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!ISIOIT.
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I!!CI W. IAII!
KIC & SIA!IC !!I
ll80 Ionchfroo Sfroof, I
AfInnfn, CA 30309

!OII!T A. VA IST
STIVI A. HI!SCH
CH!ISTA M. AI!SO
MICHAI! S. KW!
A JACKSO
KIKI! & VA IST !!I
633 Inffory Sfroof
Snn IrnncIsco, CA 94lll
A!Y! !. JOSIIII!
Couneel of IecorJ
ASH!IY C. IA!!ISH
AAM M. CO!A
ITHA I. AVIS
KIC & SIA!IC !!I
l?00 IonnsyIvnnIn Avo., W
WnshIngfon, C 20006
(202) ?3?-0500
djosofforksInw.com
!IY HWAC
COOC!I IC.
l600 AmhIfhonfro Inrkwny
MounfnIn VIow, CA 94043
Couneel for Pe/i/ioner
Ocfobor 6, 20l4

I

?0:2;<#= %>:2:=;:@
Congross socIfIod fhnf original works of
authorship nro gonornIIy oIIgIbIo for coyrIghf
rofocfIon, l? !.S.C. l02(n), buf [i]n no cnso doos
coyrIghf rofocfIon for nn orIgInnI work of
nufhorshI oxfond fo nny Idon, rocoduro, rocoss,
sysfom, mofhod of oornfIon, concof, rIncIIo, or
dIscovory, rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
doscrIbod, oxInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such
work. 1J. l02(b).
In fhIs cnso, fho IodornI CIrcuIf hoId fhnf
SocfIon l02(b) doos no/ oxcIudo sysfoms or mofhods
of oornfIon from coyrIghf rofocfIon nnd fhnf nII
oIomonfs of nn orIgInnI work nro entIfIod fo
coyrIghf rofocfIon ns Iong ns fho nufhor hnd
muIfIIo wnys fo oxross fho undorIyIng idea. A.
4?.
Tho quosfIon Is:
Whofhor coyrIghf rofocfIon oxfonds fo nII
oIomonfs of nn orIgInnI work of comufor soffwnro,
IncIudIng n sysfom or mofhod of oornfIon, fhnf nn
nufhor couId hnvo wrIffon In moro fhnn ono wny.

II

%5>;<:2 ;# ;A: %>#.::@<=B
5=@ >0C: DEFG 2;5;:H:=;
IofIfIonor In fhIs Courf, dofondnnf-cross
noIInnf boIow, Is CoogIo Inc. !osondonf In fhIs
Courf, InInfIff-noIInnf boIow, Is OrncIo AmorIcn,
Inc.
CoogIo Inc. Is n ubIIcIy frndod comnny
(ASAQ: COOC nnd COOC!). o ubIIcIy hoId
comnny owns l0 orconf or moro of CoogIo Inc.s
sfock.



III

!"#$% '( )'*!%*!+
Q!ISTIO I!ISITI ........................................... I
IA!TIIS TO THI I!OCIIIC
A !!!I 29.6 STATIMIT ........................... II
TAI!I OI A!THO!ITIIS ...................................... vII
IITITIO IO! A W!IT OI CI!TIO!A!I .............. l
OIIIOS II!OW .................................................... 4
J!!ISICTIO .......................................................... 4
STAT!TO!Y I!OVISIO IVO!VI .................... 4
STATIMIT OI THI CASI .................................... 5
A. Jnvn nnd AndroId .......................................... 5
I. Tho IsfrIcf Courf IrocoodIngs .................... 8
C. Tho Courf of AonIs IrocoodIngs .............. l0
!IASOS IO! C!ATIC THI IITITIO ........ l3
I. Tho Courfs Of AonIs Aro In Isnrrny
Abouf Tho AIIcnfIon Of SocfIon l02(b) To
Soffwnro. ............................................................. l3
II. Tho IodornI CIrcuIfs ocIsIon !uns AfouI Of
Tho Sfnfufo, ThIs Courfs ConfroIIIng
Irocodonfs, And Tho IsfIncfIon Iofwoon
Infonf And CoyrIghf. ....................................... 20
A. Tho sfnfufo codIfIos fhIs Courfs
oxcIusIon of sysfoms nnd mofhods of
oornfIon from coyrIghf rofocfIon. .......... 20
I. Sysfoms nnd mofhods of oornfIon nro
govornod by nfonf, nof coyrIghf, Inw. ..... 23
Iv

C. Tho Jnvn mofhod hondors nro n sysfom
or mofhod of oornfIon. ............................... 29
III. ThIs Cnso Irosonfs n !ocurrIng QuosfIon of
IxcofIonnI Imorfnnco. .................................... 32
COC!!SIO .......................................................... 3?
AIIIIX
AondIx A
OInIon of fho !nIfod Sfnfos Courf
of AonIs for fho IodornI CIrcuIf
(Mny 9, 20l4) .............................................. A-l
AondIx I
Ordor InrfInIIy CrnnfIng nnd
Partially Denying Defendants
MofIon for Summnry Judgmonf on
CoyrIghf CInIm of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
IsfrIcf Courf for fho orfhorn
IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Sof. l5, 20ll) ...... A-?9
AondIx C
Ordor on MofIons for Judgmonf ns n
Mnffor of !nw of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
IsfrIcf Courf for fho orfhorn
IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Mny l0, 20l2) ....... A-99
v

AondIx
Ordor !ognrdIng CoyrIghfnbIIIfy of
CorfnIn !oIIcnfod IIomonfs of fho
Jnvn AIIcnfIon IrogrnmmIng
Inforfnco of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
IsfrIcf Courf for fho orfhorn
IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Mny 3l, 20l2) ..... A-l00
AondIx I
IIndIngs of Incf nnd ConcIusIons of
!nw on IquIfnbIo ofonsos of fho
!nIfod Sfnfos IsfrIcf Courf for fho
orfhorn IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Mny
3l, 20l2) .................................................. A-l65
AondIx I
IInnI Judgmonf of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
IsfrIcf Courf for fho orfhorn
IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Juno 20, 20l2) .... A-l69
AondIx C
Ordor onyIng MofIon for Judgmonf
ns n Mnffor of !nw nnd ow TrInI of
fho !nIfod Sfnfos IsfrIcf Courf for
fho orfhorn IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn
(JuIy l3, 20l2) ........................................ A-l?2
AondIx H
Ordor onyIng MofIon for Judgmonf
ns n Mnffor of !nw nnd ow TrInI of
fho !nIfod Sfnfos IsfrIcf Courf for
fho orfhorn IsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn
(Sof. 4, 20l2) ......................................... A-l?3
vI

AondIx I
l? !.S.C. l0l ....................................... A-l?4
l? !.S.C. l02 ....................................... A-l88

vII

;5IC: #8 50;A#><;<:2
.,3&3
Alice Corp. P/,. L/J. t. CLS Bon/ Intl,
l34 S. Cf. 234? (20l4) ............................ 25, 2?, 28
An. BrooJ. Coe. t. Aereo, 1nc.,
l34 S. Cf. 2498 (20l4) ........................................ 3?
Apple Conpu/er, 1nc. t.
Iron/lin Conpu/er Corp.,
?l4 I.2d l240 (3d CIr. l983) ........................ l?, l8
Assn for Moleculor Po/lolog, t.
M,rioJ Gene/ice, 1nc.,
l33 S. Cf. 2l0? (20l3) ........................................ 28
ATC Die/riIu/ion Grp., 1nc. t. Wlo/eter 1/ To/ee
Tronenieeione & Por/e, 1nc.,
402 I.3d ?00 (6fh CIr. 2005) .............................. l6
Bo/er t. SelJen,
l0l (ll Offo) !.S. 99 (l880) ....................... nssIm
Bile/i t. Koppoe,
l30 S. Cf. 32l8 (20l0) ........................................ 28
Brief 1ngliel S,e., 1nc. t. Ouen,
48 I.2d 555 (2d CIr. l93l) ............................ 29, 30
Conpu/er Aeeoce. Intl 1nc. t. Al/oi, 1nc.,
982 I.2d 693 (2d CIr. l992) .................... l4, l?, l8
Engg D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol Sof/uore, 1nc.,
26 I.3d l335 (5fh CIr. l994) .............................. l?
Engg D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol Sof/uore, 1nc.,
46 I.3d 408 (5fh CIr. l995) ................................ l?
Ieie/ Publns, 1nc. t. Iurol Tel. Sert. Co.,
499 !.S. 340 (l99l) ......................... l0, 2l, 22, 26
vIII

Go/ee IuIIer Co. t. BonJo Clen. 1nJue.,
9 I.3d 823 (l0fh CIr. l993) ................................ l?
Kregoe t. Aeeocio/eJ Preee,
93? I.2d ?00 (2d CIr. l99l) ................................ l9
KSI Intl Co. t. Teleflex 1nc.,
550 !.S. 398 (200?) ............................................ 25
Lexnor/ Intl, 1nc. t.
S/o/ic Con/rol Conponen/e, 1nc.,
38? I.3d 522 (6fh CIr. 2004) .................. l5, l6, l9
Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Intl, 1nc.,
49 I.3d 80? (lsf CIr. l995) ......................... nssIm
Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Intl, 1nc.,
5l6 !.S. 233 (l996) .............................................. l
Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Intl, 1nc.,
83l I. Su. 223 (. Mnss. l993) ...................... 29
Mo//leu BenJer & Co. t. Wee/ Publg Co.,
l58 I.3d 6?4 (2d CIr. l998) ................................ l9
Mo,o ColloIoro/ite Serte. t.
Prone/leue LoIe., 1nc.,
l32 S. Cf. l289 (20l2) .................................. 25, 28
Milner t. Dept of Aot,,
l3l S. Cf. l259 (20ll) ........................................ 22
Mi/el, 1nc. t. 1q/el, 1nc.,
l24 I.3d l366 (l0fh CIr. l99?) .................... l4, l8
Aor/l Cooe/ 1nJue. t. Joeon Moxuell, 1nc.,
9?2 I.2d l03l (9fh CIr. l992) ............................ l9
PuIlico/ione Intl, L/J. t. MereJi/l Corp.,
88 I.3d 4?3 (?fh CIr. l996 ................................. l9
Ix

Ieeeorcl Corp. Tecle., 1nc. t. Microeof/ Corp.,
62? I.3d 859 (Iod. CIr. 20l0) ............................. 2?
SAS 1ne/i/u/e 1nc. t. WorlJ Progronning L/J.
Cnso C-406/l0,
20l2 I.C.!.I 259, |20l2] 3 C.M.!.!. 4 ............... 36
Wlelon Aeeoce., 1nc. t. Joelou Den/ol LoI., 1nc.,
?9? I.2d l222 (3d CIr. l986) ........................ l4, l6
Yon/ee ConJle Co. t. BriJgeuo/er ConJle Co.,
259 I.3d 25 (lsf CIr. 200l) ................................. l9
2','4'&3
l? !.S.C. l0l .......................................................... 2?
l? !.S.C. l02 .................................................. nssIm
l? !.S.C. l0? .......................................................... 28
l? !.S.C. 302 .......................................................... 26
l? !.S.C. l20l ........................................................ 35
28 !.S.C. l254 .......................................................... 4
35 !.S.C. l0l .......................................................... 25
35 !.S.C. l02 .......................................................... 25
35 !.S.C. l03 .......................................................... 25
#'/&+ 54'/)+('(&3
Amnzon Wob SorvIcos,
AWS ProJuc/e & Solu/ione (20l4) ..................... 34
Ir. of Anici Curioe !ncksnco !S, Inc. e/ ol.,
Orocle An., 1nc. t. Google 1nc.,
kf. o. ll6, os. l3-l02l, e/ ol.
(Iod. CIr. Mny 30, 20l3) ..................................... 34
x

