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Agenda 21: Earth Summit

The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio


Release Date: April, 1993
(also available in French, Spanish)
ISBN 13: 979!11""#"97
Sales N$%ber: 93&I&11
3"" pa'e(s),
($blisher: )nite* Nations, Depart%ent o+ ($blic In+or%ation
A'en*a !1 is a co%prehensive plan o+ action to be ta,en 'loball-, nationall- an* locall- b- or'ani.ations o+ the
)nite* Nations S-ste%, /overn%ents, an* 0a1or /ro$ps in ever- area in 2hich h$%an i%pacts on the
environ%ent&
Alon' 2ith the Rio Declaration on 3nviron%ent an* Develop%ent an* the State%ent o+ principles +or the
S$stainable 0ana'e%ent o+ Forests, A'en*a !1 2ere a*opte* b- %ore than 17 /overn%ents at the )nite*
Nations con+erence on 3nviron%ent an* Develop%ent ()N43D) hel* in Rio *e 5anerio, Bra.il, 3 to 16 5$ne 199!&
7he 4o%%ission on S$stainable Develop%ent (4SD) 2as create* in Dece%ber 199! to ens$re e++ective +ollo28$p
o+ )N43D, to %onitor an* report on i%ple%entation o+ the a'ree%ents at the local, national, re'ional an*
international levels& It 2as a'ree* that a +ive -ear revie2 o+ 3arth S$%%it pro'ress 2o$l* be %a*e in 1997 b-
the )nite* Nations /eneral Asse%bl- %eetin' in special session&
7he +$ll i%ple%entation o+ A'en*a !1, the (ro'ra%%e +or F$rther I%ple%entation o+ A'en*a !1 an* the
4o%%it%ents to the Rio principles, 2ere stron'l- rea++ir%e* at the 9orl* S$%%it on S$stainable Develop%ent
(9SSD) hel* in 5ohannesb$r', So$th A+rica +ro% !: A$'$st to 6 Septe%ber !""!&
7his lan*%ar, p$blication provi*es the co%plete +inal te;t o+ A'en*a !1, as 2ell as the Rio Declaration an* Forest
(rinciples&

Agenda 21
UN Economic and Social Development
Division for Sustainable Development
Core Publications
Agenda 21
Links to Agenda 21 Capters
Cover
TOC
Preamble
Sec I
Sec II
Sec III
Sec IV
Rio Declaration
Forest Principles
Order

!able of Contents
Capter Paragraps
1. Preamble 1.1 - 1.6
SEC!"#N "$ S#C"AL AND EC#N#%"C D"%ENS"#NS
Capter Paragraps
2. International cooperation to accelerate sstainable development in
developin! contries and related domestic policies
2.1 - 2."#
#. Combatin! povert$ #.1 - #.12
". C%an!in! consmption patterns ".1 - ".2&
'. Demo!rap%ic d$namics and sstainabilit$ '.1 - '.66
6 Protectin! and promotin! %man %ealt% conditions 6.1 - 6."6
&. Promotin! sstainable %man settlement development &.1 - &.()
(. Inte!ratin! environment and development in decision-ma*in! (.1 - (.'"
SEC!"#N ""$ C#NSE&'A!"#N AND %ANA(E%EN! #) &ES#U&CES )#&
DE'EL#P%EN!
Capter Paragraps
+. Protection o, t%e atmosp%ere +.1 - +.#'
1). Inte!rated approac% to t%e plannin! and mana!ement o, land resorces 1).1 - 1).1(
11. Combatin! de,orestation 11.1 - 11.")
12. -ana!in! ,ra!ile ecos$stems. combatin! deserti,ication and dro!%t 12.1 - 12.6#
1#. -ana!in! ,ra!ile ecos$stems. sstainable montain development 1#.1 - 1#.2"
1". Promotin! sstainable a!ricltre and rral development 1".1 - 1".1)"
1'. Conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ 1'.1 - 1'.11
16. /nvironmentall$ sond mana!ement o, biotec%nolo!$ 16.1 - 16."6
1&. Protection o, t%e oceans0 all *inds o, seas0 incldin! enclosed and semi-
enclosed seas0 and coastal areas and t%e protection0 rational se and
development o, t%eir livin! resorces
1&.1 - 1&.1#6
1(. Protection o, t%e 1alit$ and sppl$ o, ,res%2ater resorces. application
o, inte!rated approac%es to t%e development0 mana!ement and se o,
2ater resorces
1(.1 - 1(.+)
1+. /nvironmentall$ sond mana!ement o, to3ic c%emicals0 incldin!
prevention o, ille!al international tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros
prodcts
1+.1 - 1+.&6
2). /nvironmentall$ Sond -ana!ement o, 4a5ardos 6astes0 Incldin!
Prevention o, Ille!al International Tra,,ic in 4a5ardos 6astes
2).1 - 2)."6
21. /nvironmentall$ sond mana!ement o, solid 2astes and se2a!e-related
isses
21.1 - 21."+
22. Sa,e and environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, radioactive 2astes 22.1 - 22.+
SEC!"#N """$ S!&EN(!*EN"N( !*E &#LE #) %A+#& (&#UPS
Capter Paragraps
2#. Preamble 2#.1 - 2#."
2". 7lobal action ,or 2omen to2ards sstainable and e1itable
development
2".1 - 2".12
2'. C%ildren and $ot% in sstainable development 2'.1 - 2'.1&
26. Reco!ni5in! and stren!t%enin! t%e role o, indi!enos people and t%eir
commnities
26.1 - 26.+
2&. Stren!t%enin! t%e role o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations. partners ,or
sstainable development
2&.1 - 2&.1#
2(. 8ocal at%orities9 initiatives in spport o, :!enda 21 2(.1 - 2(.&
2+. Stren!t%enin! t%e role o, 2or*ers and t%eir trade nions 2+.1 - 2+.1"
#). Stren!t%enin! t%e role o, bsiness and indstr$ #).1 - #).#)
#1. Scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical commnit$ #1.1 - #1.12
#2. Stren!t%enin! t%e role o, ,armers #2.1 - #2.1"
SEC!"#N "'$ %EANS #) "%PLE%EN!A!"#N
Capter Paragraps
##. Financial resorces and mec%anisms ##.1 - ##.21
#". Trans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$0 cooperation and
capacit$-bildin!
#".1 - #".2+
#'. Science ,or sstainable development #'.1 - #'.2'
#6. Promotin! edcation0 pblic a2areness and trainin! #6.1 - #6.2&
#&. ;ational mec%anisms and international cooperation ,or capacit$-
bildin! in developin! contries
#&.1 - #&.1#
#(. International instittional arran!ements #(.1 - #(."'
#+. International le!al instrments and mec%anisms #+.1 - #+.1)
"). In,ormation ,or decision-ma*in! ").1 - ").#)
Section "
Preamble
Capter 1
1.1. 4manit$ stands at a de,inin! moment in %istor$. 6e are con,ronted 2it% a
perpetation o, disparities bet2een and 2it%in nations0 a 2orsenin! o, povert$0 %n!er0 ill
%ealt% and illiterac$0 and t%e continin! deterioration o, t%e ecos$stems on 2%ic% 2e
depend ,or or 2ell-bein!. 4o2ever0 inte!ration o, environment and development
concerns and !reater attention to t%em 2ill lead to t%e ,l,ilment o, basic needs0
improved livin! standards ,or all0 better protected and mana!ed ecos$stems and a sa,er0
more prosperos ,tre. ;o nation can ac%ieve t%is on its o2n< bt to!et%er 2e can - in a
!lobal partners%ip ,or sstainable development.
1.2. T%is !lobal partners%ip mst bild on t%e premises o, 7eneral :ssembl$ resoltion
""=22( o, 22 December 1+(+0 2%ic% 2as adopted 2%en t%e nations o, t%e 2orld called
,or t%e >nited ;ations Con,erence on /nvironment and Development0 and on t%e
acceptance o, t%e need to ta*e a balanced and inte!rated approac% to environment and
development 1estions.
1.#. :!enda 21 addresses t%e pressin! problems o, toda$ and also aims at preparin! t%e
2orld ,or t%e c%allen!es o, t%e ne3t centr$. It re,lects a !lobal consenss and political
commitment at t%e %i!%est level on development and environment cooperation. Its
sccess,l implementation is ,irst and ,oremost t%e responsibilit$ o, 7overnments.
;ational strate!ies0 plans0 policies and processes are crcial in ac%ievin! t%is.
International cooperation s%old spport and spplement sc% national e,,orts. In t%is
conte3t0 t%e >nited ;ations s$stem %as a *e$ role to pla$. Ot%er international0 re!ional
and sbre!ional or!ani5ations are also called pon to contribte to t%is e,,ort. T%e
broadest pblic participation and t%e active involvement o, t%e non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations and ot%er !rops s%old also be encora!ed.
1.". T%e developmental and environmental ob?ectives o, :!enda 21 2ill re1ire a
sbstantial ,lo2 o, ne2 and additional ,inancial resorces to developin! contries0 in
order to cover t%e incremental costs ,or t%e actions t%e$ %ave to nderta*e to deal 2it%
!lobal environmental problems and to accelerate sstainable development. Financial
resorces are also re1ired ,or stren!t%enin! t%e capacit$ o, international instittions ,or
t%e implementation o, :!enda 21. :n indicative order-o,-ma!nitde assessment o, costs
is inclded in eac% o, t%e pro!ramme areas. T%is assessment 2ill need to be e3amined
and re,ined b$ t%e relevant implementin! a!encies and or!ani5ations.
1.'. In t%e implementation o, t%e relevant pro!ramme areas identi,ied in :!enda 210
special attention s%old be !iven to t%e particlar circmstances ,acin! t%e economies in
transition. It mst also be reco!ni5ed t%at t%ese contries are ,acin! nprecedented
c%allen!es in trans,ormin! t%eir economies0 in some cases in t%e midst o, considerable
social and political tension.
1.6. T%e pro!ramme areas t%at constitte :!enda 21 are described in terms o, t%e basis
,or action0 ob?ectives0 activities and means o, implementation. :!enda 21 is a d$namic
pro!ramme. It 2ill be carried ot b$ t%e varios actors accordin! to t%e di,,erent
sitations0 capacities and priorities o, contries and re!ions in ,ll respect o, all t%e
principles contained in t%e Rio Declaration on /nvironment and Development. It cold
evolve over time in t%e li!%t o, c%an!in! needs and circmstances. T%is process mar*s
t%e be!innin! o, a ne2 !lobal partners%ip ,or sstainable development.
@ 6%en t%e term A7overnmentsA is sed0 it 2ill be deemed to inclde t%e /ropean
/conomic Commnit$ 2it%in its areas o, competence. T%ro!%ot :!enda 21 t%e term
Aenvironmentall$ sondA means Aenvironmentall$ sa,e and sondA0 in particlar 2%en
applied to t%e terms Aener!$ sorcesA0 Aener!$ sppliesA0 Aener!$ s$stemsA and
Atec%nolo!$A or Atec%nolo!iesA.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter 2
"nternational Cooperation !o Accelerate Sustainable Development "n
Developing Countries , &elated Domestic Policies
"ntroduction
2.1. In order to meet t%e c%allen!es o, environment and development0 States %ave decided
to establis% a ne2 !lobal partners%ip. T%is partners%ip commits all States to en!a!e in a
continos and constrctive dialo!e0 inspired b$ t%e need to ac%ieve a more e,,icient
and e1itable 2orld econom$0 *eepin! in vie2 t%e increasin! interdependence o, t%e
commnit$ o, nations and t%at sstainable development s%old become a priorit$ item on
t%e a!enda o, t%e international commnit$. It is reco!ni5ed t%at0 ,or t%e sccess o, t%is
ne2 partners%ip0 it is important to overcome con,rontation and to ,oster a climate o,
!enine cooperation and solidarit$. It is e1all$ important to stren!t%en national and
international policies and mltinational cooperation to adapt to t%e ne2 realities.
2.2. /conomic policies o, individal contries and international economic relations bot%
%ave !reat relevance to sstainable development. T%e reactivation and acceleration o,
development re1ires bot% a d$namic and a spportive international economic
environment and determined policies at t%e national level. It 2ill be ,rstrated in t%e
absence o, eit%er o, t%ese re1irements. : spportive e3ternal economic environment is
crcial. T%e development process 2ill not !at%er momentm i, t%e !lobal econom$ lac*s
d$namism and stabilit$ and is beset 2it% ncertainties. ;eit%er 2ill it !at%er momentm
i, t%e developin! contries are 2ei!%ted do2n b$ e3ternal indebtedness0 i, development
,inance is inade1ate0 i, barriers restrict access to mar*ets and i, commodit$ prices and
t%e terms o, trade o, developin! contries remain depressed. T%e record o, t%e 1+()s 2as
essentiall$ ne!ative on eac% o, t%ese conts and needs to be reversed. T%e policies and
measres needed to create an international environment t%at is stron!l$ spportive o,
national development e,,orts are t%s vital. International cooperation in t%is area s%old
be desi!ned to complement and spport - not to diminis% or sbsme - sond domestic
economic policies0 in bot% developed and developin! contries0 i, !lobal pro!ress
to2ards sstainable development is to be ac%ieved.
2.#. T%e international econom$ s%old provide a spportive international climate ,or
ac%ievin! environment and development !oals b$.
BaC Promotin! sstainable development t%ro!% trade liberali5ation<
BbC -a*in! trade and environment mtall$ spportive<
BcC Providin! ade1ate ,inancial resorces to developin! contries and dealin! 2it%
international debt<
BdC /ncora!in! macroeconomic policies condcive to environment and development.
2.". 7overnments reco!ni5e t%at t%ere is a ne2 !lobal e,,ort to relate t%e elements o, t%e
international economic s$stem and man*ind9s need ,or a sa,e and stable natral
environment. T%ere,ore0 it is t%e intent o, 7overnments t%at consenss-bildin! at t%e
intersection o, t%e environmental and trade and development areas 2ill be on!oin! in
e3istin! international ,orms0 as 2ell as in t%e domestic polic$ o, eac% contr$.
Programme Areas
A$ Promoting sustainable development troug trade
-asis for action
2.'. :n open0 e1itable0 secre0 non-discriminator$ and predictable mltilateral tradin!
s$stem t%at is consistent 2it% t%e !oals o, sstainable development and leads to t%e
optimal distribtion o, !lobal prodction in accordance 2it% comparative advanta!e is o,
bene,it to all tradin! partners. -oreover0 improved mar*et access ,or developin!
contries9 e3ports in con?nction 2it% sond macroeconomic and environmental policies
2old %ave a positive environmental impact and t%ere,ore ma*e an important
contribtion to2ards sstainable development.
2.6. /3perience %as s%o2n t%at sstainable development re1ires a commitment to sond
economic policies and mana!ement0 an e,,ective and predictable pblic administration0
t%e inte!ration o, environmental concerns into decision-ma*in! and pro!ress to2ards
democratic !overnment0 in t%e li!%t o, contr$-speci,ic conditions0 2%ic% allo2s ,or ,ll
participation o, all parties concerned. T%ese attribtes are essential ,or t%e ,l,ilment o,
t%e polic$ directions and ob?ectives listed belo2.
2.&. T%e commodit$ sector dominates t%e economies o, man$ developin! contries in
terms o, prodction0 emplo$ment and e3port earnin!s. :n important ,eatre o, t%e 2orld
commodit$ econom$ in t%e 1+()s 2as t%e prevalence o, ver$ lo2 and declinin! real
prices ,or most commodities in international mar*ets and a resltin! sbstantial
contraction in commodit$ e3port earnin!s ,or man$ prodcin! contries. T%e abilit$ o,
t%ose contries to mobili5e0 t%ro!% international trade0 t%e resorces needed to ,inance
investments re1ired ,or sstainable development ma$ be impaired b$ t%is development
and b$ tari,, and non-tari,, impediments0 incldin! tari,, escalation0 limitin! t%eir access
to e3port mar*ets. T%e removal o, e3istin! distortions in international trade is essential.
In particlar0 t%e ac%ievement o, t%is ob?ective re1ires t%at t%ere be sbstantial and
pro!ressive redction in t%e spport and protection o, a!ricltre - coverin! internal
re!imes0 mar*et access and e3port sbsidies - as 2ell as o, indstr$ and ot%er sectors0 in
order to avoid in,lictin! lar!e losses on t%e more e,,icient prodcers0 especiall$ in
developin! contries. T%s0 in a!ricltre0 indstr$ and ot%er sectors0 t%ere is scope ,or
initiatives aimed at trade liberali5ation and at policies to ma*e prodction more
responsive to environment and development needs. Trade liberali5ation s%old t%ere,ore
be prsed on a !lobal basis across economic sectors so as to contribte to sstainable
development.
2.(. T%e international tradin! environment %as been a,,ected b$ a nmber o,
developments t%at %ave created ne2 c%allen!es and opportnities and %ave made
mltilateral economic cooperation o, even !reater importance. 6orld trade %as contined
to !ro2 ,aster t%an 2orld otpt in recent $ears. 4o2ever0 t%e e3pansion o, 2orld trade
%as been nevenl$ spread0 and onl$ a limited nmber o, developin! contries %ave been
capable o, ac%ievin! appreciable !ro2t% in t%eir e3ports. Protectionist pressres and
nilateral polic$ actions contine to endan!er t%e ,nctionin! o, an open mltilateral
tradin! s$stem0 a,,ectin! particlarl$ t%e e3port interests o, developin! contries.
/conomic inte!ration processes %ave intensi,ied in recent $ears and s%old impart
d$namism to !lobal trade and en%ance t%e trade and development possibilities ,or
developin! contries. In recent $ears0 a !ro2in! nmber o, t%ese contries %ave adopted
cora!eos polic$ re,orms involvin! ambitios atonomos trade liberali5ation0 2%ile
,ar-reac%in! re,orms and pro,ond restrctrin! processes are ta*in! place in Central and
/astern /ropean contries0 pavin! t%e 2a$ ,or t%eir inte!ration into t%e 2orld econom$
and t%e international tradin! s$stem. Increased attention is bein! devoted to en%ancin!
t%e role o, enterprises and promotin! competitive mar*ets t%ro!% adoption o,
competitive policies. T%e 7SP %as proved to be a se,l trade polic$ instrment0 alt%o!%
its ob?ectives 2ill %ave to be ,l,illed0 and trade ,acilitation strate!ies relatin! to
electronic data interc%an!e B/DIC %ave been e,,ective in improvin! t%e tradin! e,,icienc$
o, t%e pblic and private sectors. T%e interactions bet2een environment policies and trade
isses are mani,old and %ave not $et been ,ll$ assessed. :n earl$0 balanced0
compre%ensive and sccess,l otcome o, t%e >r!a$ Rond o, mltilateral trade
ne!otiations 2old brin! abot ,rt%er liberali5ation and e3pansion o, 2orld trade0
en%ance t%e trade and development possibilities o, developin! contries and provide
!reater secrit$ and predictabilit$ to t%e international tradin! s$stem.
#b.ectives
2.+. In t%e $ears a%ead0 and ta*in! into accont t%e reslts o, t%e >r!a$ Rond o,
mltilateral trade ne!otiations0 7overnments s%old contine to strive to meet t%e
,ollo2in! ob?ectives.
BaC To promote an open0 non-discriminator$ and e1itable mltilateral tradin! s$stem t%at
2ill enable all contries - in particlar0 t%e developin! contries - to improve t%eir
economic strctres and improve t%e standard o, livin! o, t%eir poplations t%ro!%
sstained economic development<
BbC To improve access to mar*ets ,or e3ports o, developin! contries<
BcC To improve t%e ,nctionin! o, commodit$ mar*ets and ac%ieve sond0 compatible and
consistent commodit$ policies at national and international levels 2it% a vie2 to
optimi5in! t%e contribtion o, t%e commodit$ sector to sstainable development0 ta*in!
into accont environmental considerations<
BdCTo promote and spport policies0 domestic and international0 t%at ma*e economic
!ro2t% and environmental protection mtall$ spportive.
Activities
A/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
Promotin! an international tradin! s$stem t%at ta*es accont o, t%e needs o,
developin! contries
2.1). :ccordin!l$0 t%e international commnit$ s%old.
BaC 4alt and reverse protectionism in order to brin! abot ,rt%er liberali5ation and
e3pansion o, 2orld trade0 to t%e bene,it o, all contries0 in particlar t%e developin!
contries<
BbC Provide ,or an e1itable0 secre0 non-discriminator$ and predictable international
tradin! s$stem<
BcC Facilitate0 in a timel$ 2a$0 t%e inte!ration o, all contries into t%e 2orld econom$ and
t%e international tradin! s$stem<
BdC /nsre t%at environment and trade policies are mtall$ spportive0 2it% a vie2 to
ac%ievin! sstainable development<
BeC Stren!t%en t%e international trade policies s$stem t%ro!% an earl$0 balanced0
compre%ensive and sccess,l otcome o, t%e >r!a$ Rond o, mltilateral trade
ne!otiations.
2.11. T%e international commnit$ s%old aim at ,indin! 2a$s and means o, ac%ievin! a
better ,nctionin! and en%anced transparenc$ o, commodit$ mar*ets0 !reater
diversi,ication o, t%e commodit$ sector in developin! economies 2it%in a
macroeconomic ,rame2or* t%at ta*es into consideration a contr$9s economic strctre0
resorce endo2ments and mar*et opportnities0 and better mana!ement o, natral
resorces t%at ta*es into accont t%e necessities o, sstainable development.
2.12. T%ere,ore0 all contries s%old implement previos commitments to %alt and
reverse protectionism and ,rt%er e3pand mar*et access0 particlarl$ in areas o, interest
to developin! contries. T%is improvement o, mar*et access 2ill be ,acilitated b$
appropriate strctral ad?stment in developed contries. Developin! contries s%old
contine t%e trade-polic$ re,orms and strctral ad?stment t%e$ %ave nderta*en. It is
t%s r!ent to ac%ieve an improvement in mar*et access conditions ,or commodities0
notabl$ t%ro!% t%e pro!ressive removal o, barriers t%at restrict imports0 particlarl$ ,rom
developin! contries0 o, commodit$ prodcts in primar$ and processed ,orms0 as 2ell as
t%e sbstantial and pro!ressive redction o, t$pes o, spport t%at indce ncompetitive
prodction0 sc% as prodction and e3port sbsidies.
-/ %anagement related activities
Developin! domestic policies t%at ma3imi5e t%e bene,its o, trade liberali5ation ,or
sstainable development
2.1#. For developin! contries to bene,it ,rom t%e liberali5ation o, tradin! s$stems0 t%e$
s%old implement t%e ,ollo2in! policies0 as appropriate.
BaC Create a domestic environment spportive o, an optimal balance bet2een prodction
,or t%e domestic and e3port mar*ets and remove biases a!ainst e3ports and discora!e
ine,,icient import-sbstittion<
BbC Promote t%e polic$ ,rame2or* and t%e in,rastrctre re1ired to improve t%e
e,,icienc$ o, e3port and import trade as 2ell as t%e ,nctionin! o, domestic mar*ets.
2.1". T%e ,ollo2in! policies s%old be adopted b$ developin! contries 2it% respect to
commodities consistent 2it% mar*et e,,icienc$.
BaC /3pand processin!0 distribtion and improve mar*etin! practices and t%e
competitiveness o, t%e commodit$ sector<
BbC Diversi,$ in order to redce dependence on commodit$ e3ports<
BcC Re,lect e,,icient and sstainable se o, ,actors o, prodction in t%e ,ormation o,
commodit$ prices0 incldin! t%e re,lection o, environmental0 social and resorces costs.
C/ Data and information
/ncora!in! data collection and researc%
2.1'. 7:TT0 >;CT:D and ot%er relevant instittions s%old contine to collect
appropriate trade data and in,ormation. T%e Secretar$-7eneral o, t%e >nited ;ations is
re1ested to stren!t%en t%e Trade Control -easres In,ormation S$stem mana!ed b$
>;CT:D.
Improvin! international cooperation in commodit$ trade and t%e diversi,ication o,
t%e sector
2.16. 6it% re!ard to commodit$ trade0 7overnments s%old0 directl$ or t%ro!%
appropriate international or!ani5ations0 2%ere appropriate.
