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Define motivation. Critically evaluate contribution of Mc Gregor to motivation.

Motivation can be understood as a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way,
In the context of a business, motivation can be said to be about...the will to work
The term motivation has been derived from the word motive which means anything that initiates or
sustains activity.
Fank Hawkins (1993: 132-133) defines it as what drives or induces a person to behave in a particular
fashion, the internal force which initiates, directs, sustains and terminates all important activities. It
influences the level of performance, the efficiency achieved and the time spent on an activity. All of
the definitions refer to stimuli that trigger the motivational process.

Motivational Process

Contribution of Mc Gregor to Motivation -
The eminent psychologist Douglas McGregor has given his theory of motivation called Theory
X and Theory Y. He treated traditional approach to management as 'Theory X' and the professional
approach to management as 'Theory Y'. His theory refers to two sets of employees based on the
perception of human nature. Here, theory X and theory Y are two sets of assumptions about the nature
of employees. His theory is based on human behavior.
Theory X -
Theory X is based on traditional assumptions about people (employees). Here, the conventional
approach of management is used as a base. It suggests the following assumptions about human nature:
Assumptions of Theory X -
1. The average human being is inherently lazy by nature and desires to work as little as possible.
He dislikes the work and will like to avoid it, if he can.
2. He avoids accepting responsibility and prefers to be led or directed by some other.
3. He is self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs.
Action Tension
4. He has little ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led but wants security.
5. He is not very intelligent and lacks creativity in solving organizational problems.
6. He by nature resists to change of any type.
In the case of such employees, self-motivation is just not possible. They will work only when there is
constant supervision on them. A manager has to persuade, punish or reward such workers in order to
achieve organizational goals.
Theory Y -
Theory Y is based on modern or progressive or professional approach. Here, the assumptions about
people i.e. employees are quite different.

Assumptions of Theory Y-
1. Work is as natural as play, provided the work environment is favorable. Work may act as a
source of satisfaction or punishment. An average man is not really against doing work.
2. People can be self-directed and creative at work if they are motivated properly.
3. Self-control on the part of people is useful for achieving organizational goal. External control and
threats of punishment alone do not bring out efforts towards organizational objectives.
4. People have capacity to exercise imagination and creativity.
5. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a
result of experience in organizations.
6. An average human being learns under proper conditions. He is also willing to accept
7. The intellectual capacity of an average human being is utilized partially under the conditions of
modern industrial life.

Conclusion -
The assumptions in Theory X and Theory Y are fundamentally distinct. Theory X is static, rigid,
conservative and pessimistic. Theory Y is optimistic, dynamic, flexible and progressive. It suggests self
direction and the integration of individual needs with organizational needs. On the other hand, more
importance is given to external control imposed by the superior on the subordinate in the Theory X.

Define Values. Critically evaluate Allport-Vernon classification of values. How values affect the
business processes.
Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is
personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
(Rokeach, 1973). When the values are ranked in terms of their intensity, i.e., when the value are
prioritized in terms of their intensity, it is called value system. Types of values include ethical/moral
values, doctrinal/ideological (political, religious) values, social values, and aesthetic values.
Values have both content and intensity attributes. The content attribute signifies that a mode of
conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is.
Ranking an individuals values in terms of their intensity equals that persons value system.A significant
portion of the values an individual holds is established in the early yearsfrom parents, teachers,
friends, and others.
Milton Rokeach, a noted psychologist, has defined values as global beliefs that guide actions and
judgments across a variety of situations. He further said Values represent basic convictions that a
specific mode of conduct (or end-state of existence) is personally or socially preferable to an opposite
mode of conduct (or end-state of existence).

Allport-Vernon classification of values

Gordon Allport, a student of American philosopher and psychologist Eduard Spranger, believed that an
individuals philosophy is founded upon the values or basic convictions that he holds about what is and
is not important in life. Based on Sprangers (1928) view that understanding the individuals value
philosophy best captures the essence of a person, Allport and his colleagues, Vernon and Lindzey,
created the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. The values scale outlined six major value types
As follows:
1. Theoretical: Interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking.
2. Economic: Interest in usefulness and practicality, including the accumulation of wealth.
3. Aesthetic: Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony.
4. Social: Interest in people and human relationships.
5. Political: Interest in gaining power and influencing other people.
6. Religious: Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole.
The Allport-Vernon Study of Values, however, has one possible weakness. They measure the relative
importance of these values to the individual, rather than the absolute importance of each value. A
high preference for certain values must always be at the expense of the other values. By 1980, the
values scale had fallen into disuse due to its archaic content, lack of religious inclusiveness, and dated
How values affect business process
Organizations are nothing but human beings working together to achieve a common goal. To achieve
these organisation goal every organisation establishes its own set of organizational values . Without
such values, individuals will pursue behaviours that are in line with their own individual value systems,
which may lead to behaviours that the organization doesnt wish to encourage. Organizational values
define the acceptable standards which govern the behaviour of individuals within the organization.
Clearly, the organizations values must be in line with its purpose or mission, and the vision that it is
trying to achieve.
Corporate values articulate what guides an organizations behavior and decision making. They can boost
innovation, productivity, and credibility, and help deliver thereby sustainable competitive advantage.


