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COMPLETE REVISION

June 2001
Process Industry Practices
Structural
PIP STS02360
Driven Piles Specification
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES
In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these
technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and
engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While
this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,
individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take
precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and
particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering
situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The
use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of
preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the
same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All
Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and
regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines
should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or
regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or
acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.
This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team
and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or
withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at
http://www.pip.org.
Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The
University of Texas at Austin, 3208 Red River Street, Suite 300, Austin,
Texas 78705. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.
PRINTING HISTORY
April 1995 Issued
June 2001 Issued
Not printed with State funds
COMPLETE REVISION
June 2001
Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 19
Process Industry Practices
Structural
PIP STS02360
Driven Piles Specification
Table of Contents
1. Introduction.................................. 2
1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2
1.2 Scope................................................. 2
2. References ................................... 2
2.1 Process Industry Practices ................ 2
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards .......... 2
2.3 Government Regulations................... 3
3. Definitions .................................... 3
4. General ......................................... 4
4.1 Quality Control ................................... 4
4.2 Submittals.......................................... 5
5. Products ....................................... 8
5.1 General .............................................. 8
5.2 Pipe Piles........................................... 8
5.3 Concrete-Filled Thin Shell Piles......... 9
5.4 Steel H Piles.................................... 9
5.5 Step Taper Piles .............................. 10
5.6 Prestressed/Precast Concrete Piles 10
5.7 Timber Piles..................................... 11
6. Execution ................................... 12
6.1 General ............................................ 12
6.2 Handling and Storage...................... 12
6.3 Equipment........................................ 12
6.4 Installation........................................ 13
6.5 Pile Capacity Testing....................... 16
Attachment 1 Pile and Driving
Equipment Form
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 2 of 19 Process Industry Practices
1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides the Contractor with a driven pile specification.
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 This Practice describes the requirements for furnishing, transporting,
handling, and installing driven load-bearing piles, conforming to the load
capacities specified in the Contract Documents. Pile load tests and dynamic
monitoring tests are included if within the contract scope of work.
1.2.2 Pile types covered in this Practice are as follows:
Steel pipe piles
Concrete-filled thin shell piles
Steel H piles
Step taper piles
Prestressed concrete piles
Timber piles
1.2.3 Any conflicts or inconsistencies between this Practice, the design drawings,
or other Contract Documents shall be brought to the attention of the Buyer
for resolution.
2. References
When adopted in this Practice or in the Contract Documents, the latest edition of the
following codes, standards, specifications, and references in effect on the date of contract
award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein when
appropriate.
2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)
PIP STS03001 - Plain and Reinforced Concrete
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
Manual of Steel Construction: Allowable Stress Design
American Society For Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM A36 - Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A53 - Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped,
Zinc Coated, Welded and Seamless
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June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 19
ASTM A82 - Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Reinforced
Concrete
ASTM A252 - Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe
Piles
ASTM A416 - Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire
for Prestressed Concrete
ASTM A615 - Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet Steel
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM D25 - Standard Specification For Round Timber Piles, 1999
ASTM D1143 - Standard Method of Testing Piles under Static Axial
Compressive Load
ASTM D1760 - Standard Specification for Pressure Treatment of Timber
Products
ASTM D2899 - Standard Practice for Establishing Design Stresses for Round
Timber Piles
ASTM D3689 - Standard Test Method for Individual Piles under Static Axial
Tensile Load
ASTM D3966 - Standard Test Method for Piles under Lateral Loads
American Welding Society (AWS)
AWS D1.1 - Structural Welding Code - Steel
American Wood-Preservers Association (AWPA)
AWPA C3 - Piles - Preservative Treatment by Pressure Process
AWPA M4 - Standard for the Care of Preservative-Treated Wood Products
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI)
PCI JR-382 - Recommended Practice for Design, Manufacture and Installation
of Prestressed Concrete Piling
PCI MNL-116 - Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of
Precast and Prestressed Concrete Products
PCI STD 112 - Standard Prestressed Concrete Piles, Square, Octagonal, and
Cylinder
2.3 Government Regulations
Federal Standards and Instructions of the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), including any additional requirements by state or local
agencies that have jurisdiction where piles are to be manufactured, handled, or
installed, shall apply.
3. Definitions
Buyer: The party who awards the contract to the Contractor. The Buyer may be the Owner or
the Owners authorized agent.
