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ChE 514L: Chemical Engineering Lab II

Experimental Report

Course Number and Name:
ChE 514L
Chemical Engineering Laboratory II
Semester and Year:
1
st
Semester AY 2014-2015
Name of Team Leader:
Bilog, Josef Antonio
Name of Lab Instructor:
Asst. Pro. Carol !. Encarna"o
Lab Section and Meeting Time:
5 ChE C# $%00-11%00 am# &ri"ay
Experiment Number:
E1
Title of Experiment:
Se"imentation
Date of Experiment Performed:
A'g'st # 2014
Team No: !
Team Members:
(e )es's# !e"rell
&a'stino# !a. Chamille *.
!ar+'e,# !ar- Angelo S.
.'ano# /annah !ae C.
Date of "eport Submitted:
A'g'st 20# 2014
#rade:
Abstract (15 pts)
Objectives (5 pts)
Theory & Methos (15
pts)
!es"lts & #isc"ssion
($% pts)
&oncl"sions (5 pts)
!eferences (1% pts)
Appenices (1% pts)
$inal Score:
Instructor Comments:
%&ST"%CT
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* #e Jes"s, Merell &+, -econary &ontrib"tors* .a"stino, Ma+ &ha)ille /
*atch se"imentation is the 1rocess o se1arating a li+'i" mi2t're o s's1en"e" 1articles
into clear s'1ernatant li+'i" an" "enser sl'rry ha3ing a higher concentration o soli"s.
.his is accom1lishe" by "ecreasing the 3elocity o the sol3ent 45ater6 being treate" to a
1oint belo5 5hich 1articles 5ill no longer remain in s's1ension. 7hen soli"s "i'se
thro'gh the interace# settling 1rocess starts rom sl'rry an" 1res'me" to a11roach
terminal 3elocities 'n"er hin"ere" settling con"itions. 7ith this# se3eral ,ones o
concentration 5ill be establishe". .hro'gh this e21eriment# the eect o initial
concentration an" initial height o the sl'rry on its settling characteristics is "etermine".
8ra1hical "emonstration is 'se" in the e21eriment in or"er to analy,e the relationshi1
bet5een the height o the interace an" time. *ase" on the res'lts 1ro3i"e"# it sho5s that
the height o the interace is in3ersely relate" 5ith time. Also# the se"imentation rate can
be aecte" by the "ierent 1arameters li-e the initial concentration o soli"s 4CaC9:6
an" its a3erage si,e 1article. As the se"imentation contin'es# heights o each ,one 3ary
an" the 1oint at 5hich a single "istinct interace orms bet5een the s'1ernatant li+'i"
an" soli"s 5ill be reache".
'&(ECTI)E %ND INT"'D*CTI'N
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* .a"stino, Ma+ &ha)ille B+, -econary &ontrib"tors* Mar0"e1, Mar2 Angelo -+/
The objective of this e3peri)ent is to eter)ine the behavior of settling velocity
as the sei)entation process procees+ The e3peri)ent also intene to eter)ine the
effect of sl"rry concentration 4ith particle settling velocity 4as also st"ie+ The
e3peri)ent ai)e to observe the relationship of settling ti)e 4ith initial sl"rry height, as
4ell as 4ith sl"rry concentration+
Introduction
-ei)entation is one of the )ethos "se in in"stry to separate li0"i5li0"i or
soli5li0"i )i3t"res+ The separation of a il"te sl"rry or s"spension by gravity settling
into a clear fl"i an sl"rry of higher solis content is calle -ei)entation '1/+
Applications of settling an sei)entation incl"e re)oval of solis fro) li0"i
se4age 4asters, settling of crystals fro) the )other li0"or, separation of li0"i5li0"i
)i3t"re fro) a solvent5e3traction stage in a settler+ -ettling of soli foo particles fro) a
li0"i foo an settling of sl"rry fro) a soybean leaching process+ The particles can be
soli particles or li0"i rops '6/+
7n so)e processes of sei)entation p"rpose is to re)ove the particles fro) the
fl"i strea) so that the fl"i is free of particle conta)inants+ 8hen a particle is at a
s"fficient istance fro) the 4alls of the container an fro) other particles so that its fall
is not affecte by the), the process is calle free settling+ 8hen the particles are
cro4e, they settle at a lo4er rate an the process is calle hinere setting '1/+
1
T+E'"Y %ND E,PE"IMENT%L MET+'DS
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* Mar0"e1, Mar2 Angelo -+, -econary &ontrib"tors* T"ano, 9annah Mae &+/
T-eor.
