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Confidential Information
This document contains information which is copyrighted and confidential to companies
forming the Weir Minerals Division and/or KHD Humboldt Wedag International AG.
It should not be disclosed in whole or in part to parties other than the recipient without the
express written permission of Weir Minerals Division authorized personnel
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HPGR Familiarization Seminar
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Roller Press or HPGR
(High Pressure Grinding Rolls)
An Alternative Grinding Circuit
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High Pressure Grinding Rolls are Not roll crushers!
High Pressure Grinding Rolls are Not Sizers!
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High Pressure Grinding Rolls are:
High Pressure Grinding Rolls, also known as Roller
Presses, utilize the principle of high pressure inter-
particle comminution to grind various types of ore,
industrial minerals, or clinker for cement production.
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How does an HPGR work
The Roller Press operates under the principle of high pressure inter-particle
comminution, a process patented by Prof. K. Schnert of Clausthal University in
Germany in 1977
Wednesday, November 27,
2013
Chart 5
Cement Clinker Cracked Alite Crystal
Principle of high pressure comminution
Multiple point contacts by particles on a
particle: Interparticle comminution
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How does an HPGR work
As the material feeds between the rollers,
the particle bed is compressed to 85% of
the solid density of the material.
This compression is achieved by forcing
the material between two counter rotating
rolls at a high pressure. The peak
pressure reaches up to 300 Mpa, which
exceeds the compressive strength of the
feed material.
300 Mpa is equivalent to 3000 bar or
43,500 PSI.
For example: Granite (100140 MPa or
15,00020,000 psi).
Wednesday, November 27,
2013
Chart 6
Choke Feed
Edge-Effects
Wear Surface with
Hardmetal Studs
Peak Pressure
Flake Product
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HPGR Flake or Cake:
Flake Diameter 50-80 mm Flake Thickness 20-
25 mm
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What Is HPGR Crushing/Grinding?
HPGR: High Pressure Grinding Rolls
Typical Plant Installation
Video of HPGR Function, Laboratory Scale
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How are HPGRs Sized?
Basic Test Work is performed on a sample at a test facility:
Specific Throughput is the same and the M-Dot used by other manufactures
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The Specific figures are determined:
Specific Force = 3.86 N/mm^
2
Specific Throughput = 238 t*s/hr*m^
3
Specific Power = 1.70 KwH/t
Achieved PSD: P80 of 5.8 mm in single pass open circuit
From this Specific information, the HPGR can be sized:
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HPGR for 2000 MTPH Open Circuit:
Q = 238 * 2.2 Meter * 2 Meter * 2 Meters/ second
Q = 2094 MTPH
3.86 N/mm^2 * 2200 *2000 = 16,984,000 or about 17 mega newtons
So RPS 16 or RPS 20 will be OK
1.7 KwH/Mt * 2000 * 1.15 SF = 3910 KW
Note: Scale up factors are involved in sizing the machines from the
pilot data, so the above is a simplification. (Bigger machine
performance changes due to the diameter and width relationships.)
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Animation of the HPGR RPS Series:
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HPGR
What are the benefits
of HPGR in the comminution circuit?
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1. Capacity
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High material throughput rates at comparable capital outlay.
HPGR Model Throughput Range
*
MTPH MTPD
Pilot unit: (80/25) 30 -80 720 - 1920
RP 3.6: (120/63) 100-320 2400 - 7680
RP 5.0: (120/120) 200-750 4800 - 18000
RP S 7: (140/110) 300-900 7200 - 21600
RP S 10: (140/140) 400-1100 9600 - 27400
RP S 13: (170/140) 500-1500 12000 - 36000
RP S 16: (170/180) 650-2100 15600 - 50400
RP S 20: (220/200) 900-2900 16000 - 69600
RP S 25: (260/240) 1800-4200 43600 - 100800
*Throughput range is dependent on the application, requirements, type, and characteristics of the ore being processed.
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2. Ease of Installation and Operation
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The HPGR can compete with SAG Mill Circuits.
The lower the Axb ratio, drives a project to consider HPGR versus SAG
SAG Mills have comparable capital cost for installation.
SAG Mills are difficult to operate. and affected by many variables.
SAG Mills require grinding media which varies in quality and is costly.
SAG Mill liner life is short due to the need for steel alloys.
SAG Mills are noisy.
SAG Mill Circuits typically benefit from pre-crushing or pebble crushing
and therefore require additional conveying and crushing equipment.
(Many times a retro-fit after design goals are not met.)
Sag Mills are power intensive.
But HPGR circuits require at least 2 stages of crushing, so a
secondary crushing circuit needs to be considered in the capital
cost.