BaC See* optimal ,nctionin! o, commodit$ mar*ets0 inter alia0 t%ro!% improved mar*et
transparenc$ involvin! e3c%an!es o, vie2s and in,ormation on investment plans0
prospects and mar*ets ,or individal commodities. Sbstantive ne!otiations bet2een
prodcers and consmers s%old be prsed 2it% a vie2 to ac%ievin! viable and more
e,,icient international a!reements t%at ta*e into accont mar*et trends0 or arran!ements0
as 2ell as std$ !rops. In t%is re!ard0 particlar attention s%old be paid to t%e
a!reements on cocoa0 co,,ee0 s!ar and tropical timber. T%e importance o, international
commodit$ a!reements and arran!ements is nderlined. Occpational %ealt% and sa,et$
matters0 tec%nolo!$ trans,er and services associated 2it% t%e prodction0 mar*etin! and
promotion o, commodities0 as 2ell as environmental considerations0 s%old be ta*en into
accont<
BbC Contine to appl$ compensation mec%anisms ,or s%ort,alls in commodit$ e3port
earnin!s o, developin! contries in order to encora!e diversi,ication e,,orts<
BcC Provide assistance to developin! contries pon re1est in t%e desi!n and
implementation o, commodit$ policies and t%e !at%erin! and tili5ation o, in,ormation
on commodit$ mar*ets<
BdC Spport t%e e,,orts o, developin! contries to promote t%e polic$ ,rame2or* and
in,rastrctre re1ired to improve t%e e,,icienc$ o, e3port and import trade<
BeC Spport t%e diversi,ication initiatives o, t%e developin! contries at t%e national0
re!ional and international levels.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
2.1&. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities in t%is pro!ramme area to be abot D(.( billion ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Capacit01building
2.1(. T%e above-mentioned tec%nical cooperation activities aim at stren!t%enin! national
capabilities ,or desi!n and implementation o, commodit$ polic$0 se and mana!ement o,
national resorces and t%e !at%erin! and tili5ation o, in,ormation on commodit$
mar*ets.
-$ %aking trade and environment mutuall0 supportive
-asis for action
2.1+. /nvironment and trade policies s%old be mtall$ spportive. :n open0
mltilateral tradin! s$stem ma*es possible a more e,,icient allocation and se o,
resorces and t%ereb$ contribtes to an increase in prodction and incomes and to
lessenin! demands on t%e environment. It t%s provides additional resorces needed ,or
economic !ro2t% and development and improved environmental protection. : sond
environment0 on t%e ot%er %and0 provides t%e ecolo!ical and ot%er resorces needed to
sstain !ro2t% and nderpin a continin! e3pansion o, trade. :n open0 mltilateral
tradin! s$stem0 spported b$ t%e adoption o, sond environmental policies0 2old %ave a
positive impact on t%e environment and contribte to sstainable development.
2.2). International cooperation in t%e environmental ,ield is !ro2in!0 and in a nmber o,
cases trade provisions in mltilateral environment a!reements %ave pla$ed a role in
tac*lin! !lobal environmental c%allen!es. Trade measres %ave t%s been sed in certain
speci,ic instances0 2%ere considered necessar$0 to en%ance t%e e,,ectiveness o,
environmental re!lations ,or t%e protection o, t%e environment. Sc% re!lations s%old
address t%e root cases o, environmental de!radation so as not to reslt in n?sti,ied
restrictions on trade. T%e c%allen!e is to ensre t%at trade and environment policies are
consistent and rein,orce t%e process o, sstainable development. 4o2ever0 accont
s%old be ta*en o, t%e ,act t%at environmental standards valid ,or developed contries
ma$ %ave n2arranted social and economic costs in developin! contries.
#b.ectives
2.21. 7overnments s%old strive to meet t%e ,ollo2in! ob?ectives0 t%ro!% relevant
mltilateral ,orms0 incldin! 7:TT0 >;CT:D and ot%er international or!ani5ations.
BaC To ma*e international trade and environment policies mtall$ spportive in ,avor
o, sstainable development<
BbC To clari,$ t%e role o, 7:TT0 >;CT:D and ot%er international or!ani5ations in
dealin! 2it% trade and environment-related isses0 incldin!0 2%ere relevant0 conciliation
procedre and dispte settlement<
BcC To encora!e international prodctivit$ and competitiveness and encora!e a
constrctive role on t%e part o, indstr$ in dealin! 2it% environment and development
isses.
Activities
Developin! an environment=trade and development a!enda
2.22. 7overnments s%old encora!e 7:TT0 >;CT:D and ot%er relevant international
and re!ional economic instittions to e3amine0 in accordance 2it% t%eir respective
mandates and competences0 t%e ,ollo2in! propositions and principles.
BaC /laborate ade1ate stdies ,or t%e better nderstandin! o, t%e relations%ip bet2een
trade and environment ,or t%e promotion o, sstainable development<
BbC Promote a dialo!e bet2een trade0 development and environment commnities<
BcC In t%ose cases 2%en trade measres related to environment are sed0 ensre
transparenc$ and compatibilit$ 2it% international obli!ations<
BdC Deal 2it% t%e root cases o, environment and development problems in a manner t%at
avoids t%e adoption o, environmental measres resltin! in n?sti,ied restrictions on
trade<
BeC See* to avoid t%e se o, trade restrictions or distortions as a means to o,,set
di,,erences in cost arisin! ,rom di,,erences in environmental standards and re!lations0
since t%eir application cold lead to trade distortions and increase protectionist
tendencies<
B,C /nsre t%at environment-related re!lations or standards0 incldin! t%ose related to
%ealt% and sa,et$ standards0 do not constitte a means o, arbitrar$ or n?sti,iable
discrimination or a dis!ised restriction on trade<
B!C /nsre t%at special ,actors a,,ectin! environment and trade policies in t%e developin!
contries are borne in mind in t%e application o, environmental standards0 as 2ell as in
t%e se o, an$ trade measres. It is 2ort% notin! t%at standards t%at are valid in t%e most
advanced contries ma$ be inappropriate and o, n2arranted social cost ,or t%e
developin! contries<
B%C /ncora!e participation o, developin! contries in mltilateral a!reements t%ro!%
sc% mec%anisms as special transitional rles<
BiC :void nilateral actions to deal 2it% environmental c%allen!es otside t%e ?risdiction
o, t%e importin! contr$. /nvironmental measres addressin! transborder or !lobal
environmental problems s%old0 as ,ar as possible0 be based on an international
consenss. Domestic measres tar!eted to ac%ieve certain environmental ob?ectives ma$
need trade measres to render t%em e,,ective. S%old trade polic$ measres be ,ond
necessar$ ,or t%e en,orcement o, environmental policies0 certain principles and rles
s%old appl$. T%ese cold inclde0 inter alia0 t%e principle o, non-discrimination< t%e
principle t%at t%e trade measre c%osen s%old be t%e least trade-restrictive necessar$ to
ac%ieve t%e ob?ectives< an obli!ation to ensre transparenc$ in t%e se o, trade measres
related to t%e environment and to provide ade1ate noti,ication o, national re!lations<
and t%e need to !ive consideration to t%e special conditions and developmental
re1irements o, developin! contries as t%e$ move to2ards internationall$ a!reed
environmental ob?ectives<
B?C Develop more precision0 2%ere necessar$0 and clari,$ t%e relations%ip bet2een 7:TT
provisions and some o, t%e mltilateral measres adopted in t%e environment area<
B*C /nsre pblic inpt in t%e ,ormation0 ne!otiation and implementation o, trade
policies as a means o, ,osterin! increased transparenc$ in t%e li!%t o, contr$-speci,ic
conditions<
BlC /nsre t%at environmental policies provide t%e appropriate le!al and instittional
,rame2or* to respond to ne2 needs ,or t%e protection o, t%e environment t%at ma$ reslt
,rom c%an!es in prodction and trade speciali5ation.
C$ Providing ade2uate financial resources to developing countries
-asis for action
2.2#. Investment is critical to t%e abilit$ o, developin! contries to ac%ieve needed
economic !ro2t% to improve t%e 2el,are o, t%eir poplations and to meet t%eir basic
needs in a sstainable manner0 all 2it%ot deterioratin! or depletin! t%e resorce base
t%at nderpins development. Sstainable development re1ires increased investment0 ,or
2%ic% domestic and e3ternal ,inancial resorces are needed. Forei!n private investment
and t%e retrn o, ,li!%t capital0 2%ic% depend on a %ealt%$ investment climate0 are an
important sorce o, ,inancial resorces. -an$ developin! contries %ave e3perienced a
decade-lon! sitation o, ne!ative net trans,er o, ,inancial resorces0 drin! 2%ic% t%eir
,inancial receipts 2ere e3ceeded b$ pa$ments t%e$ %ad to ma*e0 in particlar ,or debt-
servicin!. :s a reslt0 domesticall$ mobili5ed resorces %ad to be trans,erred abroad
instead o, bein! invested locall$ in order to promote sstainable economic development.
2.2". For man$ developin! contries0 t%e reactivation o, development 2ill not ta*e place
2it%ot an earl$ and drable soltion to t%e problems o, e3ternal indebtedness0 ta*in!
into accont t%e ,act t%at0 ,or man$ developin! contries0 e3ternal debt brdens are a
si!ni,icant problem. T%e brden o, debt-service pa$ments on t%ose contries %as imposed
severe constraints on t%eir abilit$ to accelerate !ro2t% and eradicate povert$ and %as led
to a contraction in imports0 investment and consmption. /3ternal indebtedness %as
emer!ed as a main ,actor in t%e economic stalemate in t%e developin! contries.
Contined vi!oros implementation o, t%e evolvin! international debt strate!$ is aimed
at restorin! debtor contries9 e3ternal ,inancial viabilit$0 and t%e resmption o, t%eir
!ro2t% and development 2old assist in ac%ievin! sstainable !ro2t% and development.
In t%is conte3t0 additional ,inancial resorces in ,avor o, developin! contries and t%e
e,,icient tili5ation o, sc% resorces are essential.
#b.ectives
2.2'. T%e speci,ic re1irements ,or t%e implementation o, t%e sectoral and cross-sectoral
pro!rammes inclded in :!enda 21 are dealt 2it% in t%e relevant pro!ramme areas and in
c%apter ## BFinancial resorces and mec%anismsC.
Activities
A/ %eeting international targets of official development assistance funding
2.26. :s discssed in c%apter ##0 ne2 and additional resorces s%old be provided to
spport :!enda 21 pro!rammes.
-/ Addressing te debt issue
2.2&. In re!ard to t%e e3ternal debt incrred 2it% commercial ban*s0 t%e pro!ress bein!
made nder t%e stren!t%ened debt strate!$ is reco!ni5ed and a more rapid implementation
o, t%is strate!$ is encora!ed. Some contries %ave alread$ bene,ited ,rom t%e
combination o, sond ad?stment policies and commercial ban* debt redction or
e1ivalent measres. T%e international commnit$ encora!es.
BaC Ot%er contries 2it% %eav$ debts to ban*s to ne!otiate similar commercial ban* debt
redction 2it% t%eir creditors<
BbC T%e parties to sc% a ne!otiation to ta*e de accont o, bot% t%e medim-term debt
redction and ne2 mone$ re1irements o, t%e debtor contr$<
BcC -ltilateral instittions activel$ en!a!ed in t%e stren!t%ened international debt
strate!$ to contine to spport debt-redction pac*a!es related to commercial ban* debt
2it% a vie2 to ensrin! t%at t%e ma!nitde o, sc% ,inancin! is consonant 2it% t%e
evolvin! debt strate!$<
BdC Creditor ban*s to participate in debt and debt-service redction<
BeC Stren!t%ened policies to attract direct investment0 avoid nsstainable levels o, debt
and ,oster t%e retrn o, ,li!%t capital.
2.2(. 6it% re!ard to debt o2ed to o,,icial bilateral creditors0 t%e recent measres ta*en b$
t%e Paris Clb 2it% re!ard to more !eneros terms o, relie, to t%e poorest most indebted
contries are 2elcomed. On!oin! e,,orts to implement t%ese ATrinidad termsA measres
in a manner commensrate 2it% t%e pa$ments capacit$ o, t%ose contries and in a 2a$
t%at !ives additional spport to t%eir economic re,orm e,,orts are 2elcomed. T%e
sbstantial bilateral debt redction nderta*en b$ some creditor contries is also
2elcomed0 and ot%ers 2%ic% are in a position to do so are encora!ed to ta*e similar
action.
2.2+. T%e actions o, lo2-income contries 2it% sbstantial debt brdens 2%ic% contine0
at !reat cost0 to service t%eir debt and sa,e!ard t%eir credit2ort%iness are commended.
Particlar attention s%old be paid to t%eir resorce needs. Ot%er debt-distressed
developin! contries 2%ic% are ma*in! !reat e,,orts to contine to service t%eir debt and
meet t%eir e3ternal ,inancial obli!ations also deserve de attention.
2.#). In connection 2it% mltilateral debt0 it is r!ed t%at serios attention be !iven to
continin! to 2or* to2ards !ro2t%-oriented soltions to t%e problem o, developin!
contries 2it% serios debt-servicin! problems0 incldin! t%ose 2%ose debt is mainl$ to
o,,icial creditors or to mltilateral ,inancial instittions. Particlarl$ in t%e case o, lo2-
income contries in t%e process o, economic re,orm0 t%e spport o, t%e mltilateral
,inancial instittions in t%e ,orm o, ne2 disbrsements and t%e se o, t%eir concessional
,nds is 2elcomed. T%e se o, spport !rops s%old be contined in providin! resorces
to clear arrears o, contries embar*in! pon vi!oros economic re,orm pro!rammes
spported b$ I-F and t%e 6orld Ean*. -easres b$ t%e mltilateral ,inancial instittions
sc% as t%e re,inancin! o, interest on non-concessional loans 2it% ID: re,lo2s - A,i,t%
dimensionA - are noted 2it% appreciation.
%eans of implementation
Financin! and cost evalation@ See c%ap. ## BFinancial resorces and mec%anismsC.
D$ Encouraging economic policies conducive to sustainable development
-asis for action
2.#1. T%e n,avorable e3ternal environment ,acin! developin! contries ma*es
domestic resorce mobili5ation and e,,icient allocation and tili5ation o, domesticall$
mobili5ed resorces all t%e more important ,or t%e promotion o, sstainable development.
In a nmber o, contries0 policies are necessar$ to correct misdirected pblic spendin!0
lar!e bd!et de,icits and ot%er macroeconomic imbalances0 restrictive policies and
distortions in t%e areas o, e3c%an!e rates0 investment and ,inance0 and obstacles to
entrepreners%ip. In developed contries0 continin! polic$ re,orm and ad?stment0
incldin! appropriate savin!s rates0 2old %elp !enerate resorces to spport t%e
transition to sstainable development bot% domesticall$ and in developin! contries.
2.#2. 7ood mana!ement t%at ,osters t%e association o, e,,ective0 e,,icient0 %onest0
e1itable and accontable pblic administration 2it% individal ri!%ts and opportnities
is an essential element ,or sstainable0 broadl$ based development and sond economic
per,ormance at all development levels. :ll contries s%old increase t%eir e,,orts to
eradicate mismana!ement o, pblic and private a,,airs0 incldin! corrption0 ta*in! into
accont t%e ,actors responsible ,or0 and a!ents involved in0 t%is p%enomenon.
2.##. -an$ indebted developin! contries are nder!oin! strctral ad?stment
pro!rammes relatin! to debt resc%edlin! or ne2 loans. 6%ile sc% pro!rammes are
necessar$ ,or improvin! t%e balance in ,iscal bd!ets and balance-o,-pa$ments acconts0
in some cases t%e$ %ave reslted in adverse social and environmental e,,ects0 sc% as cts
in allocations ,or %ealt% care0 edcation and environmental protection. It is important to
ensre t%at strctral ad?stment pro!rammes do not %ave ne!ative impacts on t%e
environment and social development so t%at sc% pro!rammes can be more in line 2it%
t%e ob?ectives o, sstainable development.
#b.ectives
2.#". It is necessar$ to establis%0 in t%e li!%t o, t%e contr$-speci,ic conditions0 economic
polic$ re,orms t%at promote t%e e,,icient plannin! and tili5ation o, resorces ,or
sstainable development t%ro!% sond economic and social policies0 ,oster
entrepreners%ip and t%e incorporation o, social and environmental costs in resorce
pricin!0 and remove sorces o, distortion in t%e area o, trade and investment.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
Promotin! sond economic policies
2.#'. T%e indstriali5ed contries and ot%er contries in a position to do so s%old
stren!t%en t%eir e,,orts.
BaC To encora!e a stable and predictable international economic environment0
particlarl$ 2it% re!ard to monetar$ stabilit$0 real rates o, interest and ,lctations in *e$
e3c%an!e rates<
BbC To stimlate savin!s and redce ,iscal de,icits<
BcC To ensre t%at t%e processes o, polic$ coordination ta*e into accont t%e interests and
concerns o, t%e developin! contries0 incldin! t%e need to promote positive action to
spport t%e e,,orts o, t%e least developed contries to %alt t%eir mar!inali5ation in t%e
2orld econom$<
BdC To nderta*e appropriate national macroeconomic and strctral policies aimed at
promotin! non-in,lationar$ !ro2t%0 narro2in! t%eir ma?or e3ternal imbalances and
increasin! t%e ad?stment capacit$ o, t%eir economies.
2.#6. Developin! contries s%old consider stren!t%enin! t%eir e,,orts to implement
sond economic policies.
BaC T%at maintain t%e monetar$ and ,iscal discipline re1ired to promote price stabilit$
and e3ternal balance<
BbC T%at reslt in realistic e3c%an!e rates<
BcC T%at raise domestic savin!s and investment0 as 2ell as improve retrns to investment.
2.#&. -ore speci,icall$0 all contries s%old develop policies t%at improve e,,icienc$ in
t%e allocation o, resorces and ta*e ,ll advanta!e o, t%e opportnities o,,ered b$ t%e
c%an!in! !lobal economic environment. In particlar0 2%erever appropriate0 and ta*in!
into accont national strate!ies and ob?ectives0 contries s%old.
BaC Remove t%e barriers to pro!ress cased b$ breacratic ine,,iciencies0 administrative
strains0 nnecessar$ controls and t%e ne!lect o, mar*et conditions<
BbC Promote transparenc$ in administration and decision-ma*in!<
BcC /ncora!e t%e private sector and ,oster entrepreners%ip b$ improvin! instittional
,acilities ,or enterprise creation and mar*et entr$. T%e essential ob?ective 2old be to
simpli,$ or remove t%e restrictions0 re!lations and ,ormalities t%at ma*e it more
complicated0 costl$ and time-consmin! to set p and operate enterprises in man$
developin! contries<
BdC Promote and spport t%e investment and in,rastrctre re1ired ,or sstainable
economic !ro2t% and diversi,ication on an environmentall$ sond and sstainable basis<
BeC Provide scope ,or appropriate economic instrments0 incldin! mar*et mec%anisms0
in %armon$ 2it% t%e ob?ectives o, sstainable development and ,l,ilment o, basic needs<
B,C Promote t%e operation o, e,,ective ta3 s$stems and ,inancial sectors<
B!C Provide opportnities ,or small-scale enterprises0 bot% ,arm and non-,arm0 and ,or t%e
indi!enos poplation and local commnities to contribte ,ll$ to t%e attainment o,
sstainable development<
B%C Remove biases a!ainst e3ports and in ,avor o, ine,,icient import sbstittion and
establis% policies t%at allo2 t%em to bene,it ,ll$ ,rom t%e ,lo2s o, ,orei!n investment0
2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, national0 social0 economic and developmental !oals<
BiC Promote t%e creation o, a domestic economic environment spportive o, an optimal
balance bet2een prodction ,or t%e domestic and e3port mar*ets.
-/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
2.#(. 7overnments o, developed contries and t%ose o, ot%er contries in a position to do
so s%old0 directl$ or t%ro!% appropriate international and re!ional or!ani5ations and
international lendin! instittions0 en%ance t%eir e,,orts to provide developin! contries
2it% increased tec%nical assistance ,or t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC Capacit$-bildin! in t%e nation9s desi!n and implementation o, economic policies0
pon re1est<
BbC Desi!n and operation o, e,,icient ta3 s$stems0 accontin! s$stems and ,inancial
sectors<

BcC Promotion o, entrepreners%ip.
2.#+. International ,inancial and development instittions s%old ,rt%er revie2 t%eir
policies and pro!rammes in t%e li!%t o, t%e ob?ective o, sstainable development.
2."). Stron!er economic cooperation amon! developin! contries %as lon! been accepted
as an important component o, e,,orts to promote economic !ro2t% and tec%nolo!ical
capabilities and to accelerate development in t%e developin! 2orld. T%ere,ore0 t%e e,,orts
o, t%e developin! contries to promote economic cooperation amon! t%emselves s%old
be en%anced and contine to be spported b$ t%e international commnit$.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
2."1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities in t%is pro!ramme area to be abot D') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Capacit01building
2."2. T%e above-mentioned polic$ c%an!es in developin! contries involve sbstantial
national e,,orts ,or capacit$-bildin! in t%e areas o, pblic administration0 central
ban*in!0 ta3 administration0 savin!s instittions and ,inancial mar*ets.
2."#. Particlar e,,orts in t%e implementation o, t%e ,or pro!ramme areas identi,ied in
t%is c%apter are 2arranted in vie2 o, t%e especiall$ acte environmental and
developmental problems o, t%e least developed contries.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter 3
Combating Povert0
Programme Area
Enabling te poor to acieve sustainable livelioods
-asis for action
#.1. Povert$ is a comple3 mltidimensional problem 2it% ori!ins in bot% t%e national and
international domains. ;o ni,orm soltion can be ,ond ,or !lobal application. Rat%er0
contr$-speci,ic pro!rammes to tac*le povert$ and international e,,orts spportin!
national e,,orts0 as 2ell as t%e parallel process o, creatin! a spportive international
environment0 are crcial ,or a soltion to t%is problem. T%e eradication o, povert$ and
%n!er0 !reater e1it$ in income distribtion and %man resorce development remain
ma?or c%allen!es ever$2%ere. T%e str!!le a!ainst povert$ is t%e s%ared responsibilit$ o,
all contries.
#.2. 6%ile mana!in! resorces sstainabl$0 an environmental polic$ t%at ,ocses mainl$
on t%e conservation and protection o, resorces mst ta*e de accont o, t%ose 2%o
depend on t%e resorces ,or t%eir liveli%oods. Ot%er2ise it cold %ave an adverse impact
bot% on povert$ and on c%ances ,or lon!-term sccess in resorce and environmental
conservation. /1all$0 a development polic$ t%at ,ocses mainl$ on increasin! t%e
prodction o, !oods 2it%ot addressin! t%e sstainabilit$ o, t%e resorces on 2%ic%
prodction is based 2ill sooner or later rn into declinin! prodctivit$0 2%ic% cold also
%ave an adverse impact on povert$. : speci,ic anti-povert$ strate!$ is t%ere,ore one o, t%e
basic conditions ,or ensrin! sstainable development. :n e,,ective strate!$ ,or tac*lin!
t%e problems o, povert$0 development and environment simltaneosl$ s%old be!in b$
,ocsin! on resorces0 prodction and people and s%old cover demo!rap%ic isses0
en%anced %ealt% care and edcation0 t%e ri!%ts o, 2omen0 t%e role o, $ot% and o,
indi!enos people and local commnities and a democratic participation process in
association 2it% improved !overnance.
#.#. Inte!ral to sc% action is0 to!et%er 2it% international spport0 t%e promotion o,
economic !ro2t% in developin! contries t%at is bot% sstained and sstainable and direct
action in eradicatin! povert$ b$ stren!t%enin! emplo$ment and income-!eneratin!
pro!rammes.
