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# Topic # 5: Phase & Frequency Modulation

T1. B.P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd
Edition, Oxford University Press, 1998: OR 4
th
Edition 2010 Chapter 5

T2. Simon Haykin & Michael Moher: Communication Systems; John Wiely, 4
th

Edition OR 5
th
Edition, 2010, 5/e. : Chapter 4

Sept 3 11, 2014
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Introduction
Amplitude modulation
Process of varying a carrier signals amplitude according to message
signal

Phase Modulation
Can we vary of the phase of a carrier according to message signal ?

Frequency Modulation
Can we vary of the frequency of a carrier according to message signal ?

Is it for fancy or any benefits over AM exist ?
Noise immunity over AM at the cost of increased BW
Constancy of the transmitted signal envelop.

2
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Instantaneous Frequency
3
()

= w
c

Given instantaneous frequency, the
angle function is then
And the instantaneous Frequency is
(t) is the generalized angle
and is a function of t.
The generalized angle for a conventional
Sinusoid A cos( w
c
t +
o
) is
Instantaneous Frequency
(t) = w
c
t +
o

o

Dt
()

= w
i
(t)

o
is the accumulated phase upto t = 0.
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Phase Modulation
4
Instantaneous frequency varies linearly with derivative of the message signal
The instantaneous frequency is
PM Signal
Phase varies linearly with message signal
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Example.
5
In an angle modulating system, for the
modulating signal m(t) shown in figure,
the constant k
p
= 10p. Carrier frequency
f
c
= 100 MHz. Find the frequency
excursion when PM is used. Sketch PM
wave
PM Case:
Slope of m(t) = 2 / 10
-4
= (+/-)20,000
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Frequency Modulation
FM Signal
The phase varies with respect to the integral of the message signal.
Instantaneous Frequency varies linearly with message signal
The Phase is
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Example.
7
In an angle modulating system, for the
modulating signal m(t) shown in figure,
the constant k
f
= 2p X 10
5
and Carrier
frequency f
c
= 100 MHz. Find the
frequency excursion when FM is used.
Sketch FM wave The instantaneous frequency increases
linearly from 99.9 to 100.1 MHz over a
half cycle and decreases from 100.1 to
99.9 MHz, over the rest of the half cycle
of m(t).
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Characteristics of PM & FM signals
8
1. Constancy of Transmitter Power
The amplitude of the PM & FM
waves is constant, irrespective of
the deviation factors k
m
& k
f
Hence, the transmitted power is
constant.
2. Non linearity of the modulation
process
If m(t) = m
1
(t) + m
2
(t);
s
1
(t) = (

+
p
m
1
(t))
s
2
(t) = (

+
p
m
2
(t))
s(t) = (

+
p
(m
1
(t) + m
2
(t)) )
Clearly s(t) s
1
(t) + s
2
(t)
For Phase Modulation
Same applies to FM Also.
Compare this with DSB-SC
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Characteristics of PM & FM signals
3. Immunity of angle modulation to
nonlinearities of the system.
9
Even with Higher order nonlinearities.
Check for DSB-SC Case
for non linearity of type
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Bandwidth of Frequency Modulated Waves
10
For the FM Signal
Let
That is, the FM signal is like several
DSB-SC signals with modulating
signals a(t), a
2
(t), a
3
(t) a
n
(t).
Hence, the spectrum consists of un
modulated carrier plus spectra of
{a
n
(t) , n= 1,2,3}, centered at w
c.