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3. High Size Reduction
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High size reduction is the result of inter-particle comminution
at high pressure
10 to 15 % in
1mm size
40 to 45 % in
1 mm size
HPGR
produces 10
to 20% in the -
125 micron
range
Similar to
SAG or RM
Discharge
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4. Energy Reduction
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Basic Comminution Alternatives
1 - 1.5 kWh/t 6 - 10 kWh/t 10 - 20 kWh/t
ROM - 25 to 200 m
- 1.0 m - 200 mm - 10 mm
1 - 1.5 kWh/t 1.5 - 2.0 kWh/t 1.5 - 3.0 kWh/t 7 - 17 kWh/t
ROM - 200 mm - 55 mm - 6 mm - 25 to 200 m
- 1.0 m
SAG: 17.5 to 31.5 KWH/MT, Avg: 24.5
HPGR: 11.5 to 23.5 KWH/MT, Avg: 17.5
Advantage: 7 KWH/MT
@ $0.05/KWH
& 100,000 MTPD
$35,000 per day or $13 Million
per year
If power is diesel generated at $0.30 to $0.40 per KWH, you can understand that the
power savings becomes much more significant!
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5. Replacement Wear Costs
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Lower wear materials cost per ton of ore ground.
Replacement of rolls are the primary wear elements.
Average cost per ton ranges from $0.50 to $1.00 per ton, depending
on the abrasiveness of the ore being ground.
Wear life ranges from 5000 hours to 40,000 hours.
Replacement time frame is 24 hours on RPS designs
.
One Example: Pebble crushing application in Upper Michigan
averages 16,000 hours per set. (Highly abrasive pebbles!)
Wear life is extended when a good autogenous coating of the rolls
is achieved during operation.
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6. Bond Work Index Reduction
Work = Wbi *
10
SQRT(P80)
-
10
SQRT(F*80)
Work is the work required to grind or from the F80 to the P80 and is in KWH/Ton
Wbi is the Bond Work Index as derived from standard Bond Work Index Test
P80 Is the Product 80% passing size.
F80 is the Feed 80% passing size.
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Reduction in Bond Work Index.
Micro-fracturing of ore is achieved due to the high compressive
forces imparted by HPGR.
Depending on the ore type, Wi can be significantly reduced.
Some ore show little improvement, whereas others show significant
improvement.
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HPGR Product - Reduction of Bond Work Index
Material
Copper
Ore
Material 1 :
Material 2 :
Material 3 :
Material 4 :
Gold
Ore
Material 1 :
Material 2 :
Iron Ore Material 1 :
HPGR Feed
Material
15.84
17.02
17.30
19.13
10.99
16.71
14.40
HPGR
Product
13.94
15.36
13.70
15.60
9.37
15.59
13.40
Reduction
(%)
12.0
9.8
20.8
18.5
14.7
6.7
6.9
Bond Index Wi
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7. Mineral Liberation Advantage
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High Pressure Grinding
Promotes Liberation Along Grain Boundaries.
Recovery improvements have been observed in:
Flotation Circuits
Leaching Circuits
Gravity Circuits
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HPGR Benefits: Liberation
Better mineral grain liberation is achieved by inter-particle crushing mechanism.
HPGR improves liberation because it breaks ore along grain boundaries.
Conventional Crushed Particle
HPGR Crushed Particle
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Copper Ore After High Pressure Treatment
Effect of High Pressure Treatment
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Optimum Recovery
Achieved @ 45 Bar
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HPGR Potential Improvement of Operating Parameters Wolfgang Baum - Freeport
Increase
or
Reduction
(%)
80
60
40
20
0
100
Capacity
Power Steel
Wear
Bond WI
+
-
-
-
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Clean gangue
HPGR produces
Uniform nuggets
Ball Milling produces
flat nuggets
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Gravity Gold Recovery
At Bendigo:
HPGR improved gravity recovery from 65% to 85%
(even as high as mid 90s%)
Small improvements in recovery can equate to huge increases in
revenue which could far outweigh saving due to power, labor and
maintenance combined!
Improvements like that shown for Bendigo would equate to huge
margin increase!
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Application of HPGR in Mining Circuits
The following are examples of the application of HGPR technology
in comminution flow sheet.
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Process Application
~ < 1200 mm
~ < 350 mm
~ < 60 mm
To Downstream Process
~ 80% < 60 Mesh (250 m)
Tertiary Crushing of Ore
(Copper)
Single Pass
Grinding
~ 80% < 8 mm
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Process Application
~ < 60 mm
~ 80% < 8 mm
To Downstream
Process
Grinding with Edge Recirculation
Edge material recycle
View of Edge Recycle Chutes
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Process Application Closed Circuit operation
~ < 60 mm
~ > 5 mm
To Downstream Process or
Finished Product
Alternative to
Downstream Process
100% minus 5 mm
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Process Application
Grinding Excess AG Mill Pebbles
(Taconite)
- 250 mm
-63, +12.5 mm
- 1.2 mm
Tailings
-38 mm
Mag. Sep.