#b.ectives
#.". T%e lon!-term ob?ective o, enablin! all people to ac%ieve sstainable liveli%oods
s%old provide an inte!ratin! ,actor t%at allo2s policies to address isses o, development0
sstainable resorce mana!ement and povert$ eradication simltaneosl$. T%e ob?ectives
o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To provide all persons r!entl$ 2it% t%e opportnit$ to earn a sstainable liveli%ood<
BbC To implement policies and strate!ies t%at promote ade1ate levels o, ,ndin! and
,ocs on inte!rated %man development policies0 incldin! income !eneration0 increased
local control o, resorces0 local instittion-stren!t%enin! and capacit$-bildin! and
!reater involvement o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and local levels o, !overnment as
deliver$ mec%anisms<
BcC To develop ,or all povert$-stric*en areas inte!rated strate!ies and pro!rammes o,
sond and sstainable mana!ement o, t%e environment0 resorce mobili5ation0 povert$
eradication and alleviation0 emplo$ment and income !eneration<
BdC To create a ,ocs in national development plans and bd!ets on investment in %man
capital0 2it% special policies and pro!rammes directed at rral areas0 t%e rban poor0
2omen and c%ildren.
Activities
#.'. :ctivities t%at 2ill contribte to t%e inte!rated promotion o, sstainable liveli%oods
and environmental protection cover a variet$ o, sectoral interventions involvin! a ran!e
o, actors0 ,rom local to !lobal0 and are essential at ever$ level0 especiall$ t%e commnit$
and local levels. /nablin! actions 2ill be necessar$ at t%e national and international
levels0 ta*in! ,ll accont o, re!ional and sbre!ional conditions to spport a locall$
driven and contr$-speci,ic approac%. In !eneral desi!n0 t%e pro!rammes s%old.
BaC Focs on t%e empo2erment o, local and commnit$ !rops t%ro!% t%e principle o,
dele!atin! at%orit$0 accontabilit$ and resorces to t%e most appropriate level to ensre
t%at t%e pro!ramme 2ill be !eo!rap%icall$ and ecolo!icall$ speci,ic<
BbC Contain immediate measres to enable t%ose !rops to alleviate povert$ and to
develop sstainabilit$<
BcC Contain a lon!-term strate!$ aimed at establis%in! t%e best possible conditions ,or
sstainable local0 re!ional and national development t%at 2old eliminate povert$ and
redce t%e ine1alities bet2een varios poplation !rops. It s%old assist t%e most
disadvanta!ed !rops - in particlar0 2omen0 c%ildren and $ot% 2it%in t%ose !rops -
and re,!ees. T%e !rops 2ill inclde poor small%olders0 pastoralists0 artisans0 ,is%in!
commnities0 landless people0 indi!enos commnities0 mi!rants and t%e rban in,ormal
sector.
#.6. T%e ,ocs %ere is on speci,ic cross-cttin! measres - in particlar0 in t%e areas o,
basic edcation0 primar$=maternal %ealt% care0 and t%e advancement o, 2omen.
A/ Empo4ering communities
#.&. Sstainable development mst be ac%ieved at ever$ level o, societ$. Peoples9
or!ani5ations0 2omen9s !rops and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations are important
sorces o, innovation and action at t%e local level and %ave a stron! interest and proven
abilit$ to promote sstainable liveli%oods. 7overnments0 in cooperation 2it% appropriate
international and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 s%old spport a commnit$-driven
approac% to sstainabilit$0 2%ic% 2old inclde0 inter alia.
BaC /mpo2erin! 2omen t%ro!% ,ll participation in decision-ma*in!<
BbC Respectin! t%e cltral inte!rit$ and t%e ri!%ts o, indi!enos people and t%eir
commnities<
BcC Promotin! or establis%in! !rass-roots mec%anisms to allo2 ,or t%e s%arin! o,
e3perience and *no2led!e bet2een commnities<
BdC 7ivin! commnities a lar!e measre o, participation in t%e sstainable mana!ement
and protection o, t%e local natral resorces in order to en%ance t%eir prodctive capacit$<
BeC /stablis%in! a net2or* o, commnit$-based learnin! centres ,or capacit$-bildin!
and sstainable development.
-/ %anagement1related activities
#.(. 7overnments0 2it% t%e assistance o, and in cooperation 2it% appropriate
international0 non-!overnmental and local commnit$ or!ani5ations0 s%old establis%
measres t%at 2ill directl$ or indirectl$.
BaC 7enerate remnerative emplo$ment and prodctive occpational opportnities
compatible 2it% contr$-speci,ic ,actor endo2ments0 on a scale s,,icient to ta*e care o,
prospective increases in t%e labor ,orce and to cover bac*lo!s<
BbC 6it% international spport0 2%ere necessar$0 develop ade1ate in,rastrctre0
mar*etin! s$stems0 tec%nolo!$ s$stems0 credit s$stems and t%e li*e and t%e %man
resorces needed to spport t%e above actions and to ac%ieve a 2idenin! o, options ,or
resorce-poor people. 4i!% priorit$ s%old be !iven to basic edcation and pro,essional
trainin!<
BcC Provide sbstantial increases in economicall$ e,,icient resorce prodctivit$ and
measres to ensre t%at t%e local poplation bene,its in ade1ate measre ,rom resorce
se<
BdC /mpo2er commnit$ or!ani5ations and people to enable t%em to ac%ieve sstainable
liveli%oods<
BeC Set p an e,,ective primar$ %ealt% care and maternal %ealt% care s$stem accessible to
all<
B,C Consider stren!t%enin!=developin! le!al ,rame2or*s ,or land mana!ement0 access to
land resorces and land o2ners%ip - in particlar0 ,or 2omen - and ,or t%e protection o,
tenants<
B!C Re%abilitate de!raded resorces0 to t%e e3tent practicable0 and introdce polic$
measres to promote sstainable se o, resorces ,or basic %man needs<
B%C /stablis% ne2 commnit$-based mec%anisms and stren!t%en e3istin! mec%anisms to
enable commnities to !ain sstained access to resorces needed b$ t%e poor to overcome
t%eir povert$<
BiC Implement mec%anisms ,or poplar participation - particlarl$ b$ poor people0
especiall$ 2omen - in local commnit$ !rops0 to promote sstainable development<
B?C Implement0 as a matter o, r!enc$0 in accordance 2it% contr$-speci,ic conditions and
le!al s$stems0 measres to ensre t%at 2omen and men %ave t%e same ri!%t to decide
,reel$ and responsibl$ on t%e nmber and spacin! o, t%eir c%ildren and %ave access to t%e
in,ormation0 edcation and means0 as appropriate0 to enable t%em to e3ercise t%is ri!%t in
*eepin! 2it% t%eir ,reedom0 di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales0 ta*in! into accont
et%ical and cltral considerations. 7overnments s%old ta*e active steps to implement
pro!rammes to establis% and stren!t%en preventive and crative %ealt% ,acilities0 2%ic%
inclde 2omen-centred0 2omen-mana!ed0 sa,e and e,,ective reprodctive %ealt% care and
a,,ordable0 accessible services0 as appropriate0 ,or t%e responsible plannin! o, ,amil$ si5e0
in *eepin! 2it% ,reedom0 di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales0 ta*in! into accont et%ical
and cltral considerations. Pro!rammes s%old ,ocs on providin! compre%ensive
%ealt% care0 incldin! pre-natal care0 edcation and in,ormation on %ealt% and responsible
parent%ood and s%old provide t%e opportnit$ ,or all 2omen to breast-,eed ,ll$0 at least
drin! t%e ,irst ,or mont%s post-partm. Pro!rammes s%old ,ll$ spport 2omen9s
prodctive and reprodctive roles and 2ell-bein!0 2it% special attention to t%e need ,or
providin! e1al and improved %ealt% care ,or all c%ildren and t%e need to redce t%e ris*
o, maternal and c%ild mortalit$ and sic*ness<
B*C :dopt inte!rated policies aimin! at sstainabilit$ in t%e mana!ement o, rban
centres<
BlC >nderta*e activities aimed at t%e promotion o, ,ood secrit$ and0 2%ere appropriate0
,ood sel,-s,,icienc$ 2it%in t%e conte3t o, sstainable a!ricltre<
BmC Spport researc% on and inte!ration o, traditional met%ods o, prodction t%at %ave
been s%o2n to be environmentall$ sstainable<
BnC :ctivel$ see* to reco!ni5e and inte!rate in,ormal-sector activities into t%e econom$
b$ removin! re!lations and %indrances t%at discriminate a!ainst activities in t%ose
sectors<
BoC Consider ma*in! available lines o, credit and ot%er ,acilities ,or t%e in,ormal sector
and improved access to land ,or t%e landless poor so t%at t%e$ can ac1ire t%e means o,
prodction and reliable access to natral resorces. In man$ instances special
considerations ,or 2omen are re1ired. Strict ,easibilit$ appraisals are needed ,or
borro2ers to avoid debt crises<
BpC Provide t%e poor 2it% access to ,res% 2ater and sanitation<
B1C Provide t%e poor 2it% access to primar$ edcation.
C/ Data5 information and evaluation
#.+. 7overnments s%old improve t%e collection o, in,ormation on tar!et !rops and
tar!et areas in order to ,acilitate t%e desi!n o, ,ocsed pro!rammes and activities0
consistent 2it% t%e tar!et-!rop needs and aspirations. /valation o, sc% pro!rammes
s%old be !ender-speci,ic0 since 2omen are a particlarl$ disadvanta!ed !rop.
D/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
#.1). T%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 t%ro!% its relevant or!ans0 or!ani5ations and bodies0
in cooperation 2it% -ember States and 2it% appropriate international and non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations0 s%old ma*e povert$ alleviation a ma?or priorit$ and s%old.
BaC :ssist 7overnments0 2%en re1ested0 in t%e ,ormlation and implementation o,
national action pro!rammes on povert$ alleviation and sstainable development. :ction-
oriented activities o, relevance to t%e above ob?ectives0 sc% as povert$ eradication0
pro?ects and pro!rammes spplemented 2%ere relevant b$ ,ood aid0 and spport and
special emp%asis on emplo$ment and income !eneration0 s%old be !iven particlar
attention in t%is re!ard<
BbC Promote tec%nical cooperation amon! developin! contries ,or povert$ eradication
activities<
BcC Stren!t%en e3istin! strctres in t%e >nited ;ations s$stem ,or coordination o, action
relatin! to povert$ eradication0 incldin! t%e establis%ment o, a ,ocal point ,or
in,ormation e3c%an!e and t%e ,ormlation and implementation o, replicable pilot pro?ects
to combat povert$<
BdC In t%e ,ollo2-p o, t%e implementation o, :!enda 210 !ive %i!% priorit$ to t%e revie2
o, t%e pro!ress made in eradicatin! povert$<
BeC /3amine t%e international economic ,rame2or*0 incldin! resorce ,lo2s and
strctral ad?stment pro!rammes0 to ensre t%at social and environmental concerns are
addressed0 and in t%is connection0 condct a revie2 o, t%e policies o, international
or!ani5ations0 bodies and a!encies0 incldin! ,inancial instittions0 to ensre t%e
contined provision o, basic services to t%e poor and need$<
B,C Promote international cooperation to address t%e root cases o, povert$. T%e
development process 2ill not !at%er momentm i, developin! contries are 2ei!%ted
do2n b$ e3ternal indebtedness0 i, development ,inance is inade1ate0 i, barriers restrict
access to mar*ets and i, commodit$ prices and t%e terms o, trade in developin! contries
remain depressed.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
#.11. T%e secretariat o, t%e Con,erence %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D#) billion0 incldin!
abot D1' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese
are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. T%is estimate overlaps estimates in ot%er parts o, :!enda 21. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
C/ Capacit01building
#.12. ;ational capacit$-bildin! ,or implementation o, t%e above activities is crcial and
s%old be !iven %i!% priorit$. It is particlarl$ important to ,ocs capacit$-bildin! at t%e
local commnit$ level in order to spport a commnit$-driven approac% to sstainabilit$
and to establis% and stren!t%en mec%anisms to allo2 s%arin! o, e3perience and
*no2led!e bet2een commnit$ !rops at national and international levels. Re1irements
,or sc% activities are considerable and are related to t%e varios relevant sectors o,
:!enda 21 callin! ,or re1isite international0 ,inancial and tec%nolo!ical spport.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter 6
Canging Consumption Patterns
".1. T%is c%apter contains t%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas.
BaC Focsin! on nsstainable patterns o, prodction and consmption<
BbC Developin! national policies and strate!ies to encora!e c%an!es in nsstainable
consmption patterns.
".2. Since t%e isse o, c%an!in! consmption patterns is ver$ broad0 it is addressed in
several parts o, :!enda 210 notabl$ t%ose dealin! 2it% ener!$0 transportation and 2astes0
and in t%e c%apters on economic instrments and t%e trans,er o, tec%nolo!$. T%e present
c%apter s%old also be read in con?nction 2it% c%apter ' BDemo!rap%ic d$namics and
sstainabilit$C.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ )ocusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption
-asis for action
".#. Povert$ and environmental de!radation are closel$ interrelated. 6%ile povert$ reslts
in certain *inds o, environmental stress0 t%e ma?or case o, t%e contined deterioration o,
t%e !lobal environment is t%e nsstainable pattern o, consmption and prodction0
particlarl$ in indstriali5ed contries0 2%ic% is a matter o, !rave concern0 a!!ravatin!
povert$ and imbalances.
".". -easres to be nderta*en at t%e international level ,or t%e protection and
en%ancement o, t%e environment mst ta*e ,ll$ into accont t%e crrent imbalances in
t%e !lobal patterns o, consmption and prodction.
".'. Special attention s%old be paid to t%e demand ,or natral resorces !enerated b$
nsstainable consmption and to t%e e,,icient se o, t%ose resorces consistent 2it% t%e
!oal o, minimi5in! depletion and redcin! polltion. :lt%o!% consmption patterns are
ver$ %i!% in certain parts o, t%e 2orld0 t%e basic consmer needs o, a lar!e section o,
%manit$ are not bein! met. T%is reslts in e3cessive demands and nsstainable
li,est$les amon! t%e ric%er se!ments0 2%ic% place immense stress on t%e environment.
T%e poorer se!ments0 mean2%ile0 are nable to meet ,ood0 %ealt% care0 s%elter and
edcational needs. C%an!in! consmption patterns 2ill re1ire a mltipron!ed strate!$
,ocsin! on demand0 meetin! t%e basic needs o, t%e poor0 and redcin! 2asta!e and t%e
se o, ,inite resorces in t%e prodction process.
".6. 7ro2in! reco!nition o, t%e importance o, addressin! consmption %as also not $et
been matc%ed b$ an nderstandin! o, its implications. Some economists are 1estionin!
traditional concepts o, economic !ro2t% and nderlinin! t%e importance o, prsin!
economic ob?ectives t%at ta*e accont o, t%e ,ll vale o, natral resorce capital. -ore
needs to be *no2n abot t%e role o, consmption in relation to economic !ro2t% and
poplation d$namics in order to ,ormlate co%erent international and national policies.
#b.ectives
".&. :ction is needed to meet t%e ,ollo2in! broad ob?ectives.
BaC To promote patterns o, consmption and prodction t%at redce environmental stress
and 2ill meet t%e basic needs o, %manit$<
BbC To develop a better nderstandin! o, t%e role o, consmption and %o2 to brin! abot
more sstainable consmption patterns.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
:doptin! an international approac% to ac%ievin! sstainable consmption patterns
".(. In principle0 contries s%old be !ided b$ t%e ,ollo2in! basic ob?ectives in t%eir
e,,orts to address consmption and li,est$les in t%e conte3t o, environment and
development.
BaC :ll contries s%old strive to promote sstainable consmption patterns<
BbC Developed contries s%old ta*e t%e lead in ac%ievin! sstainable consmption
patterns<
Developin! contries s%old see* to ac%ieve sstainable consmption patterns in t%eir
development process0 !aranteein! t%e provision o, basic needs ,or t%e poor0 2%ile
avoidin! t%ose nsstainable patterns0 particlarl$ in indstriali5ed contries0 !enerall$
reco!ni5ed as ndl$ %a5ardos to t%e environment0 ine,,icient and 2aste,l0 in t%eir
development processes. T%is re1ires en%anced tec%nolo!ical and ot%er assistance ,rom
indstriali5ed contries.
".+. In t%e ,ollo2-p o, t%e implementation o, :!enda 21 t%e revie2 o, pro!ress made in
ac%ievin! sstainable consmption patterns s%old be !iven %i!% priorit$.
-/ Data and information
>nderta*in! researc% on consmption
".1). In order to spport t%is broad strate!$0 7overnments0 and=or private researc% and
polic$ instittes0 2it% t%e assistance o, re!ional and international economic and
environmental or!ani5ations0 s%old ma*e a concerted e,,ort to.
BaC /3pand or promote databases on prodction and consmption and develop
met%odolo!ies ,or anal$sin! t%em<
BbC :ssess t%e relations%ip bet2een prodction and consmption0 environment0
tec%nolo!ical adaptation and innovation0 economic !ro2t% and development0 and
demo!rap%ic ,actors<
BcC /3amine t%e impact o, on!oin! c%an!es in t%e strctre o, modern indstrial
economies a2a$ ,rom material-intensive economic !ro2t%<
BdC Consider %o2 economies can !ro2 and prosper 2%ile redcin! t%e se o, ener!$ and
materials and t%e prodction o, %arm,l materials<
BeC Identi,$ balanced patterns o, consmption 2orld2ide 2%ic% t%e /art% can spport in
t%e lon! term.
Developin! ne2 concepts o, sstainable economic !ro2t% and prosperit$
".11. Consideration s%old also be !iven to t%e present concepts o, economic !ro2t% and
t%e need ,or ne2 concepts o, 2ealt% and prosperit$ 2%ic% allo2 %i!%er standards o,
livin! t%ro!% c%an!ed li,est$les and are less dependent on t%e /art%9s ,inite resorces
and more in %armon$ 2it% t%e /art%9s carr$in! capacit$. T%is s%old be re,lected in t%e
evoltion o, ne2 s$stems o, national acconts and ot%er indicators o, sstainable
development.
C/ "nternational cooperation and coordination
".12. 6%ile international revie2 processes e3ist ,or e3aminin! economic0 development
and demo!rap%ic ,actors0 more attention needs to be paid to isses related to consmption
and prodction patterns and sstainable li,est$les and environment.
".1#. In t%e ,ollo2-p o, t%e implementation o, :!enda 210 revie2in! t%e role and impact
o, nsstainable prodction and consmption patterns and li,est$les and t%eir relation to
sstainable development s%old be !iven %i!% priorit$.
Financin! and cost evalation
".1". T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%at implementation o, t%is pro!ramme is
not li*el$ to re1ire si!ni,icant ne2 ,inancial resorces.
-$ Developing national policies and strategies to encourage canges in
unsustainable consumption patterns
-asis for action
".1'. :c%ievin! t%e !oals o, environmental 1alit$ and sstainable development 2ill
re1ire e,,icienc$ in prodction and c%an!es in consmption patterns in order to
emp%asi5e optimi5ation o, resorce se and minimi5ation o, 2aste. In man$ instances0
t%is 2ill re1ire reorientation o, e3istin! prodction and consmption patterns t%at %ave
developed in indstrial societies and are in trn emlated in mc% o, t%e 2orld.
".16. Pro!ress can be made b$ stren!t%enin! positive trends and directions t%at are
emer!in!0 as part o, a process aimed at ac%ievin! si!ni,icant c%an!es in t%e consmption
patterns o, indstries0 7overnments0 %ose%olds and individals.
#b.ectives
".1&. In t%e $ears a%ead0 7overnments0 2or*in! 2it% appropriate or!ani5ations0 s%old
strive to meet t%e ,ollo2in! broad ob?ectives.
BaC To promote e,,icienc$ in prodction processes and redce 2aste,l consmption in
t%e process o, economic !ro2t%0 ta*in! into accont t%e development needs o,
developin! contries<
BbC To develop a domestic polic$ ,rame2or* t%at 2ill encora!e a s%i,t to more
sstainable patterns o, prodction and consmption<
BcC To rein,orce bot% vales t%at encora!e sstainable prodction and consmption
patterns and policies t%at encora!e t%e trans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies to
developin! contries.
Activities
A/ Encouraging greater efficienc0 in te use of energ0 and resources
".1(. Redcin! t%e amont o, ener!$ and materials sed per nit in t%e prodction o,
!oods and services can contribte bot% to t%e alleviation o, environmental stress and to
!reater economic and indstrial prodctivit$ and competitiveness. 7overnments0 in
cooperation 2it% indstr$0 s%old t%ere,ore intensi,$ e,,orts to se ener!$ and resorces
in an economicall$ e,,icient and environmentall$ sond manner b$.
BaC /ncora!in! t%e dissemination o, e3istin! environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies<
BbC Promotin! researc% and development in environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies<
BcC :ssistin! developin! contries to se t%ese tec%nolo!ies e,,icientl$ and to develop
tec%nolo!ies sited to t%eir particlar circmstances<
BdC /ncora!in! t%e environmentall$ sond se o, ne2 and rene2able sorces o, ener!$<
BeC /ncora!in! t%e environmentall$ sond and sstainable se o, rene2able natral
resorces.
-/ %inimi7ing te generation of 4astes
".1+. :t t%e same time0 societ$ needs to develop e,,ective 2a$s o, dealin! 2it% t%e
problem o, disposin! o, montin! levels o, 2aste prodcts and materials. 7overnments0
to!et%er 2it% indstr$0 %ose%olds and t%e pblic0 s%old ma*e a concerted e,,ort to
redce t%e !eneration o, 2astes and 2aste prodcts b$.
BaC /ncora!in! rec$clin! in indstrial processes and at t%e consmed level<
BbC Redcin! 2aste,l pac*a!in! o, prodcts<
BcC/ncora!in! t%e introdction o, more environmentall$ sond prodcts.
C/ Assisting individuals and ouseolds to make environmentall0 sound purcasing
decisions
".2). T%e recent emer!ence in man$ contries o, a more environmentall$ conscios
consmer pblic0 combined 2it% increased interest on t%e part o, some indstries in
providin! environmentall$ sond consmer prodcts0 is a si!ni,icant development t%at
s%old be encora!ed. 7overnments and international or!ani5ations0 to!et%er 2it% t%e
private sector0 s%old develop criteria and met%odolo!ies ,or t%e assessment o,
environmental impacts and resorce re1irements t%ro!%ot t%e ,ll li,e c$cle o,
prodcts and processes. Reslts o, t%ose assessments s%old be trans,ormed into clear
indicators in order to in,orm consmers and decision ma*ers.
".21. 7overnments0 in cooperation 2it% indstr$ and ot%er relevant !rops0 s%old
encora!e e3pansion o, environmental labellin! and ot%er environmentall$ related
prodct in,ormation pro!rammes desi!ned to assist consmers to ma*e in,ormed c%oices.
".22. T%e$ s%old also encora!e t%e emer!ence o, an in,ormed consmer pblic and
assist individals and %ose%olds to ma*e environmentall$ in,ormed c%oices b$.
BaC Providin! in,ormation on t%e conse1ences o, consmption c%oices and be%avior so
as to encora!e demand ,or environmentall$ sond prodcts and se o, prodcts<
BbC -a*in! consmers a2are o, t%e %ealt% and environmental impact o, prodcts0
t%ro!% sc% means as consmer le!islation and environmental labellin!<
BcC /ncora!in! speci,ic consmer-oriented pro!rammes0 sc% as rec$clin! and
deposit=re,nd s$stems.
D/ E8ercising leadersip troug government purcasing
".2#. 7overnments t%emselves also pla$ a role in consmption0 particlarl$ in contries
2%ere t%e pblic sector pla$s a lar!e role in t%e econom$ and can %ave a considerable
in,lence on bot% corporate decisions and pblic perceptions. T%e$ s%old t%ere,ore
revie2 t%e prc%asin! policies o, t%eir a!encies and departments so t%at t%e$ ma$
improve0 2%ere possible0 t%e environmental content o, !overnment procrement policies0
2it%ot pre?dice to international trade principles.
E/ %oving to4ards environmentall0 sound pricing
".2". 6it%ot t%e stimls o, prices and mar*et si!nals t%at ma*e clear to prodcers and
consmers t%e environmental costs o, t%e consmption o, ener!$0 materials and natral
resorces and t%e !eneration o, 2astes0 si!ni,icant c%an!es in consmption and
prodction patterns seem nli*el$ to occr in t%e near ,tre.
