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The complete chain of the LNG

Ros Roca Indox Cryo-Energy, S.L.


2000: Indox (Lleida-Spain) L-CNG + LNG
2006: Gas Natural (Lleida-Spain) L-CNG + LNG
2007: Monfort 1 (Castelln-Spain) LNG
2007: GasNatural (Badalona-Spain) L-CNG
2008: Taxco (Valencia-Spain) CNG
2009: MAN (Poznan-Poland) L-CNG
2009: Endesa (Mallorca-Spain) CNG
2010: Monfort 2 (Castelln-Spain) L-CNG + LNG
2010: Vicua (Olaberra-Spain) L-CNG + LNG
2010: LNG Europe 1 (Oss-The Netherlands) LNG
2011: Gas Natural (Paterna-Spain) CNG
2011: Gas Natural (Madrid-Spain) CNG
2011: FCC (Almassora-Spain) L-CNG
2011: Villava (Spain) CNG
2011: Via Augusta Gas (Zaragoza-Spain) L-CNG + LNG
2011: LNG Europe 2 (Zaandam-The Netherlands) L-CNG*
Turn-Key Natural Gas FUELLING STATIONS
Ros Roca Indox Cryo-Energy, S.L.
INTRODUCING VEHICULAR LNG
IN THE NETHERLANDS
1968 First LNG Terminal in Barcelona
2006-7 First steps with authorities in The Netherlands
2009-10 normal operation Oss Filling Station
2005 First steps with Mercedes on LNG
1. How to Start with an LNG Station
- Storage and Consumption Balance

2. Main Actors
END
USER
NG
Vehicle
LNG
Tank
LNG
Station
LNG
Supply
Regulations
VOS Logistics
VAN Gansewinkel
Municipality
RDW
Lloyds
Kiwa Gastec
LNG Europe
Mercedes
ECONIC NGT
RRIC
RRIC
LNG Europe
Vehicle already
Certified
Requirements
from Vehicle
Regulations
Requirements
from Vehicle
Regulations
Requirements from Users
LNG in The Netherlands?
Boil off line
Slave tank
Master tank
3. TANK REQUIREMENTS
- Two tanks per truck
to maximize range
- Optimizing tank capacity in the available
space to maximize range
- Working Pressure: 18 bar (gas engine requirement)

3.1 Working Pressure 18 bar: Heat transfer issue


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
-150 -130 -110 -90 -70
Temperature [C]
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
C

[
k
J
/
k
g

K
]
Equilibrium Curve Cp
P
L
P
H
6 bar; -136C
6,31 bar; -135C
18 bar; -111C
18,66 bar; -110C
C = 3,77 kJ/kg
C = 4,51 kJ/kg
1) The effect of 1 kj of heat into the tank is 1,8 times higher at HEC than LEC
2) The required heat to increase the pressure from working pressure to pressure
design (open safety valves) is 2,5 times more in LEC than HEC
3.1 Working Pressure 18 bar: Heat transfer issue
TARGET and SOLUTION: IMPROVE INSULATION !!!
Equivalent distance of Square Design: x 2
3.2 Homologation Requirements
- production inspection stages
- material & components certificates (R110)
- quality checks
- tests procedures mainly based on TPED, ADR, EN-1251-2 and common
requirements.
- FEA on tank & supports considering:
Longitudinal: 6.6 G
Transversal: 5 G
- Lateral impact: potential leakage
- Insulation behaviour when loosing vaccum (accident)
- Documentation: P&ID, Equipment list, Hazop or DFMEA, Declaration of
Conformity according to TPED for additional components (vaporator,
pressure measurement devices, valves, pressure relief valves), Users
Manual and Test & Inspection Plan.
-Lateral impact: potential leakage
-Insulation behaviour when loosing vaccum (accident)
3.2 Homologation Requirements
- Lateral impact: potential leakage
With Perlite
Without Perlite
3.2 Homologation Requirements
0,10
1,00
10,00
100,00
1000,00
0,1 1,0 10,0 100,0 1.000,0 10.000,0 100.000,0 1.000.000,0
Vacuum (micrHg)
Q