CouncII of MInIsfors IrocfIvo 9l/250/IIC of l4 Mny
l99l on fho !ognI IrofocfIon of Comufor
Irogrnms, l99l O.J. (! l22) .............................. 35
Iorguson, ChnrIos H. & MorrIs, ChnrIos !.,
Conpu/er Wore. Tle Poe/-1BM WorlJ (l994) .... 33
H.!. !II. O. 94-l4?6 (l9?6) .................................... 22
InfornnfIonnI nfn CorornfIon,
WorIdwIdo Smnrfhono OS Mnrkof Shnro
(20l4) .................................................................... ?
Knno, TIm,
IwIng MnrIon Knuffmnn IoundnfIon,
Tle 1npor/once of S/or/upe in JoI Creo/ion
onJ JoI Dee/ruc/ion (20l0) ................................ 36
!Indborg, Vnn,
Tle Cop,rigl/oIili/, Of AP1e 1n Tle
LonJ Of OpenS/oc/ (20l4) ................................. 33
OrncIo Cor.,
Irequen/l, Ae/eJ Quee/ione, Orocle Linux
(20l4) .................................................................. 33
S. !II. O. 94-4?3 (l9?5) .......................................... 22
Vnughnn-IchoIs, Sfovon J.,
OpenS/oc/ te. ClouJS/oc/. Tle Beginning
of /le Open-Source ClouJ Wore, Zof
(Ar. l2, 20l2) .................................................... 34
WIIcox, Joo,
Will OS Xs Inix Ioo/e Help Apple Grou:,
CIT.com (Mny 2l, 200l) ................................. 33
WInoHQ,
AIou/ Wine .......................................................... 35
l


%:;<;<#= 8#> 5 -><; #8 .:>;<#>5><
In l995, fhIs Courf grnnfod corfIornrI In Lo/ue
Detelopnen/ Corp. t. BorlonJ 1n/erno/ionol, 1nc., 5l6
!.S. 233 (l996), fo rosoIvo fho quosfIon rosonfod
horo. Tho IIrsf CIrcuIf hnd heldconsistent wIfh fho
InIn Inngungo of l? !.S.C. l02(b) buf In confIIcf
wIfh ofhor courfs of appealsfhnf mofhods of
oornfIon ombodIod In comufor rogrnms nro nof
onfIfIod fo coyrIghf rofocfIon. ThIs Courf
dondIockod, nffIrmIng by nn oqunIIy dIvIdod courf.
Two docndos Infor, fhIs off-ncknowIodgod cIrcuIf sIIf
hns dooonod nnd fho quosfIon rosonfod hns grown
ovon moro Imorfnnf ns soffwnro hns bocomo n
fIxfuro of modorn IIfo.
ThIs cnso dIrocfIy ImIIcnfos fho unnnsworod
quosfIon In Lo/ue bocnuso fho IodornI CIrcuIf
oxfondod coyrIghf rofocfIon fo sysfoms nnd
mofhods of oornfIon, IncIudIng comufor Inforfncos.
Thnf hoIdIng wouId obsfrucf nn onormous nmounf of
InnovnfIon In fnsf-movIng, hIgh-fochnoIogy
IndusfrIos, In nrf bocnuso InnovnfIon doonds on
soffwnro developers nbIIIfy fo buIId on whnf hns
como boforo. If fho IodornI Circuits hoIdIng hnd
boon fho Inw nf fho IncofIon of fho Infornof ngo,
onrIy comufor comnnIos couId hnvo bIockod vnsf
nmounfs of fochnoIogIcnI dovoIomonf by cInImIng
95-yonr coyrIghf monooIIos ovor fho bnsIc buIIdIng
bIocks of comufor dosIgn nnd rogrnmmIng. Iy fho
fImo CoogIo nnd counfIoss ofhor Innovnfors ovon
cnmo onfo fho scono, ofhors couId hnvo Iockod u fho
fIoId for Iongor fhnn mosf ooIo wIII IIvo.
ConsIdor, for oxnmIo, fho woII-known koybonrd
dosIgn known ns QWI!TY. Affor !omIngfon
2

dovoIood fhnf orgnnIznfIon of Ioffors nnd symboIs
docndos ngo, If bocnmo sfnndnrd for fyowrIfors nnd,
Infor, for comufor koybonrds. IooIo Invosfod fImo
nnd offorf In IonrnIng fho QWI!TY dosIgn, nnd fhon
oxocfod nII koybonrds fo uso If. !nfor, comnnIos
IIko IIM nnd AIo nddod fhoIr own nddIfIonnI koys
fo fho orIgInnI QWI!TY Inyouf. If !omIngfon hnd
broughf n coyrIghf InfrIngomonf InwsuIf ngnInsf n
koybonrd mnnufncfuror for coyIng fho QWI!TY
Inyouf, If wouId hnvo fnIIod. Thnf dosIgn wns
orIgInnI nnd cronfIvo, buf !omIngfon wns nof onfIfIod
fo nrorInfo fho Invosfmonfs mndo by ofhors In
IonrnIng how fo uso If. OfhorwIso, !omIngfon couId
hnvo monooIIzod nof onIy fho snIo of Ifs nfonfod
fyowrIfors for fho Iongfh of n nfonf form, buf nIso
fho snIo of nII koybonrds for nonrIy n confury.
ThIs cnso rnIsos fho snmo bnsIc Issuo. IndIvIdunI
comufor rogrnmmors nnd fhIrd-nrfy comnnIos
dovoIo nIIcnfIons (fho ubIquIfous apps) for
mobIIo dovIcos, such ns smnrfhonos, fhnf uso fho
AndroId Infform. Iocnuso mnny comufor
rogrnmmors nro fnmIIInr wIfh fho Jnvn
rogrnmmIng Inngungo, CoogIo nIIowod rogrnmmors
fo wrIfo rogrnms for AndroId usIng If, IncIudIng fho
bnsIc shorfhnnd commnnds of fho Jnvn Inngungo. As
roIovnnf horo, n orson wrIfIng nn AndroId
nIIcnfIon In fho Jnvn Inngungo mny uso shorfhnnd
commnnds fo cnuso n comufor fo orform corfnIn
funcfIons, such ns choosIng fho Inrgor of fwo
numbors. Irogrnmmors hnvo mndo sIgnIfIcnnf
Invosfmonfs In IonrnIng fhoso commnnds; fhoy nro, In
offocf, fho bnsIc vocnbuInry words of fho Jnvn
Inngungo. Whon rogrnmmors sIf down fo wrIfo
nIIcnfIons, fhoy oxocf fo bo nbIo fo uso fhom.
3

Tho IodornI CIrcuIf nonofhoIoss hoId fhnf,
nIfhough fho Jnvn Inngungo Is concododIy nof
onfIfIod fo coyrIghf rofocfIon, fho oIomonfs of fho
Jnvn Infform fhnf onnbIo fho uso of fho shorfhnnd
commnnds nro coyrIghfnbIo. Tho courf bnsod fhnf
concIusIon on Ifs vIow fhnf l? !.S.C. l02(b) doos
no/ oxcIudo sysfoms nnd mofhods of oornfIon from
coyrIghf protectioneven fhough fho sfnfufo
unnmbIguousIy doos oxncfIy fhnf:
In no cnso doos coyrIghf rofocfIon for nn
orIgInnI work of nufhorshI oxfond fo nny
Idon, rocoduro, rocoss, sysfom, mofhod of
oornfIon, concof, rIncIIo, or dIscovory,
rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
doscrIbod, oxInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or
ombodIod In such work.
l? !.S.C. l02(b).
Iy roIncIng fhnf sfnfufory dIrocfIvo wIfh n
dIfforonf onethat coyrIghf rofocfIon Joee oxfond
fo n sysfom or mofhod of oornfIon so Iong ns fhoro
wns moro fhnn ono wny fo wrIfo itthe IodornI
CIrcuIf usurod Congresss roIo, dooonod n cIrcuIf
sIIf fhnf fhIs Courf rovIousIy grnnfod corfIornrI fo
rosoIvo, nIIowod OrncIo fo uso coyrIghf Inw fo ovndo
fho IImIfs on nfonf rofocfIon, nnd fhoroby bIockod
dovoIoors from buIIdIng on whnf hns como boforo.
Tho courf dId so, moroovor, In ono of fho mosf
Imorfnnf cnsos of Ifs kInd, concornIng fho wIdoIy-
usod Jnvn Inngungo nnd AndroId Infform. ThIs
Courts rovIow Is noodod now, boforo tomorrows
InnovnfIon fnIIs vIcfIm fo fho docIsIon boIow.
4

#%<=<#=2 I:C#-
Tho oInIon of fho courf of nonIs Is roorfod nf
?50 I.3d l339 nnd roroducod nf A. l. Tho dIsfrIcf
courts oInIon Is ubIIshod nf 8?2 I. Su. 2d 9?4
nnd roroducod nf A. l00.
J0><2@<.;<#=
Tho courf of nonIs rondorod Ifs docIsIon on
Mny 8, 20l4. On JuIy l0, 20l4, fho ChIof JusfIco
oxfondod fho fImo for fIIIng n ofIfIon fo nnd
IncIudIng Ocfobor 6, 20l4. ThIs Courf hns
jurIsdIcfIon undor 28 !.S.C. l254(l).
2;5;0;#>K %>#L<2<#= <=L#CL:@
SocfIon l02 of fho CoyrIghf Acf rovIdos:
(n) CoyrIghf rofocfIon subsIsfs, In
nccordnnco wIfh fhIs fIfIo, In orIgInnI works
of nufhorshI fIxod In nny fnngIbIo modIum
of oxrossIon, now known or Infor dovoIood,
from whIch fhoy cnn bo orcoIvod,
roroducod, or ofhorwIso communIcnfod,
oIfhor dIrocfIy or wIfh fho nId of n mnchIno
or dovIco. . . .
. . . .
(b) In no cnso doos coyrIghf rofocfIon
for nn orIgInnI work of nufhorshI oxfond fo
nny Idon, rocoduro, rocoss, sysfom, mofhod
of oornfIon, concof, rIncIIo, or dIscovory,
rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
doscrIbod, oxInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or
ombodIod In such work.
l? !.S.C. l02.
5

2;5;:H:=; #8 ;A: .52:
5F J,M, ,$1 5$1+)(1
l. Sun MIcrosysfoms roIonsod fho Jnvn
rogrnmmIng Inngungo nnd soffwnro Infform In
l996. Iy mnkIng fho Jnvn Inngungo froo for nII fo
uso, Sun soughf fo build fho bIggosf fonf nnd InvIfo
ns mnny ooIo ns possible. C.A. A. 22l4l.
As fho dIsfrIcf courf oxInInod, fho Jnvn
Inngungo Is mndo u of keywords nnd ofhor symbols
ns woII ns a sof of ro-wrIffon rogrnms fo cnrry ouf
vnrIous commands. A. l06. In oncourngIng
comufor rogrnmmors fo Ionrn nnd uso Jnvn, Sun
foufod fhoso ro-wrIffon rogrnms. C.A. A. 22l3?.
Sun succoodod In brIngIng nn onfIro gonornfIon of
rogrnmmors Info fho Jnvn communIfy. A. l05.
MIIIIons of rogrnmmors Invosfod fImo nnd offorf Info
IonrnIng Jnvn, mnkIng If ono of fho worlds mosf
ouInr rogrnmmIng Inngungos. A. l04.
Irogrnmmors nccoss fho sof of ro-wrIffon
rogrnms fhrough fho Jnvn nIIcnfIon rogrnmmIng
Inforfnco (API)n hIghIy sfrucfurod sysfom wIfh
Ifs own nomoncInfuro. Tho nIIcnfIon rogrnmmIng
Inforfnco rovIdos nccoss fo fhousnnds of methods,
onch of whIch orforms n funcfIon such ns choosIng
fho hIghor of fwo numbors. Tho mofhods nro grouod
Info classes, whIch nro furfhor grouod Info l66
packages of rogrnmsmuch IIko mombors of fho
nnImnI kIngdom nro grouod Info socIos, gonusos,
nnd fnmIIIos. See A. l060?.
Tho comufor codo for onch mofhod consIsfs of
fho mofhod hondor nnd fho mofhod body. A lll.
Tho mofhod hondor, nIso known ns n declaration,
6

