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# Simple Barometer

## 1. Atmospheric pressure can be measured by a simple barometer.

2. A thick glass tube (at least 1m long) is filled with mercury completely.
3. The open end of the tube is covered with a finger and inverted in a trough of
mercury.
. The height of the mercury is proportional to the atmospheric pressure.
Using Simple Mercury Barometer
Characteristics of the Mercury Barometer
Q and A
Q: !arometer is usually made up of mercury. "#plain why is it not practical to have a
water barometer\$
A:
1. The atmospheric pressure is about 1% meter water& which means it can push
the water up to 1% meter height.
2. Therefore a water barometer must be at least 1% meter long.
3. This is not practical because the glass tube of the barometer may be broken or
topple easily. 't is also difficult to keep or move such a long tube.
Manometer
1. A manometer is a ()shape tube filled with some li*uid (usually mercury).
2. +anometer is a device used to measure gas pressure in a container.
3. The pressure of the gas is e*ual to the sum of the atmospheric pressure and
pressure due to the column of li*uid.
,
gas
- ,
atm
. ,
li*uid
Note:
There are a few points we need to know when using a manometer
a. /ifference in gas pressure at difference level can be ignored.
b. ,ressure on the surface of li*uid is e*ual to the gas pressure in contact.
c. ,ressure that cause by li*uid - h0g.
d. 1or a given li*uid& the pressures at any point of the same level are the same.
e. 1or different li*uid with different density& pressure at two different level will
be different
Gas Trapped in a Capillary Tube