-ei)entation is the process 4here the 4ater has little or no )ove)ent an the
s"spene solis settle to the botto) "ner the force of gravity an for) sei)ents+ As
sei)entation contin"o"s, 1ones are for)e ':/+
$igure / &atc- Sedimentation
The fig"re above sho4s the 1ones in batch sei)entation+ At first, the solis are
4ell istrib"te in the li0"i+ After a short perio of ti)e, s"spension 1one or s"spension
interface (B) is for)e+ 7t is the point separating the constant co)position 1one an the
clear li0"i+ The clear li0"i (A) is the 1one free of particles+ &larification refers
specifically to the f"nction of a sei)entation tan2 in re)oving s"spene )atter fro)
the 4ater to give a clarifie effl"ent+ 7n a broaer sense, clarification co"l incl"e
flotation an filtration+
As ti)e pass by, solis contin"e to settle an the thic2ene 1one (#) an the
transition 1one (&) are for)e+ &oncentrate i)p"rities 4ithra4n fro) the botto) of
sei)entation tan2s are calle sl"ge, 4hile )aterial that floats to the top of the tan2 is
calle sc")+ The clear li0"i (A) an the thic2ene 1one (#) contin"es to increase 4ith
ti)e, "ntil the transition 1one isappears, an thic2ene 1one (#) an the clear li0"i (A)
are left+ The acc")"lation of solis p"ts stress on the )aterial at the botto) 4hich leas
to co)pression of solis in the thic2ene 1one+ 8hen the 4eight of the solis is balance
by the co)pressive force, the settling process stops+ ;ote that as the interface of the
particles )oves o4n an sl"ge b"ils "p, t4o levels beco)es e0"al, critical point is
reache+
.or a rigi particle )oving in a fl"i, there are three forces acting on the boy*
gravity, b"oyant an resistance or rag force acting in opposite irection to the particle
)otion+ (<ean2oplis 6%16)+ B"oyant force, .b, is the "p4ar force e3erte by the fl"i on
the particle+ The b"oyant force, .b in ; on the particle is (<ean2oplis 6%16)
5here m;<1 is the 3ol'me =1 in m
:
o the 1article an" g is the gra3itational acceleration in m;s
2
.
6
The gravitation or e3ternal force .g in ; on the particle is given by ;e4ton=s >a4 as
(<ean2oplis 6%16)
The rag force .# on a boy in ; )ay be erive fro) the fact that, as in flo4 of fl"is,
the rag force or frictional resistance is proportional to the velocity hea v
6
?6 of the fl"i
isplace by the )oving boy an is given by the e0"ation '1/
5here C( is the "imensionless "rag coeicient# an" is 3elocity hea".
The rag coefficient is a f"nction of !eynols n")ber+ 7n the la)inar5flo4 region, calle
the -to2e=s la4 region for ;!e @ 1, is given by '1/
0/1
5here > is the 3iscosity o the li+'i" in Pa?s or -g;m?s 4lbm;t?s6 @1A
The constant5velocity perio is "s"ally of )ore i)portance, as the accelerate fall perio
is very short relative to the constant velocity perio+ 7n the constant rate perio, the
particles reach a )a3i)") settling velocity 2no4n as the terminal 3elocity, vt + The
terminal 3elocity is eter)ine by solving the velocity at 4hich the s") of the three
forces is e0"al to 1ero+ <ean2oplis gives the e0"ation for the ter)inal velocity of spheres
as '1/
.or spherical particles m= D
3
p

p
/6 an A = D
2
p
/4+ -"bstit"te to obtain spherical
particles,
021
5here is the Particle (iameter @1A
A0"ation 6 gives the ter)inal velocity for free settling 4herein a particle is at a s"fficient
istance a4ay fro) the 4all an other particles+ .or s"ch hinere flo4, the settling