introduces fho mofhod body nnd specif[ies] fho
nnmos, nrnmofors nnd funcfIonnIIfy of fho mofhods
nnd classes. A. ?, 2930. The mofhod body Is n
bIock of codo fhnf fhon ImIomonfs fho method by
InsfrucfIng n comufor how fo orform fho roIovnnf
funcfIon; If Is fhoroforo known ns implementing
code. A. lll.
To uso fho mofhods, rogrnmmors do nof nood fo
concorn fhomsoIvos wIfh fho mofhods ImIomonfIng
codo. Insfond, rogrnmmors uso n shorfhnnd
commnnd fhnf cnusos fho ImIomonfIng codo fo
orform fho dosIrod funcfIon, such ns choosIng fho
gronfor of fwo numbors. A. 33. In fhIs wny, n
rogrnmmor usos fho shorfhnnd commnnds fo
oornfo fho mofhods, i.e., fho ro-wrIffon rogrnms.
Iy usIng n methods shorfhnnd commnnd, n
rogrnmmor cnn wrIfo comIox soffwnro offIcIonfIy,
wIfhouf hnvIng fo wrIfo ouf ImIomonfIng codo for
onch IndIvIdunI roufIno fnsk.
Thoso shorfhnnd commnnds fnko fho socIfIc
formnf java.nckngo.Class.method(input). A.
ll2l6. Ior oxnmIo, java.Inng.Mnfh.max(1,2)
rofors fo n nrfIcuInr mofhod (max) fhnf rofurns fho
gronfor of fwo numbors (i.e., l nnd 2) nnd Is Iocnfod
In fho Math cInss, whIch In furn Is Iocnfod In fho
java.lang nckngo. A. ll2. Inch shorfhnnd
commnnd Is dorIvod from fho methods hondor,
whIch, IIko fho commnnd, socIfIos fho methods
nnmo, cInss, nckngo, nnd Inufs. A. ?, 2930.
2. CoogIo Is fho Iond dovoIoor of AndroId, ono
of fho mosf ouInr mobIIo dovIco Infforms In fho
worId. In fho socond qunrfor of 20l4, fhIrd-nrfy
mnnufncfurors such ns Snmsung, HTC, !C, nnd
?

!onovo soId moro fhnn 255 mIIIIon smnrfhonos fhnf
uso fho AndroId Infform. See InfornnfIonnI nfn
CorornfIon, WorIdwIdo Smnrfhono OS Mnrkof
Shnro (20l4), otoiloIle o/ hff://www.Idc.com/
rodsorv/smnrfhono-os-mnrkof-shnro.js.
Tho AndroId Infform IncIudos l68 nckngos of
mofhods. A. l09. Ior ovory ono of fhoso mofhods,
CoogIo wrofo or ncquIrod orIgInnI ImIomonfIng codo.
A. l0l. As fho dIsfrIcf courf oxInInod, [a]ll ngroo
fhnf CoogIo wns nnd romnIns froo fo uso fho Jnvn
Inngungo itself nnd fhnf fho method
ImIomonfnfIons by CoogIo nro froo of coyrIghf
issues. A. l08. Tho parties dIsufo confors on
Googles uso of fho snmo hondors for fho mofhods
found In 3? of fho AndroId packagesmethods fhnf
orform functions . . . fhnf |n]ro koy fo mobIIo
devices. A. l0?.
Indoondonf comufor rogrnmmors cronfo
nIIcnfIons for uso on AndroId dovIcos. Iocnuso
fhoso rogrnmmors know nnd offon rofor fo uso fho
Jnvn rogrnmmIng Inngungo, CoogIo concIudod fhnf
rogrnmmors would wnnf fo fInd fho snmo 3? sofs of
funcfIonnIIfIos In fho now AndroId sysfom cnIInbIo by
fho snmo nnmos ns usod In Java. A. 9. Ior fhoso
shorfhnnd commnnds fo work on fho AndroId
Infform, CoogIo hnd fo roIIcnfo fho mofhod hondors
rocIsoIy; nny chnngo fo fho hondors wouId hnvo
rovonfod fho shorfhnnd commnnds from workIng
roorIy. A. l09l0. As fho dIsfrIcf courf found,
fhoroforo, Android nnd Jnvn nue/ Ie IdonfIcnI whon
If comos fo fhoso nrfIcuInr IInos of code. A. l09.
Iocnuso CoogIo roIIcnfod onIy fho mofhod hondors,
nnd fho body of onch mofhod (fho ImIomonfIng codo)
8

wns wrIffon from scrnfch, only fhroo orconf of fho
IInos of codo nro fho same In fho 3? dIsufod
nckngos. A. l09.
IF ;/& @(3'+(9' .)4+' %+)9&&1($N3
Affor OrncIo ncquIrod Sun In 20l0, OrncIo
broughf fhIs ncfIon for nfonf nnd coyrIghf
InfrIngomonf. Tho dIsfrIcf courf onforod judgmonf In
Googles fnvor on Oracles nfonf cInIms, nnd OrncIo
hns nof nonIod fhnf doformInnfIon. A. l?0.
Oracles coyrIghf cInIms nccusod CoogIo of
coyIng fho mofhod hondors nnd fho so-cnIIod
structure, soquonco, nnd organization of fho Jnvn
nIIcnfIon rogrnmIng Inforfnco. A. 3. OrncIo
romIsod Ifs structure, soquonco, nnd organization
cInIm on fho fhoory fhnf fho mofhod hondors embody
fho structure of fho nIIcnfIon rogrnmmIng
Inforfnco by socIfyIng fho nnmo, nckngo, nnd cInss
of onch mofhod. A. 2l. AII of Oracles cInIms fhus
chnIIongod fho snmo fhIng: Googles roIIcnfIon of
fho mofhod hondors. A. l0l. CoogIo rosondod, In
nrf, fhnf Javas mofhod hondors nro nof onfIfIod fo
coyrIghf rofocfIon bocnuso, nmong ofhor fhIngs,
fhoy consfIfufo or ombody n sysfom or mofhod of
operationspecifically, n sysfom or mofhod of
oornfIng fho ro-wrIffon rogrnms.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf consIdorod fho coyrIghfnbIIIfy
of fho mofhod hondors nf fho snmo fImo fho jury
consIdorod whetherif fho dIsfrIcf courf hoId fho
mofhod hondors fo bo copyrightableGoogle wouId bo
IInbIo for InfrIngomonf. Thoso fwo doformInnfIons
rocoodod on nrnIIoI frncks, wIfh fho dIsfrIcf courf
InsfrucfIng fho jury fo nssumo fhnf OrncIo wns
9

onfIfIod fo coyrIghf rofocfIon nnd fo consIdor onIy
InfrIngomonf nnd fnIr uso. Tho jury found In Oracles
fnvor on InfrIngomonf buf hung on Googles fnIr-uso
dofonso. A. l2.
In nn oxfonsIvo ubIIshod oInIon, fho dIsfrIcf
courf hoId fhnf fho mofhod hondors nro nof
coyrIghfnbIo nnd fhnf CoogIo Is fhoroforo onfIfIod fo
judgmonf ns n mnffor of Inw. A. l0065. Tho
courf omhnsIzod fhnf CoogIo wns onfIfIod fo wrIfo
Ifs own codo ImIomonfIng fho snmo funcfIons or
mofhods fhnf nro found In fho Jnvn nIIcnfIon
rogrnmmIng Inforfnco. |C]oyrIghf Inw doos nof
confor ownorshI ovor nny nnd nII wnys fo ImIomonf
n funcfIon or socIfIcnfIon, no mnffor how cronfIvo |If]
mny be. A. l54.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf fhon hoId fhnf fho mofhod
hondors, IncIudIng fhoIr nnmos nnd orgnnIznfIon, nro
n sysfom or mofhod of oornfIon oxcIudod from
coyrIghf rofocfIon undor SocfIon l02(b) of fho
CoyrIghf Acf. A. l59. Iocnuso fho sysfom of
mofhod hondors Is n command structure for
oornfIng fho ro-wrIffon rogrnms, fho courf
concIudod fhnf If mIghf rocoIvo patent rofocfIon
orhnsbuf nof coyrIghf protection. 1J.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf omhnsIzod fhnf comnfIbIIIfy
sheds furfhor IIghf on fho chnrncfor of fho commnnd
sfrucfuro ns n sysfom or mofhod of operation. A.
l59. Iy fho fImo AndroId cnmo Info oxIsfonco,
rogrnmmors hnd wrIffon millions of IInos of code
In Jnvn, whIch necessarily usod fho jnvn.nckngo.
CInss.mofhod() commnnd format nnd called on nII
or somo of fho socIfIc 3? nckngos nf Issuo nnd
nocossnrIIy usod fho commnnd sfrucfuro of nnmos
l0

|usod by Google]. 1J. In ordor for nf Ionsf somo of
fhIs codo fo run on AndroId, CoogIo wns roquIrod fo
|uso] fho snmo jnvn.nckngo.CInss.mofhod()
commnnd sysfom usIng fho snmo nnmos wIfh fho
snmo taxonomy nnd wIfh fho snmo funcfIonnI
specifications. A. l5960. As n rosuIf, Google
roIIcnfod whnf wns nocossnry fo nchIovo n dogroo of
InforoornbIIIfybuf no more. A. l60.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf found furfhor suorf for Ifs
hoIdIng In ofhor rIncIIos of coyrIghf Inw. IIrsf,
[u]nder fho morgor docfrIno, whon fhoro Is onIy ono
(or onIy n fow) wnys fo oxross somofhIng, fhon no
ono cnn cInIm ownorshI of such oxrossIon by
copyright. A. l53. Socond, names nnd shorf
hrnsos nro nof copyrightable. 1J. ThIrd, cIfIng fhIs
Courts docIsIon In Ieie/ PuIlico/ione, 1nc. t. Iurol
Teleplone Sertice Co., 499 !.S. 340, 356 (l99l), fho
courf obsorvod fhnf we shouId nof yIoId fo fho
fomfnfIon fo fInd coyrIghfnbIIIfy moroIy fo rownrd
nn Invosfmonf mndo In n body of InfoIIocfunI
property. A. l53.
.F ;/& .)4+' )* 566&,73 %+)9&&1($N3
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf rovorsod, oInIng fhnf
coyrIghfnbIIIfy rosonfs a Iow bar fhnf roquIros
onIy fhnf n work bo orIgInnI nnd oxrossIvo In fho
sonso fhnf the nufhor hnd muIfIIo wnys fo oxross
fho undorIyIng idea. A. l?, 4?. Tho courf nofod n
fhroo-wny cIrcuIf sIIf on whofhor fo dony coyrIghf
rofocfIon fo nII sysfoms or mofhods of oornfIon,
grnnf coyrIghf rofocfIon fo ossonfInIIy nII oIomonfs
of nn orIgInnI nnd cronfIvo comufor rogrnm
(IncIudIng sysfoms nnd mofhods of oornfIon), or
ll

nIy n fhIrd fosf known ns fho nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/
comnrIson fosf. A. 2324.
AIyIng Infh CIrcuIf Inw bocnuso fhIs cnso
nroso wIfhIn fhnf cIrcuIf nnd coyrIghf Inw doos nof
fnII wIfhIn fho IodornI Circuits oxcIusIvo
jurIsdIcfIon, fho IodornI CIrcuIf concIudod fhnf fho
Infh CIrcuIf hns ndofod fho nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/
comnrIson fosf. A. 24. Affor IdonfIfyIng n cIrcuIf
sIIf on how fo nIy fhnf fosf, fho courf of nonIs
oxInInod fhnf If wouId: first bronk down fho
nIIogodIy InfrIngod |comufor] rogrnm Info Ifs
consfIfuonf . . . parts; fhon sift ouf nII non-
rofocfnbIo mnforInI, IncIudIng Idons nnd oxrossIon
fhnf Is nocossnrIIy IncIdonfnI fo fhoso ideas; nnd
fInnIIy compare|] fho romnInIng cronfIvo oxrossIon
wIfh fho nIIogodIy InfrIngIng program. A. 25
(InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks nnd cIfnfIon omIffod).
!sIng fhnf frnmowork, fho courf of nonIs fIrsf
hoId fhnf fho morgor docfrIno Is InnIIcnbIo for fwo
ronsons: morgor Is irrelevant fo coyrIghfnbIIIfy
nnd Sun couId hnvo wrIffon fho mofhod hondors In
moro fhnn ono wny. A. 303l. Tho courf nIso
rojocfod fho dIsfrIcf courts roIInnco on fho nnmos-
nnd-shorf-hrnsos docfrIno. A. 3335.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf fhon hoId fhnf SocfIon
l02(b)whIch rovIdos fhnf |I]n no cnso doos
coyrIghf rofocfIon for nn orIgInnI work of
nufhorshI oxfond fo nny . . . sysfom |or] mofhod of
operation, l? !.S.C. l02(b)does no/ oxfInguIsh
fho rofocfIon nccordod n nrfIcuInr oxrossIon of nn
Idon moroIy bocnuso fhnf oxrossIon Is ombodIod In n
mofhod of operation. A. 23 (InfornnI quofnfIon
mnrks omIffod; omhnsIs nddod). In fho IodornI
l2