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 4 of 19 Process Industry Practices
Contractor: The party responsible for furnishing and/or installing driven piles and complying
with the requirements of this Practice
Contract Documents: Any and all documents, including design drawings, that the Buyer has
transmitted or otherwise communicated, either by incorporation or by reference, and made
part of the legal contract agreement or purchase order agreement between the Buyer and the
Contractor
4. General
4.1 Quality Control
4.1.1 The Contractor shall review all data from subsurface investigation(s)
furnished by the Buyer. Such data shall not be construed to represent
subsurface conditions at locations other than the specific boring/sounding
location indicated. Contractor may at its own discretion and expense, and
with the Buyers approval, perform additional investigations, as Contractor
deems necessary.
4.1.2 Buyer will provide the intended exposure requirements for the piles, e.g.,
marine, non-marine, freeze-thaw, chemical attack, soil corrosiveness, etc.
The Buyer will determine the need for a protective coating on the pile, and if
required, the coating system will be specified in the Contract Documents.
4.1.3 Contractor shall immediately notify Buyer in writing of any situations
detrimental to the proper and timely completion of the work.
4.1.4 Unless otherwise noted in the Contract Documents, Contractor shall retain
an independent testing agency for inspection of all piles and all pile-driving
operations.
Inspector shall
a. Be experienced in pile-driving inspection and shall be on site full time
during installation of all piles
b. Document driving as outlined in Section 4.2.6, Pile-Driving Record,
and shall certify that piles and installation are in accordance with this
Practice and the Contract Documents
c. Be responsible for pile concrete testing and sampling
d. Notify Buyer immediately of any observed deviations from this
Practice and the Contract Documents
Buyer reserves the right to make inspections and tests at any time.
4.1.5 Buyer shall be notified three business days before installation or testing of
piles.
4.1.6 Contractor shall provide readily visible marks on all piles at 1-foot intervals
and shall number marks every 5 feet starting at the tip.
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June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 19
4.1.7 Buyer may reject piles that do not meet all the requirements of this Practice,
including piles that are damaged, misplaced, driven improperly, or out of
alignment.
4.1.8 Contractor shall take action to correct rejected piles as directed by Buyer.
This may include extracting the rejected pile and driving a new pile or
additional piles. All corrective work shall be performed at no additional cost
to Buyer.
4.2 Submittals
4.2.1 Handling and Installation
The Contractor shall submit to Buyer for review, at least 14 days before
commencement of mobilization, the following:
a. Procedure for protection, handling, and storage of piles before
installation
b. Identification and description of equipment for handling and installing
piles
c. Manufacturers hammer specification data and recommended operating
procedures, including details of any hammer modifications, per
Attachment 1, Hammer Data Sheet
d. Pile installation procedures, including any predrilling and/or jetting
equipment and procedures
e. Calibration certificates of pressure gauges, current within 6 months,
and manufacturers calibration of bounce-chamber gauges
f. Pile and pile accessory material certifications
g. Plan of proposed sequence of driving
4.2.2 Prestressed/Precast Concrete Pile
4.2.2.1 Contractor shall submit the following information to Buyer for
review before commencing fabrication:
a. All design calculations and/or fabrication drawings for piles,
including, uplift connections and splices. A qualified, licensed
professional engineer registered in the state where the piles are
to be installed shall seal calculations and drawings. When
required by the Contract Documents, analysis of dynamic
stresses during pile driving shall also be included to
demonstrate that pile will not undergo excessive tension or
compressive stresses during low-resistance and final high-
resistance driving.
b. Concrete mix design and basis for mix
c. Method of curing
d. Sampling and testing procedures
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 6 of 19 Process Industry Practices
e. Certified test reports showing compliance with this Practice for
all materials to be used in the manufacture of piles, including
strands, wire, cement, aggregates, admixtures, and curing
f. Procedures for tensioning and detensioning, including
equipment descriptions and calibration records
g. Shop drawings
4.2.2.2 Within 7 days after tensioning, submit to Buyer the prestress loss
calculations and the tensioning records in accordance with
PCI MNL-116.
4.2.2.3 Submit to Buyer, upon completion of pile fabrication, the concrete
cylinder strength test results for each lot of piles, including strengths
at time of prestress transfer, when removed from casting bed, and
28 days after pour.
4.2.3 Concrete-Filled Piles
4.2.3.1 Submit the following to Buyer for review, 14 days before
mobilization:
a. Concrete mix design and basis for mix
b. Sampling and testing procedures
4.2.3.2 Submit to Buyer the concrete cylinder strength test results for each
lot of piles, including strengths at 7 and 28 days after pour.