velocity is less than 4o"l be calc"late fro) A0"ation 6 for -to2e=s >a4+ The tr"e rag
force is greater in the s"spension beca"se of the interference of the other particles '1/+
:
The ter)inal velocity beco)es a f"nction of B, the vol")e fraction of the sl"rry )i3t"re
occ"pie by the li0"i+ -everal correlations have been evelope to analy1e settling
velocity for hinere settling, an their )ethos an erivations are beyon the scope of
this e3peri)ent+
Experimental Met-od
$igure 2 %rmfield 32 Sedimentation %pparatus
Before starting the e3peri)ent, o"ble chec2 the height of li0"i of the prepare
sol"tions to )a2e s"re the sol"tions prepare are correct+ -4itch on the light of the
apparat"s an caref"lly re)ove the t"bes 4ith ifferent concentrations of sol"tions fro)
the stan+ The light 4ill help yo" in isting"ishing the phases or 1ones+ Tilt the t"bes
fro) sie to sie "ntil the sol"tions beco)e ho)ogeno"s+ it 4as note to hol the li or
stopper of the t"be to prevent the sol"tion fro) spilling+ After reaching "nifor)ity, the
t"bes are )o"nte+ The ti)e an the height of the 1ones are note every t4o (6) )in"tes
an then aj"ste to 1% )in"tes "ntil height of the thic2ene 1one oesn=t change+ After
6$ ho"rs, the height of the thic2ene 1one 4as also recore+
"ES*LTS %ND DISC*SSI'N
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* Bilog, Josef Antonio M+, -econary &ontrib"tors* #e Jes"s, Merell &+/
Base on the gathere ata, at a short perio of t4o )in"te ti)e intervals,
particles in 4ater phase are 4ell isperse at its flocc"late s"spension initial state base
on the nat"re of the &a&O: particles s"spene in 4ater+ Abo"t C )in"tes, clear
$
s"pernatant above the s"rface is seen 4hile in the )ile interface, it re)ains clo"y an
ca2e is for)e at the botto)+
$igure 4 +eig-t of interface 5ersus time 06it- c-anging concentrations1
As sho4n in the fig"re above, one para)eter that co"l affect the characteristic of the
sei)entation process is the concentration of &a&O:+ The c"rve 4ith higher
concentration has longer ti)e to reach the critical point, 4here there is )ini)al
ifference in the height+ The ensity an viscosity of the s"bsiing particles increases at
this point, th"s )a2ing the sei)entation hinere settling+
$igure ! +eig-t interface 5ersus time 06it- different initial -eig-ts1
.ig"re sho4s the initial height an concentrations of the sl"rry co"l affect the settling
characteristic+ The higher the initial heights, the longer the free settling rates of the
sei)ents are+ This is a free settling process "e to larger space for the particles 4ith
higher initial heights, th"s proviing larger area for the interaction or )ove)ent of
particles+
5
Also, one factor affecting the sei)entation process is particle si1e ia)eter+ The for)e
flocs 4ill ca"se an increase in sei)entation rate "e to increase in si1e of the
sei)enting particles+ Th"s, the final vol")e of the sei)ent is relatively large+ .ig"re
belo4 sho4s the relationship of concentration 4ith the rate of sei)entation at constant
height+
$igure 7 Concentration 5ersus sedimentation rate
C'NCL*SI'NS
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* .a"stino, Ma+ &ha)ille B+, -econary &ontrib"tors* Mar0"e1, Mar2 Angelo -+/
Base on all the ata an graphs gathere fro) the e3peri)ent, 4e concl"e that
the initial concentration an height of the sl"rry affects its sei)entation characteristics+
7n partic"lar, increasing the initial height of the sl"rry 4o"l also increase the settling