Circuits vIow, SocfIon l02(b) sorvos onIy fo codIfy fho
idea/expression dichotomyfho rIncIIo fhnf
[c]opyright rofocfIon oxfonds onIy fo fho oxrossIon
of nn Idonnof fo fho undorIyIng Idon itself. A.
l8. Iocnuso Google . . . couId hnvo dosIgnod Ifs own
. . . |nIIcnfIon rogrnmmIng Inforfnco] nckngos If
If wnnfod fo do so, nnd fho mofhod hondors could
hnvo boon wrIffon nnd orgnnIzod In nny numbor of
wnys nnd sfIII hnvo nchIovod fho snmo funcfIons, fho
courf hoId fhnf Section l02(b) doos nof bnr fho
nckngos from coyrIghf protection. A. 49. In fho
courf of appeals vIow, Section l02(n) nnd l02(b) nro
fo bo consIdorod coIIocfIvoIy so fhnf corfnIn
oxrossIons nro subjocf fo gronfor scrufIny. A. 23.
Tho courf of nonIs nIso rojocfod fho dIsfrIcf
courts consIdornfIon of comnfIbIIIfy, cnIIIng If
|I]rroIovnnf fo |c]opyrightability. A. 50.
AccordIng fo fho IodornI CIrcuIf, comnfIbIIIfy, nnd
fho fncf fhnf Javas mofhod hondors had bocomo fho
offocfIvo Indusfry standard, nro onIy fncfors fo bo
bnInncod wIfh ofhors ns nrf of n fnIr-uso dofonso.
A. 4553, 5?. Tho courf romnndod for n now frInI
on fhnf dofonso. A. 5362.
l


l
Tho courf of nonIs nddrossod sovornI ofhor Issuos fhnf nro
nof roIovnnf fo fho quosfIon rosonfod In fhIs ofIfIon. Ior
oxnmIo, fho courf nffIrmod fho dIsfrIcf courts doformInnfIon
fhnf CoogIo coIod certain smnII snIofs of code. A. l02.
Iy sfIuInfIon of fho nrfIos, fho dIsfrIcf courf nwnrdod no
dnmngos for fhnf coyIng, whIch If chnrncforIzod ns minor nnd
innocuous. A. ll8, l20.
l3

>:52#=2 8#> B>5=;<=B ;A: %:;<;<#=
Tho IodornI Circuits docIsIon wnrrnnfs rovIow
for fhroo ronsons. Iire/, If rosonfs n IongsfnndIng,
wIdoIy-rocognIzod sIIf In fho courfs of nonIs.
SeconJ, fho IodornI Circuits hoIdIng Is In confIIcf
wIfh docIsIons of fhIs Courf nnd confrnry fo fho InIn
Inngungo of fho CoyrIghf Acf. TlirJ, whofhor
coyrIghf mny bo usod fo ovndo fho IImIfs on nfonf
rofocfIon, In ordor fo socuro 95-yonr (or Iongor)
monooIIos, Is nn oxcofIonnIIy Imorfnnf quosfIon.
ThIs Courf nIrondy rocognIzod fho corfworfhInoss of
fhIs quosfIon by grnnfIng rovIow In Lo/ue. SInco
fhon, fho cIrcuIf sIIf hns onIy dooonod nnd fho
quosfIon hns grown ovon moro Imorfnnf ns soffwnro
hns bocomo ubIquIfous In dnIIy IIfo.
<F ;/& .)4+'3 #* 566&,73 5+& <$ @(3,++,O
5P)4' ;/& 5667(9,'()$ #* 2&9'()$ QRDSPT ;)
2)*'U,+&F
Tho CoyrIghf Acf rovIdos fhnf coyrIghf
rofocfIon subsIsfs In original works of authorship.
l? !.S.C. l02(n). Iuf fhnf rofocfIon doos nof
oxfond fo nII oIomonfs of nn orIgInnI work. SocfIon
l02(b) socIfIos fhnf in no cnso doos coyrIghf
rofocfIon for nn orIgInnI work of nufhorshI oxfond
fo nny Idon, rocoduro, rocoss, sysfom, mofhod of
oornfIon, concof, rIncIIo, or dIscovory, rognrdIoss
of fho form In whIch If Is doscrIbod, oxInInod,
IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such |orIgInnI] work. 1J.
l02(b).
As fho IodornI CIrcuIf nnd ofhor courfs of
nonIs hnvo ncknowIodgod, fho cIrcuIfs nro dooIy
dIvIdod on how fo consfruo SocfIon l02(b). See, e.g.,
l4

A. 2324; Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Intl, 1nc., 49
I.3d 80?, 8l5 (lsf CIr. l995); Conpu/er Aeeoce. Intl
1nc. t. Al/oi, 1nc., 982 I.2d 693, ?05 (2d CIr. l992);
Mi/el, 1nc. t. 1q/el, 1nc., l24 I.3d l366 (l0fh CIr.
l99?). Somo courfs foIIow fho statutes InIn
monnIng, hoIdIng fhnf SocfIon l02(b) rocIudos
coyrIghf rofocfIon for nII sysfoms or mofhods of
oornfIon, IncIudIng fhoso In comufor rogrnms.
See, e.g., Lo/ue, 49 I.3d nf 8l5. !Iko fho IodornI
CIrcuIf, howovor, ofhor courfs hnvo rojocfod fho
sfnfufory foxf nnd hoId fhnf SocfIon l02(b) Is moroIy
n romIndor of fho dIchofomy bofwoon Idons (whIch
nro nof coyrIghfnbIo) nnd oxrossIons of Idons
(whIch gonornIIy nro). See, e.g., Wlelon Aeeoce., 1nc.
t. Joelou Den/ol LoI., 1nc., ?9? I.2d l222, l234 (3d
CIr. l986). In fhoso courts vIow, n method of
operation ombodIod In n comufor rogrnm Is
coyrIghfnbIo so Iong ns Ifs cronfor couId hnvo
dosIgnod If In dIfforonf wnys. See iJ. nf l234
(InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
l. Lo/ue oxomIIfIos fho InIn monnIng
nronch. Thnf cnso concornod n srondshoof
programs monu commnnd hIornrchy, whIch
orgnnIzod commnnds such ns print, copy, nnd
quit Info moro fhnn 50 monus nnd submonus
nccossIbIo by usors. 49 I.3d nf 809. Tho IIrsf CIrcuIf
hoId fhnf fho hIornrchy wns n method[] of
operation, nnd wns fhoroforo oxcIudod from
coyrIghf rofocfIon undor SocfIon 102(b)rognrdIoss
of whofhor fho hIornrchy (or fho ovornII rogrnm)
snfIsfIod fho orIgInnIIfy roquIromonf of SocfIon l02(n)
nnd rognrdIoss of whofhor fhoro woro ofhor wnys fo
wrIfo or sfrucfuro fho hIornrchy. 1J. nf 8l5.
l5

Tho IIrsf CIrcuIf ronsonod fhnf n method of
operation . . . rofors fo fho monns by whIch n orson
opero/ee somofhIng, whofhor If bo n cnr, n food
rocossor, or n computer. 1J. (omhnsIs nddod).
Iocnuso fho menu commnnd hIornrchy rovIdos fho
monns by whIch usors confroI nnd operate fho !ofus
l-2-3 rogrnm, fho hIornrchy wns n mofhod of
oornfIon oxcIudod from coyrIghf rofocfIon. 1J.
Ior fhnf ronson, If wns immaterial fhnf Lotus
dovoIoors couId hnvo dosIgnod fho !ofus monu
commnnd hIornrchy differently. 1J. nf 8l6.
In doformInIng whofhor nn oIomonf of n
comufor rogrnm Is n mofhod of oornfIon, fho IIrsf
CIrcuIf nIso fook Info nccounf comnfIbIIIfy (whofhor
fho oIomonf onnbIos fho rogrnm fo Inforncf wIfh
ofhor soffwnro or hnrdwnro) nnd fho Iock-In offocf
(whofhor usors hnvo Invosfod fImo nnd offorf In
IonrnIng how fo uso fho mofhod of oornfIon). Tho
IIrsf CIrcuIf nofod fhnf fho fncf [t]hat fho !ofus
monu commnnd hIornrchy Is n method of operation
bocomos cIonror whon ono consIdors rogrnm
compatibility. 1J. nf 8l?. Tho courf rojocfod ns
absurd Lotuss fhoory fhnf, if n usor usos sovornI
dIfforonf rogrnms, ho or sho musf Ionrn how fo
orform fho snmo oornfIon In n dIfforonf wny for
onch rogrnm used. 1J. nf 8l?l8.
Tho SIxfh CIrcuIf hns sImIInrIy hoId fhnf, even
If n work Is In somo sonso original undor l02(n), If
sfIII mny nof bo coyrIghfnbIo bocnuso |of] 102(b),
whIch oxcIudos orIgInnI mofhods of oornfIon from
coyrIghf rofocfIon. Lexnor/ Intl, 1nc. t. S/o/ic
Con/rol Conponen/e, 1nc., 38? I.3d 522, 534 (6fh CIr.
2004). Thnf courf oxInInod fhnf, nIfhough sysfoms
l6

nnd mofhods of oornfIon mny bo [o]riginal nnd
cronfIvo, SocfIon l02(b) oxcIudos fhom from
coyrIghf rofocfIon bocnuso fhoy nro the Idon itself
rnfhor fhnn fho expression of fho Idon. ATC
Die/riIu/ion Grp., 1nc. t. Wlo/eter 1/ To/ee
Tronenieeione & Por/e, 1nc., 402 I.3d ?00, ?0? (6fh
CIr. 2005) (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
Tho SIxfh CIrcuIf nIso hoId fhnf fho morgor
docfrIno rocIudos coyrIghf rofocfIon for oIomonfs
of n comufor rogrnm fhnf nro nocossnry for
comnfIbIIIfy. Lexnor/, 38? I.3d nf 536. Tho courf
oxInInod fhnf, If fhoro Is onIy ono rncfIcnI wny fo
oxross nn Idon, fhnf oxrossIon Is nof onfIfIod fo
coyrIghf rofocfIon. 1J. nf 535. Program codo fhnf
Is sfrIcfIy nocossnry fo nchIovo curronf comnfIbIIIfy
rosonfs n morgor robIom, nImosf by dofInIfIon, nnd
Is fhus oxcIudod from fho scoo of nny copyright. 1J.
nf 536 (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
2. !Iko fho IodornI CIrcuIf In fhIs cnso, ofhor
courfs of nonIs hnvo dIsngrood wIfh fho IIrsf nnd
SIxfh CIrcuIfs In n numbor of rosocfs. Tho ThIrd
CIrcuIf, for oxnmIo, InsIsfs fhnf nII oIomonfs of n
comufor rogrnm, IncIudIng Ifs sfrucfurnI oIomonfs,
nro coyrIghfnbIo so Iong ns fho rogrnm couId hnvo
boon wrIffon dIfforonfIy nnd sfIII sorvod fho snmo
hIgh-IovoI uroso, such ns to nId In fho busInoss
oornfIons of n donfnI laboratory. Wlelon, ?9? I.2d
nf l238. In fhnf courts vIow, SocfIon l02(b) was nof
Infondod fo onInrgo or confrncf fho scoo of coyrIghf
protection, onIy fo roInforco fho somewhat
mofnhysIcal dIchofomy bofwoon Idon nnd
oxrossIon, wIfh idea roforrIng fo n programs
gonornI uroso. Apple Conpu/er, 1nc. t. Iron/lin
l?