".2'. Some pro!ress %as be!n in t%e se o, appropriate economic instrments to
in,lence consmer be%avior. T%ese instrments inclde environmental c%ar!es and
ta3es0 deposit=re,nd s$stems0 etc. T%is process s%old be encora!ed in t%e li!%t o,
contr$-speci,ic conditions.
)/ &einforcing values tat support sustainable consumption
".26. 7overnments and private-sector or!ani5ations s%old promote more positive
attitdes to2ards sstainable consmption t%ro!% edcation0 pblic a2areness
pro!rammes and ot%er means0 sc% as positive advertisin! o, prodcts and services t%at
tili5e environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies or encora!e sstainable prodction and
consmption patterns. In t%e revie2 o, t%e implementation o, :!enda 210 an assessment
o, t%e pro!ress ac%ieved in developin! t%ese national policies and strate!ies s%old be
!iven de consideration.
%eans of implementation
".2&. T%is pro!ramme is concerned primaril$ 2it% c%an!es in nsstainable patterns o,
consmption and prodction and vales t%at encora!e sstainable consmption patterns
and li,est$les. It re1ires t%e combined e,,orts o, 7overnments0 consmers and
prodcers. Particlar attention s%old be paid to t%e si!ni,icant role pla$ed b$ 2omen and
%ose%olds as consmers and t%e potential impacts o, t%eir combined prc%asin! po2er
on t%e econom$.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter 9
Demograpic D0namics , Sustainabilit0
'.1. T%is c%apter contains t%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas.
BaC Developin! and disseminatin! *no2led!e concernin! t%e lin*s bet2een demo!rap%ic
trends and ,actors and sstainable development<
BbC Formlatin! inte!rated national policies ,or environment and development0 ta*in!
into accont demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors<
BcC Implementin! inte!rated0 environment and development pro!rammes at t%e local
level0 ta*in! into accont demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Developing and disseminating kno4ledge concerning te links bet4een
demograpic trends and factors and sustainable development
-asis for action
'.2. Demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors and sstainable development %ave a s$ner!istic
relations%ip.
'.#. T%e !ro2t% o, 2orld poplation and prodction combined 2it% nsstainable
consmption patterns places increasin!l$ severe stress on t%e li,e-spportin! capacities o,
or planet. T%ese interactive processes a,,ect t%e se o, land0 2ater0 air0 ener!$ and ot%er
resorces. Rapidl$ !ro2in! cities0 nless 2ell-mana!ed0 ,ace ma?or environmental
problems. T%e increase in bot% t%e nmber and si5e o, cities calls ,or !reater attention to
isses o, local !overnment and mnicipal mana!ement. T%e %man dimensions are *e$
elements to consider in t%is intricate set o, relations%ips and t%e$ s%old be ade1atel$
ta*en into consideration in compre%ensive policies ,or sstainable development. Sc%
policies s%old address t%e lin*a!es o, demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors0 resorce se0
appropriate tec%nolo!$ dissemination0 and development. Poplation polic$ s%old also
reco!ni5e t%e role pla$ed b$ %man bein!s in environmental and development concerns.
T%ere is a need to increase a2areness o, t%is isse amon! decision ma*ers at all levels
and to provide bot% better in,ormation on 2%ic% to base national and international
policies and a ,rame2or* a!ainst 2%ic% to interpret t%is in,ormation.
'.". T%ere is a need to develop strate!ies to miti!ate bot% t%e adverse impact on t%e
environment o, %man activities and t%e adverse impact o, environmental c%an!e on
%man poplations. T%e 2orld9s poplation is e3pected to e3ceed ( billion b$ t%e $ear
2)2). Si3t$ per cent o, t%e 2orld9s poplation alread$ live in coastal areas0 2%ile 6' per
cent o, cities 2it% poplations above 2.' million are located alon! t%e 2orld coasts<
several o, t%em are alread$ at or belo2 t%e present sea level.
#b.ectives
'.'. T%e ,ollo2in! ob?ectives s%old be ac%ieved as soon as practicable.
BaC To incorporate demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors in t%e !lobal anal$sis o, environment
and development isses<
BbC To develop a better nderstandin! o, t%e relations%ips amon! demo!rap%ic d$namics0
tec%nolo!$0 cltral be%avior0 natral resorces and li,e spport s$stems<
BcC To assess %man vlnerabilit$ in ecolo!icall$ sensitive areas and centres o,
poplation to determine t%e priorities ,or action at all levels0 ta*in! ,ll accont o,
commnit$ de,ined needs.
Activities
Researc% on t%e interaction bet2een demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors and
sstainable development
'.6. Relevant international0 re!ional and national instittions s%old consider nderta*in!
t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC Identi,$in! t%e interactions bet2een demo!rap%ic processes0 natral resorces and
li,e spport s$stems0 bearin! in mind re!ional and sbre!ional variations derivin! ,rom0
inter alia0 di,,erent levels o, development<
BbC Inte!ratin! demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors into t%e on!oin! std$ o, environmental
c%an!e0 sin! t%e e3pertise o, international0 re!ional and national researc% net2or*s and
o, local commnities0 ,irst0 to std$ t%e %man dimensions o, environmental c%an!e and0
second0 to identi,$ vlnerable areas<
BcC Identi,$in! priorit$ areas ,or action and developin! strate!ies and pro!rammes to
miti!ate t%e adverse impact o, environmental c%an!e on %man poplations0 and vice
versa.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
'.&. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1) million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Strengtening researc programmes tat integrate population5 environment and
development
'.(. In order to inte!rate demo!rap%ic anal$sis into a broader social science perspective
on environment and development0 interdisciplinar$ researc% s%old be increased.
International instittions and net2or*s o, e3perts s%old en%ance t%eir scienti,ic capacit$0
ta*in! ,ll accont o, commnit$ e3perience and *no2led!e0 and s%old disseminate t%e
e3perience !ained in mltidisciplinar$ approac%es and in lin*in! t%eor$ to action.
'.+. Eetter modellin! capabilities s%old be developed0 identi,$in! t%e ran!e o, possible
otcomes o, crrent %man activities0 especiall$ t%e interrelated impact o, demo!rap%ic
trends and ,actors0 per capita resorce se and 2ealt% distribtion0 as 2ell as t%e ma?or
mi!ration ,lo2s t%at ma$ be e3pected 2it% increasin! climatic events and cmlative
environmental c%an!e t%at ma$ destro$ people9s local liveli%oods.
C/ Developing information and public a4areness
'.1). Socio-demo!rap%ic in,ormation s%old be developed in a sitable ,ormat ,or
inter,acin! 2it% p%$sical0 biolo!ical and socio-economic data. Compatible spatial and
temporal scales0 cross-contr$ and time-series in,ormation0 as 2ell as !lobal be%avioral
indicators s%old be developed0 learnin! ,rom local commnities9 perceptions and
attitdes.
'.11. :2areness s%old be increased at all levels concernin! t%e need to optimi5e t%e
sstainable se o, resorces t%ro!% e,,icient resorce mana!ement0 ta*in! into accont
t%e development needs o, t%e poplations o, developin! contries.
'.12. :2areness s%old be increased o, t%e ,ndamental lin*a!es bet2een improvin! t%e
stats o, 2omen and demo!rap%ic d$namics0 particlarl$ t%ro!% 2omen9s access to
edcation0 primar$ and reprodctive %ealt% care pro!rammes0 economic independence
and t%eir e,,ective0 e1itable participation in all levels o, decision-ma*in!.
'.1#. Reslts o, researc% concerned 2it% sstainable development isses s%old be
disseminated t%ro!% tec%nical reports0 scienti,ic ?ornals0 t%e media0 2or*s%ops0 ,orms
or ot%er means so t%at t%e in,ormation can be sed b$ decision ma*ers at all levels and
increase pblic a2areness.
D/ Developing and:or enancing institutional capacit0 and collaboration
'.1". Collaboration and e3c%an!e o, in,ormation s%old be increased bet2een researc%
instittions and international0 re!ional and national a!encies and all ot%er sectors
Bincldin! t%e private sector0 local commnities0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
scienti,ic instittionsC ,rom bot% t%e indstriali5ed and developin! contries0 as
appropriate.
'.1'. /,,orts s%old be intensi,ied to en%ance t%e capacities o, national and local
!overnments0 t%e private sector and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations in developin!
contries to meet t%e !ro2in! needs ,or improved mana!ement o, rapidl$ !ro2in! rban
areas.
-$ )ormulating integrated national policies for environment and
development5 taking into account demograpic trends and factors
-asis for action
'.16. /3istin! plans ,or sstainable development %ave !enerall$ reco!ni5ed demo!rap%ic
trends and ,actors as elements t%at %ave a critical in,lence on consmption patterns0
prodction0 li,est$les and lon!-term sstainabilit$. Et in ,tre0 more attention 2ill %ave
to be !iven to t%ese isses in !eneral polic$ ,ormlation and t%e desi!n o, development
plans. To do t%is0 all contries 2ill %ave to improve t%eir o2n capacities to assess t%e
environment and development implications o, t%eir demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors. T%e$
2ill also need to ,ormlate and implement policies and action pro!rammes 2%ere
appropriate. Policies s%old be desi!ned to address t%e conse1ences o, poplation
!ro2t% bilt into poplation momentm0 2%ile at t%e same time incorporatin! measres
to brin! abot demo!rap%ic transition. T%e$ s%old combine environmental concerns and
poplation isses 2it%in a %olistic vie2 o, development 2%ose primar$ !oals inclde t%e
alleviation o, povert$< secre liveli%oods< !ood %ealt%< 1alit$ o, li,e< improvement o, t%e
stats and income o, 2omen and t%eir access to sc%oolin! and pro,essional trainin!0 as
2ell as ,l,ilment o, t%eir personal aspirations< and empo2erment o, individals and
commnities. Reco!ni5in! t%at lar!e increases in t%e si5e and nmber o, cities 2ill occr
in developin! contries nder an$ li*el$ poplation scenario0 !reater attention s%old be
!iven to preparin! ,or t%e needs0 in particlar o, 2omen and c%ildren0 ,or improved
mnicipal mana!ement and local !overnment.
#b.ective
'.1&. Fll inte!ration o, poplation concerns into national plannin!0 polic$ and decision-
ma*in! processes s%old contine. Poplation policies and pro!rammes s%old be
considered0 2it% ,ll reco!nition o, 2omen9s ri!%ts.
Activities
'.1(. 7overnments and ot%er relevant actors cold0 inter alia0 nderta*e t%e ,ollo2in!
activities0 2it% appropriate assistance ,rom aid a!encies0 and report on t%eir stats o,
implementation to t%e International Con,erence on Poplation and Development to be
%eld in 1++"0 especiall$ to its committee on poplation and environment.
A/ Assessing te implications of national demograpic trends and factors
'.1+. T%e relations%ips bet2een demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors and environmental
c%an!e and bet2een environmental de!radation and t%e components o, demo!rap%ic
c%an!e s%old be anal$sed.
'.2). Researc% s%old be condcted on %o2 environmental ,actors interact 2it% socio-
economic ,actors as a case o, mi!ration.
'.21. Vlnerable poplation !rops Bsc% as rral landless 2or*ers0 et%nic minorities0
re,!ees0 mi!rants0 displaced people0 2omen %eads o, %ose%oldC 2%ose c%an!es in
demo!rap%ic strctre ma$ %ave speci,ic impacts on sstainable development s%old be
identi,ied.
'.22. :n assessment s%old be made o, t%e implications o, t%e a!e strctre o, t%e
poplation on resorce demand and dependenc$ brdens0 ran!in! ,rom edcational
e3penses ,or t%e $on! to %ealt% care and spport ,or t%e elderl$0 and on %ose%old
income !eneration.
'.2#. :n assessment s%old also be made o, national poplation carr$in! capacit$ in t%e
conte3t o, satis,action o, %man needs and sstainable development0 and special attention
s%old be !iven to critical resorces0 sc% as 2ater and land0 and environmental ,actors0
sc% as ecos$stem %ealt% and biodiversit$.
'.2". T%e impact o, national demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors on t%e traditional liveli%oods
o, indi!enos !rops and local commnities0 incldin! c%an!es in traditional land se
becase o, internal poplation pressres0 s%old be stdied.
-/ -uilding and strengtening a national information base
'.2'. ;ational databases on demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors and environment s%old be
bilt and=or stren!t%ened0 disa!!re!atin! data b$ ecolo!ical re!ion Becos$stem approac%C0
and poplation=environment pro,iles s%old be establis%ed b$ re!ion.
'.26. -et%odolo!ies and instrments s%old be developed to identi,$ areas 2%ere
sstainabilit$ is0 or ma$ be0 t%reatened b$ t%e environmental e,,ects o, demo!rap%ic
trends and ,actors0 incorporatin! bot% crrent and pro?ected demo!rap%ic data lin*ed to
natral environmental processes.
'.2&. Case-stdies o, local level responses b$ di,,erent !rops to demo!rap%ic d$namics
s%old be developed0 particlarl$ in areas sb?ect to environmental stress and in
deterioratin! rban centres.
'.2(. Poplation data s%old be disa!!re!ated b$0 inter alia0 se3 and a!e in order to ta*e
into accont t%e implications o, t%e !ender division o, labor ,or t%e se and mana!ement
o, natral resorces.
C/ "ncorporating demograpic features into policies and plans
'.2+. In ,ormlatin! %man settlements policies0 accont s%old be ta*en o, resorce
needs0 2aste prodction and ecos$stem %ealt%.
'.#). T%e direct and indced e,,ects o, demo!rap%ic c%an!es on environment and
development pro!rammes s%old0 2%ere appropriate0 be inte!rated0 and t%e impact on
demo!rap%ic ,eatres assessed.
'.#1. ;ational poplation polic$ !oals and pro!rammes t%at are consistent 2it% national
environment and development plans ,or sstainabilit$ and in *eepin! 2it% t%e ,reedom0
di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales o, individals s%old be establis%ed and implemented.
'.#2. :ppropriate socio-economic policies ,or t%e $on! and t%e elderl$0 bot% in terms o,
,amil$ and state spport s$stems0 s%old be developed.
'.##. Policies and pro!rammes s%old be developed ,or %andlin! t%e varios t$pes o,
mi!rations t%at reslt ,rom or indce environmental disrptions0 2it% special attention to
2omen and vlnerable !rops.
'.#". Demo!rap%ic concerns0 incldin! concerns ,or environmental mi!rants and
displaced people0 s%old be incorporated in t%e pro!rammes ,or sstainable development
o, relevant international and re!ional instittions.
'.#'. ;ational revie2s s%old be condcted and t%e inte!ration o, poplation policies in
national development and environment strate!ies s%old be monitored nationall$.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
'.#6. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D+) million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ &aising a4areness of demograpic and sustainable development interactions
'.#&. >nderstandin! o, t%e interactions bet2een demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors and
sstainable development s%old be increased in all sectors o, societ$. Stress s%old be
placed on local and national action. Demo!rap%ic and sstainable development edcation
s%old be coordinated and inte!rated in bot% t%e ,ormal and non-,ormal edcation
sectors. Particlar attention s%old be !iven to poplation literac$ pro!rammes0 notabl$
,or 2omen. Special emp%asis s%old be placed on t%e lin*a!e bet2een t%ese
pro!rammes0 primar$ environmental care and t%e provision o, primar$ %ealt% care and
services.
C/ Strengtening institutions
'.#(. T%e capacit$ o, national0 re!ional and local strctres to deal 2it% isses relatin! to
demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors and sstainable development s%old be en%anced. T%is
2old involve stren!t%enin! t%e relevant bodies responsible ,or poplation isses to
enable t%em to elaborate policies consistent 2it% t%e national prospects ,or sstainable
development. Cooperation amon! !overnment0 national researc% instittions0 non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations and local commnities in assessin! problems and evalatin!
policies s%old also be en%anced.
'.#+. T%e capacit$ o, t%e relevant >nited ;ations or!ans0 or!ani5ations and bodies0
international and re!ional inter!overnmental bodies0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
local commnities s%old0 as appropriate0 be en%anced to %elp contries develop
sstainable development policies on re1est and0 as appropriate0 provide assistance to
environmental mi!rants and displaced people.
'."). Inter-a!enc$ spport ,or national sstainable development policies and pro!rammes
s%old be improved t%ro!% better coordination o, poplation and environment activities.
D/ Promoting uman resource development
'."1. T%e international and re!ional scienti,ic instittions s%old assist 7overnments0
pon re1est0 to inclde concerns re!ardin! t%e poplation=environment interactions at
t%e !lobal0 ecos$stem and micro-levels in t%e trainin! o, demo!rap%ers and poplation
and environment specialists. Trainin! s%old inclde researc% on lin*a!es and 2a$s to
desi!n inte!rated strate!ies.
C$ "mplementing integrated environment and development programmes at
te local level5 taking into account demograpic trends and factors
-asis for action
'."2. Poplation pro!rammes are more e,,ective 2%en implemented to!et%er 2it%
appropriate cross-sectoral policies. To attain sstainabilit$ at t%e local level0 a ne2
,rame2or* is needed t%at inte!rates demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors 2it% sc% ,actors as
ecos$stem %ealt%0 tec%nolo!$ and %man settlements0 and 2it% socio-economic strctres
and access to resorces. Poplation pro!rammes s%old be consistent 2it% socio-
economic and environmental plannin!. Inte!rated sstainable development pro!rammes
s%old closel$ correlate action on demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors 2it% resorce
mana!ement activities and development !oals t%at meet t%e needs o, t%e people
concerned.
#b.ective
'."#. Poplation pro!rammes s%old be implemented alon! 2it% natral resorce
mana!ement and development pro!rammes at t%e local level t%at 2ill ensre sstainable
se o, natral resorces0 improve t%e 1alit$ o, li,e o, t%e people and en%ance
environmental 1alit$.
Activities
'."". 7overnments and local commnities0 incldin! commnit$-based 2omen9s
or!ani5ations and national non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 consistent 2it% national
plans0 ob?ectives0 strate!ies and priorities0 cold0 inter alia0 nderta*e t%e activities set ot
belo2 2it% t%e assistance and cooperation o, international or!ani5ations0 as appropriate.
7overnments cold s%are t%eir e3perience in t%e implementation o, :!enda 21 at t%e
International Con,erence on Poplation and Development0 to be %eld in 1++"0 especiall$
its committee on poplation and environment.
A/ Developing a frame4ork for action
'."'. :n e,,ective consltative process s%old be establis%ed and implemented 2it%
concerned !rops o, societ$ 2%ere t%e ,ormlation and decision-ma*in! o, all
components o, t%e pro!rammes are based on a nation2ide consltative process dra2in!
on commnit$ meetin!s0 re!ional 2or*s%ops and national seminars0 as appropriate. T%is
process s%old ensre t%at vie2s o, 2omen and men on needs0 perspective and
constraints are e1all$ 2ell re,lected in t%e desi!n o, pro!rammes0 and t%at soltions are
rooted in speci,ic e3perience. T%e poor and nderprivile!ed s%old be priorit$ !rops in
t%is process.
'."6. ;ationall$ determined policies ,or inte!rated and mlti,aceted pro!rammes0 2it%
special attention to 2omen0 to t%e poorest people livin! in critical areas and to ot%er
vlnerable !rops s%old be implemented0 ensrin! t%e involvement o, !rops 2it% a
special potential to act as a!ents ,or c%an!e and sstainable development. Special
emp%asis s%old be placed on t%ose pro!rammes t%at ac%ieve mltiple ob?ectives0
encora!in! sstainable economic development0 and miti!atin! adverse impacts o,
demo!rap%ic trends and ,actors0 and avoidin! lon!-term environmental dama!e. Food
secrit$0 access to secre tenre0 basic s%elter0 and essential in,rastrctre0 edcation0
,amil$ 2el,are0 2omen9s reprodctive %ealt%0 ,amil$ credit sc%emes0 re,orestation
pro!rammes0 primar$ environmental care0 2omen9s emplo$ment s%old0 as appropriate0
be inclded amon! ot%er ,actors.
'."&. :n anal$tical ,rame2or* s%old be developed to identi,$ complementar$ elements
o, sstainable development policies as 2ell as t%e national mec%anisms to monitor and
evalate t%eir e,,ects on poplation d$namics.
'."(. Special attention s%old be !iven to t%e critical role o, 2omen in
poplation=environment pro!rammes and in ac%ievin! sstainable development. Pro?ects
s%old ta*e advanta!e o, opportnities to lin* social0 economic and environmental !ains
,or 2omen and t%eir ,amilies. /mpo2erment o, 2omen is essential and s%old be assred
t%ro!% edcation0 trainin! and policies to accord and improve 2omen9s ri!%t and access
to assets0 %man and civil ri!%ts0 labor-savin! measres0 ?ob opportnities and
participation in decision-ma*in!. Poplation=environment pro!rammes mst enable
2omen to mobili5e t%emselves to alleviate t%eir brden and improve t%eir capacit$ to
participate in and bene,it ,rom socio-economic development. Speci,ic measres s%old
be nderta*en to close t%e !ap bet2een ,emale and male illiterac$ rates.
-/ Supporting programmes tat promote canges in demograpic trends and
factors to4ards sustainabilit0
'."+. Reprodctive %ealt% pro!rammes and services0 s%old0 as appropriate0 be developed
and en%anced to redce maternal and in,ant mortalit$ ,rom all cases and enable 2omen
and men to ,l,il t%eir personal aspirations in terms o, ,amil$ si5e0 in a 2a$ in *eepin!
2it% t%eir ,reedom and di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales.
'.'). 7overnments s%old ta*e active steps to implement0 as a matter o, r!enc$0 in
accordance 2it% contr$-speci,ic conditions and le!al s$stems0 measres to ensre t%at
2omen and men %ave t%e same ri!%t to decide ,reel$ and responsibl$ on t%e nmber and
spacin! o, t%eir c%ildren0 to %ave access to t%e in,ormation0 edcation and means0 as
appropriate0 to enable t%em to e3ercise t%is ri!%t in *eepin! 2it% t%eir ,reedom0 di!nit$
and personall$ %eld vales ta*in! into accont et%ical and cltral considerations.
'.'1. 7overnments s%old ta*e active steps to implement pro!rammes to establis% and
stren!t%en preventive and crative %ealt% ,acilities t%at inclde 2omen-centred0 2omen-
mana!ed0 sa,e and e,,ective reprodctive %ealt% care and a,,ordable0 accessible services0
as appropriate0 ,or t%e responsible plannin! o, ,amil$ si5e0 in *eepin! 2it% ,reedom0
di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales and ta*in! into accont et%ical and cltral
considerations. Pro!rammes s%old ,ocs on providin! compre%ensive %ealt% care0
incldin! pre-natal care0 edcation and in,ormation on %ealt% and responsible parent%ood
and s%old provide t%e opportnit$ ,or all 2omen to breast-,eed ,ll$0 at least drin! t%e
,irst ,or mont%s post-partm. Pro!rammes s%old ,ll$ spport 2omen9s prodctive and
reprodctive roles and 2ell bein!0 2it% special attention to t%e need ,or providin! e1al
and improved %ealt% care ,or all c%ildren and t%e need to redce t%e ris* o, maternal and
c%ild mortalit$ and sic*ness.
'.'2. Consistent 2it% national priorities0 cltrall$ based in,ormation and edcation
pro!rammes t%at transmit reprodctive %ealt% messa!es to men and 2omen t%at are easil$
nderstood s%old be developed.
C/ Creating appropriate institutional conditions
'.'#. Constitencies and instittional conditions to ,acilitate t%e implementation o,
demo!rap%ic activities s%old0 as appropriate0 be ,ostered. T%is re1ires spport and
commitment ,rom political0 indi!enos0 reli!ios and traditional at%orities0 t%e private
sector and t%e national scienti,ic commnit$. In developin! t%ese appropriate instittional
conditions0 contries s%old closel$ involve establis%ed national mac%iner$ ,or 2omen.
'.'". Poplation assistance s%old be coordinated 2it% bilateral and mltilateral donors
to ensre t%at poplation needs and re1irements o, all developin! contries are
addressed0 ,ll$ respectin! t%e overall coordinatin! responsibilit$ and t%e c%oice and
strate!ies o, t%e recipient contries.
