume, r

[ ] [ ]
( )
4 2 5
st
E k 0 b 2cx k 0 2c 5W/ m K 2 2 10 C/ m 2 10 W/ m
x

= + + = + = =

3
0.
x

<

(g) With no heat generation, the wall will eventually (t ) come to equilibrium with the fluid,
T(x,) =T

=20C. To determine the energy that must be removed from the wall to reach this state,
apply the conservation of energy requirement over an interval basis, Eq. 1.11b. The initial state is
that corresponding to the steady-state temperature distribution, T
i
, and the final state has T
f
=20C.
eve used T

as the reference condition for the energy terms. W




in out st f i in
E E E E E with E = = =

( )
L
out p i
L
E c T T d
+



L
L
2 2 3
out p p
L
L
E c a bx cx T dx c ax bx / 2 cx /3 T x
+
+



= + + = + +



3
out p
E c 2aL 0 2cL /3 2T L


= + +




( )
3 4
C
out
E 2600kg/m 800J /kg K 2 82 C 0.020m 2 2 10 / m

= +
2


( ) ( )
3
0.020m /3 2 20 C 0.020m



<
6
out
E 4.94 10 J / m =
2

COMMENTS: (1) In part (a), note that the temperature gradient is larger at x =+L than at x
=- L. This is consistent with the results of part (c) in which the conduction heat fluxes are
evaluated.

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.25 (Cont.)

(2) In evaluating the conduction heat fluxes, ( )
x
q x , it is important to recognize that this flux
is in the positive x-direction. See how this convention is used in formulating the energy
alance in part (c). b

(3) It is good practice to represent energy balances with a schematic, clearly defining the
system or surface, showing the CV or CS with dashed lines, and labeling the processes.
eview again the features in the schematics for the energy balances of parts (c & d). R

(

4) Re-writing the heat diffusion equation introduced in part (b) as

d dT
k q
dx dx

+ =


0

recognize that the term in parenthesis is the heat flux. From the differential equation, note
that if the differential of this term is a constant ( ) q/ k , then the term must be a linear function
f the x-coordinate. This agrees with the analysis of part (e). o

(5) In part (f), we evaluated the rate of energy change stored in the wall at the instant the
volumetric heat generation was deactivated. Did you notice that is the
same value of the deactivated q? How do you explain this?
st
E ,

5
st
E 2 10 W/ m =

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PROBLEM 2.29
KNOWN: Steady-state temperature distribution in a one-dimensional wall of thermal
onductivity, T(x) =Ax
3
+Bx
2
+Cx +D. c

FIND: Expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall
aces (x =0,L). f

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional heat flow, (3)
omogeneous medium. H

A

NALYSIS: The appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is

d T
dx
q
k
or q=-k
d T
dx
2
2
2
2
+ =

. 0

H

ence, the generation rate is

2
d dT d
q=-k k 3Ax 2Bx +C +0
dx dx dx


= +






[ ]
q=-k 6Ax +2B <

which is linear with the coordinate x. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from
ouriers law, F


2
x
dT
q k k 3Ax +2Bx +C
dx

= =




u

sing the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. Hence, the heat fluxes are:
S

urface x=0:
( )
x
q 0 kC = <

S

urface x=L:
( )
2
x
q L k 3AL +2BL +C .

=


<

C

OMMENTS: (1) From an overall energy balance on the wall, find
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
in out g
2
x x g g
2
g
E E E 0
q 0 q L E kC k 3AL 2BL+C E 0
E 3AkL 2BkL.
+ =

+ = + +


=

=

From integration of the volumetric heat rate, we can also find as

E
g

( ) [ ]
L
L L
2
g
0 0
0
2
g
E q x dx= -k 6Ax+2B dx=-k 3Ax 2Bx
E 3AkL 2BkL.

= +


=


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PROBLEM 2.40


KNOWN: Steady-state temperature distribution for hollow cylindrical solid with volumetric heat
eneration. g

FIND: (a) Determine the inner radius of the cylinder, r
i
, (b) Obtain an expression for the volumetric
rate of heat generation, (c) Determine the axial distribution of the heat flux at the outer surface, q,
( )
r o
q r , ,z

and the heat rate at this outer surface; is the heat rate in or out of the cylinder; (d)
Determine the radial distribution of the heat flux at the end faces of the cylinder, and
, and the corresponding heat rates; are the heat rates in or out of the cylinder; (e)
Determine the relationship of the surface heat rates to the heat generation rate; is an overall energy
balance satisfied?
( )
z
q r, z

+
o
)
o
(
z
q r, z



SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction with constant
roperties and volumetric heat generation. p

ANALYSIS: (a) Since the inner boundary, r =r
i
, is adiabatic, then ( )
r i
q r z 0. ,

= Hence the
temperature gradient in the r-direction must be zero.