Expanding in power series
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Bandwidth of Frequency Modulated Waves
11
If M(w) is band limited to B Hz, A(w)
is also band limited to B Hz
Spectrum of a
2
(t) is A(w)*A(w) and is
band limited to 2B. Similarly, a
n
(t) will
be band limited to nB.
Clearly, the theoretical bandwidth of
Frequency Modulated signal is infinite
Since, from FT properties,
However, for practical signals with
bounded | a(t)|, |k
f
a(t)| will remain finite.
For large n
0
Hence, many of the higher order
terms of
FM
(t)
Based on Bandwidth we have
1. Narrowband FM and
2. Wideband FM
vanish and power remains in finite
bandwidth. BW is finite for practical
Signals
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Narrowband Frequency Modulation
12
This has similarities to AM signal with
Carrier.
If |k
f
a(t) | << 1
Since A(w) has a bandwidth of B, the
message bandwidth, bandwidth of this FM
signal is 2B. This is called Narrowband FM
Since
Assumption implies that deviation from
carrier frequency is small.
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Narrowband Phase Modulation
13
If |k
p
m(t) | << 1
Bandwidth of this PM signal is 2B.
This is called Narrowband PM
For PM
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Wideband Frequency Modulation
14
If |k
f
a(t) | << 1 is not satisfied, Higher order terms can not be neglected.
Do a staircase approximation to m(t) as ()

Each cell has a constant amplitude
m(t
k
) and duration 1/2B
The FM signal corresponding to this
cell has the instantaneous frequency
The FM signal corresponding to ()

## has series of such short burst sinusoids

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BW - Wideband Angle Modulation
15
Each cell has a constant amplitude m(t
k
) and duration 1/2B
The FM Spectrum of one burst is then
The FM BW
The FM Spectrum of ()

is then sum
of the spectra of short burst of sinusoids
of duration (1/2B) and freq.
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Wideband Frequency Modulation
16
The Peak Deviation in Freq.
The actual BW is slightly lower
than this estimate as the staircase
approximation is not close to the
smooth nature of the actual signal.
However, With this formula, the
NB-FM ( D
f
<< B ), the BW will be
It should have been 2B ! !
Hence, a better approximation for BW is
Carsons formula
For really WB FM, D
f
>> B
Define a deviation ratio
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Example.
17
Step 1: Find the essential
bandwidth of the given waveform
Consider only upto third harmonic.
Estimate B
FM
for the
modulating signal m(t) see
figure. Use k
f
= 2p X 10
5
.
In this case the amplitude of harmonics decay rapidly.
Third harmonic is 11% and 5
th
is only 4% of the
fundamental..
B = 3 X (10
4
/ 2 ) = 15 KHz.
Step 2: Find the frequency deviation, based on k
f
and peak amplitude of the modulating waveform
The bandwidth of the FM signal is then
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Example.
18
Estimate B
PM
for the modulating
signal m(t) see figure. Use k
p
= 5p
.
What if amplitude of m(t) is doubled ?
Doubling the amplitude of m(t) changes its peak
value and not the BW. Hence for FM signal
The bandwidth of the FM signal is then
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FM BW for Single Tone Frequency Modulation
19
Let the message signal be
The instantaneous Frequency is
Maximum Freq. deviation is
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Single Tone Frequency Modulation
20
Bessel Function of the first kind and nth order.
J
n
(b)
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Single Tone Frequency Modulation
21
n = 0 : The
modulated
signal has a
carrier
component.
n 0 : It also has
infinite number of
sidebands
The strength of n
th
sideband at w = w
c
+ nw
m
is J
n
(b)
Carsons formula
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Generation of FM signals.
22
Direct Method :
Varying the instantaneous frequency
according to the message signal. One
can use a VCO to change the frequency
according to m(t)
VCO can be built either with capacitance
change or with inductance change.
Indirect Method :
1. First NBFM is generated : Integrating the
m(t) and phase modulating the carrier
2. NBFM is then converted to WBFM by
frequency multipliers.
3. If the required final frequency deviation is
n times the NBFM deviation, then an n fold
frequency multiplication is used.
Amstrong indirect FM modulation
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Demodulation of FM Signals.
23
The instantaneous frequency
of the FM signal is
Can a simple network with
transfer function H(w) =jw
produce an output proportional
to instantaneous frequency?
A circuit with transfer function
as H(w) = jw , is a
differentiator in time domain.
w
c
+ k
f
m(t) > 0 for all t
Dw = k
f
m
p
< w
c
,
What if A is not constant ? Use band pass Limiting
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Band-pass Limiter for FM signals.
24
Let the received FM signal be
Self Study
F