1. The pressure of the gas trapped in a capillary tube depends on the position of
the tube.
2. 1igure below shows the pressure of the gas when the capillary tube is
hori2ontal& vertical and vertically upside down.
rinciple of !loatation
1. The principle of floatation states that when an ob3ect floats in a li*uid the
buoyant force4upthrust that acts on the ob3ect is e*ual to the weight of the ob3ect.
2. As shown in the figure above& if the weight of the ob3ect (5) - upthrust (1)&
the ob3ect is in balance and therefore float on the surface of the fluid.
3. 'f the weight of the ob3ect 6 upthrust& the ob3ect will sink into the fluid.
Note
1. /isplaced volume of fluid - volume of the ob3ect that immerse in the fluid.
2. 'f weight of the ob3ect 6 upthrust& the ob3ect will sink into the fluid.
3. 'f weight of the ob3ect - upthrust& the ob3ect is in balance and therefore float
on the surface of the fluid.
!orces Acted on "b#ects \$mmersed in %i&uid
'n order to solve the problem related to ob3ect immerse in water& it7s important to
know the all forces acted on the ob3ect.
Case ':
1. The density of the ob3ect is lower than the density of the li*uid. The ob3ect
floats on the surface of the water.
2. The forces acting on the ob3ect is
a. the weight of the ob3ect(5)
b. the upthrust (1)
1orces are in e*uilibrium& hence
1 - 5
Case (:
1. The density of the ob3ect is greater than the density of the li*uid. The ob3ect
sink to the bottom of the water.
2. 8ying on the bottom of the water& there is a normal reaction acted on the
ob3ect.
3. The forces acting on the ob3ect is
a. the weight of the ob3ect(5)
b. the upthrust (1)
c. 9ormal reaction (:)
1orces are in e*uilibrium& hence
1 . : - 5
Case ):
1. The density of the ob3ect is greater than the density of the li*uid. The ob3ect is
hold by a string so that it does not sink deeper into the water.
2. The forces acting on the ob3ect is
a. the weight of the ob3ect(5)
b. the upthrust (1)
c. Tension of the string (T)
1orces are in e*uilibrium& hence
1 . T - 5
Case *:
1. The density of the ob3ect is lower than the density of the li*uid. The ob3ect is
hold by a string so that it does not move up to the surface of the water.
2. The forces acting on the ob3ect is
a. the weight of the ob3ect(5)
b. the upthrust (1)
c. Tension of the string (T)
1orces are in e*uilibrium& hence
1 - 5 . T
Q + A
Q: The diagram shows a picture of a hydrometer. 5hat is the function of the lead shot
at the bottom of the hydrometer\$
A:
To lower down the centre of gravity of the hydrometer. The hydrometer will topple if
the centre gravity of the hydrometer is above the surface of the li*uid.
Application of Bernoulli,s rinciple
Aeroplane
(;lick on the image to enlarge)
1. 5hen a wing in the form of an aerofoil moves in air& the flow of air over the
top travels faster and creates a region of low pressure. The flow of air below the
wing is slower resulting in a region of higher pressure.
2. The difference between the pressures at the top and underside of the wing
causes a net upward force& called lift& which helps the plane to take)off.
Q + A
Q: "#plain how an upthrust is produced when the aeroplane is moving.
A:
1. 5hen the aeroplane is moving& air flows faster above the wing than below.
2. Therefore& the air pressure below the wing is higher than above.
3. The difference in air pressure produces a net force acting upwards.
Q + A
Q: There are slat in front and flaps at the back of the wings of an aeroplane. /escribe
with the aid of a diagram how the slat and flaps of the wings help in lifting the
aeroplane when the aeroplane starts to depart.
A:
1. 5hen the aeroplane starts to depart& the slat and flaps are stretched and spread
out to increase the surface area of the wings.
2. This increases the lifting force acting on the aeroplane.
Sports
(;lick on the image to enlarge)
'n some of the sport such as football& a player can make the ball move in a curve path
by spinning the ball. This effect can be e#plained by !ernoulli7s ,rinciple.
\$nsecticide Spray
1. 5hen the plunger is pushed in& the air flows at a high velocity through a
no22le.
2. The flow of air at high velocity creates a region of low pressure above the
metal tube. The higher pressure of the atmospheric air acts on the surface of the
li*uid insecticide causing it to rise up the metal tube.
3. The insecticide leaves the top of the metal tube through the no22le as a fine
spray.
Bunsen Burner
1. 5hen the burner is connected to a gas supply& the gas flows at high velocity
through a narrow passage in the burner& creating a region of low pressure.
2. The outside air& which is at atmospheric pressure& is drawn in and mi#es with
the gas.
3. The mi#ture of gas and air enables the gas to burn completely to produce a
clean& hot& and smokeless flame
Carburetor
A carburetor is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine.
1igure above shows how !ernoulli7s principle is applied in a carburetor to mi# the air
with the fuel.
Q + A
Q: "#plain why 2 fast moving boats tend to move closer to each other.
A:
1. 5hen the two boats travel at high speed& the stream of fluid (air and water)
between the boats flow faster than the other sides of the boats.
2. This form a low pressure 2one in between the boats.
3. The higher pressure at the other sides of the boat pushes the boats closer to
each other.
Archimedes rinciple - Structure Question '
/iagram (a) above shows a metal block supported by a spring balance. /iagram (b)
shows the block partially immerses in water while diagram (c) shows the block fully
immerses in water.
a. 5hat is the mass of the metal block\$
5 - mg
(2%) - m(1%)
m - 2kg
b. 'n diagram b)& the reading of the balance became 19.
i. 5hat is the effective weight loss of the block when partially immense
in water as shown in diagram (b)\$
5eight loss - 2% < 1 - =9
ii. 5hat is the value of the upthrust that act on the block\$
= 9
iii. 1ind the weight of the displaced water\$
= 9
c. 'n diagram c)& when the block is fully immerse in water& the reading of the
spring balance became 1%9.
i. 9ame 3 forces that acted on the block.
5eight& tension of the string& upthrust
ii. >tate and e#plain the relationship between the forces in (c) (i)
!oth the tension and the upthrust act upward& the weight acts downward. The
block doesn?t move. Therefore& all forces are in e*uilibrium.
5eight - Tension of the >tring . (pthrust
iii. 1ind the volume of the block. @/ensity of water - 1%%% kg m)3A
+ass of the displaced water - 1 kg
iv. 9ame the principle you used in the calculation in *uestion (c) (iii).
Archimedes? ,rinciple
v. 5hat will happen to the reading of the spring balance if the water is
replaced with cooking oil.
'ncrease
The upthrust produced is directly proportional to the density.
The cooking has lower density. Therefore the upthrust produced is lower. As a
result& the weight loss caused by the upthrust will decrease and the reading of
the spring balance will increase.
1igure above shows a glass tube with cross)sectional area of 1% cmB and mass 1% g. 't
is filled with lead shots and immerse in water. The tube floats upright in the water.
@/ensity of water is 1% g4cmCA
a. >tate the name of this device.
Dydrometer
b. >tate one use of this device in a laboratory.
To measure the density of li*uids.
c. "#plain the function of the lead shots in the glass tube\$
To lower down the centre of gravity of the glass tube so that it does not topple
when immerse in water.
d. The length of the glass tube immerse in water is 12 cm. ;alculate
i. the volume of water displaced by the glass tube
A - 1% cmB
h - 12 cm
8et the volume of water - E
E - hA - (12)(1%) - 12% cmC
ii. the weight of the displaced water.
+ass of the displaced water - 12%g - %.12 kg
5eight of the displaced water - mg - %.12 # 1% - 1.2 9
e. The glass tube together with the lead shots are then placed inside a container
that filled with cooking oil. Again& the tube floats upright.
i. 5hat can be observed in the part of tube that is immerse in the oil
when compared with the condition in figure above\$
8onger