Conpu/er Corp., ?l4 I.2d l240, l252, l253 (3d CIr.
l983).
Tho Socond CIrcuIf hns Iowod n fhIrd nfh: fho
so-cnIIod abstraction/filtration/comparison fosf.
!ndor fhnf fosf, n courf shouId fIrsf dissect fho
nIIogodIy coIod programs sfrucfuro nnd IsoInfo onch
IovoI of nbsfrncfIon confnInod wIfhIn it. Al/oi, 982
I.2d nf ?0?. Thon, fho courf shouId filfor|] . . .
rofocfnbIo oxrossIon from non-rofocfnbIo
material. 1J. Affor IsoInfIng fho golden nugget of
protectable expression, fho courf shouId InquIro
whether fho dofondnnf coIod nny nsocf of fhIs
rofocfod expression. 1J. nf ?l0.
Tho Socond CIrcuIf hns dIsfInguIshod Ifs
nronch from fho ThIrd Circuits inadequate . . .
formuInfIon fhnf n programs ovornII uroso oqunfos
wIfh fho programs idea. 1J. nf ?05. Tho IIrsf
CIrcuIf, In furn, rojocfod fho Socond CIrcuits fosf,
fIndIng If misleading bocnuso abstracting monu
commnnd hIornrchIos down fo fhoIr IndIvIdunI word
nnd monu IovoIs nnd fhon fIIforIng Idon from
oxrossIon nf fhnf sfngo . . . obscuros fho moro
fundnmonfnI quosfIon of whofhor n monu commnnd
hIornrchy cnn bo coyrIghfod nf all. Lo/ue, 49 I.3d
nf 8l5.
!Iko fho Socond CIrcuIf, fho IIffh nnd Tonfh
CIrcuIfs omIoy fho nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/comnrIson
fosf. See Engg D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol
Sof/uore, 1nc., 26 I.3d l335 (5fh CIr. l994); Engg
D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol Sof/uore, 1nc., 46 I.3d
408 (5fh CIr. l995) (suIomonfnI oInIon); Go/ee
IuIIer Co. t. BonJo Clen. 1nJue., 9 I.3d 823 (l0fh
CIr. l993). In ndofIng fhnf fosf, fho Tonfh CIrcuIf
l8

oxrossIy dIsngrood wIfh Lo/ue, hoIdIng fhnf
although nn oIomonf of n work mny bo chnrncforIzod
ns n mofhod of oornfIon, fhnf oIomonf mny
novorfhoIoss confnIn oxrossIon fhnf Is oIIgIbIo for
coyrIghf rofocfIon. Mi/el, l24 I.3d nf l3?2. Tho
courf oInod fhnf SocfIon l02(b), dosIfo Ifs InIn
foxf, doos nof wIfhdrnw coyrIghf rofocfIon from
mofhods of oornfIon. Insfond, sections l02(n) & (b)
Inforncf fo socuro Idons for |fho] ubIIc domnIn nnd fo
sof nnrf nn authors nrfIcuInr oxrossIon for
furfhor scrutiny. 1J. Thnf courf fhus declin[ed] fo
ndof fho Lo/ue courts nronch fo socfIon l02(b),
nnd confInuo|d] fo ndhoro fo |Ifs] nbsfrncfIon-
fIIfrnfIon-comnrIson nroach. 1J.
3. In nddIfIon fo dIsngrooIng nbouf whofhor fo
roInco SocfIon 102(b)s InIn Inngungo wIfh ono of
fho courf-cronfod sfnndnrds dIscussod nbovo, fho
courfs of nonIs hnvo dIvIdod on roInfod Issuos,
IncIudIng fho roIovnnco of comnfIbIIIfy fo
coyrIghfnbIIIfy. As nofod nbovo, fho IIrsf nnd SIxfh
CIrcuIfs fronf comnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In ns Imorfnnf
If nof dIsosIfIvo consIdornfIons. Tho Socond CIrcuIf
ngroos wIfh fhoso cIrcuIfs fhnf compatibility
roquIromonfs of ofhor rogrnms wIfh whIch n
rogrnm Is dosIgnod fo operate nro roIovnnf fo
coyrIghfnbIIIfy, ns nrf of fho filtration sfo of Ifs
nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/comnrIson fosf. Al/oi, 982
I.2d nf ?09l0. In confrnsf, fho ThIrd CIrcuIf hoId
fhnf compnfIbIIIfy wIfh IndoondonfIy dovoIood
nIIcnfIon rogrnms . . . Is n commorcInI nnd
comofIfIvo objocfIvo whIch doos nof onfor Info fho
somowhnf mofnhysIcnI Issuo of whofhor nrfIcuInr
Idons nnd oxrossIons hnvo merged. Apple
Conpu/er, ?l4 I.2d nf l253.
l9

Tho courfs of nonIs nro sImIInrIy dIvIdod on
fho morgor docfrIno. As nofod nbovo, fho SIxfh
CIrcuIf hns sIIf from ofhor courfs of nonIs by
hoIdIng fhnf fho morgor docfrIno rocIudos coyrIghf
rofocfIon for oIomonfs of n comufor rogrnm
nocossnry for InforoornbIIIfy. See Lexnor/, 38?
I.3d nf 536. Ofhor courfs of nonIs do nof ovon
ngroo fhnf fho morgor docfrIno IImIfs coyrIghfnbIIIfy
(In nny wny), hoIdIng fhnf If Is onIy nn nffIrmnfIvo
dofonso fo InfrIngomonf nffor coyrIghfnbIIIfy hns
boon osfnbIIshodgronfIy dImInIshIng Ifs rncfIcnI
Imorfnnco. See, e.g., Kregoe t. Aeeocio/eJ Preee, 93?
I.2d ?00, ?05 (2d CIr. l99l); eee oleo . 2829,
infro.
2

4. Tho docIsIon boIow rocognIzos nnd dooons
fho cIrcuIf sIIf. Tho IodornI CIrcuIf hoId fhnf, undor
Infh CIrcuIf rocodonf: SocfIon l02(b) doos nof
oxcIudo sysfoms or mofhods of oornfIon from
coyrIghf rofocfIon; n judIcInIIy-cronfod nbsfrncfIon/
fIIfrnfIon/comnrIson fosf govorns Insfond;
[i]nteroperability |n]rgumonfs nro |I]rroIovnnf fo
[c]opyrightability; fho morgor docfrIno doos nof
rosfrIcf coyrIghf rofocfIon for comufor codo
nocossnry for InforoornbIIIfy so Iong ns fho orIgInnI

2
As fho IodornI CIrcuIf rocognIzod, fho cIrcuIf courts dIsnrrny
Is so comIofo fhnf fhoy do nof ovon ngroo on fho corrocf
sfnndnrd of noIInfo rovIow. A. l6 n.3. Conpore Mo//leu
BenJer & Co. t. Wee/ Publg Co., l58 I.3d 6?4, 68l (2d CIr.
l998) onJ Aor/l Cooe/ 1nJue. t. Joeon Moxuell, 1nc., 9?2 I.2d
l03l, l035 (9fh CIr. l992) (cIonr-orror sfnndnrd) ui/l Yon/ee
ConJle Co. t. BriJgeuo/er ConJle Co., 259 I.3d 25, 34 n.5 (lsf
CIr. 200l) onJ PuIlico/ione Intl, L/J. t. MereJi/l Corp., 88 I.3d
4?3, 4?8 (?fh CIr. l996) (Je noto sfnndnrd).
20

nufhor couId hnvo wrIffon fho codo In moro fhnn ono
wny; nnd morgor Inys no roIo In fho coyrIghfnbIIIfy
nnnIysIs In nny ovonf. See A. 23, 24, 50.
If fho IodornI Circuits vIow of Infh CIrcuIf
rocodonf Is corrocf, fhnf cIrcuIf Is In confIIcf wIfh
ofhor cIrcuIfs on nII of fhoso Imorfnnf oInfs of Inw.
If fho IodornI Circuits undorsfnndIng of Infh
CIrcuIf Inw Is wrong, fho Infh CIrcuIf Is sfIII In
confIIcf wIfh fho courfs on fho ofhor sIdos of fho
cIrcuIf sIIfs. IIfhor wny, fho IongsfnndIng dIvIsIon
In Iowor courf nufhorIfy orsIsfs nnd roquIros fhIs
Courts rosoIufIon.
<<F ;/& 8&1&+,7 .(+94('3 @&9(3()$ >4$3 5*)47
#* ;/& 2','4'&V ;/(3 .)4+'3 .)$'+)77($N
%+&9&1&$'3V 5$1 ;/& @(3'($9'()$ I&'U&&$
%,'&$' 5$1 .)6O+(N/'F
As oxInInod nbovo, fho IodornI CIrcuIf hoId fhnf
fho mofhod hondors nro coyrIghfnbIo ovon If fhoy
consfIfufo, or ombody, sysfoms or mofhods of
oornfIon. A. 23; . lll2, eupro. Thnf hoIdIng
Is wrong. If Is confrnry fo fho foxf of fho CoyrIghf
Acf, nnd If ornsos n fundnmonfnI boundnry bofwoon
nfonf nnd coyrIghf Inw.
5F ;/& 3','4'& 9)1(*(&3 '/(3 .)4+'3
&W9743()$ )* 3O3'&X3 ,$1 X&'/)13 )*
)6&+,'()$ *+)X 9)6O+(N/' 6+)'&9'()$F
!ndor SocfIon l02(n), nn original work of
authorship Is gonornIIy coyrIghfnbIo. SocfIon
l02(b) goos on fo socIfy, howovor, fhnf in no cnso
doos coyrIghf rofocfIon for on originol uor/ of
ou/lorelip oxfond fo nny . . . sysfom |or] mofhod of
oornfIon . . . rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
2l

doscrIbod, oxInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such
work. l? !.S.C. l02(b) (omhnsIs nddod). Thoro
Is nofhIng uncIonr or nmbIguous nbouf fhnf
rovIsIon. Though nn orIgInnI work of nufhorshI Is
gonornIIy onfIfIod fo coyrIghf rofocfIon, fho
rofocfIon nffordod fo fhnf work doos nof oxfond fo
nny sysfoms or mofhods of oornfIon IncIudod or
ombodIod In fho work. Tho sfnfufory oxcIusIon Is
oxIIcIf nnd nbsoIufo, govornIng regardless of fho
form In whIch |n sysfom or mofhod of oornfIon] Is
doscrIbod, oxInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such
work. 1J.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf oInod, howovor, fhnf
components of n rogrnm fhnf cnn bo chnrncforIzod
ns n method of operation mny novorfhoIoss bo
copyrightable. A. 44. To ronch fhnf rosuIf, fho
courf hnd fo rovIso fho sfnfufo, nnd If dId: Section
l02(n) nnd l02(b) nro fo bo consIdorod coIIocfIvoIy so
fhnf corfnIn oxrossIons nro subjocf fo gronfor
scrutiny. A. 23. Tho courf dId nof oxInIn whonco
fhIs greater scrutiny fosf comosIf corfnInIy doos
nof como from fho sfnfufory foxf. Tho courf dId nof
oxInIn whnf greater scrutiny monns or how fo
nIy If. or dId fho courf ovon nonr fo nIy
gronfor scrufIny; If sImIy hoId fhnf bocnuso Sun
couId hnvo wrIffon fho mofhod hondors In dIfforonf
wnys, fhoy woro coyrIghfnbIo. See A. 4?.
Tho IodornI Circuits orror Is osocInIIy sfnrk
bocnuso fhIs Courf doformInod moro fhnn fwonfy
yonrs ngo fhnf SocfIon l02(b) IdonfIfIos socIfIcnIIy
fhoso oIomonfs of n work for whIch coyrIghf Is nof
available. Ieie/, 499 !.S. nf 356. Tho Courf snId
nofhIng In Ieie/ nbouf roIncIng fhnf socIfIc,
22