i i
r
i
T
0 2br c/r 0 0
r

= + + + =




1/ 2 1/ 2
i
2
c 12 C
r
2b
2 150 C/m

= + = =


0.2m <

(b) To determine substitute the temperature distribution into the heat diffusion equation, Eq. 2.24,
for two-dimensional (r,z), steady-state conduction
q,

1 T T q
r 0
r r r z z k

+ +




=
[ ] ( ) ( )
1 q
r 0 2br c/r 0 0 0 0 2dz 0
r r z k

+ + + + + + + + =



[ ]
1 q
4br 0 2d 0
r k
+ + + =


[ ]
( )
2 2
q k 4b 2d 16W/m K 4 150 C/m 2 300 C/m 0W/m

= + = + =

3
<

(c) The heat flux and the heat rate at the outer surface, r =r
o
, may be calculated using Fouriers law.
( ) [ ]
r o, o o
r
o
T
q r z k k 0 2br c/ r 0
r

= = + + +


Continued ..

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PROBLEM 2.51

KNOWN: Temperature distribution in a plane wall of thickness L experiencing uniform volumetric
heating having one surface (x =0) insulated and the other exposed to a convection process
characterized by T
q

and h. Suddenly the volumetric heat generation is deactivated while convection


ontinues to occur. c

FIND: (a) Determine the magnitude of the volumetric energy generation rate associated with the
initial condition, (b) On T-x coordinates, sketch the temperature distributions for the initial condition
(T 0), the steady-state condition (t ), and two intermediate times; (c) On - t coordinates,
sketch the variation with time of the heat flux at the boundary exposed to the convection process,
calculate the corresponding value of the heat flux at t =0; and (d) Determine the amount of
energy removed from the wall per unit area (J /m
x
q

( )
x
q L, t

;
2
) by the fluid stream as the wall cools from its initial
o steady-state condition. t

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, and (3) Uniform internal
olumetric heat generation for t <0. v

ANALYSIS: (a) The volumetric heating rate can be determined by substituting the temperature
istribution for the initial condition into the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation. d

( )
2
d dT q
0 where T x,0 a b
dx dx k

+ = = +



x

( )
d q
0 2bx 0 2b 0
dx k k
+ + = = + =
q



( )
4 2 6
q 2kb 2 90W/ m K 1.0 10 C/ m 1.8 10 W/ m = = =
3
<

(b) The temperature distributions are shown in the sketch below.



Continued ..
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PROBLEM 2.51 (Cont.)

(c) The heat flux at the exposed surface x =L, ( )
x
q L,0

,
2
is initially a maximum value and decreases
with increasing time as shown in the sketch above. The heat flux at t =0 is equal to the convection
heat flux with the surface temperature T(L,0). See the surface energy balance represented in the
chematic. s

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 5
x conv
q L,0 q t 0 h T L,0 T 1000W/ m K 200 20 C 1.80 10 W/ m


= = = = = <

where ( ) ( )
2 2 4 2
T L,0 a bL 300 C 1.0 10 C/ m 0.1m 200 C. = + = =



(d) The energy removed from the wall to the fluid as it cools from its initial to steady-state condition
can be determined from an energy balance on a time interval basis, Eq. 1.11b. For the initial state, the
wall has the temperature distribution T(x,0) =a +bx
2
; for the final state, the wall is at the temperature
of the fluid, T
f
=T

. We have used T

as the reference condition for the energy terms.




in out st f i in
E E E E E with E 0 = = =

( )
x L
out p
x 0
E c T x,0 T
=

=
=

dx

2


L
x L
2 3
out p p
x 0
0
E c a bx T dx c ax bx /3 T x
=

=

= + = +


( )
3 3 4
out
E 7000kg/ m 450J / kg K 300 0.1 1.0 10 0.1 /3 20 0.1 K m

=




<
7
out
E 7.77 10 J / m =

COMMENTS: (1) In the temperature distributions of part (a), note these features: initial condition
has quadratic form with zero gradient at the adiabatic boundary; for the steady-state condition, the wall
has reached the temperature of the fluid; for all distributions, the gradient at the adiabatic boundary is
ero; and, the gradient at the exposed boundary decreases with increasing time. z

(2) In this thermodynamic analysis, we were able to determine the energy transferred during the
cooling process. However, we cannot determine the rate at which cooling of the wall occurs without
solving the heat diffusion equation.
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PROBLEM 3.7
KNOWN: A layer of fatty tissue with fixed inside temperature can experience different
utside convection conditions. o

FIND: (a) Ratio of heat loss for different convection conditions, (b) Outer surface
temperature for different convection conditions, and (c) Temperature of still air which
chieves same cooling as moving air (wind chill effect). a

SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction through a plane wall, (2) Steady-state
conditions, (3) Homogeneous medium with constant properties, (4) No internal heat
generation (metabolic effects are negligible), (5) Negligible radiation effects.