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Practical FM Demodulation Circuits
25
A tuned circuit (tuned to w
c
) , followed by
an envelope detector can then be used.
Frequency response of a tuned circuit is
almost linear around the tuned frequency.
Hence, it acts like a slope detector
Linearity zone is increased by a
balanced discriminator.
Zero Crossing Detectors: Rate of zero
crossings is the measure of instantaneous
frequency.
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PLL based FM Demodulation
26
= B Cos[ w
c
t + c t e
o
(t) ]
w
VCO
= w
c
+ c e
o
(t)

o
= c t e
o
(t)
If Loop filter suppresses 2w
c

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Interference & Angle Modulated systems
27
I cos (w
c
+

w

)t
Assume an unmodulated Carrier at
frequency w
c
is being transmitted.
If the demodulator is a Phase Detector, the output is
Its like a single tone with
amplitude, scaled by A, the
carrier amplitude.
If the demodulator is an FM detector, It will produce
output from the Instantaneous Frequency:
the output is
Its again like a single tone with amplitude, scaled
by A, the carrier amplitude and the frequency of
the interferer
In both cases, for A >> I, effect of
interference is negligible.
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Interference & AM systems
28
The envelope of the signal is
The envelope detector output has the
interference component even if the carrier
amplitude is large.
Angle demodulator suppresses the weak signal
interference better than AM systems..
In AM system, if there is an
interference of type I cos (w
c
+

w

)t
This is called as capture effect in FM
Since AM is susceptible to Interference, the
interference level should be less than -35 dB
compared to incoming signal strength.
Where as for FM, interference level as high as
-6dB, compared to incoming signal strength is
tolerable.
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Interference due to Channel Noise
29
The channel noise acts as an interference
White noise has a constant power spectral
density: Implies Interference amplitude ,I,
is constant for all w
Voice signals have low PSD higher
frequencies.
Effect of Noise interference is high for
higher frequencies,.
Noise Amplitude in Phase Demodulated
output = (I

/ 2 A) and is independent of
the interferer frequency
The Phase detector Output is
The FM Detector Output is
Noise Amplitude in Frequency
Demodulated output = (Iw

/ 2 A)
SNR of FM output suffers !!
Consequences ?
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Remedy: Pre Emphasis & De Emphasis
30
Pre Emphasis: : Amplify the higher
frequencies of m(t) before modulation
De Emphasis: After demodulation, apply
an inverse operation to the pre emphasis.
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SNR Performance of Angle Modulated Systems

Phase Modulation ( Small noise Case)
Frequency Modulation ( Small noise Case)
31
g is Baseband SNR
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Frequency Modulated Systems
Noise Comparable to signal Small noise Case
32
FM Threshold Effect
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Problem # 1
33
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Problem # 2
34
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Problem # 3
35
Composite N = (final deviation / initial deviation)
= 75000/10 = 7500 : N = N1 * N2

For carrier : (L1 - 100Khz * N1 ) * N2 = 98.1 MHz. :

The local Oscillator frequency L1 is constrained
by 10MHz L1 11 MHz

Case1: If N1 = 100 then N2 = 75,

( L1 10Mhz) * 75 = 98.1 MHz. :

L1= 11.308 MHz.
Does not work !!

X N1 BPF X N2
L1
Case2: If N1 = 125 then N2 = 60,

(12.5 MHz - L1 ) * 60 = 98.1 MHz. :

L1= 10.865 MHz.
May be this will work

Case3: If N1 = 75 & N2 = 100,
( L1 - 7.5 MHz) * 100 = 98.1 MHz. :
L1= 8.48 Mhz MHz.
Does not work !!
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Problem # 3
36
X N1 BPF
X N2
L1