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30 Worksheet (A2)

Data needed to answer questions can be found in the Data, formulae and relationships sheet.
1 a Write down Einsteins famous equation relating mass and energy. [1]
b Determine the change in energy equialent to a change in mass!
i of 1." g [#]
ii equal to that of an electron $%.1 1"
&'1
(g). [#]
2 *n nuclear physics, it is common practice to quote the mass of a nuclear particle in terms of
the unified atomic mass unit, u. +he unified atomic mass unit u is defined as one,twelfth of the
mass of an atom of the carbon isotope -
1#
.
.
a Determine the mass of each of the following particles in terms of u!
i an /,particle of mass ...0 1"
&#1
(g [1]
ii a carbon,1' atom of mass #.1. 1"
&#.
(g. [1]
b Determine the mass of each of the following particles in (ilograms!
i a proton of mass 1."1 u [1]
ii a uranium,#'0 nucleus of mass #'2.%% u. [1]
3 3tate three quantities consered in all nuclear reactions. [']
4 a E4plain why e4ternal energy is required to 5split a nucleus. [1]
b Define the binding energy of a nucleus. [1]
c +he binding energy of the nuclide 6
1.
7
is 1#7 8e9. -alculate the binding energy
per nucleon. [#]
5 a Define the half-life of a radioactie isotope. [1]
b +he half,life of a particular isotope is #" minutes. : sample initially contains N
"
nuclei
of this isotope. Determine the number of nuclei of the isotope left in the sample after!
i #" minutes [1]
ii 1." hour. [#]
6 +he actiity of an /,source is 02" ;q. +he (inetic energy of each /,particle is 7.. < 1"
&12
=.
+he isotope in the source has a ery long half,life.
a -alculate the number of /,particles emitted by the source in!
i 1 second [1]
ii 1 hour. [1]
b Determine the total energy released by the source in a time of 1 second. [']
c 3tate the rate at which energy is emitted from this /,source. [1]
:3 and : >eel ?hysics 6riginal material @ -ambridge Aniersity ?ress #"1" 1
30 Worksheet (A2)
7 +he binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number graph for some common nuclides is
shown below.
a *dentify the most stable nuclide. E4plain your answer. [#]
b Ase the graph to estimate the binding energy for the nucleus of -
1#
.
. [#]
c Ase the graph to estimate the energy released in the following fusion reaction. [2]
Be B B
2
#
#
1
#
1
+
d +he fusion reaction shown in c is one of the many that occur in the interior of stars.
3tate the conditions necessary to initiate such reactions in stars. [#]
8 Ase the data gien below to determine the binding energy and the binding energy per
nucleon of the nuclide A
#'0
%#
. [1]
mass of proton = 1.""1 u
mass of neutron = 1.""% u mass of uranium,#'0 nucleus = #'2.%%# u
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30 Worksheet (A2)
9 a Describe the process of induced nuclear fission. [1]
b +he diagram shows the fission of uranium,#'0 in accordance with the nuclear equation!
n # Ce 3r n A
1
"
1'%
02
%0
'7
1
"
#'0
%#
+ + +
i -opy the diagram, adding labels to identify the neutrons, the strontium nuclide and
the 4enon nuclide. [1]
ii E4plain why energy is released in the reaction aboe. [#]
iii Ase the following data to determine the energy released in a single fission reaction
inoling A
#'0
%#
and n
1
"
. [0]
mass of A
#'0
%#
= '.%"# 1"
&#0
(g
mass of n
1
"
= 1..10 1"
&#1
(g
mass of 3r
%0
'7
= 1.010 1"
&#0
(g
mass of Ce
1'%
02
= #.'". 1"
&#0
(g
10 6ne of the neutron,induced fission reactions of uranium,#'0 may be represented by the
following nuclear equations.
A
#'0
%#
D n
1
"
A
#'.
%#
A
#'.
%#
>a
12.
01
D ;r
71
'0
D ' n
1
"
+he binding energies per nucleon for these nuclides are!
A,
#'.
%#
1.0% 8e9E >a,
12.
01
7.21 8e9E ;r,
71
'0
7.0% 8e9.
-alculate the energy released in 8e9 when the A
#'.
%#
nucleus undergoes fission. [']
11 +he half,life of the radon isotope Fn
##"
7.
is 0. s.
a Determine the decay constant in s
&1
. [']
b -alculate the actiity of a sample containing .." 1"
1"
nuclei of Fn
##"
7.
. [']
12 +he actiity of a radioactie source containing 7." 1"
12
undecayed nuclei is 0." 1"
%
;q.
a Determine the decay constant in s
&1
. [']
b -alculate the half,life of the nucleus. [']
c Bow many undecayed nuclei will be left after 2" hoursG [']
13 a Define the decay constant of a nucleus. [1]
b +he thorium isotope +h
##1
%"
has a half,life of 17 days.
: particular radioactie source contains 2." 1"
1#
nuclei of the isotope +h
##1
%"
.
i Determine the decay constant for the thorium isotope +h
##1
%"
in s
&1
. [']
ii What is the initial actiity of the sourceG [']
iii -alculate the actiity of the source after '. days. [#]
14 : sample of roc( is (nown to contain 1." Hg of the radioactie radium isotope Fa
##.
77
.
+he half,life of this particular isotope is 1."" years. +he molar mass of radium,##. is ##. g.
a Determine the number of nuclei of the isotope Fa
##.
77
in the roc( sample. [#]
b -alculate the actiity from decay of the radium,##. in the sample. [']
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30 Worksheet (A2)
15 *n a process referred to as 5annihilation, a particle interacts with its antiparticle and the
entire mass of the combined particles is transformed into energy in the form of photons.
+he following equation represents the interaction of a proton $p) and its antiparticle, the
antiproton $
p
).
I I p p
1
1
1
1
+ +

+he antiproton has the same mass as a proton J the only difference is that it has a negatie
charge. Determine the waelength of each of the two identical photons emitted in the
reaction aboe. $8ass of a proton = 1.1 1"
&#1
(g.) [0]
16 Does fusion or fission produce more energy per (ilogram of fuelG :nswer this question by
considering the fusion reaction in 7 c and the fission reaction in 9 b.
$+he molar masses of hydrogen,# and uranium,#'0 are # g and #'0 g, respectiely.) [1]
17 3ome astronomers beliee that our solar system was formed 0." < 1"
%
years ago.
:ssuming that all uranium,#'7 nuclei were formed before this time, what fraction of the
original uranium,#'7 nuclei remain in the solar system todayG +he isotope of uranium
A
#'7
%#
has a half,life of 2.0 1"
%
y. [2]
+otal!
1""
3core! K
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