4.2.4 Timber Pile
Submit to buyer, before installation, the following:
a. The certificate of treatment for each lot of treated timber piles, showing
treatment method and type of preservative and minimum net retention
of preservative
b. If required by the Buyer, an independent report by an independent
inspection agency, attesting that piles have been given the preservation
treatment required by this Practice
4.2.5 Pile Load Test
If load tests are required by the Contract Documents, submit shop drawings
of the loading apparatus and arrangement of the test and all design
calculations, sealed by a qualified, licensed professional engineer registered
in the state in which the piles will be installed. Provide submittals to Buyer
for review not later than 14 days before commencing the test unless required
otherwise in the Contract Documents. In addition, include current
calibrations of load-cell and jack/jack manometer.
4.2.6 Pile-Driving Record
Submit to Buyer within 3 days of installation, one copy of completed pile-
driving record form of each pile, including but not limited to the following
information:
COMPLETE REVISION PIP STS02360
June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 19
1. Project name, number, and location
2. Drawing number and structure identification
3. Name of Contractor(s)
4. Date of pile installation
5. Pile location, number, and design capacity; location of pile in pile
group and location or designation of pile group
6. Pile type, size, and length
7. Design and actual pile cut-off and tip elevations
8. Hammer make, model, stroke, weight, normal operating speed, and
rated energy
9. Type, dimension, and condition of cushion or capblock
10. Operating pressure for steam/air hammer and bounce chamber pressure
for double-acting diesel hammer
11. Actual operating rate or speed (blows/minute) during final driving
12. Other installation equipment including details on use of pile cushion,
follower, mandrels, pre-drilling, and water jet
13. Time for start and finish of driving pile
14. Sequence of pile driving for piles in group
15. Penetration under own weight and penetration under own weight plus
weight of hammer
16. Driving data in number of blows per foot from initial to final driving
and number of blows per inch for the last 12 inches
17. Splice types and locations
18. Upon termination of the driving of open-end pipe piles, record depth
from ground surface outside pile to soil surface inside pipe. Record
depth of any clean out if used. Note any water in the pipe.
19. Records of re-striking
20. Interruptions (reason, time, duration, tip elevation)
21. Volume of cast-in-place concrete placed
22. Degree of out-of-axial alignment
23. Deviations from specification
24. Weather conditions and temperature
25. Notation of any unusual occurrences during installation or of any
observed pile damage
26. Signature and title of inspector recording pile-driving data
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 8 of 19 Process Industry Practices
4.2.7 Inspector Qualifications
Submit to Buyer for review and approval, at least 14 days before
mobilization, resum of inspector to be provided by independent testing
agency required by Section 4.1.4.
5. Products
5.1 General
5.1.1 All Contractor-supplied materials and proprietary items, including splice
devices, tip protectors, driving shoes, tension or uplift connectors, etc., shall
be subject to Buyers approval and shall be installed in accordance with
manufacturers instructions.
5.1.2 All concrete shall conform to requirements of PIP STS03001, with a
maximum aggregate size of 1-1/2 inch. However, for prestressed concrete
piles, pile manufacturers mix design is acceptable, subject to Buyers
approval.
5.1.3 Welding
5.1.3.1 Welding shall be performed in accordance with AWS D1.1.
5.1.3.2 Welding filler metal shall be AWS D1.1-98, Section 3.3 (including
Table 3.1) with an electrode strength of 58 ksi minimum yield
strength and 70 ksi minimum tensile strength. (For example, use
E70XX for SMAW, F7XX-EXXX for SAW, ER70S-X for GMAW,
and E7XT-X for FCAW.) However, E60XX electrodes may be used
for tack welding.
5.1.3.3 Welding procedures and individual welders shall be qualified in
accordance with AWS D1.1. If requested, qualification records shall
be made available to Buyer.
5.1.4 Splicing
5.1.4.1 Splices shall provide true alignment of total pile.
5.1.4.2 Splices shall be capable of transmitting all driving forces as well as
all intended service loads.
5.1.4.3 Piles receiving concrete fill shall be watertight after driving.
5.2 Pipe Piles
5.2.1 Pipe Material
Welded or seamless steel pipe conforming to ASTM A53, Grade B, Type E
or Type S, or ASTM A252, Grade 2.
5.2.2 Concrete Fill
Concrete fill shall be a minimum of 3000 psi 28-day strength unless
specified otherwise in the Contract Documents.
