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Organic Solvents

Shell Side

11

Water

Tube Side

SHELL SIDE

Ethylene
symbol

values

units

TUBE SIDE

-1

Water

SI Values

symbol

values

units

SI Values

Thermophysical Properties :
Density of Fluid

S =

Viscosity

S =

Thermal Conductivity

kS =

Specific Heat

cp,S =

Fouling Factor

RdO =

Temperature In

TS,in =

kg/m3
840
cP
0.33
0.1156 J/s m K
2.093 KJ/kg K
0.00021 h m2 C / kcal

Density of Fluid

T =

0.00033

Viscosity

T =

0.11560

Thermal Conductivity

840.00000

2093.00000
0.00018

kT =

Specific Heat

cp,T =

Fouling Factor

Rdi =

kg/m3
993
kg/ms
0.0008
0.623 J/s m K
4.175 KJ/kg K
0.00035 h m2 C / kcal

993.00000
0.00080
0.62300
4175.00000
0.00030

Temperature T:
Temperature Out

135
40

TS,out =

408.15000

Temperature In

313.15000

Temperature Out

Ethylene

Specify :

Mass Flow Rate

mS = 0.57870371

kg/s

Volumetric Flow Rate

qS = 0.00068893

m /s

Heat Duty

Q = 115066.551

J/sec

TT,in =
TT,out =

Mass Flow Rate

50

Range:

350 kcal/h m2 C

U* =

Correction Factor

R=

Auto

fT =

9.5

303.15000

313.15000

tonne/day 5.7870370500E-01

mT = 2.75608506

kg/s

Volumetric Flow Rate

qT = 0.00277551

m3/s

LMTD Calculation:

115066.5512

250 - 750 W/m2 K

Mass Flow Rate

Flow Type :
[assume] Overall Heat
Transfer coefficient

30
40

Hot Ends Temp. Diff

407.05
0

Cold Ends Temp. Diff

S=

0.095238095

Log Mean Temp. Diff

fT =

0.8

LMTD (corrected)

Counter-Current
T1 =
T2 =

95

10
0
LMTD = 37.7561008

LMTD* = 30.2048806

Heat Transfer Area :

AHT =

9.358887

m2

4.5
0.75
16

Design Specifications :
Shell Diameter

DS =

10

in.

0.254

Tube Clearance
Baffle Spacing
Tube Pitch

cT =

0.0064
0.1
1

m
m
in.

0.0064
0.1
0.0254

B=
PT =

Length of Tube

LT =

Outside Dia. of Tube


Thickness of Tube
Inside Dia. of Tube

dO =

Outer Surface Area [Single Tube] :


Pitch Type :
Triangular
Flow Area

[= cT B DS / PT]

Equivalent Diameter
DH = 0.0180335
m
aS =

0.0064

m2

No. of Tubes
No. of Tubes per Pass

=
di =

aST = 0.269313
NT =
n=

35
9

4.5

in.
BWG

0.01905
0.001651
0.015748

m2
No. of Tube Passes NP :
4

Flow Area of Tube [inside]

aT = 0.00175301

m2

Phase:

Linear Velocity of Tube [inside]

uT = 1.58328889

m/s

Liquid

Mass Velocity

[= mS / aS]

GS = 90.4224539

kg/m2 s

Mass Velocity

[= mT / aT]

GT = 1572.20587

kg/m2 s

Heat Transfer Co-efficient Calculations :


Reynolds #

[= DHGS/S]

Prandtl #

[= cp,S S / kS]

ReS =
PrS =

Auto

Shell Side HT Co-efficient

hO,S = 447.68172

Reynolds #

[= TuTdi /T]

Prandtl #

5.975

NuS = 69.8380622
jH =
32

Method:

Turbulent Flow

4941

[= cp,T T /kT]

30949

Turbulent Flow

5.361

Auto

NuT = 174.845638
jH =
85

Tube Side HT Co-efficient

hi,T = 6916.9947

W/mK

Udo = 338.6124

W/mK

Method:

W/mK

ReT =
PrT =

[Design] Overall Heat Transfer coefficient


Pressure Drop Calculations :

g=
Friction Factor (use graph)

fS=

0.052

Number of Baffles

Nb =

44

Friction Factor (use graph)

