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Chapter 19

El Filibusterismo Published in Ghent (1891)



El Filibusterismo took 3 years to write
Rizal started writing Fili in Calamba in October, 1887
and made changes in the plot and some chapters in
London in 1888. He wrote more chapters in Paris and
Madrid, and finished the manuscript in Biarritz on
March 29, 1891.

Privations in Ghent
From Brussels to Ghent on July 5, 1891
Ghent a famous university city in Belgium
Reasons:
1. Cheaper cost of printing
2. Escape attraction of Petite Suzanne

Cheap boarding house with Jose Alejandro
Jose Alejandro engineering student in the
University of Ghent; became a general in the
Filipino-American War of 1899-1902
Preparing their own breakfast to reduce the
rent: Rizal purchased tea, sugar, alcohol and a
box of biscuits for him and his roommate with
equal rations for 30 days

Printing of El Filibusterismo
F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS offered lowest quotation
Print Fili on installment basis
Rizal pawned his jewels for the down payment
Money from the sold copies of Morgas Sucesos
in Manila (some from Basa and P200 from Arias
Rodriguez)
Funds are still not enough

Printing suspended on August 6, 1891

Ventura, Savior of the Fili
Similar to the circumstance of Noli in 1886 Berlin
Valentin Ventura knew the condition of Rizal
and sent him money to continue the printing

The Fili Comes Off the Press
Rizals Fili came off the press on September 18, 1891
He sent 2 copies to HK for Basa and Sixto Lopez
He donated the original manuscript and an
autographed printed copy to Ventura
Complimentary copies to his close friends
Fili received praises in foreign countries
La Publicidad of Barcelona: a model and a
precious jewel in the now decadent literature of
Spain
El Nuevo Regimen of Madrid: serialized the novel

First edition (Ghent edition) of El Filibusterismo
In wooden boxes and shipped to Hong Kong
Other boxes were confiscated and lost
Increased the price of Fili to 400 pesetas

Dedicated to Gom-Bur-Za
Rizal dedicated El Filibusterismo to Don Mariano
Gomez, Don Jose Burgos, and Don Jacinto Zamora

Errors in Rizals dedicatory note
Martyrdom happened on February 17, 1872 not
February 28
Father Gomez was 73 y.o. not 85
Father Burgos was 35 y.o. not 30
Father Zamora was 37 y.o. not 35

The Manuscript and the Book
Original manuscript
Now preserved in the Filipina Division of Bureau
of Public Libraries, Manila
Acquired by the Philippine Government for
P10,000 from Valentin Ventura
279 pages of long sheets of paper

Foreword and Warning
Two features of original manuscript that did not
appear on the printed book
To save on printing cost

Inscription on Title Page
Written by Ferdinand Blumentritt
Not found in published English translations

Synopsis of El Filibusterismo
Fili is a sequel to the Noli
The hero is Simoun, the Crisostomo Ibarra of
Noli, a rich jeweler and a friend of Spain who
secretly plans to revenge against the terrible
Spanish authority
Two Magnificent Obsessions of Simoun:
1. Rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery of
Santa Clara
2. Foment a revolution against hated Spanish
masters
The Characters in
1. Simoun rich jeweler.
2. Doa Victorina the ridiculously pro-Spanish
native woman who is going to Laguna in
search of her henpecked husband.
3. Tiburcio de Espedaa who has deserted
her.
4. Paulita Gomez Doa Victorinas beautiful
niece.
5. Ben-Zayb (anagram of Ibaez) a Spanish
Journalist who writes silly articles about
Filipinos.
6. Padre Sibyla Vice Rector of university of
Santo Tomas
7. Padre Camorra the parish priest of the
town Tiani
8. Don Custodio a pro-spanish Filipino holding
a high position in the government
9. Padre Salvi thin franciscan friar and former
cura of San Diego.
10. Padre Irene a kind friar who was a friend of
the Filipino students.
11. Padre Florentino a retired scholarly and
patriotic Filipino Priest
12. Isagani a poet-nephew of Padre Florentino
and a lover of Paulita.
13. Basilio son of Sisa and promising medical
student, whose medical education is
financed by his patron, Capitan Tiago.
14. Cabesang Tales who is dispossessed of his
land in Tiani by the Friars like that of Rizals
Father. He becomes a bandit chieftain named
Matanglawin.
15. Juli sweetheart of Basilio (Sisas Son), kills
herself rather than be dishonored by
Padre Camorra.
16. Macaraig a rich student and leader of the
Filipino students in movement to have an
academy where they could learn Spanish.
17. Padre Millon bigoted Dominican friar, who
teaches physics in the University of Santo
Tomas without scientific experiments.
18. Placido Penitente from Batangas,
discontented with the poor method of
instruction in the University.
19. Seor Pasta the old Filipino lawyer, who
refuses to help the Filipino students in their
petition to the government for educational
reforms.
20. Tandang Selo grand father of juli and fahter
of Cabesang Tales
21. Sandoval a Sapanish Student who supports
the cause of the filipino
students to propagate the teaching of
spanish.
22. Pecson one of the Filipino students who
agitates for the speaking of Spanish.
23. Pepay the pretty dancer and mistress of Don
Custodio.
24. Padre Fernandez a good Dominican friar
and friend of Isagani.
25. Don Timoteo the father of Juanito Pelaez


Noli and Fili Compared

NOLI FILI
Romantic novel Political novel
Work of the heart Work of the mind
Book of feeling Book of the thought
Freshness, color, humor,
lightness, and wit
Bitterness, hatred, pain,
violence, and sorrow
64 chapters 38 chapters
Rizal, M.H. Del Pilar,
Retana considered Noli
superior to the Fili
Blumentritt, G.L. Jaena,
Dr. Rafael Palma
considered Fili superior
BOTH
Good novels from the point of view of history
Depict with realistic colors the actual conditions
Instrumental in awakening the spirit of nationalism
Responsible in paving ground for Ph revolution

Mariano Ponce to Rizal, It is a true twin of the Noli

Rizals Other Unfinished Business
Rizal wrote to Blumentritt on September 22, 1891
A third novel in the modern sense of the word
Ethics will play a principal role
Habits and customs of the Filipinos
To be humorous, satirical and witty, to weep and
to laugh, to laugh amidst tears, that is, to cry
bitterly

From Marseilles to Hong Kong on October 18, 1891
On board the steamer Melbourne
Rizal began writing the novel in Tagalog during
his voyage
Continued in HK but did not finish for some
unstated reason

Unfinished third novel
It has no title, 44 pages in Rizals handwriting
Preserved in the National Library, Manila
The hero of the novel was Kamandagan.
Descendant of Lakan-Dula, last king of Tondo
It would have caused greater scandal
Rizals Other Unfinished Novels
Makamisa
A novel in Tagalog with light satirical style
2 chapters in 20 pages
Dapitan
Written in ironic Spanish during his exile in
Dapitan to depict town life and customs
An 8-page manuscript
About the Life in Pili
A novel in Spanish about a town in Laguna
A 27-page manuscript without title
About Cristobal
A novel about a youthful Filipino student who
returned from Europe after 12 years
A 34-page manuscript
The Beginnings of another Novel
A novel written in Spanish which describes the
deplorable state of the Philippines
Through the mouth of the
Contained in 2 notebooks, 31 written pages on
the first and 12 on the second
Style is ironic