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33 Worksheet (A2)

1 Two amplitude-modulated radio waves are shown. Each wave has the same carrier frequency and
is carrying an audio signal.
a State and explain one similarity and one difference between the audio signals
that they carry. [4
b Explain how the graphs show that the carrier frequency is the same. [!
2 a "escribe the difference between amplitude and frequency modulation. [#
b $ carrier wave has a frequency %&& '(). *t is modulated in frequency by an audio signal
of frequency + '() and amplitude #.& ,.
The frequency deviation of the carrier wave is -& '() ,
i "etermine the maximum frequency shift produced. [!
ii "etermine the minimum frequency of the modulated carrier wave. [!
iii "escribe how the frequency of the carrier wave changes. [!
c $ country intends to start a new broadcasting system. State two reasons why it is more
expensive to set up an /0 broadcasting system rather than an $0 system. [#
3 The graph shows the frequency spectrum of an $0 radio wave carrying an audio signal
of a single frequency.
a i State the name of the component with frequency 4& '(). [!
ii State the name of the components with frequency -1 and 41 '(). [!
iii "etermine the frequency of the audio signal. [!
b i 2alculate the time for one complete carrier wave. [!
ii 2alculate the time for one complete wave of the audio signal. [!
iii S'etch a graph of the variation of the signal with time. 3n your graph mar' the values
obtained in b i and b ii. [-
c The frequency spectrum shown above is formed from a carrier wave and an audio signal
of one frequency. "raw the frequency spectrum formed at one instant if the audio signal
contains a range of frequencies up to !1 '(). [#
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-1 /requency 8 '() 4& 41
33 Worksheet (A2)
4 "ata is often produced as an analogue signal and then converted into digital form
for transmission.
a Explain9 with the aid of s'etch graphs9 the difference between an analogue and
a digital signal. [4
b Explain the process of sampling in which an analogue signal is turned into
a digital signal. [-
5 The diagram shows the analogue signal from a microphone.
/or transmission9 the signal is digitally sampled every &.1 ms starting at time t : & s.
*n the analogue-to-digital ;$"2< converter9
& to &.== m, produces a digital output &&&&
! to !.== m, produces a digital output &&&!
and so on.
a State the value of the digital out put when t : & s and when t : &.1 ms. [#
b The digital signal from the $"2 is eventually converted bac' into analogue form.
"raw a s'etch diagram showing the final analogue signal produced. [-
c i Explain how increasing the sampling frequency improves the final analogue signal
produced and suggest a suitable maximum value for the sampling frequency. [-
ii Telephone systems use %-bit numbers9 rather than 4-bit numbers. Explain why this
improves the final analogue signal produced. [#
6 $ laser provides power input of +.& m> into an optic fibre9 where the average noise is
#.& ? !&
>. 2alculate the signal-to-noise ratio in d@. [!
7 $ signal has a power of !.& m> and a noise of &.&&! m>.
a >hat is the signal-to-noise ratio in d@A [!
b The signal is attenuated by -& d@ and the noise remains constant.
>hat is the new signal-to noise ratio in d@A [#
$S and $ 4evel 5hysics 3riginal material 6 2ambridge 7niversity 5ress #&!& 2
33 Worksheet (A2)
8 *n the modern telephone system9 more and more coaxial cable has been replaced for
long-distance transmission of telephone signals by optic fibre.
State and explain two reasons for this change. [4
9 a State a typical value of wavelength forB
i space waves
ii s'y waves. [#
b Explain why satellite communication is more reliable than a s'y wave for long-distance
communication between two points on the EarthCs surface. [#
10 a "escribe the orbit of a geostationary satellite. [-
b State a typical wavelength for communication between the EarthCs surface and a
geostationary satellite. [!
c State one advantage and one disadvantage of the use of a geostationary satellite
rather than a satellite in polar orbit for telephone communication. [#
11 *n the original telephone system of !%D+9 every telephone was connected to every other
telephone by a pair of wires. Today the telephone is used worldwide as the result of the
invention of the exchange and the use of sampling using digital electronics.
"escribe how each of these developments has meant that many telephone conversations
can ta'e place at once. [4
ScoreB E
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