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June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 19
5.2.3 Tip Closures
Tip closures shall be either of the following:
a. ASTM A36 steel plate, diameter not to exceed pipe outside diameter,
welded to beveled pipe end, making a watertight enclosure; or
b. Proprietary weldless drive points with tapered swage, diameter not to
exceed pipe outside diameter, making a watertight joint to pipe
5.2.4 Drive Shoes
Drive shoes shall be hardened steel, inside cutting type, within outside
diameter of pipe.
5.2.5 Splices
Splices shall be full-penetration butt welds or proprietary watertight
mechanical splicers.
5.3 Concrete-Filled Thin Shell Piles
5.3.1 Shell Material
Shell material shall be either of the following:
a. Welded or seamless steel pipe conforming to ASTM A252, Grade 1; or
b. Proprietary thin steel pile shells, e.g., fluted and tapered or uniform
corrugated shells
5.3.2 Reinforced Concrete Core
a. Minimum 4000 psi 28-day compressive strength concrete
b. ASTM A615, Grade 60 reinforcing
5.3.2 Tip Closures
Reinforced concrete core shall be either of the following:
a. For steel pipe, tip closures as specified above; or
b. For proprietary thin shell, watertight manufactured type compatible
with suppliers shell system
5.3.3 Splices
Splices shall be either of the following:
a. For steel pipe, splices as specified above; or
b. For proprietary thin shell, watertight manufactured device compatible
with suppliers shell system
5.4 Steel H Piles
5.4.1 Pile Material
Pipe material shall be ASTM A36, AISC HP shapes.
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 10 of 19 Process Industry Practices
5.4.2 Splices
Splices shall be either of the following:
a. Full-penetration butt welds utilizing backup plates or back gouging; or
b. H-pile splicer sleeves, fillet welded to pile web, as shown on design
drawings, and full-penetration butt-welded to pile flanges. Bevel each
flange of upper pile section, leaving 1/8 inch of metal for weld backing.
5.5 Step Taper Piles
5.5.1 Shell Material
Shell material shall be step-tapered helically corrugated mild steel, not less
than 14-gauge material (0.075-inch) and shall be 4-, 8-, or 12-foot-long
sections. Step taper increase in diameter at each step shall not exceed 1 inch.
Average rate of diameter increase shall not be less than 1 inch per 16 feet.
Joints between shell sections shall be screw connected, using rubber seals
(O rings). Shells and joints must be watertight after driving.
5.5.2 Reinforced Concrete Core
Reinforced concrete core shall be a minimum 4000 psi 28-day-strength
concrete, ASTM A615 Grade 60, reinforcing.
5.5.3 Tip Closures
Tip closures shall conform to mandrel tip, be watertight after pile is driven,
and be either of the following:
a. ASTM A36 steel plate, diameter not to exceed shell outside diameter by
more than 1/4 inch, seal welded to shell end; or
b. Shop-formed hemispherical steel, boot welded to shell tip
5.6 Prestressed/Precast Concrete Piles
5.6.1 Design and Manufacture
Design and manufacture of concrete piles shall conform to PCI JR-382 and
PCI STD-112.
5.6.2 Pile Materials
Pile materials shall be as follows:
a. Concrete: minimum 5000 psi 28-day strength unless specified
otherwise in the Contract Documents
b. Pretensioning strand: minimum 1/2-inch diameter, seven-wire strand,
ASTM A416, Grade 270
c. Reinforcing bars: deformed, ASTM A615, Grade 60
d. Spiral steel: smooth, ASTM A82
COMPLETE REVISION PIP STS02360
June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 19
5.6.3 Transportation, Handling, and Storage
Transportation, handling, and storage shall be in accordance with
PCI JR-382. Plainly mark lift points, and, if applicable, mark direction.
5.7 Timber Piles
5.7.1 Timber Materials and Species
Timber materials shall conform to ASTM D25 for clean-peeled round
timber piles, having a minimum allowable design strength of 1200 psi per
ASTM D2899. Depending on the application specified in the Contract
Documents, timber piles shall be of the following species:
a. Piles subject to land or freshwater service: southern pine, ponderosa
pine, or Douglas fir
b. Piles subject to marine (brackish or seawater) service: southern pine or
Pacific Coast Douglas fir
5.7.2 Minimum Diameters
Minimum diameters depending on pile type specified in the Contract
Documents:
a. Friction piles shall have a butt circumference not less than 41 inches
(approximately 13-inch diameter) and a tip circumference not less than
that shown in Tables X1.2 and X1.3, ASTM D25; or
b. End-bearing piles shall have a tip circumference not less than 25 inches
(approximately 8-inch diameter) and a butt circumference not less than
that shown in Table X1.4 and X1.5, ASTM D25
5.7.3 Pressure Treatment, Care, and Field Repair
5.7.3.1 Treatment shall conform to requirements of ASTM D1760 or
AWPA C3.