P

ROPERTIES: Table A-3, Tissue, fat layer: k =0.2 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: The thermal circuit for this situation is



Hence, the heat rate is


s,1 s,1
tot
T T T T
q .
R L/kA 1/ h


= =
+ A


Therefore,


windy
calm
windy
calm
L 1
k h
q
.
L 1 q
k h

+

=

+




Applying a surface energy balance to the outer surface, it also follows that


cond conv
q q = .

Continued ..
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PROBLEM 3.7 (Cont.)
H

ence,

( ) ( )
s,1 s,2 s,2
s,1
s,2
k
T T h T T
L
k
T T
hL
T .
k
1+
hL

=
+
=


To determine the wind chill effect, we must determine the heat loss for the windy day and use
it to evaluate the hypothetical ambient air temperature, which would provide the same
eat loss on a calm day, Hence,

T ,
h

s,1 s,1
windy calm
T T T T
q
L 1 L 1
k h k h


= =

+ +




F

rom these relations, we can now find the results sought:
(a)
2
calm
windy
2
0.003 m 1
q 0.2 W/m K 0.015 0.0154
65 W/m K
0.003 m 1
q 0.015 0.04
0.2 W/m K
25 W/m K
+
+

= =
+
+





calm
windy
q
0.553
q

<

(b)
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
s,2
calm
2
0.2 W/m K
15 C 36 C
25 W/m K 0.003 m
T 22.1 C
0.2 W/m K
1
25 W/m K 0.003 m

= =

o o
o
<


( )
( )
( )
( )
2
s,2
windy
2
0.2 W/m K
15 C 36 C
65 W/m K 0.003m
T 10.8 C
0.2 W/m K
1
65 W/m K 0.003m

= =

o o
o
<

(c) ( )
( )
( )
0.003/0.2 1/ 25
T 36 C 36 15 C 56.3 C
0.003/0.2 1/ 65

+
= + =
+
o o o
<

COMMENTS: The wind chill effect is equivalent to a decrease of T
s,2
by 11.3C and
increase in the heat loss by a factor of (0.553)
-1
=1.81.
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United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 4.32


KNOWN: Internal corner of a two-dimensional system with prescribed convection boundary
onditions. c

FIND: Finite-difference equations for these situations: (a) Horizontal boundary is perfectly insulated
and vertical boundary is subjected to a convection process (T

,h), (b) Both boundaries are perfectly


nsulated; compare result with Eq. 4.41. i

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant
roperties, (4) No internal generation. p

ANALYSIS: Consider the nodal network shown above and also as Case 2, Table 4.2. Having
defined the control volume the shaded area of unit thickness normal to the page next identify the
heat transfer processes. Finally, perform an energy balance wherein the processes are expressed using
ppropriate rate equations. a

(a) With the horizontal boundary insulated and the vertical boundary subjected to a convection
rocess, the energy balance results in the following finite-difference equation: p


in out 1 2 3 4 5 6
E E 0 q q q q q q 0 = + + + + + =


( ) ( )
m-1,n m,n m,n-1 m,n
m,n
T T T T
x y
k y 1 k 1 h 1 T T
x 2 y 2



+ +





( )
m+1,n m,n m,n+1 m,n
T T T T
y
0 k 1 k x 1 0.
2 x y


+ + + =





Letting x =y, and regrouping, find

( ) ( )
m-1,n m,n+1 m+1,n m,n-1 m,n
h x h x
2 T T T T T 6 T 0.
k k


+ + + + +


=
=
<

(b) With both boundaries insulated, the energy balance would have q
3
=q
4
=0. The same result
ould be obtained by letting h =0 in the previous result. Hence, w
<
( ) ( )
m-1,n m,n+1 m+1,n m,n-1 m,n
2 T T T T 6 T 0. + + +

Note that this expression compares exactly with Equation 4.41 when h =0, which corresponds to
insulated boundaries.
PROBLEM 4.34

KNOWN: External corner of a two-dimensional system whose boundaries are subjected to prescribed
onditions. c
FIND: Finite-difference equations for these situations: (a) Upper boundary is perfectly insulated and
side boundary is subjected to a convection process, (b) Both boundaries are perfectly insulated;
ompare result with Eq. 4.43. c
SCHEMATIC:


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant
roperties, (4) No internal generation. p
ANALYSIS: Consider the nodal point configuration shown in the schematic and also as Case 4,
Table 4.2. The control volume about the node shaded area above of unit thickness normal to the
page has dimensions, (x/2)(y/2)1. The heat transfer processes at the surface of the CV are
identified as q
1
, q
2
. Perform an energy balance wherein the processes are expressed using the
ppropriate rate equations. a
(a) With the upper boundary insulated and the side boundary subjected to a convection process, the
nergy balance has the form e
(1,2)
in out 1 2 3 4
E E 0 q q q q 0 = + + + =