'.''. Coordination s%old be improved at local and international levels. 6or*in!
practices s%old be en%anced in order to ma*e optimm se o, resorces0 dra2 on
collective e3perience and improve t%e implementation o, pro!rammes. >;FP: and ot%er
relevant a!encies s%old stren!t%en t%e coordination o, international cooperation
activities 2it% recipient and donor contries in order to ensre t%at ade1ate ,ndin! is
available to respond to !ro2in! needs.
'.'6. Proposals s%old be developed ,or local0 national and international
poplation=environment pro!rammes in line 2it% speci,ic needs ,or ac%ievin!
sstainabilit$. 6%ere appropriate0 instittional c%an!es mst be implemented so t%at old-
a!e secrit$ does not entirel$ depend on inpt ,rom ,amil$ members.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
'.'&. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D& billion0 incldin! abot
D#.' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ &esearc
'.'(. Researc% s%old be nderta*en 2it% a vie2 to developin! speci,ic action
pro!rammes< it 2ill be necessar$ to establis% priorities bet2een proposed areas o,
researc%.
'.'+. Socio-demo!rap%ic researc% s%old be condcted on %o2 poplations respond to a
c%an!in! environment.
'.6). >nderstandin! o, socio-cltral and political ,actors t%at can positivel$ in,lence
acceptance o, appropriate poplation polic$ instrments s%old be improved.
'.61. Srve$s o, c%an!es in needs ,or appropriate services relatin! to responsible
plannin! o, ,amil$ si5e0 re,lectin! variations amon! di,,erent socio-economic !rops and
variations in di,,erent !eo!rap%ical re!ions s%old be nderta*en.
C/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
'.62. T%e areas o, %man resorce development and capacit$-bildin!0 2it% particlar
attention to t%e edcation and trainin! o, 2omen0 are areas o, critical importance and are
a ver$ %i!% priorit$ in t%e implementation o, poplation pro!rammes.
'.6#. 6or*s%ops to %elp pro!ramme and pro?ects mana!ers to lin* poplation
pro!rammes to ot%er development and environmental !oals s%old be condcted.
'.6". /dcational materials0 incldin! !ides=2or*boo*s ,or planners and decision
ma*ers and ot%er actors o, poplation=environment=development pro!rammes0 s%old be
developed.
'.6'. Cooperation s%old be developed bet2een 7overnments0 scienti,ic instittions and
non-!overnmental or!ani5ations 2it%in t%e re!ion0 and similar instittions otside t%e
re!ion. Cooperation 2it% local or!ani5ations s%old be ,ostered in ordered to raise
a2areness0 en!a!e in demonstration pro?ects and report on t%e e3perience !ained.
'.66. T%e recommendations contained in t%is c%apter s%old in no 2a$ pre?dice
discssions at t%e International Con,erence on Poplation and Development in 1++"0
2%ic% 2ill be t%e appropriate ,orm ,or dealin! 2it% poplation and development isses0
ta*in! into accont t%e recommendations o, t%e International Con,erence on Poplation0
%eld in -e3ico Cit$ in 1+("0 1= and t%e For2ard-loo*in! Strate!ies ,or t%e :dvancement
o, 6omen0 2= adopted b$ t%e 6orld Con,erence to Revie2 and :ppraise t%e
:c%ievements o, t%e >nited Decade ,or 6omen. /1alit$0 Development and Peace0 %eld
in ;airobi in 1+('.
Notes
1= Report o, t%e International Con,erence on Poplation0 -e3ico Cit$0 6-1" :!st 1+("
B>nited ;ations pblication0 Sales ;o. /.(".FIII.(C0 c%ap. I.
2= Report o, t%e 6orld Con,erence to Revie2 and :ppraise t%e :c%ievements o, t%e
>nited ;ations Decade ,or 6omen. /1alit$0 Development and Peace0 ;airobi0 1'-26
Gl$ 1+(' B>nited ;ations pblication0 Sales ;o. /.(".IV.1)C0 c%ap. I0 sect. :.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter ;
Protecting , Promoting *uman *ealt
"ntroduction
6.1. 4ealt% and development are intimatel$ interconnected. Eot% ins,,icient
development leadin! to povert$ and inappropriate development resltin! in
overconsmption0 copled 2it% an e3pandin! 2orld poplation0 can reslt in severe
environmental %ealt% problems in bot% developin! and developed nations. :ction items
nder :!enda 21 mst address t%e primar$ %ealt% needs o, t%e 2orld9s poplation0 since
t%e$ are inte!ral to t%e ac%ievement o, t%e !oals o, sstainable development and primar$
environmental care. T%e lin*a!e o, %ealt%0 environmental and socio-economic
improvements re1ires intersectoral e,,orts. Sc% e,,orts0 involvin! edcation0 %osin!0
pblic 2or*s and commnit$ !rops0 incldin! bsinesses0 sc%ools and niversities and
reli!ios0 civic and cltral or!ani5ations0 are aimed at enablin! people in t%eir
commnities to ensre sstainable development. Particlarl$ relevant is t%e inclsion o,
prevention pro!rammes rat%er t%an rel$in! solel$ on remediation and treatment.
Contries o!%t to develop plans ,or priorit$ actions0 dra2in! on t%e pro!ramme areas in
t%is c%apter0 2%ic% are based on cooperative plannin! b$ t%e varios levels o,
!overnment0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and local commnities. :n appropriate
international or!ani5ation0 sc% as 64O0 s%old coordinate t%ese activities.
6.2. T%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas are contained in t%is c%apter.
BaC -eetin! primar$ %ealt% care needs0 particlarl$ in rral areas<
BbC Control o, commnicable diseases<
BcC Protectin! vlnerable !rops<
BdC -eetin! t%e rban %ealt% c%allen!e<
BeC Redcin! %ealt% ris*s ,rom environmental polltion and %a5ards.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ %eeting primar0 ealt care needs5 particularl0 in rural areas -asis for
action
6.#. 4ealt% ltimatel$ depends on t%e abilit$ to mana!e sccess,ll$ t%e interaction
bet2een t%e p%$sical0 spirital0 biolo!ical and economic=social environment. Sond
development is not possible 2it%ot a %ealt%$ poplation< $et most developmental
activities a,,ect t%e environment to some de!ree0 2%ic% in trn cases or e3acerbates
man$ %ealt% problems. Conversel$0 it is t%e ver$ lac* o, development t%at adversel$
a,,ects t%e %ealt% condition o, man$ people0 2%ic% can be alleviated onl$ t%ro!%
development. T%e %ealt% sector cannot meet basic needs and ob?ectives on its o2n< it is
dependent on social0 economic and spirital development0 2%ile directl$ contribtin! to
sc% development. It is also dependent on a %ealt%$ environment0 incldin! t%e provision
o, a sa,e 2ater sppl$ and sanitation and t%e promotion o, a sa,e ,ood sppl$ and proper
ntrition. Particlar attention s%old be directed to2ards ,ood sa,et$0 2it% priorit$ placed
on t%e elimination o, ,ood contamination< compre%ensive and sstainable 2ater policies
to ensre sa,e drin*in! 2ater and sanitation to preclde bot% microbial and c%emical
contamination< and promotion o, %ealt% edcation0 immni5ation and provision o,
essential dr!s. /dcation and appropriate services re!ardin! responsible plannin! o,
,amil$ si5e0 2it% respect ,or cltral0 reli!ios and social aspects0 in *eepin! 2it%
,reedom0 di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales and ta*in! into accont et%ical and cltral
considerations0 also contribte to t%ese intersectoral activities.
#b.ectives
6.". 6it%in t%e overall strate!$ to ac%ieve %ealt% ,or all b$ t%e $ear 2)))0 t%e ob?ectives
are to meet t%e basic %ealt% needs o, rral peri-rban and rban poplations< to provide
t%e necessar$ speciali5ed environmental %ealt% services< and to coordinate t%e
involvement o, citi5ens0 t%e %ealt% sector0 t%e %ealt%-related sectors and relevant non-
%ealt% sectors Bbsiness0 social0 edcational and reli!ios instittionsC in soltions to
%ealt% problems. :s a matter o, priorit$0 %ealt% service covera!e s%old be ac%ieved ,or
poplation !rops in !reatest need0 particlarl$ t%ose livin! in rral areas.
Activities
6.'. ;ational 7overnments and local at%orities0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations and international or!ani5ations0 in t%e li!%t o, contries9
speci,ic conditions and needs0 s%old stren!t%en t%eir %ealt% sector pro!rammes0 2it%
special attention to rral needs0 to.
A/ -uild basic ealt infrastructures5 monitoring and planning s0stems<
1. Develop and stren!t%en primar$ %ealt% care s$stems t%at are practical0
commnit$-based0 scienti,icall$ sond0 sociall$ acceptable and appropriate to
t%eir needs and t%at meet basic %ealt% needs ,or clean 2ater0 sa,e ,ood and
sanitation<
2. Spport t%e se and stren!t%enin! o, mec%anisms t%at improve coordination
bet2een %ealt% and related sectors at all appropriate levels o, !overnment0 and in
commnities and relevant or!ani5ations<
#. Develop and implement rational and a,,ordable approac%es to t%e establis%ment
and maintenance o, %ealt% ,acilities<
". /nsre and0 2%ere appropriate0 increase provision o, social services spport<
'. Develop strate!ies0 incldin! reliable %ealt% indicators0 to monitor t%e pro!ress
and evalate t%e e,,ectiveness o, %ealt% pro!rammes<
6. /3plore 2a$s to ,inance t%e %ealt% s$stem based on t%e assessment o, t%e
resorces needed and identi,$ t%e varios ,inancin! alternatives<
&. Promote %ealt% edcation in sc%ools0 in,ormation e3c%an!e0 tec%nical spport and
trainin!<
(. Spport initiatives ,or sel,-mana!ement o, services b$ vlnerable !rops<
+. Inte!rate traditional *no2led!e and e3perience into national %ealt% s$stems0 as
appropriate<
1). Promote t%e provisions ,or necessar$ lo!istics ,or otreac% activities0 particlarl$
in rral areas<
11. Promote and stren!t%en commnit$-based re%abilitation activities ,or t%e rral
%andicapped.
-/ Support researc and metodolog0 development<
1. /stablis% mec%anisms ,or sstained commnit$ involvement in environmental
%ealt% activities0 incldin! optimi5ation o, t%e appropriate se o, commnit$
,inancial and %man resorces<
2. Condct environmental %ealt% researc%0 incldin! be%avior researc% and
researc% on 2a$s to increase covera!e and ensre !reater tili5ation o, services b$
perip%eral0 nderserved and vlnerable poplations0 as appropriate to !ood
prevention services and %ealt% care<
#. Condct researc% into traditional *no2led!e o, prevention and crative %ealt%
practices.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
6.6. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D") billion0 incldin! abot
D' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
6.&. ;e2 approac%es to plannin! and mana!in! %ealt% care s$stems and ,acilities s%old
be tested0 and researc% on 2a$s o, inte!ratin! appropriate tec%nolo!ies into %ealt%
in,rastrctres spported. T%e development o, scienti,icall$ sond %ealt% tec%nolo!$
s%old en%ance adaptabilit$ to local needs and maintainabilit$ b$ commnit$ resorces0
incldin! t%e maintenance and repair o, e1ipment sed in %ealt% care. Pro!rammes to
,acilitate t%e trans,er and s%arin! o, in,ormation and e3pertise s%old be developed0
incldin! commnication met%ods and edcational materials.
C/ *uman resource development
6.(. Intersectoral approac%es to t%e re,orm o, %ealt% personnel development s%old be
stren!t%ened to ensre its relevance to t%e A4ealt% ,or :llA strate!ies. /,,orts to en%ance
mana!erial s*ills at t%e district level s%old be spported0 2it% t%e aim o, ensrin! t%e
s$stematic development and e,,icient operation o, t%e basic %ealt% s$stem. Intensive0
s%ort0 practical trainin! pro!rammes 2it% emp%asis on s*ills in e,,ective commnication0
commnit$ or!ani5ation and ,acilitation o, be%avior c%an!e s%old be developed in
order to prepare t%e local personnel o, all sectors involved in social development ,or
carr$in! ot t%eir respective roles. In cooperation 2it% t%e edcation sector0 special %ealt%
edcation pro!rammes s%old be developed ,ocsin! on t%e role o, 2omen in t%e %ealt%-
care s$stem.
D/ Capacit01building
6.+. 7overnments s%old consider adoptin! enablin! and ,acilitatin! strate!ies to
promote t%e participation o, commnities in meetin! t%eir o2n needs0 in addition to
providin! direct spport to t%e provision o, %ealt%-care services. : ma?or ,ocs s%old be
t%e preparation o, commnit$-based %ealt% and %ealt%-related 2or*ers to assme an
active role in commnit$ %ealt% edcation0 2it% emp%asis on team 2or*0 social
mobili5ation and t%e spport o, ot%er development 2or*ers. ;ational pro!rammes s%old
cover district %ealt% s$stems in rban0 peri-rban and rral areas0 t%e deliver$ o, %ealt%
pro!rammes at t%e district level0 and t%e development and spport o, re,erral services.
-$ Control of communicable diseases
-asis for action
6.1). :dvances in t%e development o, vaccines and c%emot%erapetic a!ents %ave
bro!%t man$ commnicable diseases nder control. 4o2ever0 t%ere remain man$
important commnicable diseases ,or 2%ic% environmental control measres are
indispensable0 especiall$ in t%e ,ield o, 2ater sppl$ and sanitation. Sc% diseases
inclde c%olera0 diarr%oeal diseases0 leis%maniasis0 malaria and sc%istosomiasis. In all
sc% instances0 t%e environmental measres0 eit%er as an inte!ral part o, primar$ %ealt%
care or nderta*en otside t%e %ealt% sector0 ,orm an indispensable component o, overall
disease control strate!ies0 to!et%er 2it% %ealt% and %$!iene edcation0 and in some cases0
are t%e onl$ component.
6.11. 6it% 4IV in,ection levels estimated to increase to #)-") million b$ t%e $ear 2)))0
t%e socio-economic impact o, t%e pandemic is e3pected to be devastatin! ,or all
contries0 and increasin!l$ ,or 2omen and c%ildren. 6%ile direct %ealt% costs 2ill be
sbstantial0 t%e$ 2ill be d2ar,ed b$ t%e indirect costs o, t%e pandemic - mainl$ costs
associated 2it% t%e loss o, income and decreased prodctivit$ o, t%e 2or*,orce. T%e
pandemic 2ill in%ibit !ro2t% o, t%e service and indstrial sectors and si!ni,icantl$
increase t%e costs o, %man capacit$-bildin! and retrainin!. T%e a!ricltral sector is
particlarl$ a,,ected 2%ere prodction is labor-intensive.
#b.ectives
6.12. : nmber o, !oals %ave been ,ormlated t%ro!% e3tensive consltations in varios
international ,orms attended b$ virtall$ all 7overnments0 relevant >nited ;ations
or!ani5ations Bincldin! 64O0 >;IC/F0 >;FP:0 >;/SCO0 >;DP and t%e 6orld
Ean*C and a nmber o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations. 7oals Bincldin! bt not limited
to t%ose listed belo2C are recommended ,or implementation b$ all contries 2%ere t%e$
are applicable0 2it% appropriate adaptation to t%e speci,ic sitation o, eac% contr$ in
terms o, p%asin!0 standards0 priorities and availabilit$ o, resorces0 2it% respect ,or
cltral0 reli!ios and social aspects0 in *eepin! 2it% ,reedom0 di!nit$ and personall$
%eld vales and ta*in! into accont et%ical considerations. :dditional !oals t%at are
particlarl$ relevant to a contr$9s speci,ic sitation s%old be added in t%e contr$9s
national plan o, action BPlan o, :ction ,or Implementin! t%e 6orld Declaration on t%e
Srvival0 Protection and Development o, C%ildren in t%e 1++)sC. 1= Sc% national level
action plans s%old be coordinated and monitored ,rom 2it%in t%e pblic %ealt% sector.
Some ma?or !oals are.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to eliminate !inea 2orm disease BdracncliasisC<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 eradicate polio<
BcC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to e,,ectivel$ control onc%ocerciasis Briver blindnessC and lepros$<
BdC E$ 1++'0 to redce measles deat%s b$ +' per cent and redce measles cases b$ +) per
cent compared 2it% pre-immni5ation levels<
BeC E$ contined e,,orts0 to provide %ealt% and %$!iene edcation and to ensre niversal
access to sa,e drin*in! 2ater and niversal access to sanitar$ measres o, e3creta
disposal0 t%ereb$ mar*edl$ redcin! 2aterborne diseases sc% as c%olera and
sc%istosomiasis and redcin!.
1. E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 t%e nmber o, deat%s ,rom c%ild%ood diarr%oea in developin!
contries b$ ') to &) per cent<
2. E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 t%e incidence o, c%ild%ood diarr%oea in developin! contries b$
at least 2' to ') per cent<
B,C E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to initiate compre%ensive pro!rammes to redce mortalit$ ,rom
acte respirator$ in,ections in c%ildren nder ,ive $ears b$ at least one t%ird0 particlarl$
in contries 2it% %i!% in,ant mortalit$<
B!C E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to provide +' per cent o, t%e 2orld9s c%ild poplation 2it% access to
appropriate care ,or acte respirator$ in,ections 2it%in t%e commnit$ and at ,irst re,erral
level<
B%C E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to institte anti-malaria pro!rammes in all contries 2%ere malaria
presents a si!ni,icant %ealt% problem and maintain t%e transmission-,ree stats o, areas
,reed ,rom endemic malaria<
BiC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to implement control pro!rammes in contries 2%ere ma?or %man
parasitic in,ections are endemic and ac%ieve an overall redction in t%e prevalence o,
sc%istosomiasis and o, ot%er trematode in,ections b$ ") per cent and 2' per cent0
respectivel$0 ,rom a 1+(" baseline0 as 2ell as a mar*ed redction in incidence0 prevalence
and intensit$ o, ,ilarial in,ections<
B?C To mobili5e and ni,$ national and international e,,orts a!ainst :IDS to prevent
in,ection and to redce t%e personal and social impact o, 4IV in,ection<
B*C To contain t%e resr!ence o, tberclosis0 2it% particlar emp%asis on mltiple
antibiotic resistant ,orms<
BlC To accelerate researc% on improved vaccines and implement to t%e ,llest e3tent
possible t%e se o, vaccines in t%e prevention o, disease.
Activities
6.1#. /ac% national 7overnment0 in accordance 2it% national plans ,or pblic %ealt%0
priorities and ob?ectives0 s%old consider developin! a national %ealt% action plan 2it%
appropriate international assistance and spport0 incldin!0 at a minimm0 t%e ,ollo2in!
components.
BaC ;ational pblic %ealt% s$stems.
1. Pro!rammes to identi,$ environmental %a5ards in t%e casation o, commnicable
diseases<
2. -onitorin! s$stems o, epidemiolo!ical data to ensre ade1ate ,orecastin! o, t%e
introdction0 spread or a!!ravation o, commnicable diseases<
#. Intervention pro!rammes0 incldin! measres consistent 2it% t%e principles o, t%e
!lobal :IDS strate!$<
". Vaccines ,or t%e prevention o, commnicable diseases<
BbC Pblic in,ormation and %ealt% edcation. Provide edcation and disseminate
in,ormation on t%e ris*s o, endemic commnicable diseases and bild a2areness on
environmental met%ods ,or control o, commnicable diseases to enable commnities to
pla$ a role in t%e control o, commnicable diseases<
BcC Intersectoral cooperation and coordination.
1. Second e3perienced %ealt% pro,essionals to relevant sectors0 sc% as plannin!0
%osin! and a!ricltre<
2. Develop !idelines ,or e,,ective coordination in t%e areas o, pro,essional trainin!0
assessment o, ris*s and development o, control tec%nolo!$<
BdC Control o, environmental ,actors t%at in,lence t%e spread o, commnicable diseases.
:ppl$ met%ods ,or t%e prevention and control o, commnicable diseases0 incldin! 2ater
sppl$ and sanitation control0 2ater polltion control0 ,ood 1alit$ control0 inte!rated
vector control0 !arba!e collection and disposal and environmentall$ sond irri!ation
practices<
BeC Primar$ %ealt% care s$stem.
1. Stren!t%en prevention pro!rammes0 2it% particlar emp%asis on ade1ate and
balanced ntrition<
2. Stren!t%en earl$ dia!nostic pro!rammes and improve capacities ,or earl$
preventative=treatment action<
#. Redce t%e vlnerabilit$ to 4IV in,ection o, 2omen and t%eir o,,sprin!<
B,C Spport ,or researc% and met%odolo!$ development.
1. Intensi,$ and e3pand mltidisciplinar$ researc%0 incldin! ,ocsed e,,orts on t%e
miti!ation and environmental control o, tropical diseases<
2. Carr$ ot intervention stdies to provide a solid epidemiolo!ical basis ,or control
policies and to evalate t%e e,,icienc$ o, alternative approac%es<
#. >nderta*e stdies in t%e poplation and amon! %ealt% 2or*ers to determine t%e
in,lence o, cltral0 be%avioral and social ,actors on control policies<
B!C Development and dissemination o, tec%nolo!$.
1. Develop ne2 tec%nolo!ies ,or t%e e,,ective control o, commnicable diseases<
2. Promote stdies to determine %o2 to optimall$ disseminate reslts ,rom researc%<
#. /nsre tec%nical assistance0 incldin! t%e s%arin! o, *no2led!e and *no2-%o2.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
6.1". T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D" billion0 incldin! abot
D+)) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
6.1'. /,,orts to prevent and control diseases s%old inclde investi!ations o, t%e
epidemiolo!ical0 social and economic bases ,or t%e development o, more e,,ective
national strate!ies ,or t%e inte!rated control o, commnicable diseases. Cost-e,,ective
met%ods o, environmental control s%old be adapted to local developmental conditions.
C/ *uman resource development
6.16. ;ational and re!ional trainin! instittions s%old promote broad intersectoral
approac%es to prevention and control o, commnicable diseases0 incldin! trainin! in
epidemiolo!$ and commnit$ prevention and control0 immnolo!$0 moleclar biolo!$
and t%e application o, ne2 vaccines. 4ealt% edcation materials s%old be developed ,or
se b$ commnit$ 2or*ers and ,or t%e edcation o, mot%ers ,or t%e prevention and
treatment o, diarr%oeal diseases in t%e %ome.
D/ Capacit01building
6.1&. T%e %ealt% sector s%old develop ade1ate data on t%e distribtion o, commnicable
diseases0 as 2ell as t%e instittional capacit$ to respond and collaborate 2it% ot%er sectors
,or prevention0 miti!ation and correction o, commnicable disease %a5ards t%ro!%
environmental protection. T%e advocac$ at polic$- and decision-ma*in! levels s%old be
!ained0 pro,essional and societal spport mobili5ed0 and commnities or!ani5ed in
developin! sel,-reliance.
C$ Protecting vulnerable groups
-asis for action
6.1(. In addition to meetin! basic %ealt% needs0 speci,ic emp%asis %as to be !iven to
protectin! and edcatin! vlnerable !rops0 particlarl$ in,ants0 $ot%0 2omen0
indi!enos people and t%e ver$ poor as a prere1isite ,or sstainable development.
Special attention s%old also be paid to t%e %ealt% needs o, t%e elderl$ and disabled
poplation.
6.1+. In,ants and c%ildren. :ppro3imatel$ one t%ird o, t%e 2orld9s poplation are c%ildren
nder 1' $ears old. :t least 1' million o, t%ese c%ildren die annall$ ,rom sc%
preventable cases as birt% trama0 birt% asp%$3ia0 acte respirator$ in,ections0
malntrition0 commnicable diseases and diarr%oea. T%e %ealt% o, c%ildren is a,,ected
more severel$ t%an ot%er poplation !rops b$ malntrition and adverse environmental
,actors0 and man$ c%ildren ris* e3ploitation as c%eap labor or in prostittion.