sfnfufory IdonfIfIcnfIon wIfh n vnguo greater
scrutiny fosf.
IgnorIng fhIs Courts InforrofnfIon of SocfIon
l02(b), fho courf of nonIs Iookod Insfond fo fho
IogIsInfIvo hIsfory. A. 23. !ogIsInfIvo hIsfory cnn
novor dIsInco cIonr sfnfufory foxf. See Milner t.
Dept of Aot,, l3l S. Cf. l259, l26? (20ll). And
horo, fho IogIsInfIvo hIsfory socIfIcnIIy confIrms fhnf
SocfIon l02(b) monns whnf If snys: processes or
mofhods ombodIod In |n comufor] rogrnm nro nof
wIfhIn fho scoo of fho coyrIghf law. H.!. !II. O.
94-l4?6, nf 5? (l9?6).
Tho IodornI Courf oInfod fo n dIfforonf nssngo
In fho IogIsInfIvo hIsfory fhnf IndIcnfos, ns fhIs Courf
hns oxInInod, fhnf SocfIon l02(b) dId nof chnngo
rooxIsfIng Inw, but moroIy cInrIfIod If. Ieie/, 499
!.S. nf 356; eee oleo H.!. !II. O. 94-l4?6, nf 5?; S.
!II. O. 94-4?3, nf 54 (l9?5). Thnf obsorvnfIon Is
fuIIy consIsfonf wIfh fho cIonr sfnfufory foxf nnd fho
on-oInf IogIsInfIvo hIsfory quofod nbovo. ThIs Courf
hnd hoId, mnny docndos boforo fho l9?6 CoyrIghf
Acf, fhnf sysfoms nnd mofhods of oornfIon (nIong
wIfh socIfIc oIomonfs of oxrossIon fhnf nro
necessary incidents fo fhom) nro nof coyrIghfnbIo.
Bo/er t. SelJen, l0l (ll Offo) !.S. 99, l03 (l880).
In Bo/er, SoIdon dovoIood nn nccounfIng sysfom
nnd wrofo n book oxInInIng If. 1J. nf l00. Ho
IncIudod In fho book certain forms or bInnks,
consIsfIng of ruIod IInos, nnd hondIngs, IIIusfrnfIng
fho sysfom nnd showIng how If Is fo bo usod nnd
cnrrIod ouf In practice. 1J. SoIdon confondod fhnf
the ruIod IInos nnd hondIngs, gIvon fo IIIusfrnfo fho
23

sysfom, nro n nrf of fho book, nnd, ns such, nro
socurod by fho copyright. 1J. nf l0l.
ThIs Courf rojocfod Seldens nrgumonf; fho forms
woro nof coyrIghfnbIo. Tho Courf oxInInod fhnf
there Is n cIonr dIsfIncfIon bofwoon fho book, ns
such, nnd fho nrf whIch If Is Infondod fo illustrate.
1J. nf l02. The coyrIghf of n work, In ofhor words,
cannot gIvo fo fho nufhor nn oxcIusIvo rIghf fo fho
ne/loJe of opero/ion whIch ho roounds, or fo fho
dIngrnms whIch ho omIoys fo oxInIn them. 1J. nf
l03 (omhnsIs nddod).
In IIghf of fhnf hoIdIng, fho IodornI Circuits
docIsIon runs hondIong Info nof ono, buf fwo
confroIIIng docIsIons of fhIs CourfIeie/ nnd Bo/er.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf nffomfod fo dIsfInguIsh Bo/er
on fho ground fhnf If moroIy sfnnds for n dIchofomy
bofwoon unrofocfnbIo Idons nnd rofocfnbIo
oxrossIon. A. l9. Iuf nofhIng In Bo/er suorfs
fhnf InforrofnfIon. Tho cnso novor ovon dIscussos
fhnf dIchofomy. In nny ovonf, SocfIon l02(b) codIfIod
Bo/er by unnmbIguousIy oxcIudIng sysfoms nnd
mofhods of oornfIon from coyrIghf rofocfIon, nof
by ndofIng n vnguo greater scrutiny fosf.
IF 2O3'&X3 ,$1 X&'/)13 )* )6&+,'()$ ,+&
N)M&+$&1 PO 6,'&$'V $)' 9)6O+(N/'V 7,UF
Tho IodornI Circuits orror Is confIrmod by fho
oxfonf fo whIch If wouId oIImInnfo n fundnmonfnI
dIsfIncfIon bofwoon nfonf nnd coyrIghf Inwnnd
fhus nIIow coyrIghf fo bo usod ns nn ond-run nround
fho IImIfs on nfonf rofocfIon, IncIudIng fhIs Courts
roconf docIsIons on nfonf-oIIgIbIIIfy.
24

l. Tho Bo/er Courf doformInod fhnf fho Infonf
Acf, rnfhor fhnn fho CoyrIghf Acf, govorns fho
rofocfnbIIIfy of mofhods nnd sysfoms. The
doscrIfIon of fho nrf In n book, fhough onfIfIod fo fho
bonofIf of coyrIghf, Inys no foundnfIon for nn
oxcIusIvo cInIm fo fho nrf itself. Bo/er, l0l !.S. nf
l05. The objocf of fho ono Is oxInnnfIon; fho objocf
of fho ofhor Is uso. Tho formor mny bo socurod by
coyrIghf. Tho Inffor cnn onIy bo socurod, If If cnn bo
socurod nf nII, by Ioffors-patent. 1J.
Thus, undor Bo/er nnd SocfIon l02(b), coyrIghf
cnnnof bo usod fo socuro n monooIy on n sysfom or
mofhod of oornfIng somofhIng. [T]he ruIos nnd
mofhods of usofuI nrf hnvo fhoIr fInnI ond In
nIIcnfIon nnd uso; nnd fhIs nIIcnfIon nnd uso nro
whnf fho ubIIc dorIvo from fho ubIIcnfIon of n book
whIch fonchos them. 1J. nf l04. In fho nbsonco of n
nfonf, any orson mny rncfIso nnd uso fho nrf
itself. 1J.
Ior fhIs ronson ns woII, fho IodornI Circuits
focus on whofhor fhoro Is moro fhnn ono wny fo
sfrucfuro n sysfom of mofhod hondors mIssos fho
oInf. Thoro nro, for oxnmIo, mnny ossIbIo wnys fo
dosIgn n koybonrd, shorfhnnd sysfom, or nccounfIng
sysfom. Iuf undor SocfIon l02(b), no sysfom or
mofhod of oornfIon Is rofocfod by coyrIghf.
2. IsmnnfIIng fhnf boundnry bofwoon nfonf
nnd coyrIghf rofocfIon wouId wronk hnvoc In fho
fIoId of InfoIIocfunI roorfy by grnnfIng
unwnrrnnfod, 95-yonr (or Iongor) monooIIos on fho
bnsIc buIIdIng bIocks of InnovnfIon. !nIIko n cInIm fo
n coyrIghf, [f]ho cInIm fo nn InvonfIon or dIscovory
of nn nrf or mnnufncfuro musf bo subjocfod fo fho
25

oxnmInnfIon of fho Infonf OffIco boforo nn oxcIusIvo
rIghf fhoroIn cnn bo obfnInod; nnd If cnn onIy bo
socurod by n nfonf from fho government. 1J. nf
l02. Tho Infonf Acf Imosos sfrIcf IImIfs on
nfonfnbIIIfy fo onsuro fhnf n govornmonf-grnnfod
monooIy on uee of nn InvonfIon wIII sorvo Ifs
uroso of oncourngIng InvonfIons nnd dIscovorIos.
See, e.g., 35 !.S.C. l0l, l02, l03; KSI Intl Co. t.
Teleflex 1nc., 550 !.S. 398, 42? (200?).
Jusf Insf Torm, fhIs Courf confIrmod fhnf, whIIo
somo soffwnro-roInfod nfonf cInIms mny bo oIIgIbIo
for nfonf rofocfIon undor 35 !.S.C. l0l, mnny
nro nof. Alice Corp. P/,. L/J. t. CLS Bon/ Intl, l34
S. Cf. 234?, 235859 (20l4). !Iko SocfIon l02(b) of
fho CoyrIghf Acf, SocfIon l0l of fho Infonf Acf
rofocfs fufuro InnovnfIon by rovonfIng nnyono from
InhIbIf|Ing] furfhor dIscovory by ImroorIy fyIng
u fho fufuro uso of fho|] buIIdIng bIocks of humnn
ingenuity. 1J. nf 2354 (quofIng Mo,o ColloIoro/ite
Serte. t. Prone/leue LoIe., 1nc., l32 S. Cf. l289,
l30l (20l2)).
IxfondIng coyrIghf rofocfIon fo mofhods nnd
sysfoms of oornfIon wouId undormIno fho IImIfs on
nfonf rofocfIon. WhIIo fho roquIromonfs for
nfonfnbIIIfy nro sfrIcf, SocfIon l02(b) Is fho onIy
roquIromonf for coyrIghfnbIIIfy fhnf doos nof
rosonf n vory low bnr. A. l?. !ndor SocfIon
l02(n), coyrIghf rofocfIon Is gonornIIy nvnIInbIo for
orIgInnI works. Tho originality roquIromonf Is nof
nrfIcuInrIy stringent, roquIrIng only fhnf fho work
wns IndoondonfIy cronfod by fho nufhor (ns oosod
fo coIod from ofhor works), nnd fhnf If ossossos nf
26

Ionsf somo mInImnI dogroo of creativity. Ieie/, 499
!.S. nf 345, 358.
Tho fhroshoId oIIgIbIIIfy bnr of SocfIon l02(n) Is
so Iow ns fo bo ossonfInIIy non-oxIsfonf for comufor
soffwnro, ns confIrmod by fho IodornI Circuits focus
on whofhor Sun couId hnvo wrIffon fho mofhod
hondors In dIfforonf wnys. If ono dIsrognrds fho nood
fo bo comnfIbIo wIfh ofhor sysfoms or rogrnms, ns
fho IodornI CIrcuIf dId, fhoro wIII nonrIy oluo,e bo
moro fhnn ono wny fo wrIfo soffwnro codo fo
nccomIIsh n nrfIcuInr funcfIon (such ns choosIng
fho gronfor of fwo numbors), jusf ns fhIs sonfonco
couId hnvo boon wrIffon n dozon dIfforonf wnys
wIfhouf chnngIng Ifs Imorf. Thus, vIrfunIIy ovory
oIomonf of ovory comufor rogrnmmIng sysfom or
Inngungo wouId qunIIfy for coyrIghf rofocfIon
undor fho courf of appeals nronch.
As Bo/er concIudod, [t]o gIvo fo fho nufhor of
fho |work] nn oxcIusIvo roorfy In fho nrf doscrIbod
fhoroIn, whon no oxnmInnfIon of Ifs novoIfy hns ovor
boon offIcInIIy mndo, wouId bo n surrIso nnd n frnud
uon fho public. l0l !.S. nf l02. And n Iong-InsfIng
frnud nf fhnf. Comnrod fo fho 20-yonr nfonf form,
n coyrIghf confors monooIy rIghfs fhnf cnn Insf for
woII ovor n confuryfor fho romnInIng IIfo of fho
nufhor Ius ?0 yonrs, for 95 yonrs nffor fIrsf
ubIIcnfIon, or for l20 yonrs nffor cronfIon. l? !.S.C.
302. IormIffIng such nn ond-run nround fho
cnrofuIIy crnffod IImIfs on nfonf rofocfIon wouId
sfIfIo comofIfIon nnd InnovnfIon In fho soffwnro
Indusfryfho vory comofIfIon nnd InnovnfIon fhIs
Courf hns soughf fo rofocf by onforcIng fho
2?