Q.1.) Define learning. Compare and contrast conditioned and instrumental learning. Give an example of
how a particular behavior is learned and modified in organization.

Ans: Learning is defined as a behavior change in a specific situation produced by repeated experiences
of situation. E.R Hilgard has defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as
a result of prior experience.

To quote McGehel,Learning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts and responds as a
result of experience in a manner different from the way he formerly behaved.

It is accompanied by acquisition of knowledge and skills which are relatively permanent. Temporary
changes may be only reflexive and fail to represent any learning.

Classical conditioning is defined as process in which a formerly neutral stimulus when paired with an
unconditioned stimulus, become a conditioned stimulus that elicit a conditioned response. In other
words the S-R connection is learned.

Operant conditioning (instrumental learning) is concerned with learning that occurs as a consequence
of behavior, or R-S.

Classical conditioning Operant conditioning (Instrumental
Change in stimulus(unconditioned stimulus to
conditioned stimulus) will elicit a particular
One particular response out of many possible
ones occur in a given stimulus situation.
Stimulus situation serves as a cue to emit the
Strength and frequency of classically
conditioned behaviors are determined by
frequency of eliciting stimulus (the
environmental event that precedes the
Strength and frequency of Operant
conditioned behavior are determined by
consequences ( the environment behavior
that follows the behavior)
Unconditioned stimulus serving as a reward is
present every time
The reward is presented only if organism
gives correct response

Instrumental learning has much greater impact on human learning than classical learning. E.g. it is said
that employees work 8 hours/day, 5 days a week in order to feed, clothe and shelter themselves and
their families.
Conditioned response is instrumental in obtaining the food, clothing and shelter. The consequences of
organizational behavior can change the environmental situation and greatly influence subsequent
employee behaviors.

Managers can analyze the consequences of organizational behavior to help accomplish the goals of
prediction and control.

Analysis of absenteeism behavior:
Illness/accident Getting up late Discipline programs
Hangover Sleeping Verbal Reprimands
Lack of transportation Staying home Written Reprimands
Traffic Drinking Pay docks
No day care facilities Fishing/hunting Lay offs
Family problems Working at home Dismissals
Company policies Visiting Social consequence from
Group/personal norms Caring for sick child
Seniority/age Escape & avoidance at

Q.4) Define Communication. What are the barriers of communication?

Ans: Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.
Communication is commonly defined as the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or
information by speech, writing, or signs. Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed
in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver
then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a
sender, a message, and an intended recipient; however the receiver need not be present or aware of
the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication
to occur. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal
means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, i.e.,
pictures, graphics and sound, and writing.

The process involves:
Sender Message Visual/oral/written Recipient

Barriers of Communication
I) Physical barriers:
A) The competing stimulus- e.g. loud music, traffic noise, crows cawing.
B) Environmental stress- High temperature and humidity, Poor ventilation, strong glare.
C) Subjective stress- Sleeplessness, ill health, mood variations.
D) Ignorance of the medium- Use of medium with which the receiver is not familiar would turn the
medium itself into barrier e.g. oral, written, audio, visual, audio-visual etc.

II) Limitations of Senders capacity- Sender is often unable to put across his message in a language and
form understandable to receiver because of wrong medium or uses medium in a confusing manner.
Limitations of receivers capacity- It depends on his span of attention, his intelligence level, his
understanding level of the subject and his memory.

III) Psychological barriers- A frame of reference consisting of standards and values are formed by our
childhood experiences, heredity and environment. We tend to listen attentively and interpret those
messages which give a boost to our self image and reject or misinterpret which threaten our image. This
is communication selectivity.
Barrier of allness It is the attitude of people with closed minds. They assume they know everything
about a subject and are not prepared to believe that they can be mistaken.
Either/Or Orientation- We interpret messages in extremely negative or positive ways, wrong or right,
black or white terms.
Snap reactions- The listener responds speedily to the communicators message pronouncing it favorable
or unfavorable even before communication is complete.
Tendency to evaluate- Premature evaluation and judging tendency is a serious barrier.
Resistances to change- New ideas that do not support our own views are resisted outright.
Defensiveness-Even if we are convinced we are wrong we refuse to admit it.
Fear- Emotions of nervousness, anxiety and tension is most constricting resulting in tunnel vision.

IV) Linguistic & cultural barriers-Senders success is determined in the way in which he handles written
and spoken words. Words are Symbols. Language is ambiguous.

V) Mechanical barriers-
These are raised by channels employed for interpersonal group or mass communication. E.g. wrong
placement of speakers, smeared ink in news paper, too small font size in magazine.

Other barriers are Personal expertise, Rules and Regulation Arrogance, Timing, Respect and