(
W
/
m
2
)
Perlita CRS-W
- Insulation behaviour when loosing vacuum (accident)
Working performance (good vacuum level)
Similar behavior.
Vacuum lost
(accident)
Several test simulating an accident on vacuum and isolated behavior.
Results: At no vacuum, multilayer offers more heat transfer than perlite.
4. FILLING STATION REQUIREMENTS
Filling Station Requirements for the main issue: Boil Off
- 1) FILLING HOSE + VAPOUR RETURN HOSE
- 2) PRESSURE RAISE IN THE TANK
- Normal Heat leak into the tank
- Station Cooldown (heat into the tank)
- Hot Gas Return from vehicle tanks (through vapor return line)
Starting Scenario:
- No Dutch regulations on LNG fueling Stations
- No ISO Standard
How proceed ?
- The EN 13645, TPED, ADR, EN 1251.2 (cryogenic tanks) as a reference. R110
- Bureau Veritas, Kiwa and Lloyds, local authorities and fire departments involved
4.1 FILLING HOSE + VAPOUR RETURN HOSE
4.2 PRESSURE RAISE IN THE F.STATION TANK
- Normal Heat leak into the tank
- Station Cooldown (heat into the tank)
- Hot Gas Return from vehicle tanks (vapour return line)

4.2.1 STATION COOLDOWN & VAPOUR RETURN


Truck filling
CoolDown
P
P
Cooldown increases pressure in the tank (which decreases quickly)
Filling reduces pressure in the tank
Each cooldown/filling introduces heat in the tank
After STOP filling pressure increases due to the introduced heat
BREAK-EVEN IS AROUND 200 kg / FILLING
5. HUMAN FACTOR
Main issues tackled during this period:
(explained in next slides)
- Vehicle Tanks: Parallel filling Serial Filling
- Nozzles: Drivers complain Change of Nozzles
- Training: Drivers and mechanics
5. HUMAN FACTOR: Parallel / Serial Filling
- Close gas valve on tank 2
- Open gas valve on tank 1
- Fill tank 1
- Close gas valve on tank 1
- Open gas valve on tank 2
- Fill tank 2
- Fill both tanks automatically. Driver
do not touches valves
- Driver can close by mistake LNG valves
- Pressure on both tanks is independant
PARALLEL (2 at same time) SERIAL
OPERATIONS: OPERATIONS:
POSITIVE: POSITIVE:
NEGATIVE: NEGATIVE:
- Pressure on both tanks is common
- Easy operation: No mistakes

5. HUMAN FACTOR: Nozzles


- Mechanical design: Friction when
connecting and disconnecting
- Ice blocks disconnection
- Pressure do not blocks disconnection
- Ice-breaker patent

5. HUMAN FACTOR: Training


- Drivers
- LNG
- What is each valve for?
- What to do when?
- Trouble-shooting
- Mercedes Mechanics:
- LNG
- How an LNG Tank works?
- Main components in an LNG Tank
- P&I of the system
- Identifying lines
- Operation procedures in the station
- Operation procedures for parking
- Trouble-shooting
6. CONCLUSIONS on the Dutch experience
- LNG vehicle tanks to be designed as a vehicular application:
- Insulation performance still reasonable at no-vacuum
- Minimize effect of a lateral impact
- Balance between storage and consumption is key for an LNG fuelling station
- Thumb rule: Minimum 10 LNG vehicles per Station
- LNG Technology is reasonably mature, but still potential improvements:
- JC Carter Nozzle improves performance of Fuelling Stations
- The different actors have to assume the leading role of these kind of projects on
countries starting with vehicular LNG.
After 4 years we are in a better position regarding the LNG on road ! !
Many Thanks / Vielen Dank!