fT=

0.0037

Pressure Drop

PS = 16.3676429

kg / m2

Return Loss

PT = 537.108877
Pr = 2032.04579

Shell Side Pressure Drop

PS = 16.367643

kg / m2

Tube Side Pressure Drop

PT = 2569.1547

Pressure Drop

kg / m2
kg / m2

kg / m2

9.8

Background
A shell and tube heat exchanger, also known as the workhorse of industrial process
heat
a class of
heatofexchanger
designs.
It is transfer,
the mostiscommon
type
heat exchanger
in oil refineries and other large chemical
processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. Other types of heat exchangers
are used when economical. Though the application of other types of heat exchangers is
increasing, the shell and tube heat exchanger will continue its popularity for a long time,
largely because of its versatility
Construction
As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure
vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another
fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.
The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed by several types of tubes:
plain, and
longitudinally
finned, etc.units can be designed for almost any combination of
Shell
tube heat exchanger
pressure and temperature.
Requirements of Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers have to fulfil1 the following requirements:
1. High thermal effectiveness
2. Pressure drop as low as possible
3. Reliability and life expectancy
4. High-quality product and safe operation
5. Material compatibility with the process fluids
6. Convenient size, easy for installation, reliable in use
7. Easy for maintenance and servicing
8. Light in weight but strong in construction to withstand the operational pressures
9. Simplicity of manufacture
10. Low cost
11. Possibility of effecting repair to maintenance problems
Design Equations of Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers

Reference: http://www.engineeringpage.com/technology/thermal/transfer.html

Page 840 | D. Q. Kern' Process Heat Transfer

Typical Overall Coefficients


Shell & Tube Exchangers
Range
Organic Solvents

Water

Hot fluid

Cold fluid

Water
Organic Solvents
Light Oils
Heavy Oils
Reduced Crude
Regenerated DEA
Gases (P = atm)
Gases (P = 200 bar)

Water
Organic Solvents
Light oils
Heavy oils
Flashed crude
Foul DEA
Gases (P = atm)
Gases (P = 200 bar)

250

750

U (W/m2C)
800
100
100
50
35
450
5
100

1500
300
400
300
150
650
35
300

250
350
60
75
5
150
20
150
600
15

750
700
300
200
35
400
300
500
1200
250

1500
500
300
60
30
50
20
30
30

4000
1000
900
450
300
300
200
100
100

1000
700

1500
1000

Coolers
Organic Solvents
Light Oils
Heavy Oils
Reduced Crude
Gases (P = atm)
Gases (P = 200 bar)
Gases
Organic Solvents
Water
Gases

Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Brine
Brine
Brine

Heaters
Steam
Steam
Steam
Steam
Steam
Dowtherm
Dowtherm
Flue Gases
Flue Gases

Water
Organic Solvents
Light Oils
Heavy Oils
Gases
Heavy Oils
Gases
Steam
Hydrocarbon Vapours

Condensors
Aqueous Vapours
Organic Vapours

Water
Water

Refinery Hydrocarbons
Organics (some non-condensables)
Vacuum Condensors

Water
Water
Water

Steam
Steam
Steam
Dowtherm

Aqueous Solution
Light organics
Heavy Organics
Refinery Hydrocarbons

400
500
200

550
700
500

1000
900
600
250

1500
1200
900
550

Vaporisers

er.html

Index
11

FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE

FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE

Special Thanks:

Muhammad Arsalan Khan [2010 - CH - 1

Page 37 | Ernest E. Ludwig' Applied Process Design for Chemical & Petroc

Reference:

Tube Count [Fixed Tubes]


Shell & Tube Exchangers
NP

Pitch Type

dO (m)

PT (m)

Triangular

0.01905

0.0254

44

72

96

134

180

232

294

inches

10

12

13.25

15.25

17.25

19.25

21.25

Inner Diameter of
SHELL
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8

metres

Triangular

0.01905

0.0238125

Triangular

0.01905

0.0254

Square

0.01905

0.0254

Triangular

0.0254

0.03175

Square

0.0254

0.03175

Triangular

0.01905

0.0238125

Triangular

0.01905

0.0254

Square

0.01905

0.0254

Triangular

0.0254

0.03175

Square

0.0254

0.03175

Triangular

0.01905

0.0238125

Triangular

0.01905

0.0254

Square

0.01905

0.0254

Triangular

0.0254

0.03175

Square

0.0254

0.03175

Triangular

0.01905

0.0238125

Triangular

0.01905

0.0254

Square

0.01905

0.0254

Triangular

0.0254

0.03175

Square

0.0254

0.03175

Triangular

0.01905

0.0238125

Triangular

0.01905

0.0254

Square

0.01905

0.0254

Triangular

0.0254

0.03175

Square

0.0254

0.03175

Tube Count

0.2032 0.254 0.3048 0.33655 0.38735 0.43815 0.48895 0.53975


33
33
33
15
17
32
28
26
16
12

69
57
53
33
33
58
56
48
32
26
48
44
48
24
24

105
91
85
57
45
94
90
78
52
40
84
72
72
44
40

135
117
101
73
65
124
110
94
62
56
108
96
88
60
48
80
66
54
34

193
157
139
103
83
166
154
126
92
76
154
134
126
78
74
116
104
78
56
44
94
82

247
217
183
133
111
228
208
172
126
106
196
180
142
104
84
174
156
116
82
66
140
124
94
66