6.2). Hot%. :s %as been t%e %istorical e3perience o, all contries0 $ot% are particlarl$
vlnerable to t%e problems associated 2it% economic development0 2%ic% o,ten 2ea*ens
traditional ,orms o, social spport essential ,or t%e %ealt%$ development0 o, $on!
people. >rbani5ation and c%an!es in social mores %ave increased sbstance abse0
n2anted pre!nanc$ and se3all$ transmitted diseases0 incldin! :IDS. Crrentl$ more
t%an %al, o, all people alive are nder t%e a!e o, 2'0 and ,or o, ever$ ,ive live in
developin! contries. T%ere,ore it is important to ensre t%at %istorical e3perience is not
replicated.
6.21. 6omen. In developin! contries0 t%e %ealt% stats o, 2omen remains relativel$ lo20
and drin! t%e 1+()s povert$0 malntrition and !eneral ill-%ealt% in 2omen 2ere even
risin!. -ost 2omen in developin! contries still do not %ave ade1ate basic edcational
opportnities and t%e$ lac* t%e means o, promotin! t%eir %ealt%0 responsibl$ controllin!
t%eir reprodctive li,e and improvin! t%eir socio-economic stats. Particlar attention
s%old be !iven to t%e provision o, pre-natal care to ensre %ealt%$ babies.
6.22. Indi!enos people and t%eir commnities. Indi!enos people %ad t%eir commnities
ma*e p a si!ni,icant percenta!e o, !lobal poplation. T%e otcomes o, t%eir e3perience
%ave tended to be ver$ similar in t%at t%e basis o, t%eir relations%ip 2it% traditional lands
%as been ,ndamentall$ c%an!ed. T%e$ tend to ,eatre disproportionatel$ in
nemplo$ment0 lac* o, %osin!0 povert$ and poor %ealt%. In man$ contries t%e nmber
o, indi!enos people is !ro2in! ,aster t%an t%e !eneral poplation. T%ere,ore it is
important to tar!et %ealt% initiatives ,or indi!enos people.
#b.ectives
6.2#. T%e !eneral ob?ectives o, protectin! vlnerable !rops are to ensre t%at all sc%
individals s%old be allo2ed to develop to t%eir ,ll potential Bincldin! %ealt%$
p%$sical0 mental and spirital developmentC< to ensre t%at $on! people can develop0
establis% and maintain %ealt%$ lives< to allo2 2omen to per,orm t%eir *e$ role in societ$<
and to spport indi!enos people t%ro!% edcational0 economic and tec%nical
opportnities.
6.2". Speci,ic ma?or !oals ,or c%ild srvival0 development and protection 2ere a!reed
pon at t%e 6orld Smmit ,or C%ildren and remain valid also ,or :!enda 21. Spportin!
and sectoral !oals cover 2omen9s %ealt% and edcation0 ntrition0 c%ild %ealt%0 2ater and
sanitation0 basic edcation and c%ildren in di,,iclt circmstances.
6.2'. 7overnments s%old ta*e active steps to implement0 as a matter o, r!enc$0 in
accordance 2it% contr$ speci,ic conditions and le!al s$stems0 measres to ensre t%at
2omen and men %ave t%e same ri!%t to decide ,reel$ and responsibl$ on t%e nmber and
spacin! o, t%eir c%ildren0 to %ave access to t%e in,ormation0 edcation and means0 as
appropriate0 to enable t%em to e3ercise t%is ri!%t in *eepin! 2it% t%eir ,reedom0 di!nit$
and personall$ %eld vales0 ta*in! into accont et%ical and cltral considerations.
6.26. 7overnments s%old ta*e active steps to implement pro!rammes to establis% and
stren!t%en preventive and crative %ealt% ,acilities 2%ic% inclde 2omen-centred0
2omen-mana!ed0 sa,e and e,,ective reprodctive %ealt% care and a,,ordable0 accessible
services0 as appropriate0 ,or t%e responsible plannin! o, ,amil$ si5e0 in *eepin! 2it%
,reedom0 di!nit$ and personall$ %eld vales and ta*in! into accont et%ical and cltral
considerations. Pro!rammes s%old ,ocs on providin! compre%ensive %ealt% care0
incldin! pre-natal care0 edcation and in,ormation on %ealt% and responsible parent%ood
and s%old provide t%e opportnit$ ,or all 2omen to breast-,eed ,ll$0 at least drin! t%e
,irst ,or mont%s post-partm. Pro!rammes s%old ,ll$ spport 2omen9s prodctive and
reprodctive roles and 2ell bein!0 2it% special attention to t%e need ,or providin! e1al
and improved %ealt% care ,or all c%ildren and t%e need to redce t%e ris* o, maternal and
c%ild mortalit$ and sic*ness.
Activities
6.2&. ;ational 7overnments0 in cooperation 2it% local and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 s%old initiate or en%ance pro!rammes in t%e ,ollo2in! areas.
BaC In,ants and c%ildren.
1. Stren!t%en basic %ealt%-care services ,or c%ildren in t%e conte3t o, primar$ %ealt%-
care deliver$0 incldin! prenatal care0 breast-,eedin!0 immni5ation and ntrition
pro!rammes<
2. >nderta*e 2idespread adlt edcation on t%e se o, oral re%$dration t%erap$ ,or
diarr%oea0 treatment o, respirator$ in,ections and prevention o, commnicable
diseases<
#. Promote t%e creation0 amendment and en,orcement o, a le!al ,rame2or*
protectin! c%ildren ,rom se3al and 2or*place e3ploitation<
". Protect c%ildren ,rom t%e e,,ects o, environmental and occpational to3ic
componds<
BbC Hot%.
Stren!t%en services ,or $ot% in %ealt%0 edcation and social sectors in order to provide
better in,ormation0 edcation0 consellin! and treatment ,or speci,ic %ealt% problems0
incldin! dr! abse<
BcC 6omen.
1. Involve 2omen9s !rops in decision-ma*in! at t%e national and commnit$ levels
to identi,$ %ealt% ris*s and incorporate %ealt% isses in national action
pro!rammes on 2omen and development<
2. Provide concrete incentives to encora!e and maintain attendance o, 2omen o,
all a!es at sc%ool and adlt edcation corses0 incldin! %ealt% edcation and
trainin! in primar$0 %ome and maternal %ealt% care<
#. Carr$ ot baseline srve$s and *no2led!e0 attitde and practice stdies on t%e
%ealt% and ntrition o, 2omen t%ro!%ot t%eir li,e c$cle0 especiall$ as related to
t%e impact o, environmental de!radation and ade1ate resorces<
BdC Indi!enos people and t%eir commnities.
1. Stren!t%en0 t%ro!% resorces and sel,-mana!ement0 preventative and crative
%ealt% services<
2. Inte!rate traditional *no2led!e and e3perience into %ealt% s$stems.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
6.2(. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D#.& billion0 incldin! abot
D")) billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
6.2+. /dcational0 %ealt% and researc% instittions s%old be stren!t%ened to provide
spport to improve t%e %ealt% o, vlnerable !rops. Social researc% on t%e speci,ic
problems o, t%ese !rops s%old be e3panded and met%ods ,or implementin! ,le3ible
pra!matic soltions e3plored0 2it% emp%asis on preventive measres. Tec%nical spport
s%old be provided to 7overnments0 instittions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations ,or
$ot%0 2omen and indi!enos people in t%e %ealt% sector.
C/ *uman resources development
6.#). T%e development o, %man resorces ,or t%e %ealt% o, c%ildren0 $ot% and 2omen
s%old inclde rein,orcement o, edcational instittions0 promotion o, interactive
met%ods o, edcation ,or %ealt% and increased se o, mass media in disseminatin!
in,ormation to t%e tar!et !rops. T%is re1ires t%e trainin! o, more commnit$ %ealt%
2or*ers0 nrses0 mid2ives0 p%$sicians0 social scientists and edcators0 t%e edcation o,
mot%ers0 ,amilies and commnities and t%e stren!t%enin! o, ministries o, edcation0
%ealt%0 poplation etc.
D/ Capacit01building
6.#1. 7overnments s%old promote0 2%ere necessar$.
BiC t%e or!ani5ation o, national0 intercontr$ and interre!ional s$mposia and ot%er
meetin!s ,or t%e e3c%an!e o, in,ormation amon! a!encies and !rops concerned 2it% t%e
%ealt% o, c%ildren0 $ot%0 2omen and indi!enos people0 and
BiiC 2omen9s or!ani5ations0 $ot% !rops and indi!enos people9s or!ani5ations to
,acilitate %ealt% and conslt t%em on t%e creation0 amendment and en,orcement o, le!al
,rame2or*s to ensre a %ealt%$ environment ,or c%ildren0 $ot%0 2omen and indi!enos
peoples.
D$ %eeting te urban ealt callenge
-asis for action
6.#2. For %ndreds o, millions o, people0 t%e poor livin! conditions in rban and peri-
rban areas are destro$in! lives0 %ealt%0 and social and moral vales. >rban !ro2t% %as
otstripped societ$9s capacit$ to meet %man needs0 leavin! %ndreds o, millions o,
people 2it% inade1ate incomes0 diets0 %osin! and services. >rban !ro2t% e3poses
poplations to serios environmental %a5ards and %as otstripped t%e capacit$ o,
mnicipal and local !overnments to provide t%e environmental %ealt% services t%at t%e
people need. :ll too o,ten0 rban development is associated 2it% destrctive e,,ects on
t%e p%$sical environment and t%e resorce base needed ,or sstainable development.
/nvironmental polltion in rban areas is associated 2it% e3cess morbidit$ and mortalit$.
Overcro2din! and inade1ate %osin! contribte to respirator$ diseases0 tberclosis0
menin!itis and ot%er diseases. In rban environments0 man$ ,actors t%at a,,ect %man
%ealt% are otside t%e %ealt% sector. Improvements in rban %ealt% t%ere,ore 2ill depend
on coordinated action b$ all levels o, !overnment0 %ealt% care providers0 bsinesses0
reli!ios !rops0 social and edcational instittions and citi5ens.
#b.ectives
6.##. T%e %ealt% and 2ell-bein! o, all rban d2ellers mst be improved so t%at t%e$ can
contribte to economic and social development. T%e !lobal ob?ective is to ac%ieve a 1) to
") per cent improvement in %ealt% indicators b$ t%e $ear 2))). T%e same rate o,
improvement s%old be ac%ieved ,or environmental0 %osin! and %ealt% service
indicators. T%ese inclde t%e development o, 1antitative ob?ectives ,or in,ant mortalit$0
maternal mortalit$0 percenta!e o, lo2 birt% 2ei!%t ne2borns and speci,ic indicators Be.!.
tberclosis as an indicator o, cro2ded %osin!0 diarr%oeal diseases as indicators o,
inade1ate 2ater and sanitation0 rates o, indstrial and transportation accidents t%at
indicate possible opportnities ,or prevention o, in?r$0 and social problems sc% as dr!
abse0 violence and crime t%at indicate nderl$in! social disordersC.
Activities
6.#". 8ocal at%orities0 2it% t%e appropriate spport o, national 7overnments and
international or!ani5ations s%old be encora!ed to ta*e e,,ective measres to initiate or
stren!t%en t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC Develop and implement mnicipal and local %ealt% plans.
1. /stablis% or stren!t%en intersectoral committees at bot% t%e political and tec%nical
level0 incldin! active collaboration on lin*a!es 2it% scienti,ic0 cltral0 reli!ios0
medical0 bsiness0 social and ot%er cit$ instittions0 sin! net2or*in!
arran!ements<
2. :dopt or stren!t%en mnicipal or local Aenablin! strate!iesA t%at emp%asi5e
Adoin! 2it%A rat%er t%an Adoin! ,orA and create spportive environments ,or
%ealt%<
#. /nsre t%at pblic %ealt% edcation in sc%ools0 2or*place0 mass media etc. is
provided or stren!t%ened<
". /ncora!e commnities to develop personal s*ills and a2areness o, primar$
%ealt% care<
'. Promote and stren!t%en commnit$-based re%abilitation activities ,or t%e rban
and peri-rban disabled and t%e elderl$<
BbC Srve$0 2%ere necessar$0 t%e e3istin! %ealt%0 social and environmental conditions in
cities0 incldin! docmentation o, intra-rban di,,erences<
BcC Stren!t%en environmental %ealt% services.
1. :dopt %ealt% impact and environmental impact assessment procedres<
2. Provide basic and in-service trainin! ,or ne2 and e3istin! personnel<
BdC /stablis% and maintain cit$ net2or*s ,or collaboration and e3c%an!e o, models o,
!ood practice.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
6.#'. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D222 million0 incldin!
abot D22 million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
6.#6. Decision-ma*in! models s%old be ,rt%er developed and more 2idel$ sed to
assess t%e costs and t%e %ealt% and environment impacts o, alternative tec%nolo!ies and
strate!ies. Improvement in rban development and mana!ement re1ires better national
and mnicipal statistics based on practical0 standardi5ed indicators. Development o,
met%ods is a priorit$ ,or t%e measrement o, intra-rban and intra-district variations in
%ealt% stats and environmental conditions0 and ,or t%e application o, t%is in,ormation in
plannin! and mana!ement.
C/ *uman resources development
6.#&. Pro!rammes mst sppl$ t%e orientation and basic trainin! o, mnicipal sta,,
re1ired ,or t%e %ealt%$ cit$ processes. Easic and in-service trainin! o, environmental
%ealt% personnel 2ill also be needed.
D/ Capacit01building
6.#(. T%e pro!ramme is aimed to2ards improved plannin! and mana!ement capabilities
in t%e mnicipal and local !overnment and its partners in central 7overnment0 t%e private
sector and niversities. Capacit$ development s%old be ,ocsed on obtainin! s,,icient
in,ormation0 improvin! coordination mec%anisms lin*in! all t%e *e$ actors0 and ma*in!
better se o, available instrments and resorces ,or implementation.
E$ &educing ealt risks from environmental pollution and a7ards
-asis for action
6.#+. In man$ locations arond t%e 2orld t%e !eneral environment Bair0 2ater and landC0
2or*places and even individal d2ellin!s are so badl$ pollted t%at t%e %ealt% o,
%ndreds o, millions o, people is adversel$ a,,ected. T%is is0 inter alia0 de to past and
present developments in consmption and prodction patterns and li,est$les0 in ener!$
prodction and se0 in indstr$0 in transportation etc.0 2it% little or no re!ard ,or
environmental protection. T%ere %ave been notable improvements in some contries0 bt
deterioration o, t%e environment contines. T%e abilit$ o, contries to tac*le polltion
and %ealt% problems is !reatl$ restrained becase o, lac* o, resorces. Polltion control
and %ealt% protection measres %ave o,ten not *ept pace 2it% economic development.
Considerable development-related environmental %ealt% %a5ards e3ist in t%e ne2l$
indstriali5in! contries. Frt%ermore0 t%e recent anal$sis o, 64O %as clearl$
establis%ed t%e interdependence amon! t%e ,actors o, %ealt%0 environment and
development and %as revealed t%at most contries are lac*in! sc% inte!ration as 2old
lead to an e,,ective polltion control mec%anism. 2= 6it%ot pre?dice to sc% criteria as
ma$ be a!reed pon b$ t%e international commnit$0 or to standards 2%ic% 2ill %ave to
be determined nationall$0 it 2ill be essential in all cases to consider t%e s$stems o, vales
prevailin! in eac% contr$ and t%e e3tent o, t%e applicabilit$ o, standards t%at are valid
,or t%e most advanced contries bt ma$ be inappropriate and o, n2arranted social cost
,or t%e developin! contries.
#b.ectives
6."). T%e overall ob?ective is to minimi5e %a5ards and maintain t%e environment to a
de!ree t%at %man %ealt% and sa,et$ is not impaired or endan!ered and $et encora!e
development to proceed. Speci,ic pro!ramme ob?ectives are.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to incorporate appropriate environmental and %ealt% sa,e!ards as
part o, national development pro!rammes in all contries<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to establis%0 as appropriate0 ade1ate national in,rastrctre and
pro!rammes ,or providin! environmental in?r$0 %a5ard srveillance and t%e basis ,or
abatement in all contries<
BcC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to establis%0 as appropriate0 inte!rated pro!rammes ,or tac*lin!
polltion at t%e sorce and at t%e disposal site0 2it% a ,ocs on abatement actions in all
contries<
BdC To identi,$ and compile0 as appropriate0 t%e necessar$ statistical in,ormation on %ealt%
e,,ects to spport cost=bene,it anal$sis0 incldin! environmental %ealt% impact assessment
,or polltion control0 prevention and abatement measres.
Activities
6."1. ;ationall$ determined action pro!rammes0 2it% international assistance0 spport
and coordination0 2%ere necessar$0 in t%is area s%old inclde.
BaC >rban air polltion.
1. Develop appropriate polltion control tec%nolo!$ on t%e basis o, ris* assessment
and epidemiolo!ical researc% ,or t%e introdction o, environmentall$ sond
prodction processes and sitable sa,e mass transport<
2. Develop air polltion control capacities in lar!e cities0 emp%asi5in! en,orcement
pro!rammes and sin! monitorin! net2or*s0 as appropriate<
BbC Indoor air polltion.
1. Spport researc% and develop pro!rammes ,or appl$in! prevention and control
met%ods to redcin! indoor air polltion0 incldin! t%e provision o, economic
incentives ,or t%e installation o, appropriate tec%nolo!$<
2. Develop and implement %ealt% edcation campai!ns0 particlarl$ in developin!
contries0 to redce t%e %ealt% impact o, domestic se o, biomass and coal<
BcC 6ater polltion.
1. Develop appropriate 2ater polltion control tec%nolo!ies on t%e basis o, %ealt%
ris* assessment<
2. Develop 2ater polltion control capacities in lar!e cities<
BdC Pesticides.
Develop mec%anisms to control t%e distribtion and se o, pesticides in order to
minimi5e t%e ris*s to %man %ealt% b$ transportation0 stora!e0 application and residal
e,,ects o, pesticides sed in a!ricltre and preservation o, 2ood<
BeC Solid 2aste.
1. Develop appropriate solid 2aste disposal tec%nolo!ies on t%e basis o, %ealt% ris*
assessment<
2. Develop appropriate solid 2aste disposal capacities in lar!e cities<
B,C 4man settlements.
Develop pro!rammes ,or improvin! %ealt% conditions in %man settlements0 in particlar
2it%in slms and non-tenred settlements0 on t%e basis o, %ealt% ris* assessment<
B!C ;oise.
Develop criteria ,or ma3imm permitted sa,e noise e3posre levels and promote noise
assessment and control as part o, environmental %ealt% pro!rammes<
B%C Ioni5in! and non-ioni5in! radiation.
Develop and implement appropriate national le!islation0 standards and en,orcement
procedres on t%e basis o, e3istin! international !idelines<
BiC /,,ects o, ltraviolet radiation.
1. /,,ects o, ltraviolet radiation. >nderta*e0 as a matter o, r!enc$0 researc% on t%e
e,,ects on %man %ealt% o, t%e increasin! ltraviolet radiation reac%in! t%e eart%9s
sr,ace as a conse1ence o, depletion o, t%e stratosp%eric o5one la$er<
2. On t%e basis o, t%e otcome o, t%is researc%0 consider ta*in! appropriate remedial
measres to miti!ate t%e above-mentioned e,,ects on %man bein!s<
B?C Indstr$ and ener!$ prodction.
1. /stablis% environmental %ealt% impact assessment procedres ,or t%e plannin!
and development o, ne2 indstries and ener!$ ,acilities<
2. Incorporate appropriate %ealt% ris* anal$sis in all national pro!rammes ,or
polltion control and mana!ement0 2it% particlar emp%asis on to3ic componds
sc% as lead<
#. /stablis% indstrial %$!iene pro!rammes in all ma?or indstries ,or t%e
srveillance o, 2or*ers9 e3posre to %ealt% %a5ards<
". Promote t%e introdction o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies 2it%in t%e
indstr$ and ener!$ sectors<
B*C -onitorin! and assessment.
/stablis%0 as appropriate0 ade1ate environmental monitorin! capacities ,or t%e
srveillance o, environmental 1alit$ and t%e %ealt% stats o, poplations<
BlC In?r$ monitorin! and redction.
1. Spport0 as appropriate0 t%e development o, s$stems to monitor t%e incidence and
case o, in?r$ to allo2 2ell-tar!eted intervention=prevention strate!ies<
2. Develop0 in accordance 2it% national plans0 strate!ies in all sectors Bindstr$0
tra,,ic and ot%ersC consistent 2it% t%e 64O sa,e cities and sa,e commnities
pro!rammes0 to redce t%e ,re1enc$ and severit$ o, in?r$<
#. /mp%asi5e preventive strate!ies to redce occpationall$ derived diseases and
diseases cased b$ environmental and occpational to3ins to en%ance 2or*er
sa,et$<
BmC Researc% promotion and met%odolo!$ development.
1. Spport t%e development o, ne2 met%ods ,or t%e 1antitative assessment o,
%ealt% bene,its and cost associated 2it% di,,erent polltion control strate!ies<
2. Develop and carr$ ot interdisciplinar$ researc% on t%e combined %ealt% e,,ects o,
e3posre to mltiple environmental %a5ards0 incldin! epidemiolo!ical
investi!ations o, lon!-term e3posres to lo2 levels o, polltants and t%e se o,
biolo!ical mar*ers capable o, estimatin! %man e3posres0 adverse e,,ects and
ssceptibilit$ to environmental a!ents.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
6."2. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D# billion0 incldin! abot
D11' million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
6."#. :lt%o!% tec%nolo!$ to prevent or abate polltion is readil$ available ,or a lar!e
nmber o, problems0 ,or pro!ramme and polic$ development contries s%old nderta*e
researc% 2it%in an intersectoral ,rame2or*. Sc% e,,orts s%old inclde collaboration
2it% t%e bsiness sector. Cost=e,,ect anal$sis and environmental impact assessment
met%ods s%old be developed t%ro!% cooperative international pro!rammes and applied
to t%e settin! o, priorities and strate!ies in relation to %ealt% and development.
6."". In t%e activities listed in para!rap% 6."1 BaC to BmC above0 developin! contr$ e,,orts
s%old be ,acilitated b$ access to and trans,er o, tec%nolo!$0 *no2-%o2 and in,ormation0
,rom t%e repositories o, sc% *no2led!e and tec%nolo!ies0 in con,ormit$ 2it% c%apter #".
C/ *uman resource development
6."'. Compre%ensive national strate!ies s%old be desi!ned to overcome t%e lac* o,
1ali,ied %man resorces0 2%ic% is a ma?or impediment to pro!ress in dealin! 2it%
environmental %ealt% %a5ards. Trainin! s%old inclde environmental and %ealt% o,,icials
at all levels ,rom mana!ers to inspectors. -ore emp%asis needs to be placed on incldin!
t%e sb?ect o, environmental %ealt% in t%e crricla o, secondar$ sc%ools and niversities
and on edcatin! t%e pblic.
D/ Capacit01building
6."6. /ac% contr$ s%old develop t%e *no2led!e and practical s*ills to ,oresee and
identi,$ environmental %ealt% %a5ards0 and t%e capacit$ to redce t%e ris*s. Easic capacit$
re1irements mst inclde *no2led!e abot environmental %ealt% problems and
a2areness on t%e part o, leaders0 citi5ens and specialists< operational mec%anisms ,or
intersectoral and inter!overnmental cooperation in development plannin! and
mana!ement and in combatin! polltion< arran!ements ,or involvin! private and
commnit$ interests in dealin! 2it% social isses< dele!ation o, at%orit$ and distribtion
o, resorces to intermediate and local levels o, !overnment to provide ,ront-line
capabilities to meet environmental %ealt% needs.
Notes
1= :="'=62'0 anne3.
2= Report o, t%e 64O Commission on 4ealt% and /nvironment B7eneva0 ,ort%comin!C.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter =
Promoting Sustainable *uman Settlement Development
"ntroduction
&.1. In indstriali5ed contries0 t%e consmption patterns o, cities are severel$ stressin!
t%e !lobal ecos$stem0 2%ile settlements in t%e developin! 2orld need more ra2 material0
ener!$0 and economic development simpl$ to overcome basic economic and social
problems. 4man settlement conditions in man$ parts o, t%e 2orld0 particlarl$ t%e
developin! contries0 are deterioratin! mainl$ as a reslt o, t%e lo2 levels o, investment
in t%e sector attribtable to t%e overall resorce constraints in t%ese contries. In t%e lo2-
income contries ,or 2%ic% recent data are available0 an avera!e o, onl$ '.6 per cent o,
central !overnment e3penditre 2ent to %osin!0 amenities0 social secrit$ and 2el,are.