5.7.3.2 All treated piles shall be permanently brand to identify treating
company and year of treatment.
5.7.3.3 Care and handling of piles shall be in accordance with AWPA M4.
Treatment of field cuts caused by handling, cut-offs, installation of
uplift connections, and any other daps or holes shall be in
accordance with AWPA M4.
5.7.4 Strapping
Strapping shall be of high-tensile steel straps, a minimum of 1-1/4 inch wide,
having 5100-pounds minimum tensile strength, and secured with crimped
seals that develop 80% of strap strength. Apply two straps (after pressure
treatment for treated piles), one at about 18 inches and the other at about 24
inches from butt.
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Driven Piles Specification June 2001
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6. Execution
6.1 General
6.1.1 Furnish all piling materials, labor, tools, supervision, equipment, and
supplies necessary for transporting and installing driven piles in accordance
with the Contract Documents and this Practice.
6.1.2 Comply with Federal Standards and Instructions of the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA), including any additional requirements
by state or local agencies that have jurisdiction where piles are to be
manufactured, handled, or installed.
6.2 Handling and Storage
6.2.1 Deliver all piling materials to the job site in good condition.
6.2.2 Handle and store piling materials in such a manner to avoid damage to or
excessive stresses on these materials.
6.2.3 Place stored pile materials on skids to prevent contact with the ground.
Provide sufficient skids to keep deflection of stored piles within tolerable
limits.
6.3 Equipment
6.3.1 Hammers
6.3.1.1 Drive all piles with power impact hammers capable of installing all
piles to the specified capacity, resistance, and minimum depth.
Vibrating hammers or drop hammers shall not be used unless
approved in writing by Buyer. Piles driven with faulty equipment
shall be subject to rejection by the Buyer. Cost of removal or
installation of additional piles shall be borne by the Contractor.
6.3.1.2 For air/steam hammer, provide a calibrated pressure gauge. For
double-acting diesel hammer, provide a calibrated bounce-chamber
gauge. Position the gauges on the hammer side of all valves so that
gauges can be easily observed by inspecting personnel, with no more
than 100 feet of hose away from the hammer intake. Open-ended
(single-acting) diesel hammers shall be equipped with a device to
permit inspecting personnel to visually determine hammer stroke at
all times during pile driving.
6.3.1.3 Hammers shall not be operated at less than the speed and stroke
length specified by the manufacturer.
6.3.2 Leads
Provide fixed leads. Leads shall be held firmly in position by stiff braces.
Axis of the leads, hammer, and pile shall coincide. Use swinging or spud
type leads only with Buyers approval.
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6.3.3 Cushioning
6.3.3.1 Provide hammer cushions or capblocks of aluminum and micarta
discs stacked alternately in a steel housing and with a steel plate at
the top and bottom of the stack.
6.3.3.2 Alternatively, a one-piece hardwood capblock, with grain parallel to
the pile axis and enclosed in a close-fitting steel housing, may be
used. Satisfactory driving criteria shall be established with such a
capblock, and a new capblock shall not be used during the final
driving of any pile.
6.3.3.3 Capblocks made from other materials are subject to approval by the
Buyer. Wood chips, small wood blocks, wood shavings, wire rope,
or other materials with high-elastic properties shall not be used for
capblocks.
6.3.3.4 For prestressed piles, provide pile cushion appropriate for pile and
hammer and acceptable to Buyer.
6.3.4 Mandrel
A compatible expanding, internal mandrel shall be used for driving all thin
shell and step taper piles. The mandrel shall maintain a positive grip on the
pile.
6.3.5 Follower
Use a follower only with approval of Buyer.
6.4 Installation
6.4.1 General
6.4.1.1 Drive piles to the indicated lines, grades, and capacities required by
the Contract Documents.
6.4.1.2 Use driving cap or helmet to prevent damage to pile heads during
driving. Do not use loose inserts in cap.
6.4.1.3 Hold pile securely in proper position and alignment while driving.
6.4.1.4 Deliver hammer impacts concentrically and in direct alignment with
pile. Avoid forcing pile laterally or bending pile.