( )
m-1,n m,n m,n-1 m,n
m,n
T T T T
y x y
k 1 k 1 h 1 T T 0
2 x 2 y 2



+ +



0. + =

Letting x =y, and regrouping, find

m,n-1 m-1,n m,n
h x 1h x
T T T 2 1 T
k 2 k


+ + +


0. = (3) <

(b) With both boundaries insulated, the energy balance of Eq. (2) would have q
3
=q
4
=0. The same
esult would be obtained by letting h =0 in the finite-difference equation, Eq. (3). The result is r
<
m,n-1 m-1,n m,n
T T 2T 0. + =

Note that this expression is identical to Eq. 4.43 when h =0, in which case both boundaries are
nsulated. i
COMMENTS: Note the convenience resulting from formulating the energy balance by assuming that
all the heat flow is into the node.
PROBLEM 4.37


KNOWN: Two-dimensional cylindrical configuration with prescribed radial (r) and angular ()
pacings of nodes. s

F

IND: Finite-difference equations for nodes 2, 3 and 1.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction in cylindrical
oordinates (r,), (3) Constant properties. c

ANALYSIS: The method of solution is to define the appropriate control volume for each node, to
dentify relevant processes and then to perform an energy balance. i
(a) Node 2. This is an interior node with control volume as shown above. The energy balance is
Using Fouriers law for each process, find
in a b c d
E q q q q

= + + + =

0.


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
5 2 3 2
i
i
i 2 1 2
i
i
T T T T
3
k r r k r
2 r r r
T T T T
1
k r r k r 0.
2 r r r




+ + +


+




+ + + =

+





Canceling terms and regrouping yields,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2
i 2 i 5 3 1 i i
2 2
i
i
r r 1 3 1
2 r r T r r T T T r r T 0.
r r 2 2
r r

+ + + + + + + + =
+
+








(b) Node 3. The adiabatic surface behaves as a symmetry surface. We can utilize the result of Part (a)
o write the finite-difference equation by inspection as t
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
2 2
i 3 i 6 2 i
2 2
i
i
r 2 r 1 3 1
2 r r T r r T T r r T
r r 2 2
r r

+ + + + + + + =
+
+






i
0.
.


(c) Node 1. The energy balance is
a b c d
q q q q 0

+ + + = Substituting,


( )
( )
( )
( )
4 1 2 1
i
i
T T T T
3
k r r k r
2 2 r r r



+ + +

+





( )
( )( )
i 1
i 1
T T
1
k r r h r T T 0
2 2 r


+ + + =




<

This expression could now be rearranged.
PROBLEM 4.41


K

NOWN: Two-dimensional grid for a system with no internal volumetric generation.
FIND: Expression for heat rate per unit length normal to page crossing the isothermal
oundary. b

SCHEMATIC:



ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional heat transfer, (3)
onstant properties. C

ANALYSIS: Identify the surface nodes (T
s
) and draw control volumes about these nodes.
Since there is no heat transfer in the direction parallel to the isothermal surfaces, the heat rate
ut of the constant temperature surface boundary is o


a b c d e f
q q q q q q q = + + + + +

For each use Fouriers law and pay particular attention to the manner in which the cross-
ectional area and gradients are specified.
i
q ,
s


( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 s 2 s 3 s
5 s 6 s 7 s
T T T T T T
q k y/2 k y k y
x x
T T T T T T
k x k x k x/2
y y

= + +


+ + +

x
y

]
d



R

egrouping with x =y, find
<
[
1 2 3 5 6 7 s
q k 0.5T T T T T 0.5T 5T . = + + + + +

COMMENTS: Looking at the corner node, it is important to recognize the areas associated
with (y and x, respectively).
c
q and q
PROBLEM 4.45


K

NOWN: Steady-state temperatures (K) at three nodes of a long rectangular bar.
FIND: (a) Temperatures at remaining nodes and (b) heat transfer per unit length from the bar using
nodal temperatures; compare with result calculated using knowledge of q.

SCHEMATIC:

A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, 2-D conduction, (2) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: (a) The finite-difference equations for the nodes (1,2,3,A,B,C) can be written by
inspection using Eq. 4.35 and recognizing that the adiabatic boundary can be represented by a
symmetry plane.
( )
2 7 3
2
2
neighbors i
5 10 W/m 0.005m
q x
T 4T q x / k 0 and 62.5K.
k 20 W/m K