307
277
235
163
139
300
264
222
162
136
266
232
192
138
110
230
202
158
112
88
198
170
132
90
74

391
343
287
205
179
370
326
280
204
172
332
294
242
176
142
294
258
212
150
116
258
224
174
120
94

Arsalan Khan [2010 - CH - 120]

ign for Chemical & Petrochemical Plants, 3rd Ed, Vol.3 (1999)

ed Tubes]

hangers

35

Calculated # of Tubes

Tube Count

Index

360

424

508

596

692

802

912

1024

12

23.25

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

10

0.59055 0.635 0.6858 0.7366 0.7874 0.8382 0.889 0.9398

481
423
355
247
215
452
398
346
244
218
412
360
308
212
188
372
322
266
182
154
332
286
228
154
128

553
493
419
307
255
528
468
408
292
248
484
424
366
258
214
440
388
324
226
184
398
344
286
190
150

663
577
495
361
303
626
556
486
346
298
576
508
440
308
260
532
464
394
274
226
484
422
352
240
192

763
667
587
427
359
734
646
560
410
348
680
596
510
368
310
632
548
460
338
268
576
496
414
298
230

881
765
665
481
413
846
746
644
462
402
788
692
590
422
360
732
640
536
382
318
682
588
490
342
280

1019
889
765
551
477
964
858
746
530
460
904
802
688
486
414
844
744
634
442
368
790
694
576
400
334

1143
1007
865
633
545
1088
972
840
608
522
1024
912
778
560
476
964
856
224
514
430
902
798
662
466
388

1269
1127
965
699
595
1242
1088
946
688
584
1172
1024
880
638
534
1106
964
818
586
484
1040
902
760
542
438

0.254
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE

tonne/day

tonne/h
tonne/day

2.77777778E-01
1.15740741E-02

tonne/yr

3.17097921E-05

GaugeRange
(7/0)
(6/0)
(5/0)
(4/0)
(3/0)
(2/0)
0
1

g/s

1.00000000E-03

Organic Solvents

g/min
g/h
g/day
lb/s

1.66666667E-05
2.77777778E-07
1.15740741E-08
4.53592370E-01

Organic Vapours
Organics (some non-condensables)
Reduced Crude
Refinery Hydrocarbons

lb/min

7.55987283E-03

3
4
5
6
7

lb/h

1.25997881E-04

Steam

1.25997881E-01

Water

kg/s
kg/min
kg/h
kg/day

1.15740741E-02
Mass.FR
1.00000000E+00
1.66666667E-02
2.77777778E-04
1.15740741E-05

Mlb/h
lb/day
M lb/day
MM lb/day
tn(short)/s
tn(short)/min
tn(short)/h
tn(short)/day
tn(long)/s
tn(long)/min
tn(long)/h
tn(long)/day

5.24991169E-06
5.24991169E-03
5.24991169E+00
9.07184740E+02
1.51197457E+01
2.51995761E-01
1.04998234E-02
1.01604691E+03
1.69341152E+01
2.82235253E-01
1.17598022E-02
Vol.FR
m3/sec
1.00000000E+00
m3/min
1.66700000E-02
m3/h
2.77800000E-04
m3/day
1.15700000E-05
L/sec
1.00000000E-03
L/min
1.66700000E-05
L/h
2.77800000E-07
L/day
1.15700000E-08
barrel/s
1.58987295E-01
barrel/min
2.64960000E-03
barrel/h
4.41600000E-05
barrel/day
1.84000000E-06
gallon/s [US]
3.78541200E-03
gallon/min [US]
6.30900000E-05
gallon/h [US]
1.05200000E-06
gallon/day [US]
4.38333333E-08
MGPD
4.38100000E-05

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

Hot.Fluids
Aqueous Vapours
Dowtherm
Flue Gases
Gases
Gases (P = 200 bar)
Gases (P = atm)
Heavy Oils
Light Oils

Regenerated DEA

Cold.Fluids
Aqueous Solution
Brine
Flashed Crude
Foul DEA
Gases
Gases (P = 200 bar)
Gases (P = atm)
Heavy Oils
Heavy Organics
Hydrocarbon Vapours
Light Oils
Light Organics
Organic Solvents
Refinery Hydrocarbons
Steam
Water

MMGPD
gallon/s [UK]
gallon/min [UK]
gallon/h [UK]
gallon/day [UK]

4.38100000E-02
4.54609000E-03
7.57681667E-05
1.26280278E-06
5.26167824E-08

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Process.Fluid
Ethylene
Water

Process.FR
Mass Flow Rate
Volumetric Flow Rate

Fluid.Side
Shell Side
Tube Side

FlowType
Parallel
Counter-Current

PitchType
Triangular
Square

Temp.
K
C
F

Length

Gauge

Density

Viscosity

Thermal.Cond

m
cm

BWG
SWG

kg/m
g/L

mm

AWG

g/cm3
3

ft

lb/ft

in.

lb/in.