6.4.1.5 Drive piles no closer than 20 feet from concrete that has been in
place less than 3 days, unless otherwise authorized by Buyer.
6.4.1.6 Drive piles continuously, without interruption, to the final tip
elevation. A discontinuous driving operation shall be referred to
Buyer for resolution. Sudden resistance to pile driving by
underground obstructions shall be brought to the Buyers attention.
6.4.1.7 Install uplift connectors as required by Contract Documents.
6.4.1.8 If a pile is damaged at the top during driving, the damaged portion
shall be cut off. A damaged pile shall be brought to the attention of
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the Buyer for resolution. If necessary, a new length shall be spliced
to the undamaged pile before resumption of driving.
6.4.1.9 Piles in large groups shall be driven from the inside toward the
outside, unless otherwise approved by the Buyer.
6.4.1.10 Care shall be exercised not to drive the pile beyond the depth of
penetration required.
6.4.1.11 Piles shall not be driven until the earthwork within the area has been
completed to specified grade, unless otherwise required by the
Contract Documents or approved by the Buyer in writing.
6.4.1.12 If measured driving stresses in piles are deemed excessive by Buyer,
Contractor shall reduce the driving energy transmitted to the pile by
reducing the energy output of the hammer or by using additional
cushions.
6.4.2 Tolerances
6.4.2.1 Pile heads, at cut-off elevation, shall be within 3 inches in any
horizontal direction of the position shown in the Contract
Documents.
6.4.2.2 Pilings shall be cut off square, true, and level. Cut-off tolerance shall
be within 1 inch of the required elevations shown in the Contract
Documents unless directed otherwise by Buyer.
6.4.2.3 Vertical piles shall be plumb within 2% of the pile length. The
maximum deviation from the required axial alignment of battered
piles shall be within 4% of the pile length.
6.4.3 Predrilling
6.4.3.1 Predrill pilot holes only when required by the Contract Documents
or when authorized by Buyer in writing. Pilot holes are subject to
modification by the Buyer, on the basis of the results of initial
driving operations and analysis of driving data.
6.4.3.2 Drill pilot hole no larger than the least dimension of pile minus
2 inches, unless otherwise specified by Buyer. Terminate predrilling
at least 5 feet above pile tip elevation, unless directed otherwise by
Buyer or Contract Documents.
6.4.3.3 Promptly remove and dispose of spoil produced by predrilling.
Disposal shall be off the property unless otherwise specified by
Buyer.
6.4.4 Jetting
6.4.4.1 Use jetting only when required by the Contract Documents or when
authorized in writing by Buyer.
6.4.4.2 Where jetting is allowed, jetting procedures shall be approved by
Buyer.
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6.4.4.3 When jetting is permitted, Contractor shall control, treat if
necessary, and dispose of all jet water in a manner acceptable to the
Buyer.
6.4.5 Pile Heave
6.4.5.1 Heave and displacement of each pile shall be recorded after all piles
in a group have been driven.
6.4.5.2 Piles that heave more than 1/4 inch shall be re-driven to their
original elevation.
6.4.6 Cutoff
Provide sufficient pile length above cut-off elevations so that any portion of
pile damaged during driving may be cut off. Cut off piling neatly and
squarely at the required elevation within tolerances specified in
Section 6.4.2.2. Remove and dispose of cut-off lengths. Disposal shall be off
the property unless otherwise specified by Buyer.
6.4.7 Driving Criteria and Capacity Evaluation
6.4.7.1 Pile-driving criteria, specifying the minimum blows per foot and/or
refusal criteria, will be as specified in the Contract Documents.
Driving criteria are subject to modification by Buyer, on the basis of
analysis of initial and ongoing driving results. Any modification of
driving criteria shall be made at no cost to Buyer.
6.4.7.2 Drive piles to the minimum tip elevation shown in Contract
Documents. Continue driving beyond the minimum tip elevation
until the pile-driving criteria are met or until the maximum pile
penetration depth (if shown in the Contract Documents) is reached.
6.4.7.3 Penetration short of the specified minimum tip elevation will be
permitted only when, in the opinion of the Buyer, additional pile
driving will damage the pile.
6.4.7.4 If the pile-driving criteria are not met, or if penetration to minimum
tip elevation is not reached, the Buyer will determine any
remediation required.