+ = = =



Node A (to find T
2
):
2
2 B A
2T 2T 4T q x / k 0 + + =
( )
2
1
T 2 374.6 4 398.0 62.5 K 390.2K
2
= + = <
Node 3 (to find T
3
):
2
c 2 B 3
T T T 300K 4T q x / k 0 + + + + =
( )
3
1
T 348.5 390.2 374.6 300 62.5 K 369.0K
4
= + + + + = <
Node 1 (to find T
1
):
2
C 2 1
300 2T T 4T q x / k 0 + + + =
( )
1
1
T 300 2 348.5 390.2 62.5 362.4K
4
= + + + = <
(b) The heat rate out of the bar is determined by calculating the heat rate out of each control volume
around the 300 K nodes. Consider the node in the upper left-hand corner; from an energy balance

in out g a a,in g g
E E E 0 or q q E where E qV. + = = + =


Hence, for the entire bar
bar a b c d e f
q q q q q q q , = + + + + + or

bar
C 1
a b
C 3 B
d e
T 300 y T 300 x y x x y
q k q k y q y q
2 x 2 2 x 2 2 2
T 300 T 300 y y x T 300 x y
k x q x k x q x k q
y 2 y 2 2 y 2 2

= + + + + +


+ + + + +












f
.
c



Substituting numerical values, find
bar
q 7,502.5 W/m. = From an overall energy balance on the
bar,
( ) ( )
bar
2 7 3
g
q E qV/ q 3 x 2 y 5 10 W/m 6 0.005m 7,500 W/m. = = = = =

<
As expected, the results of the two methods agree. Why must that be?
PROBLEM 4.33

K

NOWN: Plane surface of two-dimensional system.
FIND: The finite-difference equation for nodal point on this boundary when (a) insulated; compare
esult with Eq. 4.42, and when (b) subjected to a constant heat flux. r
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Two-dimensional, steady-state conduction with no generation, (2) Constant
roperties, (3) Boundary is adiabatic. p
ANALYSIS: (a) Performing an energy balance on the control volume, (x/2)y, and using the
onduction rate equation, it follows that c
(1,2)
in out 1 2 3
E E 0 q q q 0 = + + =


( )
m-1,n m,n m,n-1 m,n m,n+1 m,n
T T T T T T
x x
k y 1 k 1 k 1 0
x 2 y 2 y


+ + =



.

(3)

Note that there is no heat rate across the control volume surface at the insulated boundary.
ecognizing that x =y, the above expression reduces to the form R
(4) <
m-1,n m,n-1 m,n+1 m,n
2T T T 4T 0. + + =

The Eq. 4.42 of Table 4.2 considers the same configuration but with the boundary subjected to a
onvection process. That is, c

( )
m-1,n m,n-1 m,n+1 m,n
2h x h x
2T T T T 2 2 T 0.
k k


+ + + + =


(5)

Note that, if the boundary is insulated, h =0 and Eq. 4.42 reduces to Eq. (4).
(b) If the surface is exposed to a constant heat flux,
o
q ,

the energy balance has the form


and the finite difference equation becomes
1 2 3 o
q q q q y

+ + + = 0


o
m-1,n m,n-1 m,n+1 m,n
2q x
2T T T 4T .
k

+ + = <

COMMENTS: Equation (4) can be obtained by using the interior node finite-difference equation,
q. 4.29, where the insulated boundary is treated as a symmetry plane as shown below. E


PROBLEM 4.44


KNOWN: Nodal temperatures from a steady-state, finite-difference analysis for a one-eighth
symmetrical section of a square channel.

FIND: (a) Beginning with properly defined control volumes, derive the finite-difference equations for
nodes 2, 4 and 7, and determine T
2
, T
4
and T
7
, and (b) Heat transfer loss per unit length from the channel,
. q

SCHEMATIC:



Node T(C)
1 430
3 394
6 492
8,9 600

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Two-dimensional conduction, (3) No internal
volumetric generation, (4) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: (a) Define control volumes about the nodes 2, 4, and 7, taking advantage of symmetry
where appropriate and performing energy balances,
in out
E E 0 =

, with x =y,

Node 2:
a b c d
q q q q + + + = 0
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 6 2 1 2
2
T T T T T T
h x T T k y 2 k x k y 2 0
x y x


+ + + =


( ) ( )
2 1 3 6
T 0.5T 0.5T T h x k T 2 h x k

= + + + +





( )
[ ]
2
2
T 0.5 430 0.5 394 492 50W m K 0.01m1W m K 300 K 2 0.50

= + + + +



<
2
T 422K =

Node 4:
a b c
q q q + + = 0
( )( ) ( )
3 4
4
T T
h x 2 T T 0 k y 2 0
x


+ +

=
( ) ( )
4 3
T T h x k T 1 h x k

= + +



[ ] [ ]
4
T 394 0.5 300 K 1 0.5 363K = + + = <
Continued...
PROBLEM 4.44 (Cont.)