- 25 m
-12, +1.2 mm
SOS
SUS
Edge Recycle Option
Screen
Option
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Process Application
Mixing
Balling Drum
Green Pellets
Binder
Beneficiation
Magnetite Concentrate from Beneficiation Plant
~ 2100 Blaine
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11/27/2013 42
CMH, Chile: Tertiary
Crushing of Iron Ore
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11/27/2013 43
Design data of ROLLER PRESS 16-170 /
180
Company / Location: CMH / Chile
Feed material: Coarse iron ore
Feed size: 0 to 63.5 mm
Final grain size: < 6.35 mm (75 to 80 %)
Throughput: 2,000 t/h
Spec. energy cons.: < 1.2 kWh/t
Spec. press force: 5.0 N/mm (max.)
Power draw: 2 x 1,800 kW
Status of rolls wearlife: > 14,600
operating hours
CMH, Chile: Tertiary
Crushing of Iron Ore
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Pictures from CAP
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Nurkazgan, Kazakhstan
Porphyry Copper Ore
Start-Up 2007
2-Stage Operation
1.7 m Diameter
1.4 m Width
980 tph
CC with 45 % Product Split
Dewatering
Ball Mill
Scrubber
Stockpile
Crushed Ore
Tertiary Crusher
HPGR Stage II
Product
Splitter
- 200 m to Flotation
HPGR Stage I
Product
Splitter
Fines Bypass
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Plant Feed
350 mm
Ball Mill
Storage Bunkers
Primary Crushing
- 74 m to Flotation
HPGR
Product
Splitter
Secondary Crushing
Knelson
HPGR Feed Bin
Product Recycle
Vasilkovka, Kazakhstan
Gold Ore
Start-Up 2009
2 parallel lines
1.7 m Diameter
1.8 m Width
1,300 tph
CC with 60 % Product Split
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11/27/2013 47
Design data of ROLLER PRESS 10-170/140
Company / Location: Argyle Diamonds
Mine, Australia
Feed material: coarse Kimberlite
Feed size: 5 to 25 mm
Final grain size: 39 % < 1.18 mm
84 % < 10 mm
Throughput: 804 t/h
Spec. energy cons.: < 1.7 kWh/t
Spec. press force: 3.0 N/mm
(max. 5.0 N/mm)
Motor size: 2 x 950 kW
Status of rolls wearlife: 6,400 operating h
Argyle, Australia: Quarternary
Crushing of Kimberlite
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11/27/2013 48
Empire Mine: Pebble
Crushing of Iron Ore
32
Autogenous
Mill
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11/27/2013 49
Design data of ROLLER PRESS 7-140 / 80
Company / Location: Empire Mine,
Cleveland Cliffs / USA
Feed material: Hard iron ore pebbels
(Taconite)
Feed size: 0 to 63.5 mm
Final grain size: < 2.5 mm (50 %)
Throughput: 400 t/h
Spec. energy cons.: < 1.7 kWh/t
Spec. press force: 5.0 N/mm (max.)
Power draw: 2 x 670 kW
Status of rolls wearlife: 16,000 operating hr
Empire Mine: Pebble
Crushing of Iron Ore
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Kudremukh, India:
Grinding of Pellet Feed
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11/27/2013 51
Design data of ROLLER PRESS 7-140 / 110
Company / Location: Kudremukh / India
Feed material: iron ore pellet feed
after ball mills
Feed moisture: 10.5 %
Feed size: 1,500 Blaine (< 0.5 mm)
Final grain size: 1,900 Blaine
Throughput: 550 t/h
Spec. energy cons.: < 2.2 kWh/t
Spec. press force: 4.6 N/mm (max.)
Power draw: 2 x 660 kW
Status of rolls wearlife: 32,000 operating
Kudremukh, India: Grinding of
Pellet Feed
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Typical Project
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Dry Grinding using HPGR
HPGR have been used in the production of cement for many years.
HPGR are coupled with dry air classifications systems to develop
fine to ultrafine grinding. (Less than 100 microns)
These type of grinding circuits are currently used for:
Cement Raw Grinding
Cement Clinker Grinding
Slag Grindng
These type of grinding circuits could be used for:
Refactory Ore Grinding, where dry grinding is necessary before
roasting.
Paste Backfill production if waste rock has to be ground for paste
production.
Sites where water is limited.
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V Separator
Static
Dynamic
Separator
Bag House
HPGR HPGR
Ball Mill
Bucket
Elevators
Feed System
Final
Product
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HPGR Design Types Currently in the Market Place:
Weir KHD HPGRr
Koppern High-Pressure Roller Press
Polysius Polycom
Metso HRC
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End of HPGR Presentation
Any
High Pressure
Questions?