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Ryan Anthony G.

Perea
Written Report

What is CITES?
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
*Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international treaty to prevent species from becoming
endangered or extinct because of international trade. Under this treaty, countries work
together to regulate the international trade of animal and plant species and ensure that
this trade is not detrimental to the survival of wild populations. Any trade in protected
plant and animal species should be sustainable, based on sound biological
understanding and principles.

*FLORA & FAUNA
By definition, Flora is a word of Latin origin referring to Flora, the goddess of flowers. The term can refer
to a group of plants or to bacteria. Flora is the root of the word floral, which means pertaining to flowers.
Fauna can refer to the animal life or classification of animals of a certain region, time period, or
environment. The term is also of Latin origin, and in Roman mythology, Fauna was the sister of Faunus, a
good spirit of the forest and plains.












CITES, A Brief History
In the early 1960s, international discussion began focusing on the rate at which
the worlds wild animals and plants were being threatened by unregulated international
trade. The Convention was drafted as the result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a
meeting of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Nairobi,
Kenya. The text of the Convention was agreed upon at a meeting of representatives of
80 countries in Washington D.C., on March 3rd 1973. Just over 2 years later, on July
1st 1975, CITES entered into force.
Today, 180 countries implement CITES, which accords varying degrees of
protection to over 30,000 species of animals and plants.


The Importance of CITES
The Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna
and Flora (CITES) is the only treaty that regulates international trade in wildlife. They
are the defenders of Wildlife.

Who administers CITES?
The CITES Secretariat, based in Geneva, is responsible for administering the
treaty. The Secretariat itself is administered by the United Nations Environmental
Program.

The Structure of CITES


Conference of the Parties
The Parties (member States) to CITES are collectively referred to as the
Conference of the Parties. Every two to three years, the Conference of the Parties
meets to review the implementation of the Convention. These meetings last for about
two weeks and are usually hosted by one of the Parties. The meetings are often
referred to as CoPs. They provide the occasion for the Parties to:
review progress in the conservation of species included in the
Appendices;
consider (and where appropriate adopt) proposals to amend the lists of
species in Appendices I and II;
consider discussion documents and reports from the Parties, the
permanent committees, the Secretariat and working groups;
recommend measures to improve the effectiveness of the Convention;
and
make provisions (including the adoption of a budget) necessary to allow
the Secretariat to function effectively.



Standing Committee
The Standing Committee provides policy guidance to the Secretariat concerning
the implementation of the Convention and oversees the management of the
Secretariat's budget. Beyond these key roles, it coordinates and oversees, where
required, the work of other committees and working groups; carries out tasks given to it
by the Conference of the Parties; and drafts resolutions for consideration by the
Conference of the Parties
The members of the Standing Committee are Parties representing each of the six
major geographical regions (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Central and South
America and the Caribbean, and Oceania), with the number of representatives weighted
according to the number of Parties within the region. The membership of the Standing
Committee is reviewed at every regular meeting of the Conference of the Parties.

The CITES Secretariat
The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP and is located at Geneva,
Switzerland. It has a pivotal role, fundamental to the Convention and its functions are
laid down in Article XII of the text of the Convention. They include:
playing a coordinating, advisory and servicing role in the working of the
Convention;
assisting with communication and monitoring the implementation of the
Convention to ensure that its provisions are respected;
arranging meetings of the Conference of the Parties and of the permanent
Committees at regular intervals and servicing those meetings (i.e. organizing
them, preparing and circulating meeting documents, making necessary
arrangements for delegates to attend the meetings, providing advice and
support, etc.);
providing assistance in the fields of legislation, enforcement, science and
training;
undertaking, under agreed programmes, occasional scientific and technical
studies into issues affecting the implementation of the Convention;
making recommendations regarding the implementation of the Convention;
acting as the repository for the reports, sample permits and other information
submitted by the Parties;

distributing information relevant to several or all Parties, for example, proposals
to amend the Appendices, sample permits, information about enforcement
problems, national legislation, reference material or news of a new Party;
issuing new editions of Appendices I, II and III, whenever there is a change, as
well as of the Resolutions and Decisions adopted by the Conference of the
Parties at its meetings, and information to assist identification of species listed in
the Appendices; and
preparing annual reports to the Parties on its own work and on the
implementation of the Convention;


How CITES works?
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora (CITES) is administered through the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP). A Secretariat, located in Geneva, Switzerland, oversees the
implementation of the treaty and assists with communications between countries.
Each country that implements CITES, referred to as a Party, must designate a
Management Authority and Scientific Authority to carry out the treaty. The Management
Authority ensures that CITES-listed species are traded legally issues permits. The
Scientific Authority determines whether trade in a particular animal or plant species
could be detrimental to its survival in the wild
The CITES Parties meet every 2-3 years to discuss progress in conservation and
to amend the lists of species protected as part of the agreement.







What species are protected under CITES?
Over 5,000 species of animals and 25,000 species of plants are protected under
CITES, including elephants, great apes, tigers, great white sharks, certain whale
species, coral, sturgeon, mahogany, and many others.








CITES Species
Protected species covered by CITES are classified into three groups according to the
level of threat they face.


Appendix I

This appendix lists the most endangered animal and plant species of all those listed and
protected by the CITES Convention. These species are threatened with extinction and
Cites categorically prohibits international trade in them, except when they are being
imported for certain non-commercial reasons (article III) , as in the case of scientific
research.. In such cases trade is permitted as long as it is authorized by an explicit
import permit and export or re-export permit.

Appendix II

This appendix includes controlled species, where the species is protected within its
home state and that state has sought help to control trade in it and limit the decline of
the species. These states require the collaboration of other Cites members to prevent
unsustainable exploitation and illegal trade in these species. International trade is
permitted only on presentation of the relevant permit or certificate.

Examples: Monkeys, some crocodiles, pythons, parrots, tortoises and some soft shell
turtles, sturgeons, bird-wing butterflies, American ginseng, some orchids, ramin,
agarwood, seahorses, hard corals and giant clams etc.

Appendix III
This appendix includes controlled species, where the species is protected within its
home state and that state has sought help to control trade in it and limit the decline of
the species. These states require the collaboration of other Cites members to prevent
unsustainable exploitation and illegal trade in these species. International trade is
permitted only on presentation of the relevant permit or certificate.


Examples: Wild water buffalo, walruses, mongooses, some deer, pheasants, foxes,
snakes, soft shell turtles.



Mammals
The following entire groups (orders or
families) of mammals are included in
CITES Appendices I or II:
all primates
all cetaceans (whales & dolphins)
all cats (leopard, tiger, etc)
all bears
all elephants
all rhinoceroses

Reptiles

The following entire groups (orders or
families) of reptiles are included in
CITES Appendices I or II:
all crocodylians (alligators,
crocodiles, caimans, etc)
all sea turtles (Cheloniidae)
all Boidae (boas, pythons)
Cactus and Orchids



Other Plants

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