6.4.8 Unsatisfactory Piles
6.4.8.1 Reject piles that do not meet all the requirements of this Practice,
including those piles that are damaged, broken, misplaced, driven
improperly, or out of alignment.
6.4.8.2 Contractor shall take action to correct rejected piles as directed by
Buyer. This may include extracting the rejected piles and driving
new piles or driving additional piles. All corrective work shall be
performed at no additional cost to Buyer.
6.4.9 Pipe Piles
6.4.9.1 Piles shall be covered during the interval between driving and
placement of concrete.
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 16 of 19 Process Industry Practices
6.4.9.2 Concrete shall not be placed until the effect of ground heave and
displacements can no longer be measured.
6.4.9.3 Concrete shall not be placed in a pile that is within 10 feet of another
pile that is being driven.
6.4.9.4 Concrete shall not be placed until after the piles have been inspected
and approved.
6.4.9.5 Concrete shall not be placed until the pile is free of all foreign
matter and contains not more than 2 inches of water.
6.4.9.6 Concrete shall be placed with a funnel hopper centered directly over
the pile. The bottom opening of the hopper shall not be larger than
one-half the diameter of the reinforcing steel cage or one-half the
pile diameter if there is no cage.
6.4.9.7 Concrete shall not be allowed to hit the reinforcing steel or the side
of the pile during placement.
6.4.9.8 A tremie pipe shall be substituted for the hopper if required to
prevent the concrete from hitting the reinforcement or the pile side.
6.4.9.9 If a tremie pipe is used, the pipe opening shall be kept submerged
under the rising top surface of the deposited concrete.
6.4.9.10 The concrete shall be placed continuously until the pile is full.
6.4.9.11 Piles with a buckle or other deformation that reduces the inside
diameter by 10% or more shall be rejected.
6.4.10 Timber Piles
Additional pile length required for installation shall be determined by the
Contractor and provided at its own expense.
6.4.11 Precast and Prestressed Concrete Piles
Where anchor/dowel holes have been provided for uplift connection, they
shall be protected to prevent dirt or other substances from contaminating the
hole before grouting.
6.5 Pile Capacity Testing
6.5.1 Pile-Driving Analyzer
6.5.1.1 Dynamic monitoring of pile driving employing the pile-driving
analyzer will be used if specified in Contract Documents or
otherwise determined necessary by the Buyer. Buyer will retain and
pay for an agency to perform pile-driving analyzer monitoring.
6.5.1.2 Contractor shall provide access and assistance to enable the testing
agency to expeditiously perform the required instrumentation and
monitoring. Contractor shall provide appropriate power sources for
the monitoring as required.
COMPLETE REVISION PIP STS02360
June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 19
6.5.1.3 Contractor shall ensure that the transducers, cables, or equipment
associated with the dynamic monitoring are not damaged.
6.5.1.4 Contractor shall assist testing agency by providing personnel to help
attach transducers to the pile head and manage cables during pile
lifting and installation. The testing agency will instruct the
Contractor in the details of this work.
6.5.1.5 Selected piles shall be re-instrumented and re-tapped for dynamic
monitoring after 24 hours or longer, as determined by Buyer. A cold
hammer shall not be used for re-tapping. The hammer shall be
warmed before re-tapping by applying at least 20 blows to another
pile. Re-tapping of a pile may involve up to 50 hammer blows or pile
penetration of as much as 6 inches.
6.5.1.6 Contractor shall allow for dynamic monitoring, including attaching
and detaching instrumentation and actual testing at no additional
cost to the Buyer.
6.5.2 Static Pile Load Test
6.5.2.1 Load tests are required only when specified in the Contract
Documents.
6.5.2.2 Unless otherwise required in the Contract Documents, Buyer will
retain a geotechnical engineer to approve, direct, and document the
load test(s). The Contractor shall neither install or test reaction piles
nor commence load testing without the approval and presence of the
Buyers geotechnical engineer.
6.5.2.3 The Contractor shall be responsible for locating, furnishing, and
installing the test and reaction piles.
6.5.2.4 Contractor shall not install or test piles without the presence of the
Buyer.
6.5.2.5 Requirements for driving test and reaction piles shall be the same as
those for production piles.
6.5.2.6 Test and reaction piles shall be driven with the same equipment that
will be used to drive production piles.
6.5.2.7 Test and reaction piles that are correctly located and installed and
tested without damage and that meet all requirements of this Practice
may be used as production piles if approved by Buyer.
6.5.2.8 Contractor shall design and install reaction frames and reaction
piles, unless required otherwise in the Contract Documents.