Node 7: From the first schematic, recognizing that the diagonal is a symmetry adiabat, we can treat node
7 as an interior node, hence
( ) ( )
7 3 3 6 6
T 0.25 T T T T 0.25 394 394 492 492 K 443K = + + + = + + + = <

(b) The heat transfer loss from the upper surface can be expressed as the sum of the convection rates from
ach node as illustrated in the first schematic, e


cv 1 2 3 4
q q q q q = + + +

( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
cv 1 2 3 4
q h x 2 T T h x T T h x T T h x 2 T T

= + + +




( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
cv
q 50W m K 0.01m 430 300 2 422 300 394 300 363 300 2 K = + + +



cv
q 156W m = <

COMMENTS: (1) Always look for symmetry conditions which can greatly simplify the writing of the
nodal equation as was the case for Node 7.

(2) Consider using the IHT Tool, Finite-Difference Equations, for Steady-State, Two-Dimensional heat
transfer to determine the nodal temperatures T
1
- T
7
when only the boundary conditions T
8
, T
9
and (T

,h)
are specified.

PROBLEM 4.46


KNOWN: Steady-state temperatures at selected nodal points of the symmetrical section of a flow
channel with uniform internal volumetric generation of heat. Inner and outer surfaces of channel
xperience convection. e

FIND: (a) Temperatures at nodes 1, 4, 7, and 9, (b) Heat rate per unit length (W/m) from the outer
surface A to the adjacent fluid, (c) Heat rate per unit length (W/m) from the inner fluid to surface B,
nd (d) Verify that results are consistent with an overall energy balance. a

SCHEMATIC:


A

SSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, two-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: (a) The nodal finite-difference equations are obtained from energy balances on control
olumes about the nodes shown in the schematics below. v

N

ode 1

a b c d g
q q q q E + + + + =

0

( ) ( ) ( )
3 1 2 1
T T T T
0 k y/ 2 k x/ 2 0 q x y/ 4 0
x y

+ + + + =



( )
2
1 2 3
T T T / 2 q x / 4 = + + k
( ) ( ) ( )
6 3 6 2
1
T 95.47 117.3 C/ 2 10 W/ m 25 25 10 m / 4 10 W/ m K 122.0 C

= + + =


N

ode 4

a b c d e f g
q q q q q q E + + + + + + =

0
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 4
i ,i 4 i
T T
k x/ 2 h y/ 2 T T h x/ 2 T T
y

+ +

4
+
Continued ..
PROBLEM 4.46 (Cont.)


( ) ( ) ( )
5 4 8 4 3 4
T T T T T T
k y/ 2 k x k y
x y x


+ +

( ) q 3 x y/ 4 0 + =

( )
( )
2
4 2 3 5 8 i ,i
T T 2T T 2T 2 h x/ k T 3q x / 2k


= + + + + +

( )
i
6 2 h x/ k +



<
4
T = 94.50 C

N

ode 7

a b c d g
q q q q E + + + + =

0

( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
3 7 8 7
o ,o 7
T T T T
k x/ 2 k y/ 2 h x/ 2 T T 0 q x y/ 4 0
y x


+ + + +

=
)


( ) (
2
7 3 8 o ,o o
T T T h x/ k T q x / 2k 2 h x/ k


= + + + +




<
7
T 95.80 C =



Node 9

a b c d g
q q q q E + + + + =

0
( ) ( ) ( )( )
5 9 10 9
o ,o
T T T T
k x k y/ 2 h x T T
y y


+ +

9

( ) ( )
8 9
T T
k y/ 2 q x y/ 2 0
x

+ + =


( ) (
2
9 5 8 10 o ,o o
T T 0.5T 0.5T h x/ k T q x / 2k / 2 h x/ k


= + + + + +

)
<
9
T 79.67 C =
(b) The heat rate per unit length from the outer surface A to the adjacent fluid, is the sum of the
convection heat rates from the outer surfaces of nodes 7, 8, 9 and 10.
A
q ,

( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
A o 7 ,o 8 ,o 9 ,o 10 ,o
q h x/ 2 T T x T T x T T x/ 2 T T

= + + +

)

( )( ) (
2
A
q 250 W/ m K 25/ 2 95.80 25 25 87.28 25 = +

( ) ( )( )
3
25 79.67 25 25/ 2 77.65 25 10 m K

+ +


Continued ..
PROBLEM 4.46 (Cont.)

<
A
q 1117 W/ m =

(c) The heat rate per unit length from the inner fluid to the surface B,
B
q ,

is the sum of the convection


eat rates from the inner surfaces of nodes 2, 4, 5 and 6. h

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
B i ,i 2 ,i 4 ,i 5 ,i 6
q h y/ 2 T T y/ 2 x/ 2 T T x T T x/ 2 T T

= + + + +

)


( )( ) ( )(
2
B
q 500W/ m K 25/ 2 50 95.47 25/ 2 25/ 2 50 94.50 = + +



( ) ( )( )
3
25 50 79.79 25/ 2 50 77.29 10 m K

+ +



<
B
q 1383W/ m =

(d) From an overall energy balance on the section, we see that our results are consistent since the
onservation of energy requirement is satisfied. c


in out gen A B gen
E E E q q E ( 1117 1383 2500)W/ m 0 + = + + = + =


where
[ ]
6 3 6 2
gen
E q 10 W/ m 25 50 25 50 10 m 2500 W/ m

= = + =



COMMENTS: The nodal finite-difference equations for the four nodes can be obtained by using IHT
Tool Finite-Difference Equations | Two-Dimensional | Steady-state. Options are provided to build the
FDEs for interior, corner and surface nodal arrangements including convection and internal
generation. The IHT code lines for the FDEs are shown below.

