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32 Worksheet (A2)

Data needed to answer questions can be found in the Data, formulae and relationships sheet.
1 State the nature of X-ray radiation. [2]
2 The enery of an X-ray photon is !" #e$.
a %alculate the enery of the photon in &oules. [2]
b %alculate the wa'elenth of the X-rays. [2]
3 (ne of the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and matter is the photoelectric effect.
)ame the two other interaction mechanisms. [2]
4 State one main difference between the imaes produced by a normal X-ray machine and by
a %*T scan. [+]
5 ,riefly e-plain what is meant by a non-invasive technique. [+]
6 State what is meant by ultrasound. [2]
7 The speed of ultrasound in soft tissue is +.! #m s
a %alculate the wa'elenth of ultrasound of frequency +./ 012. [2]
b 3se your answer to part a to e-plain why hih-frequency ultrasound is suitable for
medical scans. [+]
8 Define acoustic impedance. [+]
9 The table below shows useful data for bioloical materials.
Material Density / ! m
#peed o$
ultrasound / m s
&coustic impedance Z
/ %'
! m
soft tissue +"4" +!5" +.46
muscle +"7! +!8" +.7+
bone ( 5""" 4.5"
blood +"4" +!7" +.44
a %alculate the density of bone. [2]
b %alculate the percentae of intensity of ultrasound reflected at the blood9soft tissue
boundary. :*ssume the wa'es are incident at riht anles to the boundary.; [6]
c <-plain why it would be difficult to distinuish between blood and soft tissue in an
ultrasound scan. [2]
%' )ame the fi'e main components of an 0=> scanner. [!]
%% ?rotons ha'e a precession frequency of 5" 012 in a stron uniform manetic field.
a Describe what is meant by precession. [+]
b State the frequency of the radio frequency :=@; radiation that will cause the protons to
resonate. [+]
c 3se your answer to b to determine the wa'elenth of the =@ radiation. [2]
*S and * Ae'el ?hysics (riinal material B %ambride 3ni'ersity ?ress 2"+" %
32 Worksheet (A2)
%2 ,riefly describe the production of X-rays and e-plain why an X-ray spectrum may consist
of a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum. [7]
%3 The intensity of a collimated X-ray beam is 2!" C m
a Define intensity. [+]
b The diameter of the X-ray beam is 5." mm. %alculate the power transmitted by the beam. [2]
%4 Describe what is meant by a contrast medium and state why it is used in X-ray scans. [2]
%5 The potential difference between the cathode and the anode of an X-ray tube is /" #$.
%alculate the minimum wa'elenth of the X-rays emitted from this tube. [6]
%6 The photoelectric effect is one of the attenuation mechanisms by which X-ray photons
interact with the atoms in the body. Describe some of the characteristics of this mechanism. [6]
17* collimated X-ray beam is incident on a metal bloc#. The incident intensity of the beam is I
a Draw a s#etch raph to show the 'ariation with thic#ness x of the intensity I of the beam. [6]
b Crite down an e-pression for the intensity I in terms of I
and x.
<-plain any other symbol you use. [2]
c The linear absorption coefficient of a beam of /" #e$ X-rays is ".486 mm
in copper.
%alculate the thic#ness of copper necessary to reduce the intensity of the beam to ".+" I
. [6]
18a Describe the use of a %*T scanner. [!]
b %ompare the imae formed in X-ray dianosis with that produced by a %*T scanner. [6]
%9 (utline how ultrasound may be used in medical dianosis. [!]
2' <-plain why, in medical dianosis usin ultrasound, a couplin medium is necessary
between the ultrasound probe and the s#in. [4]
2% a Chen an ultrasound pulse reflects from the front and bac# edes of a bone, it produces
two pea#s on an *-scan. The time inter'al between these two pea#s is +6 s. The speed
of the ultrasound in bone is 5""" m s
. %alculate the thic#ness of the bone. [6]
b Describe how a ,-scan differs from an *-scan. [2]
22a (utline the principles of manetic resonance. [4]
b (utline, with the aid of a s#etch diaram, the use of 0=> :manetic resonance imain;
to obtain dianostic information about internal body structures. [+"]
23 X-=ays, ultrasound and 0=> are all used in medical dianosis.
State one situation in which each of these techniques is preferred and i'e reasons, one in
each case, for the choice. [4]
ScoreD E
*S and * Ae'el ?hysics (riinal material B %ambride 3ni'ersity ?ress 2"+" 2