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22 Worksheet (A2)

Data needed to answer questions can be found in the Data, formulae and relationships sheet.
1 Determine the number of atoms or molecules in each of the following.
a 1.0 mole of carbon [1]
b 3.6 moles of water [1]
c 0.26 moles of helium [1]
2 he molar mass of helium is !.0 g.
Determine the mass of a single atom of helium in "ilograms. [2]
3 he molar mass of uranium is 23# g.
a $alculate the mass of one atom of uranium. [2]
b % small roc" contains 0.12 g of uranium. &or this roc", calculate the number of'
i moles of uranium [2]
ii atoms of uranium. [1]
4 ()plain what is meant b* the absolute zero of temperature. [3]
5 a +rite the ideal gas equation in words. [1]
b ,ne mole of an ideal gas is trapped inside a rigid container of -olume 0.020 m
3
.
$alculate the pressure e)erted b* the gas when the temperature within the
container is 2.3 /. [3]
6 % fi)ed amount of an ideal gas is trapped in a container of -olume V.
he pressure e)erted b* the gas is P and its absolute temperature is T.
a 0sing a s"etch of PV against T, e)plain how *ou can determine the number of moles
of gas within the container. [!]
b 1"etch a graph of PV against P when the gas is "ept at a constant temperature.
()plain the shape of the graph. [3]
7 % rigid c*linder of -olume 0.030 m
3
holds !.0 g of air. he molar mass of air is about 2. g.
a $alculate the pressure e)erted b* the air when its temperature is 3! 2$. [!]
b +hat is the temperature of the gas in degrees $elsius when the pressure is twice
*our -alue from part a3 [!]
%1 and % 4e-el 5h*sics ,riginal material 6 $ambridge 0ni-ersit* 5ress 2010 1
22 Worksheet (A2)
8 he diagram shows two insulated containers holding gas.
he containers are connected together b* tubes of negligible -olume.
he internal -olume of each container is 2.0 10
72
m
3
.
he temperature within each container is 713 2$. he gas in container A e)erts a pressure
of 1#0 "5a and the gas in container B e)erts a pressure of 300 "5a.
a 1how that the amount of gas within the two containers is about !.! moles. [3]
b he -al-e connecting the containers is slowl* opened and the gases are allowed to mi).
he temperature within the containers remains the same.
$alculate the new pressure e)erted b* the gas within the containers. [3]
9 he diagram shows a c*linder containing air
at a temperature of 8.0 2$.
he piston has a cross9sectional area 1.6 10
73
m
2
:t is held stationar* b* appl*ing a force
of !00 ; applied normall* to the piston.
he -olume occupied b* the compressed air
is 2.! 10
7!
m
3
.
he molar mass of air is about 2. g.
a $alculate the pressure e)erted b* the compressed air. [2]
b Determine the number of moles of air inside the c*linder. [3]
c 0se *our answer to b to determine'
i the mass of air inside the c*linder [1]
ii the densit* of the air inside the c*linder. [2]
10 he mean speed of a helium atom at a temperature of 0 2$ is 1.3 "m s
<1
. (stimate the mean
speed of helium atoms on the surface of a star where the temperature is 10 000 /. [6]
11 he surface temperature of the 1un is about 8!00 /. ,n its surface, particles beha-e li"e the
atoms of an ideal gas. he atmosphere of the 1un mainl* consists of h*drogen nuclei.
hese nuclei mo-e in random motion.
a ()plain what is meant b* random motion. [1]
b i $alculate the mean translational "inetic energ* of a h*drogen nucleus
on the surface of the 1un. [2]
ii (stimate the mean speed of such a h*drogen nucleus.
=he mass of h*drogen nucleus is 1.> 10
72>
"g.? [3]
12 a $alculate the mean translational "inetic energ* of gas atoms at 0 2$. [2]
b (stimate the mean speed of carbon dio)ide molecules at 0 2$.
=he molar mass of carbon dio)ide is !! g.? [8]
c $alculate the change in the internal energ* of one mole of carbon dio)ide gas when its
temperature changes from 0 2$ to 100

2$. [3]
%1 and % 4e-el 5h*sics ,riginal material 6 $ambridge 0ni-ersit* 5ress 2010 2
22 Worksheet (A2)
13 he diagram below shows three different t*pes of arrangements of gas particles.
% gas whose particles consist of single atoms is referred to as monatomic < for e)ample
helium =@e?. % gas with two atoms to a molecule is called diatomic < for e)ample o)*gen
=,
2
?. % gas with more than two atoms to a molecule is said to be polyatomic < for e)ample
water -apour =@
2
,?.
% single atom can tra-el independentl* in the x, y and z directions' it is said to ha-e three
derees o! !reedom. &rom the equation for the mean translational "inetic energ* of the atom,
we can generalise that a gas particle has mean energ* of kT
2
1
per degree of freedom.
Aolecules can also ha-e additional degrees of freedom due to their rotational energ*.
a 0se the diagram abo-e to e)plain wh*'
i the mean energ* of a diatomic molecule is kT
2
8
[2]
ii the mean energ* of a pol*atomic molecule is 3kT. [2]
b $alculate the internal energ* of one mole of water -apour =steam? per unit "el-in. [3]
otal'
>8
1core' B
%1 and % 4e-el 5h*sics ,riginal material 6 $ambridge 0ni-ersit* 5ress 2010 3