/* Node 1: interior node; e, w, n, s labeled 2, 2, 3, 3. */
0.0 = fd_2d_int(T1,T2,T2,T3,T3,k,qdot,deltax,deltay)

/* Node 4: internal corner node, e-n orientation; e, w, n, s labeled 5, 3, 2, 8. */
0.0 = fd_2d_ic_en(T4,T5,T3,T2,T8,k,qdot,deltax,deltay,Tinfi,hi,qa4
qa4 = 0 // Applied heat flux, W/m^2; zero flux shown

/* Node 7: plane surface node, s-orientation; e, w, n labeled 8, 8, 3. */
0.0 = fd_2d_psur_s(T7,T8,T8,T3,k,qdot,deltax,deltay,Tinfo,ho,qa7
qa7=0 // Applied heat flux, W/m^2; zero flux shown

/* Node 9: plane surface node, s-orientation; e, w, n labeled 10, 8, 5. */
0.0 = fd_2d_psur_s(T9, T10, T8, T5,k,qdot,deltax,deltay,Tinfo,ho,qa9
qa9 = 0 // Applied heat flux, W/m^2; zero flux shown

PROBLEM 6.5
KNOWN: Variation of local convection coefficient with x for free convection from a
ertical heated plate. v

F

IND: Ratio of average to local convection coefficient.
SCHEMATIC:

A

NALYSIS: The average coefficient from 0 to x is

x x
0 0
-1/4
x x
3/4 -1/4
x x
1 C
h h dx x dx
x x
4 C 4 4
h x C x h
3 x 3 3
= =
= = =

.


Hence,
x
x
h 4
.
h 3
= <

The variations with distance of the local and average convection coefficients are shown in the
sketch.



COMMENTS: Note that h / h 4/3
x x
= is independent of x. Hence the average coefficient
for an entire plate of length L is
L
4
h h
3
=
L
, where h
L
is the local coefficient at x =L. Note
also that the average exceeds the local. Why?
Excerpts fromthis work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in
courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 6.8

KNOWN: Temperature distribution in boundary layer for air flow over a flat plate.

F

IND: Variation of local convection coefficient along the plate and value of average coefficient.
SCHEMATIC:

A

NALYSIS: From Eq. 6.5,

( )
( )
( )
y 0
s s
k T y
k 70 600x
h
T T T T

=

= = +



where T
s
=T(x,0) =90C. Evaluating k at the arithmetic mean of the freestream and surface
temperatures, T =(20 +90)C/2 =55C =328 K, Table A.4 yields k =0.0284 W/mK. Hence, with
T
s
- T =70C =70 K,



( )
( )
2
0.0284W m K 42,000x K m
h 1
70K

= = 7x W m K <

and the convection coefficient increases linearly with x.


The average coefficient over the range 0 x 5 m is


5
2
L 5
2
0 0
0
1 17 17x
h hdx xdx 42.5W m K
L 5 5 2
= = = =

<

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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 6.9

KNOWN: Variation of local convection coefficient with distance x from a heated plate with a
uniform temperature T
s
.

FIND: (a) An expression for the average coefficient
12
h for the section of length (x
2
- x
1
) in terms of
C, x
1
and x
2
, and (b) An expression for
12
h in terms of x
1
and x
2
, and the average coefficients
1
h and
2
h , corresponding to lengths x
1
and x
2
, respectively.

SCHEMATIC:

h
x
=Cx
-1/2
dq
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Laminar flow over a plate with uniform surface temperature, T
s
, and (2) Spatial
variation of local coefficient is of the form
1/2
x
h Cx

= , where C is a constant.