comnrnbIo IImIfs on nfonfnbIIIfy. See, e.g., Alice,
l34 S. Cf. nf 2354.
Thnf doos nof, of courso, monn fhnf nII comufor
soffwnro Is unrofocfod by coyrIghf. Thoro Is no
dIsufo, for oxnmIo, fhnf fho ImIomonfIng codo
fhnf Insfrucfs n comufor how fo orform n mofhod
mny bo subjocf fo coyrIghf rofocfIon. See l? !.S.C.
l0l (dofInIng computer program[s] fhnf mny
qunIIfy ns rofocfnbIo works). Iuf whofhor fho
mofhod hondors nro onfIfIod fo rofocfIon Is
oxcIusIvoIy n quosfIon for nfonf Inw bocnuso fho
hondors consfIfufo, or ombody, n sysfom or mofhod of
oornfIng fho ro-wrIffon rogrnms.
3. Tho IodornI Circuits orror Is nII fho moro
gInrIng bocnuso If Is ossonfInIIy fho snmo orror for
whIch fhIs Courf hns roonfodIy rovorsod fho IodornI
CIrcuIf In nfonf cnsos. Tho courf of nonIs
crIfIcIzod fho dIsfrIcf courf for confusIng the
fhroshoId quosfIon of whnf Is coyrIghfnbIowhIch
rosonfs n Iow bnrnnd fho scoo of conducf fhnf
consfIfufos InfrIngIng activity. A. l?. If fhon
frnnsformod SocfIon 102(b)s IImIfs on coyrIghf
oIIgIbIIIfy Info jusf ono of sovornI fncfors fo bo
consIdorod ns nrf of n fnIr-uso dofonso. See A. 50
56.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf hnd sImIInrIy hoId fhnf fho
IImIfs on nfonf oIIgIbIIIfy nro mInImnI nnd fhnf
ofhor roquIromonfs of fho Infonf Acf do fho ronI
work In IImIfIng monooIy rofocfIons. See, e.g.,
Ieeeorcl Corp. Tecle., 1nc. t. Microeof/ Corp., 62?
I.3d 859, 869 (Iod. CIr. 20l0) (roforrIng fo SocfIon
l0l of fho Infonf Acf ns n coarse oIIgIbIIIfy filter).
ThIs Courf hns roonfodIy corrocfod fhnf
28

mIsorcofIon In roconf yonrs, sfrossIng fho
Imorfnnco of onforcIng SocfIon 101s IImIfs on
nfonfnbIo subjocf mnfforIncIudIng for soffwnro-
roInfod nfonfs. See, e.g., Alice, l34 S. Cf. 234?;
Assn for Moleculor Po/lolog, t. M,rioJ Gene/ice,
1nc., l33 S. Cf. 2l0? (20l3); Mo,o, l32 S. Cf. l289;
Bile/i t. Koppoe, l30 S. Cf. 32l8 (20l0). Iuf fho
IodornI CIrcuIf wouId now ovIscornfo fho nnnIogous
IImIfnfIon on coyrIghf oIIgIbIIIfy for somo of fho
snmo fyos of works.
Tho IodornI Circuits orror cnrrIos ovon moro
dIro consoquoncos In fho coyrIghf confoxf fhnn If dId
In fho nfonf nronn. Thoro wns nf Ionsf n non-
frIvoIous nrgumonf fhnf fho IImIfs on nfonf
oIIgIbIIIfy woro nof oxcofIonnIIy Imorfnnf bocnuso
ofhor IImIfs on nfonfnbIIIfy couId do somo of fho
snmo work. See, e.g., Mo,o, l32 S. Cf. nf l30304
(rojocfIng fho !nIfod States nrgumonf fo fhnf offocf).
Horo, such nn nrgumonf wouId nof ovon bo coIornbIo.
As dIscussod nbovo, SocfIon l02(b) Incos nny
Idon, rocoduro, rocoss, sysfom, mofhod of
oornfIon, concof, rIncIIo, or discovery In fho
ubIIc domnIn, ns n mnffor of Inw, by oxcIudIng If
from fho scoo of coyrIghf rofocfIon. In confrnsf,
fho fnIr-uso dofonso nIIos fo mnforInIs fhnf nro
wIfhIn fho scoo of coyrIghf rofocfIon, buf bIossos
unnufhorIzod usos fhnf snfIsfy n muIfI-fncfor
bnInncIng fosf. See l? !.S.C. l0?; A. 5860. Tho
IodornI CIrcuIf undorscorod fho dIfforonco bofwoon
fho fwo by IndIcnfIng fhnf comnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In
nro, In Ifs vIow, nof ovon fho mosf Imorfnnf fncfors
for n jury fo consIdor ns nrf of fho fnIr-uso InquIry.
See A. 68.
29

In Lo/ue, fho dIsfrIcf courf concIudod, bnsod on
fho fncfs of fhnf cnso, fhnf fho defendants uso of fho
monu commnnd hIornrchy wns nof n fnIr uso. Lo/ue
Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Intl, 1nc., 83l I. Su. 223,
24045 (. Mnss. l993), revd, 49 I.3d 80? (lsf CIr.
l995). As fho IIrsf CIrcuIf rocognIzod, howovor,
SocfIon 102(b)s oxcIusIon of fho hIornrchy from
coyrIghf rofocfIon confroIIod fho oufcomo, mnkIng
consIdornfIon of fnIr uso unnocossnry. 49 I.3d nf
8l9.
.F ;/& J,M, X&'/)1 /&,1&+3 ,+& , 3O3'&X
)+ X&'/)1 )* )6&+,'()$F
ThIs cnso IIIusfrnfos fho Imorfnnco of nIyIng
SocfIon l02(b) ns wrIffon. Tho Jnvn mofhod hondors,
whIch onnbIo rogrnmmors fo uso fho fnmIIInr
shorfhnnd commnnds bnsod on fhom, nro corfnInIy n
sysfom or mofhod of oornfIng fho ro-wrIffon
rogrnms of fho Jnvn Inngungo nnd Infform.
AII ngroo fhnf CoogIo wns nnd romnIns froo fo
uso fho Jnvn Inngungo itself. A. l08. Thnf
Inngungo Is mndo u of keywords nnd ofhor symbols
ns woII ns mofhods, a sof of ro-wrIffon rogrnms fo
cnrry ouf vnrIous commands. A. l06. As
dIscussod nbovo, rogrnmmors cnII fho ro-wrIffon
mofhods wIfh shorfhnnd commnnds fhnf work onIy In
soffwnro Infforms fhnf uso fho Jnvn mofhod
hondors. See . 68, eupro.
Tho Socond CIrcuIf (IncIudIng !onrnod Hnnd) Iong
ngo rocognIzod fhnf fhoro Is no exclusive rIghf fo fho
uso of n ubIIshod sysfom of shorthand. Brief
1ngliel S,e., 1nc. t. Ouen, 48 I.2d 555, 556 (2d CIr.
l93l). !ndor Bo/er, n system of condonsIng wrIffon
30

words Info Ioss fhnn fho numbor of Ioffors usunIIy
usod fo soII fhom out couId bo rofocfod, If nf nII,
onIy by Ioffors nfonf nnd nof by copyright. 1J.
(!ndor fho IodornI Circuits nronch, rosumnbIy
fhnf cnso wouId hnvo como ouf dIfforonfIy bocnuso
fhoro Is moro fhnn ono ImngInnbIo sysfom of IngIIsh
shorfhnnd; fhnf nbsurd rosuIf IIIusfrnfos how fnr
from Bo/er fho IodornI CIrcuIf sfrnyod.)
As Oracles fhon-CIO !nrry IIIIson fosfIfIod,
moroovor, |f]ho |Jnvn] APIs nro n commnnd
structure. C.A. A. 2045?. If CoogIo hnd nof
roIIcnfod fho mofhod hondors oxncfIy, codo fhnf usod
fho shorfhnnd commnnds bnsod on fhoso hondors
wouId nof hnvo run on AndroId. See . 9l0, eupro.
CoogIo fook nIns fo roIIcnfo onIy fho oIomonfs
nocossnry fo nIIow rogrnmmors fo uso fho shorfhnnd
commnnds (i.e., If coIod onIy fho mofhod hondors)
nof fho codo fhnf ncfunIIy ImIomonfs or orforms
fho mofhods. A. l09. Comufor rogrnmmors
Invosfmonf of fImo nnd rosourcos In IonrnIng fho
shorfhnnd commnnds confIrms fhnf fho
corrosondIng mofhod hondors, from whIch fho
shorfhnnd commnnds nro dorIvod, consfIfufo or
ombody fho sysfom or mofhod of oornfIng fho ro-
wrIffon rogrnms of fho undorIyIng Infform.
ComnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In concorns confIrm fho
nIIcnbIIIfy of bofh SocfIon l02(b) nnd, In fho
nIfornnfIvo, fho morgor docfrIno. If ono musf uso
socIfIc comufor codo In ordor fo oornfo comufor
rogrnms such ns fho ro-wrIffon rogrnms nf Issuo
horo, fhnf monns, nImosf by dofInIfIon, fhnf fho
coIod codo Is nrf of n sysfom or mofhod of oornfIng
fho rogrnms. See, e.g., Lo/ue, 49 I.3d nf 8l?l8. As
3l

dIscussod nbovo, CoogIo roIIcnfod fho mofhod
hondors so fhnf comufor rogrnmmors couId oornfo
fho ro-wrIffon rogrnms usIng fho fnmIIInr
shorfhnnd commnnds dorIvod from fho hondors. If
CoogIo chnngod fho hondors, fho commnnds wouId
nof succossfuIIy oornfo fho mofhods.
CoyrIghf cnnnof Iock u fhIs sysfom or mofhod
of oornfIon nny moro fhnn If couId Iock u fho
QWI!TY koybonrd. IrossIng n koy on n QWI!TY
koybonrd sonds n commnnd fhnf cnusos n comufor
fo orform n socIfIc funcfIon, such ns drnwIng n Q
on fho scroon. QWI!TY Is fhus bofh n koybonrd
dosIgn nnd n commnnd sfrucfuro for cnusIng
comufors of nII kInds fo roduco Ioffors nnd
symboIsjusf ns fho mofhod hondors nro fho
commnnd sfrucfuro for usIng fho ro-wrIffon
rogrnms In fho Jnvn nnd AndroId Infforms.
OrncIo nnd fho IodornI CIrcuIf hnvo omhnsIzod
fhnf, bocnuso CoogIo roIIcnfod fho mofhod hondors
from onIy 3? of fho Jnvn nckngos, rogrnms wrIffon
In Jnvn for fho Jnvn Infform wIII nof nocossnrIIy run
ns Infondod on fho AndroId Infform. A. 565?.
As fho dIsfrIcf courf obsorvod, howovor, imperfect
InforoornbIIIfy, nnd Oracles nngsf ovor it, onIy
rovo fho oInf by illustrat[ing] fho chnrncfor of fho
commnnd sfrucfuro ns n funcfIonnI sysfom or mofhod
of operation. A. l60.
Thoro Is no dIsufo fhnf CoogIo roIIcnfod fho
mofhod hondors fhnf woro mosf Imorfnnf for mobIIo
dovIcos rocIsoIy bocnuso of fho Iock-In offocf: IIko
comufor usors who nro fnmIIInr wIfh fho QWI!TY
koybonrd Inyouf, rogrnmmors woro nIrondy
nccusfomod fo usIng fho Jnvn shorfhnnd commnnds
32

bnsod on fho hondors. A. 58. Googles docIsIon no/
fo uso moro fhnn If noodod for n mobIIo-dovIco
Infform corfnInIy doos nof exponJ fho scoo of
Oracles coyrIghf rofocfIon, nny moro fhnn n
docIsIon fo omIf fho numbor koys on n koybonrd
wouId mnko n coyrIghf cInIm for QWI!TY moro
InusIbIo.
Indood, fhIs cnso Is n rImo oxnmIo of fho
Imorfnnco of comnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In.
Irogrnmmors hnvo Invosfod sIgnIfIcnnf fImo nnd
offorf In IonrnIng fho Jnvn Inngungo, IncIudIng fho
shorfhnnd commnnds. See . 2, eupro. Iuf now, Iong
nffor Sun Iurod comufor rogrnmmors Info fho Jnvn
communIfy nnd nffor nny nfonf rofocfIon IIkoIy
wouId hnvo oxIrod, Suns succossor OrncIo Is
nffomfIng fo buIId n wnII nround uso of Javas
mofhod hondors. Thnf wouId work rocIsoIy fho
surprise nnd . . . frnud on fho ubIIc fhnf Bo/er
soughf fo rovonf. See l0l !.S. nf l02.
<<<F ;/(3 .,3& %+&3&$'3 , >&94++($N ?4&3'()$ )*
:W9&6'()$,7 <X6)+',$9&F
ThIs cnso Is nn IdonI vohIcIo for consIdorIng fho
quosfIon fhIs Courf frIod fo rosoIvo In Lo/ue. As
dIscussod nbovo, fhIs cnso nIono Is oxcofIonnIIy
Imorfnnf, ns If InvoIvos bofh n ubIquIfous Inforfnco
(fho mofhod hondors of fho Jnvn rogrnmmIng
Inngungo) nnd n roducf roIIod on by mnny mIIIIons
of ooIo dnIIy (fho AndroId Infform).
Moroovor, fho dIsfrIcf courts dofnIIod fncfunI
fIndIngs nnd fho IodornI Circuits IognI nnnIysIs
cIonnIy rosonf fho quosfIon rosonfod. AIfhough fho
IodornI CIrcuIf romnndod for n rofrInI on fnIr uso,
33