1= /3penditre b$ international spport and ,inance or!ani5ations is e1all$ lo2. For
e3ample0 onl$ 1 per cent o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem9s total !rant-,inanced e3penditres
in 1+(( 2ent to %man settlements0 2= 2%ile in 1++10 loans ,rom t%e 6orld Ean* and t%e
International Development :ssociation BID:C ,or rban development and 2ater sppl$
and se2era!e amonted to '.' and '." per cent0 respectivel$0 o, t%eir total lendin!. #=
&.2. On t%e ot%er %and0 available in,ormation indicates t%at tec%nical cooperation
activities in t%e %man settlement sector !enerate considerable pblic and private sector
investment. For e3ample0 ever$ dollar o, >;DP tec%nical cooperation e3penditre on
%man settlements in 1+(( !enerated a ,ollo2-p investment o, D1220 t%e %i!%est o, all
>;DP sectors o, assistance."=
&.#. T%is is t%e ,ondation o, t%e Aenablin! approac%A advocated ,or t%e %man settlement
sector. /3ternal assistance 2ill %elp to !enerate t%e internal resorces needed to improve
t%e livin! and 2or*in! environments o, all people b$ t%e $ear 2))) and be$ond0
incldin! t%e !ro2in! nmber o, nemplo$ed - t%e no-income !rop. :t t%e same time
t%e environmental implications o, rban development s%old be reco!ni5ed and
addressed in an inte!rated ,as%ion b$ all contries0 2it% %i!% priorit$ bein! !iven to t%e
needs o, t%e rban and rral poor0 t%e nemplo$ed and t%e !ro2in! nmber o, people
2it%ot an$ sorce o, income.
*uman settlement ob.ective
&.". T%e overall %man settlement ob?ective is to improve t%e social0 economic and
environmental 1alit$ o, %man settlements and t%e livin! and 2or*in! environments o,
all people0 in particlar t%e rban and rral poor. Sc% improvement s%old be based on
tec%nical cooperation activities0 partners%ips amon! t%e pblic0 private and commnit$
sectors and participation in t%e decision-ma*in! process b$ commnit$ !rops and
special interest !rops sc% as 2omen0 indi!enos people0 t%e elderl$ and t%e disabled.
T%ese approac%es s%old ,orm t%e core principles o, national settlement strate!ies. In
developin! t%ese strate!ies0 contries 2ill need to set priorities amon! t%e ei!%t
pro!ramme areas in t%is c%apter in accordance 2it% t%eir national plans and ob?ectives0
ta*in! ,ll$ into accont t%eir social and cltral capabilities. Frt%ermore0 contries
s%old ma*e appropriate provision to monitor t%e impact o, t%eir strate!ies on
mar!inali5ed and disen,ranc%ised !rops0 2it% particlar re,erence to t%e needs o,
2omen.
&.'. T%e pro!ramme areas inclded in t%is c%apter are.
BaC Providin! ade1ate s%elter ,or all<
BbC Improvin! %man settlement mana!ement<
BcC Promotin! sstainable land-se plannin! and mana!ement<
BdC Promotin! t%e inte!rated provision o, environmental in,rastrctre. 2ater0 sanitation0
draina!e and solid-2aste mana!ement<
BeC Promotin! sstainable ener!$ and transport s$stems in %man settlements<
B,C Promotin! %man settlement plannin! and mana!ement in disaster-prone areas<
B!C Promotin! sstainable constrction indstr$ activities<
B%C Promotin! %man resorce development and capacit$-bildin! ,or %man settlement
development.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Providing ade2uate selter for all
-asis for action
&.6. :ccess to sa,e and %ealt%$ s%elter is essential to a person9s p%$sical0 ps$c%olo!ical0
social and economic 2ell-bein! and s%old be a ,ndamental part o, national and
international action. T%e ri!%t to ade1ate %osin! as a basic %man ri!%t is ens%rined in
t%e >niversal Declaration o, 4man Ri!%ts and t%e International Covenant on /conomic0
Social and Cltral Ri!%ts. Despite t%is0 it is estimated t%at at t%e present time0 at least 1
billion people do not %ave access to sa,e and %ealt%$ s%elter and t%at i, appropriate action
is not ta*en0 t%is nmber 2ill increase dramaticall$ b$ t%e end o, t%e centr$ and be$ond.
&.&. : ma?or !lobal pro!ramme to address t%is problem is t%e 7lobal Strate!$ ,or S%elter
to t%e Hear 2)))0 adopted b$ t%e 7eneral :ssembl$ in December 1+(( Bresoltion
"#=1(10 anne3C. Despite its 2idespread endorsement0 t%e Strate!$ needs a mc% !reater
level o, political and ,inancial spport to enable it to reac% its !oal o, ,acilitatin!
ade1ate s%elter ,or all b$ t%e end o, t%e centr$ and be$ond.
#b.ective
&.(. T%e ob?ective is to ac%ieve ade1ate s%elter ,or rapidl$ !ro2in! poplations and ,or
t%e crrentl$ deprived rban and rral poor t%ro!% an enablin! approac% to s%elter
development and improvement t%at is environmentall$ sond.
Activities
&.+. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC :s a ,irst step to2ards t%e !oal o, providin! ade1ate s%elter ,or all0 all contries
s%old ta*e immediate measres to provide s%elter to t%eir %omeless poor0 2%ile t%e
international commnit$ and ,inancial instittions s%old nderta*e actions to spport t%e
e,,orts o, t%e developin! contries to provide s%elter to t%e poor<
BbC :ll contries s%old adopt and=or stren!t%en national s%elter strate!ies0 2it% tar!ets
based0 as appropriate0 on t%e principles and recommendations contained in t%e 7lobal
Strate!$ ,or S%elter to t%e Hear 2))). People s%old be protected b$ la2 a!ainst n,air
eviction ,rom t%eir %omes or land<
BcC :ll contries s%old0 as appropriate0 spport t%e s%elter e,,orts o, t%e rban and rral
poor0 t%e nemplo$ed and t%e no-income !rop b$ adoptin! and=or adaptin! e3istin!
codes and re!lations0 to ,acilitate t%eir access to land0 ,inance and lo2-cost bildin!
materials and b$ activel$ promotin! t%e re!lari5ation and p!radin! o, in,ormal
settlements and rban slms as an e3pedient measre and pra!matic soltion to t%e rban
s%elter de,icit<
BdC :ll contries s%old0 as appropriate0 ,acilitate access o, rban and rral poor to s%elter
b$ adoptin! and tili5in! %osin! and ,inance sc%emes and ne2 innovative mec%anisms
adapted to t%eir circmstances<
BeC :ll contries s%old spport and develop environmentall$ compatible s%elter
strate!ies at national0 state=provincial and mnicipal levels t%ro!% partners%ips amon!
t%e private0 pblic and commnit$ sectors and 2it% t%e spport o, commnit$-based
or!ani5ations<
B,C :ll contries0 especiall$ developin! ones0 s%old0 as appropriate0 ,ormlate and
implement pro!rammes to redce t%e impact o, t%e p%enomenon o, rral to rban dri,t b$
improvin! rral livin! conditions<
B!C :ll contries0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old develop and implement resettlement
pro!rammes t%at address t%e speci,ic problems o, displaced poplations in t%eir
respective contries<
B%C :ll contries s%old0 as appropriate0 docment and monitor t%e implementation o,
t%eir national s%elter strate!ies b$ sin!0 inter alia0 t%e monitorin! !idelines adopted b$
t%e Commission on 4man Settlements and t%e s%elter per,ormance indicators bein!
prodced ?ointl$ b$ t%e >nited ;ations Centre ,or 4man Settlements B4abitatC and t%e
6orld Ean*<
BiC Eilateral and mltilateral cooperation s%old be stren!t%ened in order to spport t%e
implementation o, t%e national s%elter strate!ies o, developin! contries<
B?C 7lobal pro!ress reports coverin! national action and t%e spport activities o,
international or!ani5ations and bilateral donors s%old be prodced and disseminated on
a biennial basis0 as re1ested in t%e 7lobal Strate!$ ,or S%elter to t%e Hear 2))).
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.1). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D&' billion0 incldin! abot
D1) billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
&.11. T%e re1irements nder t%is %eadin! are addressed in eac% o, t%e ot%er pro!ramme
areas inclded in t%e present c%apter.
C/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&.12. Developed contries and ,ndin! a!encies s%old provide speci,ic assistance to
developin! contries in adoptin! an enablin! approac% to t%e provision o, s%elter ,or all0
incldin! t%e no-income !rop0 and coverin! researc% instittions and trainin! activities
,or !overnment o,,icials0 pro,essionals0 commnities and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations and b$ stren!t%enin! local capacit$ ,or t%e development o, appropriate
tec%nolo!ies.
-$ "mproving uman settlement management
-asis for action
&.1#. E$ t%e trn o, t%e centr$0 t%e ma?orit$ o, t%e 2orld9s poplation 2ill be livin! in
cities. 6%ile rban settlements0 particlarl$ in developin! contries0 are s%o2in! man$ o,
t%e s$mptoms o, t%e !lobal environment and development crisis0 t%e$ nevert%eless
!enerate 6) per cent o, !ross national prodct and0 i, properl$ mana!ed0 can develop t%e
capacit$ to sstain t%eir prodctivit$0 improve t%e livin! conditions o, t%eir residents and
mana!e natral resorces in a sstainable 2a$.
&.1". Some metropolitan areas e3tend over t%e bondaries o, several political and=or
administrative entities Bconties and mnicipalitiesC even t%o!% t%e$ con,orm to a
continos rban s$stem. In man$ cases t%is political %etero!eneit$ %inders t%e
implementation o, compre%ensive environmental mana!ement pro!rammes.
#b.ective
&.1'. T%e ob?ective is to ensre sstainable mana!ement o, all rban settlements0
particlarl$ in developin! contries0 in order to en%ance t%eir abilit$ to improve t%e livin!
conditions o, residents0 especiall$ t%e mar!inali5ed and disen,ranc%ised0 t%ereb$
contribtin! to t%e ac%ievement o, national economic development !oals.
Activities
A/ "mproving urban management
&.16. One e3istin! ,rame2or* ,or stren!t%enin! mana!ement is in t%e >nited ;ations
Development Pro!ramme=6orld Ean*=>nited ;ations Centre ,or 4man Settlements
B4abitatC >rban -ana!ement Pro!ramme B>-PC0 a concerted !lobal e,,ort to assist
developin! contries in addressin! rban mana!ement isses. Its covera!e s%old be
e3tended to all interested contries drin! t%e period 1++#-2))). :ll contries s%old0 as
appropriate and in accordance 2it% national plans0 ob?ectives and priorities and 2it% t%e
assistance o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and representatives o, local at%orities0
nderta*e t%e ,ollo2in! activities at t%e national0 state=provincial and local levels0 2it%
t%e assistance o, relevant pro!rammes and spport a!encies.
BaC :doptin! and appl$in! rban mana!ement !idelines in t%e areas o, land
mana!ement0 rban environmental mana!ement0 in,rastrctre mana!ement and
mnicipal ,inance and administration<
BbC :cceleratin! e,,orts to redce rban povert$ t%ro!% a nmber o, actions0 incldin!.
1. 7eneratin! emplo$ment ,or t%e rban poor0 particlarl$ 2omen0 t%ro!% t%e
provision0 improvement and maintenance o, rban in,rastrctre and services and
t%e spport o, economic activities in t%e in,ormal sector0 sc% as repairs0
rec$clin!0 services and small commerce<
2. Providin! speci,ic assistance to t%e poorest o, t%e rban poor t%ro!%0 inter alia0
t%e creation o, social in,rastrctre in order to redce %n!er and %omelessness0
and t%e provision o, ade1ate commnit$ services<
#. /ncora!in! t%e establis%ment o, indi!enos commnit$-based or!ani5ations0
private volntar$ or!ani5ations and ot%er ,orms o, non-!overnmental entities t%at
can contribte to t%e e,,orts to redce povert$ and improve t%e 1alit$ o, li,e ,or
lo2-income ,amilies<
BcC :doptin! innovative cit$ plannin! strate!ies to address environmental and social
isses b$.
1. Redcin! sbsidies on0 and recoverin! t%e ,ll costs o,0 environmental and ot%er
services o, %i!% standard Be.!. 2ater sppl$0 sanitation0 2aste collection0 roads0
telecommnicationsC provided to %i!%er income nei!%bor%oods<
2. Improvin! t%e level o, in,rastrctre and service provision in poorer rban areas<
BdC Developin! local strate!ies ,or improvin! t%e 1alit$ o, li,e and t%e environment0
inte!ratin! decisions on land se and land mana!ement0 investin! in t%e pblic and
private sectors and mobili5in! %man and material resorces0 t%ereb$ promotin!
emplo$ment !eneration t%at is environmentall$ sond and protective o, %man %ealt%.
>-/ Strengtening urban data s0stems
&.1&. Drin! t%e period 1++#-2))) all contries s%old nderta*e0 2it% t%e active
participation o, t%e bsiness sector as appropriate0 pilot pro?ects in selected cities ,or t%e
collection0 anal$sis and sbse1ent dissemination o, rban data0 incldin! environmental
impact anal$sis0 at t%e local0 state=provincial0 national and international levels and t%e
establis%ment o, cit$ data mana!ement capabilities. '= >nited ;ations or!ani5ations0 sc%
as 4abitat0 >;/P and >;DP0 cold provide tec%nical advice and model data
mana!ement s$stems.
C/ Encouraging intermediate cit0 development
&.1(. In order to relieve pressre on lar!e rban a!!lomerations o, developin! contries0
policies and strate!ies s%old be implemented to2ards t%e development o, intermediate
cities t%at create emplo$ment opportnities ,or nemplo$ed labor in t%e rral areas and
spport rral-based economic activities0 alt%o!% sond rban mana!ement is essential to
ensre t%at rban spra2l does not e3pand resorce de!radation over an ever 2ider land
area and increase pressres to convert open space and a!ricltral=b,,er lands ,or
development.
&.1+. T%ere,ore all contries s%old0 as appropriate0 condct revie2s o, rbani5ation
processes and policies in order to assess t%e environmental impacts o, !ro2t% and appl$
rban plannin! and mana!ement approac%es speci,icall$ sited to t%e needs0 resorce
capabilities and c%aracteristics o, t%eir !ro2in! intermediate-si5ed cities. :s appropriate0
t%e$ s%old also concentrate on activities aimed at ,acilitatin! t%e transition ,rom rral to
rban li,est$les and settlement patterns and at promotin! t%e development o, small-scale
economic activities0 particlarl$ t%e prodction o, ,ood0 to spport local income
!eneration and t%e prodction o, intermediate !oods and services ,or rral %interlands.
&.2). :ll cities0 particlarl$ t%ose c%aracteri5ed b$ severe sstainable development
problems0 s%old0 in accordance 2it% national la2s0 rles and re!lations0 develop and
stren!t%en pro!rammes aimed at addressin! sc% problems and !idin! t%eir
development alon! a sstainable pat%. Some international initiatives in spport o, sc%
e,,orts0 as in t%e Sstainable Cities Pro!ramme o, 4abitat and t%e 4ealt%$ Cities
Pro!ramme o, 64O0 s%old be intensi,ied. :dditional initiatives involvin! t%e 6orld
Ean*0 t%e re!ional development ban*s and bilateral a!encies0 as 2ell as ot%er interested
sta*e%olders0 particlarl$ international and national representatives o, local at%orities0
s%old be stren!t%ened and coordinated. Individal cities s%old0 as appropriate.
BaC Instittionali5e a participator$ approac% to sstainable rban development0 based on a
continos dialo!e bet2een t%e actors involved in rban development Bt%e pblic sector0
private sector and commnitiesC0 especiall$ 2omen and indi!enos people<
BbC Improve t%e rban environment b$ promotin! social or!ani5ation and environmental
a2areness t%ro!% t%e participation o, local commnities in t%e identi,ication o, pblic
services needs0 t%e provision o, rban in,rastrctre0 t%e en%ancement o, pblic amenities
and t%e protection and=or re%abilitation o, older bildin!s0 %istoric precincts and ot%er
cltral arti,acts. In addition0 A!reen 2or*sA pro!rammes s%old be activated to create
sel,-sstainin! %man development activities and bot% ,ormal and in,ormal emplo$ment
opportnities ,or lo2-income rban residents<
BcC Stren!t%en t%e capacities o, t%eir local !overnin! bodies to deal more e,,ectivel$ 2it%
t%e broad ran!e o, developmental and environmental c%allen!es associated 2it% rapid
and sond rban !ro2t% t%ro!% compre%ensive approac%es to plannin! t%at reco!ni5e
t%e individal needs o, cities and are based on ecolo!icall$ sond rban desi!n practices<
BdC Participate in international Asstainable cit$ net2or*sA to e3c%an!e e3periences and
mobili5e national and international tec%nical and ,inancial spport<
BeC Promote t%e ,ormlation o, environmentall$ sond and cltrall$ sensitive torism
pro!rammes as a strate!$ ,or sstainable development o, rban and rral settlements and
as a 2a$ o, decentrali5in! rban development and redcin! discrepancies amon! re!ions<
B,C /stablis% mec%anisms0 2it% t%e assistance o, relevant international a!encies0 to
mobili5e resorces ,or local initiatives to improve environmental 1alit$<
B!C /mpo2er commnit$ !rops0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and individals to
assme t%e at%orit$ and responsibilit$ ,or mana!in! and en%ancin! t%eir immediate
environment t%ro!% participator$ tools0 tec%ni1es and approac%es embodied in t%e
concept o, environmental care.
&.21. Cities o, all contries s%old rein,orce cooperation amon! t%emselves and cities o,
t%e developed contries0 nder t%e ae!is o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations active in t%is
,ield0 sc% as t%e International >nion o, 8ocal :t%orities BI>8:C0 t%e International
Concil ,or 8ocal /nvironmental Initiatives BIC8/IC and t%e 6orld Federation o, T2in
Cities.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.22. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1)) billion0 incldin!
abot D1' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese
are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&.2#. Developin! contries s%old0 2it% appropriate international assistance0 consider
,ocsin! on trainin! and developin! a cadre o, rban mana!ers0 tec%nicians0
administrators and ot%er relevant sta*e%olders 2%o can sccess,ll$ mana!e
environmentall$ sond rban development and !ro2t% and are e1ipped 2it% t%e s*ills
necessar$ to anal$se and adapt t%e innovative e3periences o, ot%er cities. For t%is
prpose0 t%e ,ll ran!e o, trainin! met%ods - ,rom ,ormal edcation to t%e se o, t%e mass
media - s%old be tili5ed0 as 2ell as t%e Alearnin! b$ doin!A option.
&.2". Developin! contries s%old also encora!e tec%nolo!ical trainin! and researc%
t%ro!% ?oint e,,orts b$ donors0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and private bsiness in
sc% areas as t%e redction o, 2aste0 2ater 1alit$0 savin! o, ener!$0 sa,e prodction o,
c%emicals and less polltin! transportation.
&.2'. Capacit$-bildin! activities carried ot b$ all contries0 assisted as s!!ested
above0 s%old !o be$ond t%e trainin! o, individals and ,nctional !rops to inclde
instittional arran!ements0 administrative rotines0 inter-a!enc$ lin*a!es0 in,ormation
,lo2s and consltative processes.
&.26. In addition0 international e,,orts0 sc% as t%e >rban -ana!ement Pro!ramme0 in
cooperation 2it% mltilateral and bilateral a!encies0 s%old contine to assist t%e
developin! contries in t%eir e,,orts to develop a participator$ strctre b$ mobili5in! t%e
%man resorces o, t%e private sector0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and t%e poor0
particlarl$ 2omen and t%e disadvanta!ed.
C$ Promoting sustainable land1use planning and management
-asis for action
&.2&. :ccess to land resorces is an essential component o, sstainable lo2-impact
li,est$les. 8and resorces are t%e basis ,or B%manC livin! s$stems and provide soil0
ener!$0 2ater and t%e opportnit$ ,or all %man activit$. In rapidl$ !ro2in! rban areas0
access to land is rendered increasin!l$ di,,iclt b$ t%e con,lictin! demands o, indstr$0
%osin!0 commerce0 a!ricltre0 land tenre strctres and t%e need ,or open spaces.
Frt%ermore0 t%e risin! costs o, rban land prevent t%e poor ,rom !ainin! access to
sitable land. In rral areas0 nsstainable practices0 sc% as t%e e3ploitation o, mar!inal
lands and t%e encroac%ment on ,orests and ecolo!icall$ ,ra!ile areas b$ commercial
interests and landless rral poplations0 reslt in environmental de!radation0 as 2ell as in
diminis%in! retrns ,or impoveris%ed rral settlers.
#b.ective
&.2(. T%e ob?ective is to provide ,or t%e land re1irements o, %man settlement
development t%ro!% environmentall$ sond p%$sical plannin! and land se so as to
ensre access to land to all %ose%olds and0 2%ere appropriate0 t%e encora!ement o,
commnall$ and collectivel$ o2ned and mana!ed land. 6= Particlar attention s%old be
paid to t%e needs o, 2omen and indi!enos people ,or economic and cltral reasons.
Activities
&.2+. :ll contries s%old consider0 as appropriate0 nderta*in! a compre%ensive national
inventor$ o, t%eir land resorces in order to establis% a land in,ormation s$stem in 2%ic%
land resorces 2ill be classi,ied accordin! to t%eir most appropriate ses and
environmentall$ ,ra!ile or disaster-prone areas 2ill be identi,ied ,or special protection
measres.
&.#). Sbse1entl$0 all contries s%old consider developin! national land-resorce
mana!ement plans to !ide land-resorce development and tili5ation and0 to t%at end0
s%old.
BaC /stablis%0 as appropriate0 national le!islation to !ide t%e implementation o, pblic
policies ,or environmentall$ sond rban development0 land tili5ation0 %osin! and ,or
t%e improved mana!ement o, rban e3pansion<
BbC Create0 2%ere appropriate0 e,,icient and accessible land mar*ets t%at meet commnit$
development needs b$0 inter alia0 improvin! land re!istr$ s$stems and streamlinin!
procedres in land transactions<
BcC Develop ,iscal incentives and land-se control measres0 incldin! land-se plannin!
soltions ,or a more rational and environmentall$ sond se o, limited land resorces<
BdC /ncora!e partners%ips amon! t%e pblic0 private and commnit$ sectors in
mana!in! land resorces ,or %man settlements development<
BeC Stren!t%en commnit$-based land-resorce protection practices in e3istin! rban and
rral settlements<
B,C /stablis% appropriate ,orms o, land tenre t%at provide secrit$ o, tenre ,or all land-
sers0 especiall$ indi!enos people0 2omen0 local commnities0 t%e lo2-income rban
d2ellers and t%e rral poor<
B!C :ccelerate e,,orts to promote access to land b$ t%e rban and rral poor0 incldin!
credit sc%emes ,or t%e prc%ase o, land and ,or bildin!=ac1irin! or improvin! sa,e and
%ealt%$ s%elter and in,rastrctre services<
B%C Develop and spport t%e implementation o, improved land-mana!ement practices t%at
deal compre%ensivel$ 2it% potentiall$ competin! land re1irements ,or a!ricltre0
indstr$0 transport0 rban development0 !reen spaces0 preserves and ot%er vital needs<
BiC Promote nderstandin! amon! polic$ ma*ers o, t%e adverse conse1ences o,
nplanned settlements in environmentall$ vlnerable areas and o, t%e appropriate
national and local land-se and settlements policies re1ired ,or t%is prpose.
&.#1. :t t%e international level0 !lobal coordination o, land-resorce mana!ement
activities s%old be stren!t%ened b$ t%e varios bilateral and mltilateral a!encies and
pro!rammes0 sc% as >;DP0 F:O0 t%e 6orld Ean*0 t%e re!ional development ban*s0
ot%er interested or!ani5ations and t%e >;DP=6orld Ean*=4abitat >rban -ana!ement
Pro!ramme0 and action s%old be ta*en to promote t%e trans,er o, applicable e3perience
on sstainable land-mana!ement practices to and amon! developin! contries.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.#2. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D# billion0 incldin! abot
D#)) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
&.##. :ll contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 alone or in re!ional or sbre!ional
!ropin!s0 s%old be !iven access to modern tec%ni1es o, land-resorce mana!ement0
sc% as !eo!rap%ical in,ormation s$stems0 satellite p%oto!rap%$=ima!er$ and ot%er
remote-sensin! tec%nolo!ies.