ANALYSIS: (a) The heat transfer rate per unit width from a longitudinal section, x
2
- x
1
, can be
expressed as
( )(
12 12 2 1 s
q h x x T T )

= (1)
where
12
h is the average coefficient for the section of length (x
2
- x
1
). The heat rate can also be
written in terms of the local coefficient, Eq. (6.11), as
(2) ( ) ( )
2
1 1
x x
12 x s s x
x
q h dx T T T T h

= =

2
x
dx

Combining Eq. (1) and (2),



( )
2
1
x
12 x
x
2 1
1
h
x x
=


h dx (3)
and substituting for the form of the local coefficient,
1/2
x
h Cx

= , find that

( )
2
2
1
1
x
1/2 1/2
1/2
x
1/2 2 1
12
x
2 1 2 1 2 1
x
x x
1 C x
h Cx dx 2C
x x x x 1/ 2 x x



= = =



(4)<
(b) The heat rate, given as Eq. (1), can also be expressed as
( ) ( )
12 2 2 s 1 1 s
q h x T T h x T T

=

(5)

which is the difference between the heat rate for the plate over the section (0 - x
2
) and over the section
(0 - x
1
). Combining Eqs. (1) and (5), find,

2 2 1 1
12
2 1
h x h x
h
x x

(6)<

COMMENTS: (1) Note that, from Eq. 6.6,

x x
1/2 1/ 2
x x
0 0
1 1
h h dx Cx dx 2Cx
x x

= = =

(7)

or
x
h =2h
x
. Substituting Eq. (7) into Eq. (6), see that the result is the same as Eq. (4).

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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 6.14

KNOWN: Air flow over a flat plate of known length, location of transition from laminar to
turbulent flow, value of the critical Reynolds number.

FIND: (a) Free stream velocity with properties evaluated at T =350 K, (b) Expression for the
average convection coefficient,
lam
h (x), as a function of the distance x from the leading edge in
the laminar region, (c) Expression for the average convection coefficient
turb
h (x), as a function
of the distance x from the leading edge in the turbulent region, (d) Compute and plot the local and
average convection coefficients over the entire plate length.

SCHEMATIC:
T

, u

h
lam
=C
lam
x
-0.5
h
turb
=C
turb
x
-0.2
Turbulent Laminar x
x
c
T

, u

h
lam
=C
lam
x
-0.5
h
turb
=C
turb
x
-0.2
Turbulent Laminar x
x
c


ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties.

PROPERTIES: Table A.4, air (T =350 K): k =0.030 W/mK, =20.92 10
-6
m
2
/s, Pr =0.700.

ANALYSIS:
(a) Using air properties evaluated at 350 K with x
c
=0.5 m,
5 c
x,c
u x
Re 5 10

= =
5 5 6
c
2
u 5 10 x 5 10 20.92 10 m / s 0.5m 20.9ms

= = = <
(b) From Eq. 6.13, the average coefficient in the laminar region, 0 x x
c
, is

( ) ( )
lam lam
x x
-0.5 0.5
C C
lam lam lam lam
0 o
1 1 1
-0.5
h x = h x dx = x dx = x 2C 2
x x x
= x h (x) =

(1) <

(c) The average coefficient in the turbulent region, x
c
x L, is
( ) ( ) ( )
c
c
c
c
x x
0.5 0.8
x x
turb lam turb lam turb
0 x
0 x
1 x
h x h x dx h x dx C C
x 0.
= + = +
x
5 0.8










Continued

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United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

PROBLEM 6.14 (Cont.)


( )
( )
0.5 0.8 0.8
turb lam c turb c
1
h x 2C x 1.25C x x
x
= +

(2) <

(d) The local and average coefficients, Eqs. (1) and (2) are plotted below as a function of x for the
range 0 x L.

0 0.5 1
Distance from leading edge, x (m)
0
50
100
150
C
o
n
v
e
c
t
i
o
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

(
W
/
m
^
2
.
K
)
Local - laminar, x <=xc
Local - turbulent, x =>xc
Average - laminar, x <=xc
Average - turbulent, x =>xc








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courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
PROBLEM 6.16
KNOWN: Transition Reynolds number. Velocity and temperature of atmospheric air,
ngine oil, and mercury flow over a flat plate. e

F

IND: Distance from leading edge at which transition occurs for each fluid.
SCHEMATIC:

T = 27C or
77C

ASSUMPTIONS: Transition Reynolds number is Re .
x,c
= 5 10
5

P

ROPERTIES: For the fluids at T =300 K and 350 K:
(m
2
/s)
Fluid Table T =300 K T =350 K
Air (1 atm) A-4 15.89 10
-6
20.92 10
-6
Engine Oil A-5 550 10
-6
41.7 10
-6
Mercury A-5 0.1125 10
-6
0.0976 10
-6

A

NALYSIS: The point of transition is

5
c x,c
5 10
x Re
u 1 m/s


= =

S

ubstituting appropriate viscosities, find
x
c
(m)
Fluid T =300 K T =350 K <
Air 7.95 10.5
Oil 275 20.9
Mercury 0.056 0.049



COMMENTS: (1) Note the great disparity in transition length for the different fluids. Due
to the effect which viscous forces have on attenuating the instabilities which bring about
transition, the distance required to achieve transition increases with increasing . (2) Note the
temperature-dependence of the transition length, in particular for engine oil. (3) As shown in
Example 6.4, the variation of the transition location can have a significant effect on the
average heat transfer coefficient associated with convection to or from the plate.

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