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Overarching Theme - Homeostasis


NUTRIENTS The Building Blocks of Life
Big Idea Organisms are made up of carbon-based molecules, simply stated, the
amazing diversity of life is based on the incredible variety of carbon compounds.

Macromolecules
- giant molecules made from thousands of smaller molecules joining together in process called
polymerization = monomers join together to make polymers

-

- Biological macromolecules (a.k.a. nutrients) include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

I. CARBOHYDRATES (end in ose)

A) Functions
Largest and fastest source of energy
Generally the largest component of diet
Except for plants, living things cannot produce
If not used, turn into fat storage

B) Structure
Made of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)

C) Types
1) Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
A. one single molecule (e.g. C
6
H
12
O
6
glucose)
B. can be straight chain or ring structure

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C. Examples
1) Glucose
Most common
Primary energy source
Naturally found in honey

2) Fructose
From fruits
Sweeter than glucose

3) Galactose
Found in milk


2) Disaccharides (double sugars)
A. Function
The primary function of disaccharides is as a nutritional source of
monosaccharides. Many of the sugars found in foodstuffs are
disaccharides.

B. Structure
Two simple sugar molecules linked, monomers (monosaccharides) link
together to make polymers (disaccharides or polysaccharides)
See Figure 4-14 pg. 72

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C. Examples
1) Sucrose
Made of glucose and fructose
Common table sugar
Brown sugar is less refined

2) Lactose
Made of glucose and galactose
Found in milk

3) Maltose
Made of glucose and glucose
Found in beer

3) Polysaccharides
A) Function
Energy storage units
Structural support

B) Structure
Many monosaccharide molecules linked in long chains

C) Examples
1) Starch
Plant polysaccharide
Found in bread, pasta, potatoes
Long chain with branches

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2) Cellulose
From cell wall of plants
Cannot be digested by humans. Called fibre or roughage.
Made of many glucose units linked together in alternating bonding
pattern.


II. LIPIDS (fats, oils and waxes)
A) Functions
1. Supply energy
2. Excellent energy storage compound
3. Carry fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K)
4. Insulation and protection of organs
5. Provides structure and function of cell membrane

B) Structure

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Made of C, H and O
Insoluble in water
Most common type composed of glycerol and three fatty acids called triglyceride (see
page 73)

C) Types
i) Saturated
Animal fat
No double bonds
Firmer, used for frying

ii)Unsaturated
Plant oils
Contain at least 1 carbon-carbon double bond, therefore less H so, unsaturated
in terms of # of H
Most are liquid at room temperature
Do not clump together as easily due to double bonds, therefore less likely to clog
arteries = healthier

D) Steroids
i) Cholesterol

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2 types
o HDL = good cholesterol
o LDL = bad (artery clogging) cholesterol
Formed from fat
High levels can cause heart disease
Needed in body to make hormones (chemical messengers)

ii) Anabolic Steroids
Mimic the hormone testosterone
Side effects are many
o In men, too much testosterone leads to the development of estrogen (female
hormone), this causes hair loss, development of breasts and shrinking of testes.
o In women, the opposite is true so women taking steroids may experience facial
hair growth and lowering of voice.
o For both genders, may also experience
roid rage, mood swings, halt of growth, infertility, heart and kidney disease.

III. PROTEINS
A) Functions
Structural parts of a cell (e.g. mitochondria, ribosomes)
Building new cells and repairing damage (e.g. RBCs replaced at 1,000,000/sec)
Enzymes (biological catalysts)
Muscles, nerves, skin, hair

B) Structure
Monomer is amino acids, these link together with peptide bonds to make proteins
(polymer)
i) Amino Acids
Made of C, H, O and N




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The R-Group section is what distinguishes one a.a. from another, like its fingerprint
Proteins can be as small as 8 a.a. linked together or as large as 1000 a.a.
There are 20 types of a.a., they can be linked together in different ways, this makes a
huge variety of proteins
Shape of protein depends on interactions between a.a., 4 levels of structure possible,
including helix and pleat forms

IV. NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA and RNA)
A) Functions
Makes up chromosomes found in nucleus of eukaryotic cells
In single loops in prokaryotic cells
Store and transmit genetic information
Duplicate during cell division

B) Structure
Made of C, H, O, N and P
Made of nucleotides (monomers)
Components are
o 5 carbon sugar ring
o Phosphate group
o Nitrogen bases
4 types
Purines: adenine, guanine (double ring)
Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine (single ring), in RNA uracil
used instead of thymine





C) Types
1) RNA Ribonucleic Acid
Single stranded

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Acts as a messenger for the nucleus, carries information from DNA to
ribosomes to make proteins
Contains ribose sugar and uracil instead of thymine

2) DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Spiral and arranged in a double helix (sort of like a twisted ladder)
Contains deoxyribose sugar
Displays complementary base pairing, GCAT, guanine always pairs with
cytosine and adenine always pairs with thymine


Confirm your learning Complete Chemicals of Life, Nutrient Structures and Nucleic
Acids worksheets

Connection to Biological Theme Explain how each of the biological macromolecules discussed
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) contributes to maintaining cellular homeostasis.
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Connection to Biological Theme Explain how each of the biological macromolecules discussed
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) contributes to maintaining cellular homeostasis.
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Carbohydrates
Cells need energy to move things in/out/around cell and to perform other functions such as
reproduction
Sugars broken down during cellular respiration to make ATP, need an input of ATP to make
more ATP
Lipids
Cells have a phospholipid cell membrane, so lipids help maintain shape/protection/form of cell
itself, with no cell membrane would have no cell.
Insulation to maintain proper temperature inside cells. Protection for cell to prevent damage if
it moves through body, like RBCs and WBCs
Proteins
Provide structure of cell, amino acids link together to create specific proteins needed for cell to
perform its jobs.
Also involved in repair, if cell is damaged in some way and in growth, so that cell can grow and
divide.
Nucleic Acids
Contain instructions for what the cell does and what it looks like cell function and activity.
Ensures continuity of species through cell division. DNA replicates each time a cell divides to
provide a template/give instructions.