ti)e neee to reach the final height an increase the settling velocity+ The relationship
bet4een the heights of interface of sl"rry vers"s ti)e is inversely proportional+ 7t can also
be concl"e that increasing the initial )i3t"re concentration ecreases the settling
velocity of the particles before the co)pression settling 1one+ As the sl"rry go o4n, the
operation goes to hinere settling as there is a transition perio as the sl"rry an sl"ge
beco)e "nifor)ly concentrate together+ T4o factors that also affect the rate bet4een
heights of interface vers"s ti)e are the average particle si1e an b"l2 ensity an
viscosity this is beca"se of asorption of particles+ 8hile in the co)pression settling
1one, the higher concentrations 4o"l res"lt to higher settling velocities+ That is 4hy
&a&O: sei)ent co)pacts )"ch longer 4hen there is higher concentration of it insie
the cyliner s"ch as the first cyliner 4hich has 1%D concentration of &a&O: higher than
the concentrations of other cyliners+
E
"ecommendation
#"ring the co"rse of the e3peri)ent, vario"s proble)s 4ere enco"ntere that )ay
lea to slight errors+ These proble)s 4ere "s"ally proble)s of )eas"re)ent+ The rear
panel sho"l be transl"cent eno"gh in orer for the st"ents to have a clear observation of
the settling sei)ents in the sei)entation t"be+
"E$E"ENCES
@1A <ean2oplis, &+J+, Princi1les o .rans1ort Processes an" Se1aration Processes#
(rentice 9all+, 6%16, pp+ F1F5 F:6+
@2A Mc&abe, 8+>+ Bnit 91erations o Chemical Engineering, G
th
e+, ;e4 Hor2, ;+H+*
Mc<ra459ill, 6%%5, pp+ 1%555 1%E5+
@:A Angineering ->, IAngineering* 7t=s a >earning & 7nfor)ative blog for
Angineering,J htt1%;;engrsl.blogs1ot.com;2012;04;se"imentation.html
G
%PPENDICES
% Sample Calculations 08 points1 9 Team Member 4 : !
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* Mar0"e1, Mar2 Angelo -+, -econary &ontrib"tors* T"ano, 9annah Mae &+/
& "a6 Data Tables
'(ri)ary &ontrib"tor* Bilog, Josef Antonio M+/
;<< mm =<<mm 7<< mm
/<> CaC'4 =7> CaC'4 7> CaC'4 7>CaC'4 7> CaC'4
TIME
SL*""Y SL*D#E SL*""Y SL*D#E SL*""Y SL*D#E SL*""Y SL*D#E SL*""Y SL*D#E
6 CF5
CE
GG% $% EC% 6$ $G% $6 $1% 1C
$ GC$ E: E6$ 5% $5% 6C 66C $% 6GC 6%
E 5EG GE 5%G 5F 6EC :1 :F :$ 1GC 6:
C $GG C$ :FF EE FF :1 :G :1 CC 6:
1% :EG F$ 6FC G: :1 :1 :5 6F 6C+5 1C
16 6F1 1%% 1F$ C% :% 6E :5 6C 6G+5 66
1$ 1C5 1%$ C5+5 CE+5 :% 6E :$ 6G 6G 61
1E 16E 115 C1 G5 :% 6: :$ 6E 6G 61
1C 11$ 1%G C% G: 6F 6: :6 6E 6G 61
6% 111 1%5 GC G% 6F 6: :6 6E 6G 61
66 11% 1%: GG EF 6F 6: :6 6E 6G 61+5
6$ 1%F 1%6 GE EF+5 6C+5 6: :6 6G 6G 6:
6E 1%C 1%1 G5 EC 6C+5 6: :6 6G 6G 6:
6C 1%G 1%% G$ EG 6C 65 :6 6G 6E 6:
:% 1%E FF G: EE+5 6C 65 :6 6G 6E 6:
:6 1%5 FC G6+5 EE 6C 65 :6 6G 6E 6$
:$ 1%$ FG G6 E5+5 6C 65 :6 6G 6E 6$
:E 1%: FE G1 E5 6F+5 65 :6 6C 6E 6$
:C 1%6 F5 G%+5 E$+5 6F+5 65 :6 6C 6E 6$
$% 1%1 F$ G% E$ 6F+5 6: :6 6C 6E 6$
$6 FF F:+5 EF+5 E: 6F 6: 6E 6$
$$ FG F1 EF E: 6F 6: 6E 6$
$E FE+5 F%+5 EC+5 E6 6F 6: 6$ 6$
$C FE F% EC E1+5 6G 6: 6$ 6$
C
PEER EVALUATIO !OR"
ote: .his orm m'st be ille" o't by each st'"ent an" s'bmitte" to the lab instr'ctor
se1arately rom the lab re1ort.
Course Name: ?????????????????????????????????????
Date of Experiment: ????????????????????????????????
% Self E5aluation
a "ate Your '5erall Contribution to t-is Pro@ectA 07BCe. contributionsA
/Blittle contributions1
5 $ : 6 1
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