6.5.2.9 Contractor shall perform loading test on pile(s) selected by Buyer in
accordance with ASTM D1143 (compression test), ASTM D3689
(tension test), or ASTM D 3966 (lateral test).
PIP STS02360 COMPLETE REVISION
Driven Piles Specification June 2001
Page 18 of 19 Process Industry Practices
6.5.2.10 Contractor shall supply load-cell and/or jack/manometer system
designed for use in field conditions. Jack and manometer must be
calibrated together as a system.
6.5.2.11 The manometer measuring the jack pressure shall have a range of at
least 135% to 300% of the specified allowable pile capacity.
6.5.2.12 Contractor shall use a single jack to apply the required load unless
authorized by Buyer to use a pair of jacks.
6.5.2.13 Contractor shall supply operator experienced in pile load testing and
a laborer to operate equipment throughout duration of test.
6.5.2.14 Contractor shall provide suitable enclosure of test arrangement to
ensure complete weather protection for reference beams and for
personnel conducting the test. Contractor shall provide necessary
power source, lights, and heating.
6.5.2.15 Contractor shall commence compression test between 5 and 30 days
after initial driving of pile or as permitted by the Buyer.
6.5.2.16 Contractor shall commence tension test between 10 and 30 days
after initial driving of pile or as permitted by the Buyer.
6.5.2.17 Contractor shall not subject pile to any loading before starting the
test.
6.5.2.18 Contractor shall perform tests in accordance with the Quick Load
Test Method specified in ASTM D1143 or ASTM D3689 unless
specified otherwise in the Contract Documents or unless not allowed
per applicable code. Loading and unloading shall be as follows
unless otherwise directed by the Buyer.
a. Load pile in no less than 20 equal increments applied every
10 minutes to a maximum load of 300% of specified pile
capacity. Accurately maintain each load level. If the loading
increment becomes too large, the load must not be released; the
load level shall be recorded, the reading shall be taken at this
load level, and the next loading increment shall be made
correspondingly smaller.
b. Within each load level, take simultaneous readings of
movements and load at 3, 6, and 10 minutes after start of
loading.
c. After the maximum test load has been maintained for
10 minutes, unload pile in five approximately equal decrements
of load every 5 minutes, recording movements and load for
each load level at the end of each 5-minute period.
d. Continue recording movement gauges at 10-minute intervals for
at least 30 minutes after completely unloading pile.
COMPLETE REVISION PIP STS02360
June 2001 Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 19
6.5.2.19 If requested by Buyer, perform a quick reloading of pile immediately
after the first test is completed. The reloading test will require fewer
load increments and will be completed in approximately 2 hours.
6.5.2.20 Evaluation of tests will be sole responsibility of Buyer.
June 2001 PIP STS02360
Driven Piles Specification
Process Industry Practices Attachment 1
ATTACHMENT 1 Pile and Driving Equipment Data Form
Contract No.: Structure Name and/or No.:
Project:

Pile-Driving Contractor or Subcontractor:

Location:
(Piles driven by)
Manufacturer: Model No.:
Hammer Type: Serial No.:

Manufacturers Maximum Rated Energy: (ft-lbs)
Stroke at Maximum Rated Energy: (ft)
Range in Operating Energy: to (ft-lbs)
Range in Operating Stroke: to (ft)
Ram Weight: (lbs)
Modifications:


Striker Plate:
Weight: (lbs) Diameter: (in.)
Thickness: (in.)
Hammer Cushion:
Material #1 Material #2 (for Composite Cushion)
Name: Name:

Area: (in.
2
) Area: (in.
2
)
Thickness/Plate: (in.) Thickness/Plate: (in.)
No. of Plates: No. of Plates:
Total Thickness of Hammer Cushion (in.)
Helmet Weight: (lbs)
Pile Cushion Material:
Area: (in.
2
) Thickness/Sheet: (in.)
No. of Sheets:
Total Thickness of Pile Cushion: (in.)
Pile Type:
Diameter of Cross Sectional Width: (in.)
Cross Sectional Area: (in.
2
) Weight/Ft: (lbs/ft)
Wall Thickness: (in.) Taper:
Ordered Length: (ft)
Design Load: (tons)
Ultimate Pile Capacity: (tons)
Description of Splice:

Driving Shoe/Closure Plate Description:

Submitted by: Date:
Telephone No.: Fax No.:
(Adapted from FHWA Publication No. FHWA-HI-97-013)