fho courf of nonIs dofInIfIvoIy rosoIvod fho
fhroshoId IognI quosfIon rosonfod In fhIs ofIfIon.
Thoro Is no nood fo nwnIf n socond frInI on fnIr uso
boforo consIdorIng fhnf quosfIonosocInIIy
consIdorIng fho rossIng nood for fhIs Courts
rosoIufIon.
Tho docIsIon boIow Is cnsfIng n nII ovor
comufor hnrdwnro nnd soffwnro dovoIomonf. See,
e.g., Vnn !Indborg, Tle Cop,rigl/oIili/, Of AP1e 1n
Tle LonJ Of OpenS/oc/ (20l4), otoiloIle o/ hff://
www.rncksnco.com/bIog/fho-coyrIghfnbIIIfy-of-nIs-
In-fho-Innd-of-oonsfnck/. As hIsfory hns shown, fho
nbIIIfy fo buIId on oxIsfIng Inforfncos In cronfIng now
roducfs nnd sorvIcos Is n crIfIcnI drIvor of InnovnfIon
In fho comufor nnd soffwnro fIoIds.
Whon IIM cronfod fho orsonnI comufor, for
oxnmIo, If dovoIood nn Inforfnco cnIIod fho InsIc
Inuf/Oufuf Sysfom. ComofIfors IIko Comnq nnd
IhoonIx ro-ImIomonfod fhnf sysfom fo cronfo fhoIr
own IIM-comnfIbIo comufors, IncronsIng fho
numbor of choIcos nvnIInbIo fo consumors. See
ChnrIos H. Iorguson & ChnrIos !. MorrIs, Conpu/er
Wore. Tle Poe/-1BM WorlJ 5355 (l994). !nfor,
AIo usod fho ro-oxIsfIng !IX nIIcnfIon
rogrnmmIng Inforfnco In Ifs computers oornfIng
sysfom, nIIowIng rogrnmmors fnmIIInr wIfh !IX fo
wrIfo soffwnro fhnf couId run on Apples InnovnfIvo
comufors. See Joo WIIcox, Will OS Xs Inix Ioo/e
Help Apple Grou:, CIT.com (Mny 2l, 200l).
OrncIo buIIf uon fho !Inux oornfIng sysfom In
much fho snmo wny. See generoll, OrncIo Cor.,
Irequen/l, Ae/eJ Quee/ione, Orocle Linux (20l4),
otoiloIle o/ hff://www.orncIo.com/us/fochnoIogIos/
34

02?6l?.df. And In ordor fo comofo In fho word-
rocossIng fIoId, MIcrosoff ro-ImIomonfod
WordPerfects Inforfnco so fhnf MIcrosoff Word, n
comofIng roducf, couId oon documonfs cronfod In
WordIorfocf. Ir. of Anici Curioe !ncksnco !S, Inc.
e/ ol., nf l2l3, Orocle An., 1nc. t. Google 1nc., kf.
o. ll6, os. l3-l02l, e/ ol. (Iod. CIr. Mny 30, 20l3).
As fhoso oxnmIos show, InnovnfIon doonds on
soffwnro developers nbIIIfy fo nchIovo comnfIbIIIfy
wIfh, nnd buIId on, whnf hns como boforo ns fhoy
cronfo now roducfs nnd sorvIcos.
Tho nood fo uso oxIsfIng Inforfncos wIfhouf fonr
of coyrIghf IInbIIIfy Is ovon moro ossonfInI In todays
Inforconnocfod worId. CIoud comufIng, for oxnmIo,
nIIows usors fo nccoss vIrfunI sforngo fncIIIfIos nnd
rocossIng owor from nnywhoro In fho worId vIn fho
Infornof. See Amnzon Wob SorvIcos, AWS ProJuc/e
& Solu/ione (20l4), otoiloIle o/ hff://nws.nmnzon.
com/. Iocnuso fho mnjor cIoud comufIng rovIdors
(Amnzon, IucnIyfus, nnd CIoudSfnck) uso
comnfIbIo Inforfncos, consumors nro nbIo fo swIfch
Infforms nnd sorvIcos sonmIossIy rognrdIoss of
whIch browsor or oornfIng sysfom fhoy uso. Sfovon
J. Vnughnn-IchoIs, OpenS/oc/ te. ClouJS/oc/. Tle
Beginning of /le Open-Source ClouJ Wore, Zof
(Ar. l2, 20l2), otoiloIle o/ hff://www.zdnof.
com/bIog/oon-sourco/oonsfnck-vs-cIoudsfnck-fho-bo
gInnIng-of-fho-oon-sourco-cIoud-wnrs/l0?63. Thoso
sorvIcos comofo wIfh onch ofhor fo rovIdo fho bosf
ImIomonfnfIons of fho cIoud-sorvIcos Inforfnco; nono
shouId bo onfIfIod fo nn oxcIusIvo rIghf fo uso fho
mofhod of oornfIon IfsoIf.
35

To fnko nnofhor oxnmIo, mIIIIons of ooIo uso n
comufor rogrnm cnIIod WIno fo mnko MIcrosoff
WIndows rogrnms run on dIfforonf oornfIng
sysfoms. WIno works by ro-ImIomonfIng fho
WIndows Inforfnco so fhnf WIndows rogrnms wIII
run on ofhor oornfIng sysfoms. WInoHQ, AIou/
Wine, otoiloIle o/ hff://www.wInohq.org/nbouf/. If
MIcrosoff couId fhronfon WIno wIfh coyrIghf
IInbIIIfy, WIno couId bo shuf down, dorIvIng Ifs
cusfomors of fho nbIIIfy fo run WIndows-bnsod
soffwnro on fhoIr comufors.
omosfIc nnd InfornnfIonnI Inws nIso rofIocf fho
Imorfnnco of rofocfIng fho publics rIghf fo uso
Inforfncos frooIy, wIfhouf rIskIng coyrIghf IInbIIIfy.
Congross hns nufhorIzod reverse engineering for
fho purpose of IdonfIfyIng nnd nnnIyzIng fhoso
oIomonfs of fho rogrnm fhnf nro nocossnry fo
nchIovo InforoornbIIIfy of nn IndoondonfIy cronfod
comufor rogrnm wIfh ofhor programs. l? !.S.C.
l20l(f). Tho Iuroonn !nIons Soffwnro IrocfIvo
sImIInrIy rovIdos n brond oxcofIon from IInbIIIfy for
black box rovorso engineering. CouncII of MInIsfors
IrocfIvo 9l/250/IIC of l4 Mny l99l on fho !ognI
IrofocfIon of Comufor Irogrnms, Arf. 5(3), l99l
O.J. (! l22).
Thoso Inws mnko sonso bocnuso, nffor IdonfIfyIng
nnd nnnIyzIng fho comufor codo fhnf Is nocossnry fo
nchIovo InforoornbIIIfy, dovoIoors nro froo fo uso If,
ns CoogIo dId horo. Indood, fho Iuroonn Unions
hIghosf courf roconfIy hoId fhnf noIfhor fho
funcfIonnIIfy of n comufor rogrnm nor fho
rogrnmmIng Inngungo nnd fho formnf of dnfn fIIos
usod In n comufor rogrnm In ordor fo oxIoIf
36

corfnIn of Ifs funcfIons consfIfufo n form of oxrossIon
of fhnf rogrnm nnd, ns such, nro nof rofocfod by
coyrIghf. SAS 1ne/i/u/e 1nc. t. WorlJ Progronning
L/J. Cnso C-406/l0 ?l, 20l2 I.C.!.I 259, |20l2] 3
C.M.!.!. 4. A confrnry concIusIon wouId amount fo
mnkIng If ossIbIo fo monooIIso Idons, fo fho
dofrImonf of fochnoIogIcnI rogross nnd IndusfrInI
development. 1J. 40.
As fhoso ronI-worId oxnmIos nnd Inws rofIocf,
fho dovoIoor communIfy hns Iong undorsfood fhnf
Inforfncos nro froo for ovoryono fo uso. Thnf
undorsfnndIng hns onnbIod nII of fho InnovnfIon
doscrIbod nbovo, nnd much moro. Tho IodornI
Circuits docIsIon furns fhIs undorsfnndIng on Ifs
hond, bnIknnIzIng comufor Inngungos nnd
Inforfncos, roquIrIng rogrnmmors fo buIId from fho
ground u, rocIudIng InforoornbIIIfy, nnd dorIvIng
consumors of fho bonofIfs of comnfIbIIIfy. Af n bnro
mInImum, fhnf wouId mnko InnovnfIon much cosfIIor
nnd rnIso sovoro bnrrIors fo onfry.
Tho docIsIon boIow nIso InfIIcfs nrfIcuInr nnd
ImmodInfo hnrdshI on smnIIor comnnIos nnd sfnrf-
usmnjor sourcos of jobs nnd InnovnfIon. See TIm
Knno, IwIng MnrIon Knuffmnn IoundnfIon, Tle
1npor/once of S/or/upe in JoI Creo/ion onJ JoI
Dee/ruc/ion 3 (20l0). Thoso sfnrf-us (fho rnnks of
whIch CoogIo, Sun, nnd OrncIo onco woro mombors)
nro chnrncforIzod by oxfrnordInnry cronfIvIfy. Thoy
nro InnovnfIng nII fho fImo, buIIdIng on oxIsfIng
fochnoIogy fo brIng roducfs nnd sorvIcos fo mnrkof.
To nffrncf cusfomors, fhoso now mnrkof onfrnnfs
musf buIId on whnf hns como boforo.
3?

ConsIdor how dIffIcuIf If wouId hnvo boon for
TosIn fo buIId nn oIocfrIc cnr If fho fnmIIInr
nrrnngomonf nnd funcfIons of n sfoorIng whooI,
nccoIornfor, nnd brnko odnI woro rofocfod. Tho
Jnvn mofhod hondors nnd shorfhnnd commnnds
dorIvod from fhom nro fo todays soffwnro
rogrnmmors ns fhoso sfnndnrd confroIs nro fo
todays drIvorscrucInI mofhods for oornfIng n
comIox sysfom.
oIny In rosoIvIng fhIs Issuo wouId mngnIfy fho
hnrm cnusod by fho docIsIon boIow by ImnIrIng
Imorfnnf InnovnfIon now In fho fnsf-movIng, hIgh-
fochnoIogy socfor. Jusf Insf Torm, fhIs Courf grnnfod
rovIow of nn Imorfnnf coyrIghf cnso ovon fhough
fhoro wns no cIrcuIf sIIf, nnd bnroIy nny orcoInfIon
In fho courfs of nonIs, bocnuso of fho nood for n
fImoIy ruIIng. See An. BrooJ. Coe. t. Aereo, 1nc., l34
S. Cf. 2498 (20l4). ThIs cnso Is no Ioss Imorfnnf, ns
confIrmod by fho fIIIng of oIovon onicue brIofs by
dozons of onici (on bofh sIdos) In fho courf of
nonIs. IsocInIIy consIdorIng fho cIonr nnd woII-
rocognIzod cIrcuIf sIIf on fhIs Issuo, nnd fho fncf
fhnf fhIs Courf hns nIrondy rocognIzod fho issues
corfworfhInoss by grnnfIng rovIow In Lo/ue, fho
Courf shouId rosoIvo fhIs Imorfnnf nnd rossIng
Issuo now.
.#=.C02<#=
Tho ofIfIon for n wrIf of corfIornrI shouId bo
grnnfod.
38

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