W/m K

Heat.Capacity
J/kg K

HT.C.
W/m2 K

Fouling.Factor
m2 K / W

J/s m K

KJ/kg K

cal/s m2 C

s m2 C / cal

BTU/hr ft F

cal/g C

kcal/h m C

h m C / kcal

BTU/lb F

BTU/hr ft2 F

hr ft2 F / BTU

kg/ms
P
cP

FT.Entry
Auto
Manual

Phase
Gas
Liquid

Tube.Pitch.Values
15/16
1
1 1/4

Hi.Calc
Auto
Manual

B.W.G
inches
(7/0)
(6/0)
(5/0)
(4/0)
(3/0)
(2/0)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

0.5
0.454
0.425
0.38
0.34
0.3
0.284
0.259
0.238
0.22
0.203
0.18
0.165
0.148
0.134
0.12
0.109
0.095
0.083
0.072
0.065
0.058
0.049
0.042
0.035
0.032
0.028
0.025
0.022
0.02
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.013
0.012
0.01
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.005
0.004

m
0.0127
0.0115316
0.010795
0.009652
0.008636
0.00762
0.0072136
0.0065786
0.0060452
0.005588
0.0051562
0.004572
0.004191
0.0037592
0.0034036
0.003048
0.0027686
0.002413
0.0021082
0.0018288
0.001651
0.0014732
0.0012446
0.0010668
0.000889
0.0008128
0.0007112
0.000635
0.0005588
0.000508
0.0004572
0.0004064
0.0003556
0.0003302
0.0003048
0.000254
0.0002286
0.0002032
0.0001778
0.000127
0.0001016
-

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

No_Passes
1
2
4
6
8
10

(7/0)
(6/0)
(5/0)
(4/0)
(3/0)
(2/0)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

S.W.G
inches
0.5
0.464
0.432
0.4
0.372
0.348
0.324
0.3
0.276
0.252
0.232
0.212
0.192
0.176
0.16
0.144
0.128
0.116
0.104
0.092
0.08
0.072
0.064
0.056
0.048
0.04
0.036
0.032
0.028
0.024
0.022
0.02
0.018
0.0164
0.0148
0.0136
0.0124
0.0116
0.0108
0.01
0.0092
0.0084
0.0076
0.0068
0.006

m
0.0127
0.0117856
0.0109728
0.01016
0.0094488
0.0088392
0.0082296
0.00762
0.0070104
0.0064008
0.0058928
0.0053848
0.0048768
0.0044704
0.004064
0.0036576
0.0032512
0.0029464
0.0026416
0.0023368
0.002032
0.0018288
0.0016256
0.0014224
0.0012192
0.001016
0.0009144
0.0008128
0.0007112
0.0006096
0.0005588
0.000508
0.0004572
0.00041656
0.00037592
0.00034544
0.00031496
0.00029464
0.00027432
0.000254
0.00023368
0.00021336
0.00019304
0.00017272
0.0001524

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

0.0052
0.0048
0.0044
0.004
0.0036
0.0032
0.0028
0.0024
0.002
0.0016
0.0012
0.001

0.00013208
0.00012192
0.00011176
0.0001016
0.00009144
0.00008128
0.00007112
0.00006096
0.0000508
0.00004064
0.00003048
0.0000254

A.W.G
inches
(7/0)
(6/0)
(5/0)
(4/0)
(3/0)
(2/0)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

0.46
0.4096
0.3648
0.3249
0.2893
0.2576
0.2294
0.2043
0.1819
0.162
0.1443
0.1285
0.1144
0.1019
0.0907
0.0808
0.072
0.0641
0.0571
0.0508
0.0453
0.0403
0.0359
0.032
0.0285
0.0253
0.0226
0.0201
0.0179
0.0159
0.0142
0.0126
0.0113
0.01
0.00893
0.00795
0.00708
0.0063
0.00561
0.005
0.00445
0.00397

m
0.011684
0.01040384
0.00926592
0.00825246
0.00734822
0.00654304
0.00582676
0.00518922
0.00462026
0.0041148
0.00366522
0.0032639
0.00290576
0.00258826
0.00230378
0.00205232
0.0018288
0.00162814
0.00145034
0.00129032
0.00115062
0.00102362
0.00091186
0.0008128
0.0007239
0.00064262
0.00057404
0.00051054
0.00045466
0.00040386
0.00036068
0.00032004
0.00028702
0.000254
0.000226822
0.00020193
0.000179832
0.00016002
0.000142494
0.000127
0.00011303
0.000100838

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

0.00353
0.00314

0.000089662
0.000079756
-