C/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&.#". /nvironmentall$ ,ocsed trainin! activities in sstainable land-resorces plannin!
and mana!ement s%old be nderta*en in all contries0 2it% developin! contries bein!
!iven assistance t%ro!% international spport and ,ndin! a!encies in order to.
BaC Stren!t%en t%e capacit$ o, national0 state=provincial and local edcational researc% and
trainin! instittions to provide ,ormal trainin! o, land-mana!ement tec%nicians and
pro,essionals<
BbC Facilitate t%e or!ani5ational revie2 o, !overnment ministries and a!encies
responsible ,or land 1estions0 in order to devise more e,,icient mec%anisms o, land-
resorce mana!ement0 and carr$ ot periodic in-service re,res%er corses ,or t%e
mana!ers and sta,, o, sc% ministries and a!encies in order to ,amiliari5e t%em 2it% p-
to-date land-resorce-mana!ement tec%nolo!ies<
BcC 6%ere appropriate0 provide sc% a!encies 2it% modern e1ipment0 sc% as compter
%ard2are and so,t2are and srve$ e1ipment<
BdC Stren!t%en e3istin! pro!rammes and promote an international and interre!ional
e3c%an!e o, in,ormation and e3perience in land mana!ement t%ro!% t%e establis%ment
o, pro,essional associations in land-mana!ement sciences and related activities0 sc% as
2or*s%ops and seminars.
D$ Promoting te integrated provision of environmental infrastructure<
4ater5 sanitation5 drainage and solid14aste management
-asis for action
&.#'. T%e sstainabilit$ o, rban development is de,ined b$ man$ parameters relatin! to
t%e availabilit$ o, 2ater spplies0 air 1alit$ and t%e provision o, environmental
in,rastrctre ,or sanitation and 2aste mana!ement. :s a reslt o, t%e densit$ o, sers0
rbani5ation0 i, properl$ mana!ed0 o,,ers ni1e opportnities ,or t%e sppl$ o,
sstainable environmental in,rastrctre t%ro!% ade1ate pricin! policies0 edcational
pro!rammes and e1itable access mec%anisms t%at are economicall$ and environmentall$
sond. In most developin! contries0 %o2ever0 t%e inade1ac$ and lac* o, environmental
in,rastrctre is responsible ,or 2idespread ill-%ealt% and a lar!e nmber o, preventable
deat%s eac% $ear. In t%ose contries conditions are set to 2orsen de to !ro2in! needs
t%at e3ceed t%e capacit$ o, 7overnments to respond ade1atel$.
&.#6. :n inte!rated approac% to t%e provision o, environmentall$ sond in,rastrctre in
%man settlements0 in particlar ,or t%e rban and rral poor0 is an investment in
sstainable development t%at can improve t%e 1alit$ o, li,e0 increase prodctivit$0
improve %ealt% and redce t%e brden o, investments in crative medicine and povert$
alleviation.
&.#&. -ost o, t%e activities 2%ose mana!ement 2old be improved b$ an inte!rated
approac%0 are covered in :!enda 21 as ,ollo2s. c%apter 6 BProtectin! and promotin!
%man %ealt% conditionsC0 c%apters + BProtectin! t%e atmosp%ereC0 1( BProtectin! t%e
1alit$ and sppl$ o, ,res%2ater resorcesC and 21 B/nvironmentall$ sond mana!ement
o, solid 2astes and se2a!e-related issesC.
#b.ective
&.#(. T%e ob?ective is to ensre t%e provision o, ade1ate environmental in,rastrctre
,acilities in all settlements b$ t%e $ear 2)2'. T%e ac%ievement o, t%is ob?ective 2old
re1ire t%at all developin! contries incorporate in t%eir national strate!ies pro!rammes
to bild t%e necessar$ tec%nical0 ,inancial and %man resorce capacit$ aimed at ensrin!
better inte!ration o, in,rastrctre and environmental plannin! b$ t%e $ear 2))).
Activities
&.#+. :ll contries s%old assess t%e environmental sitabilit$ o, in,rastrctre in %man
settlements0 develop national !oals ,or sstainable mana!ement o, 2aste0 and implement
environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$ to ensre t%at t%e environment0 %man %ealt% and
1alit$ o, li,e are protected. Settlement in,rastrctre and environmental pro!rammes
desi!ned to promote an inte!rated %man settlements approac% to t%e plannin!0
development0 maintenance and mana!ement o, environmental in,rastrctre B2ater
sppl$0 sanitation0 draina!e0 solid-2aste mana!ementC s%old be stren!t%ened 2it% t%e
assistance o, bilateral and mltilateral a!encies. Coordination amon! t%ese a!encies and
2it% collaboration ,rom international and national representatives o, local at%orities0 t%e
private sector and commnit$ !rops s%old also be stren!t%ened. T%e activities o, all
a!encies en!a!ed in providin! environmental in,rastrctre s%old0 2%ere possible0
re,lect an ecos$stem or metropolitan area approac% to settlements and s%old inclde
monitorin!0 applied researc%0 capacit$-bildin!0 trans,er o, appropriate tec%nolo!$ and
tec%nical cooperation amon! t%e ran!e o, pro!ramme activities.
&."). Developin! contries s%old be assisted at t%e national and local levels in adoptin!
an inte!rated approac% to t%e provision o, 2ater sppl$0 ener!$0 sanitation0 draina!e and
solid-2aste mana!ement0 and e3ternal ,ndin! a!encies s%old ensre t%at t%is approac%
is applied in particlar to environmental in,rastrctre improvement in in,ormal
settlements based on re!lations and standards t%at ta*e into accont t%e livin! conditions
and resorces o, t%e commnities to be served.
&."1. :ll contries s%old0 as appropriate0 adopt t%e ,ollo2in! principles ,or t%e provision
o, environmental in,rastrctre.
BaC :dopt policies t%at minimi5e i, not alto!et%er avoid environmental dama!e0 2%enever
possible<
BbC /nsre t%at relevant decisions are preceded b$ environmental impact assessments and
also ta*e into accont t%e costs o, an$ ecolo!ical conse1ences<
BcC Promote development in accordance 2it% indi!enos practices and adopt tec%nolo!ies
appropriate to local conditions<
BdC Promote policies aimed at recoverin! t%e actal cost o, in,rastrctre services0 2%ile
at t%e same time reco!ni5in! t%e need to ,ind sitable approac%es Bincldin! sbsidiesC to
e3tend basic services to all %ose%olds<
BeC See* ?oint soltions to environmental problems t%at a,,ect several localities.
&."2. T%e dissemination o, in,ormation ,rom e3istin! pro!rammes s%old be ,acilitated
and encora!ed amon! interested contries and local instittions.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&."#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated most o, t%e costs o, implementin! t%e
activities o, t%is pro!ramme in ot%er c%apters. T%e secretariat estimates t%e avera!e total
annal cost B1++#-2)))C o, tec%nical assistance ,rom t%e international commnit$ !rant
or concessional terms to be abot D') million. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-
ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and
,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e
speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
&."". Scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means 2it%in t%e e3istin! pro!rammes s%old be
coordinated 2%erever possible and s%old.
BaC :ccelerate researc% in t%e area o, inte!rated policies o, environmental in,rastrctre
pro!rammes and pro?ects based on cost=bene,it anal$sis and overall environmental
impact<
BbC Promote met%ods o, assessin! Ae,,ective demandA0 tili5in! environment and
development data as criteria ,or selectin! tec%nolo!$.
C/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&."'. 6it% t%e assistance and spport o, ,ndin! a!encies0 all contries s%old0 as
appropriate0 nderta*e trainin! and poplar participation pro!rammes aimed at.
BaC Raisin! a2areness o, t%e means0 approac%es and bene,its o, t%e provision o,
environmental in,rastrctre ,acilities0 especiall$ amon! indi!enos people0 2omen0 lo2-
income !rops and t%e poor<
BbC Developin! a cadre o, pro,essionals 2it% ade1ate s*ills in inte!rated in,rastrctral
service plannin! and maintenance o, resorce-e,,icient0 environmentall$ sond and
sociall$ acceptable s$stems<
BcC Stren!t%enin! t%e instittional capacit$ o, local at%orities and administrators in t%e
inte!rated provision o, ade1ate in,rastrctre services in partners%ip 2it% local
commnities and t%e private sector<
BdC :doptin! appropriate le!al and re!lator$ instrments0 incldin! cross-sbsid$
arran!ements0 to e3tend t%e bene,its o, ade1ate and a,,ordable environmental
in,rastrctre to nserved poplation !rops0 especiall$ t%e poor.
E$ Promoting sustainable energ0 and transport s0stems in uman
settlements
-asis for action
&."6. -ost o, t%e commercial and non-commercial ener!$ prodced toda$ is sed in and
,or %man settlements0 and a sbstantial percenta!e o, it is sed b$ t%e %ose%old sector.
Developin! contries are at present ,aced 2it% t%e need to increase t%eir ener!$
prodction to accelerate development and raise t%e livin! standards o, t%eir poplations0
2%ile at t%e same time redcin! ener!$ prodction costs and ener!$-related polltion.
Increasin! t%e e,,icienc$ o, ener!$ se to redce its polltin! e,,ects and to promote t%e
se o, rene2able ener!ies mst be a priorit$ in an$ action ta*en to protect t%e rban
environment.
&."&. Developed contries0 as t%e lar!est consmers o, ener!$0 are ,aced 2it% t%e need ,or
ener!$ plannin! and mana!ement0 promotin! rene2able and alternate sorces o, ener!$0
and evalatin! t%e li,e-c$cle costs o, crrent s$stems and practices as a reslt o, 2%ic%
man$ metropolitan areas are s,,erin! ,rom pervasive air 1alit$ problems related to
o5one0 particlate matters and carbon mono3ide. T%e cases %ave mc% to do 2it%
tec%nolo!ical inade1acies and 2it% an increasin! ,el consmption !enerated b$
ine,,iciencies0 %i!% demo!rap%ic and indstrial concentrations and a rapid e3pansion in
t%e nmber o, motor ve%icles.
&."(. Transport acconts ,or abot #) per cent o, commercial ener!$ consmption and ,or
abot 6) per cent o, total !lobal consmption o, li1id petrolem. In developin!
contries0 rapid motori5ation and ins,,icient investments in rban-transport plannin!0
tra,,ic mana!ement and in,rastrctre0 are creatin! increasin! problems in terms o,
accidents and in?r$0 %ealt%0 noise0 con!estion and loss o, prodctivit$ similar to t%ose
occrrin! in man$ developed contries. :ll o, t%ese problems %ave a severe impact on
rban poplations0 particlarl$ t%e lo2-income and no-income !rops.
#b.ectives
&."+. T%e ob?ectives are to e3tend t%e provision o, more ener!$-e,,icient tec%nolo!$ and
alternative=rene2able ener!$ ,or %man settlements and to redce ne!ative impacts o,
ener!$ prodction and se on %man %ealt% and on t%e environment.
Activities
&.'). T%e principal activities relevant to t%is pro!ramme area are inclded in c%apter +
BProtection o, t%e atmosp%ereC0 pro!ramme area E0 sbpro!ramme 1 B/ner!$
development0 e,,icienc$ and consmptionC and sbpro!ramme 2 BTransportationC.
&.'1. : compre%ensive approac% to %man settlements development s%old inclde t%e
promotion o, sstainable ener!$ development in all contries0 as ,ollo2s.
BaC Developin! contries0 in particlar0 s%old.
1. Formlate national action pro!rammes to promote and spport rea,,orestation and
national ,orest re!eneration 2it% a vie2 to ac%ievin! sstained provision o, t%e
biomass ener!$ needs o, t%e lo2-income !rops in rban areas and t%e rral poor0
in particlar 2omen and c%ildren<
2. Formlate national action pro!rammes to promote inte!rated development o,
ener!$-savin! and rene2able ener!$ tec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ ,or t%e se o,
solar0 %$dro0 2ind and biomass sorces<
#. Promote 2ide dissemination and commerciali5ation o, rene2able ener!$
tec%nolo!ies t%ro!% sitable measres0 inter alia0 ,iscal and tec%nolo!$ trans,er
mec%anisms<
". Carr$ ot in,ormation and trainin! pro!rammes directed at man,actrers and
sers in order to promote ener!$-savin! tec%ni1es and ener!$-e,,icient
appliances<
BbC International or!ani5ations and bilateral donors s%old.
1. Spport developin! contries in implementin! national ener!$ pro!rammes in
order to ac%ieve 2idespread se o, ener!$-savin! and rene2able ener!$
tec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ t%e se o, solar0 2ind0 biomass and %$dro sorces<
2. Provide access to researc% and development reslts to increase ener!$-se
e,,icienc$ levels in %man settlements.
&.'2. Promotin! e,,icient and environmentall$ sond rban transport s$stems in all
contries s%old be a compre%ensive approac% to rban-transport plannin! and
mana!ement. To t%is end0 all contries s%old.
BaC Inte!rate land-se and transportation plannin! to encora!e development patterns t%at
redce transport demand<
BbC :dopt rban-transport pro!rammes ,avorin! %i!%-occpanc$ pblic transport in
contries0 as appropriate<
BcC /ncora!e non-motori5ed modes o, transport b$ providin! sa,e c$cle2a$s and
,oot2a$s in rban and sbrban centres in contries0 as appropriate<
BdC Devote particlar attention to e,,ective tra,,ic mana!ement0 e,,icient operation o,
pblic transport and maintenance o, transport in,rastrctre<
BeC Promote t%e e3c%an!e o, in,ormation amon! contries and representatives o, local
and metropolitan areas<
B,C Re-evalate t%e present consmption and prodction patterns in order to redce t%e
se o, ener!$ and national resorces.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.'#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e costs o, implementin! t%e activities o,
t%is pro!ramme in c%apter + BProtection o, t%e atmosp%ereC.
-/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&.'". In order to en%ance t%e s*ills o, ener!$ service and transport pro,essionals and
instittions0 all contries s%old0 as appropriate.
BaC Provide on-t%e-?ob and ot%er trainin! o, !overnment o,,icials0 planners0 tra,,ic
en!ineers and mana!ers involved in t%e ener!$-service and transport section<
BbC Raise pblic a2areness o, t%e environmental impacts o, transport and travel
be%avior t%ro!% mass media campai!ns and spport ,or non-!overnmental and
commnit$ initiatives promotin! t%e se o, non-motori5ed transport0 s%ared drivin! and
improved tra,,ic sa,et$ measres<
BcC Stren!t%en re!ional0 national0 state=provincial0 and private sector instittions t%at
provide edcation and trainin! on ener!$ service and rban transport plannin! and
mana!ement.
)$ Promoting uman settlement planning and management in disaster1
prone areas
-asis for action
&.''. ;atral disasters case loss o, li,e0 disrption o, economic activities and rban
prodctivit$0 particlarl$ ,or %i!%l$ ssceptible lo2-income !rops0 and environmental
dama!e0 sc% as loss o, ,ertile a!ricltral land and contamination o, 2ater resorces0
and can lead to ma?or resettlement o, poplations. Over t%e past t2o decades0 t%e$ are
estimated to %ave cased some # million deat%s and a,,ected ()) million people. 7lobal
economic losses %ave been estimated b$ t%e O,,ice o, t%e >nited ;ations Disaster Relie,
Coordinator to be in t%e ran!e o, D#)-') billion per $ear.
&.'6. T%e 7eneral :ssembl$0 in resoltion ""=2#60 proclaimed t%e 1++)s as t%e
International Decade ,or ;atral Disaster Redction. T%e !oals o, t%e Decade &= bear
relevance to t%e ob?ectives o, t%e present pro!ramme area.
&.'&. In addition0 t%ere is an r!ent need to address t%e prevention and redction o, man-
made disasters and=or disasters cased b$0 inter alia0 indstries0 nsa,e nclear po2er
!eneration and to3ic 2astes Bsee c%apter 6 o, :!enda 21C.
#b.ective
&.'(. T%e ob?ective is to enable all contries0 in particlar t%ose t%at are disaster-prone0 to
miti!ate t%e ne!ative impact o, natral and man-made disasters on %man settlements0
national economies and t%e environment.
Activities
&.'+. T%ree distinct areas o, activit$ are ,oreseen nder t%is pro!ramme area0 namel$0 t%e
development o, a Acltre o, sa,et$A0 pre-disaster plannin! and post-disaster
reconstrction.
A/ Developing a culture of safet0
&.6). To promote a Acltre o, sa,et$A in all contries0 especiall$ t%ose t%at are disaster-
prone0 t%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be carried ot.
BaC Completin! national and local stdies on t%e natre and occrrence o, natral
disasters0 t%eir impact on people and economic activities0 t%e e,,ects o, inade1ate
constrction and land se in %a5ard-prone areas0 and t%e social and economic advanta!es
o, ade1ate pre-disaster plannin!<
BbC Implementin! nation2ide and local a2areness campai!ns t%ro!% all available media0
translatin! t%e above *no2led!e into in,ormation easil$ compre%ensible to t%e !eneral
pblic and to t%e poplations directl$ e3posed to %a5ards<
BcC Stren!t%enin!0 and=or developin! !lobal0 re!ional0 national and local earl$ 2arnin!
s$stems to alert poplations to impendin! disasters<
BdC Identi,$in! indstriall$ based environmental disaster areas at t%e national and
international levels and implementin! strate!ies aimed at t%e re%abilitation o, t%ese areas
t%ro!%0 inter alia.
1. Restrctrin! o, t%e economic activities and promotin! ne2 ?ob opportnities in
environmentall$ sond sectors<
2. Promotin! close collaboration bet2een !overnmental and local at%orities0 local
commnities and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and private bsiness<
#. Developin! and en,orcin! strict environmental control standards.
-/ Developing pre1disaster planning
&.61. Pre-disaster plannin! s%old ,orm an inte!ral part o, %man settlement plannin! in
all contries. T%e ,ollo2in! s%old be inclded.
BaC >nderta*in! complete mlti-%a5ard researc% into ris* and vlnerabilit$ o, %man
settlements and settlement in,rastrctre0 incldin! 2ater and se2era!e0 commnication
and transportation net2or*s0 as one t$pe o, ris* redction ma$ increase vlnerabilit$ to
anot%er Be.!.0 an eart%1a*e-resistant %ose made o, 2ood 2ill be more vlnerable to
2ind stormsC<
BbC Developin! met%odolo!ies ,or determinin! ris* and vlnerabilit$ 2it%in speci,ic
%man settlements and incorporatin! ris* and vlnerabilit$ redction into t%e %man
settlement plannin! and mana!ement process<
BcC Redirectin! inappropriate ne2 development and %man settlements to areas not prone
to %a5ards<
BdC Preparin! !idelines on location0 desi!n and operation o, potentiall$ %a5ardos
indstries and activities<
BeC Developin! tools Ble!al0 economic etc.C to encora!e disaster-sensitive development0
incldin! means o, ensrin! t%at limitations on development options are not pnitive to
o2ners0 or incorporate alternative means o, compensation<
B,C Frt%er developin! and disseminatin! in,ormation on disaster-resistant bildin!
materials and constrction tec%nolo!ies ,or bildin!s and pblic 2or*s in !eneral<
B!C Developin! trainin! pro!rammes ,or contractors and bilders on disaster-resistant
constrction met%ods. Some pro!rammes s%old be directed particlarl$ to small
enterprises0 2%ic% bild t%e !reat ma?orit$ o, %osin! and ot%er small bildin!s in t%e
developin! contries0 as 2ell as to t%e rral poplations0 2%ic% bild t%eir o2n %oses<
B%C Developin! trainin! pro!rammes ,or emer!enc$ site mana!ers0 non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations and commnit$ !rops 2%ic% cover all aspects o, disaster miti!ation0
incldin! rban searc% and resce0 emer!enc$ commnications0 earl$ 2arnin!
tec%ni1es0 and pre-disaster plannin!<
BiC Developin! procedres and practices to enable local commnities to receive
in,ormation abot %a5ardos installations or sitations in t%ese areas0 and ,acilitate t%eir
participation in earl$ 2arnin! and disaster abatement and response procedres and plans<
B?C Preparin! action plans ,or t%e reconstrction o, settlements0 especiall$ t%e
reconstrction o, commnit$ li,e-lines.
C/ "nitiating post1disaster reconstruction and reabilitation planning
&.62. T%e international commnit$0 as a ma?or partner in post-reconstrction and
re%abilitation0 s%old ensre t%at t%e contries involved derive t%e !reatest bene,its ,rom
t%e ,nds allocated b$ nderta*in! t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC Carr$in! ot researc% on past e3periences on t%e social and economic aspects o, post-
disaster reconstrction and adoptin! e,,ective strate!ies and !idelines ,or post-disaster
reconstrction0 2it% particlar ,ocs on development-,ocsed strate!ies in t%e allocation
o, scarce reconstrction resorces0 and on t%e opportnities t%at post-disaster
reconstrction provides to introdce sstainable settlement patterns<
BbC Preparin! and disseminatin! international !idelines ,or adaptation to national and
local needs<
BcC Spportin! e,,orts o, national 7overnments to initiate contin!enc$ plannin!0 2it%
participation o, a,,ected commnities0 ,or post-disaster reconstrction and re%abilitation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.6#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
&.6". Scientists and en!ineers speciali5in! in t%is ,ield in bot% developin! and developed
contries s%old collaborate 2it% rban and re!ional planners in order to provide t%e
basic *no2led!e and means to miti!ate losses o2in! to disasters as 2ell as
environmentall$ inappropriate development.
C/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&.6'. Developin! contries s%old condct trainin! pro!rammes on disaster-resistant
constrction met%ods ,or contractors and bilders0 2%o bild t%e ma?orit$ o, %osin! in
t%e developin! contries. T%is s%old ,ocs on t%e small bsiness enterprises0 2%ic%
bild t%e ma?orit$ o, %osin! in t%e developin! contries.
&.66. Trainin! pro!rammes s%old be e3tended to !overnment o,,icials and planners and
commnit$ and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations to cover all aspects o, disaster
miti!ation0 sc% as earl$ 2arnin! tec%ni1es0 pre-disaster plannin! and constrction0
post-disaster constrction and re%abilitation.
($ Promoting sustainable construction industr0 activities
-asis for action
&.6&. T%e activities o, t%e constrction sector are vital to t%e ac%ievement o, t%e national
socio-economic development !oals o, providin! s%elter0 in,rastrctre and emplo$ment.
4o2ever0 t%e$ can be a ma?or sorce o, environmental dama!e t%ro!% depletion o, t%e
natral resorce base0 de!radation o, ,ra!ile eco-5ones0 c%emical polltion and t%e se o,
bildin! materials %arm,l to %man %ealt%.
#b.ectives
&.6(. T%e ob?ectives are0 ,irst0 to adopt policies and tec%nolo!ies and to e3c%an!e
in,ormation on t%em in order to enable t%e constrction sector to meet %man settlement
development !oals0 2%ile avoidin! %arm,l side-e,,ects on %man %ealt% and on t%e
biosp%ere0 and0 second0 to en%ance t%e emplo$ment-!eneration capacit$ o, t%e
constrction sector. 7overnments s%old 2or* in close collaboration 2it% t%e private
sector in ac%ievin! t%ese ob?ectives.
Activities
&.6+. :ll contries s%old0 as appropriate and in accordance 2it% national plans0
ob?ectives and priorities.
BaC /stablis% and stren!t%en indi!enos bildin! materials indstr$0 based0 as mc% as
possible0 on inpts o, locall$ available natral resorces<
BbC Formlate pro!rammes to en%ance t%e tili5ation o, local materials b$ t%e
constrction sector b$ e3pandin! tec%nical spport and incentive sc%emes ,or increasin!
t%e capabilities and economic viabilit$ o, small-scale and in,ormal operatives 2%ic%
ma*e se o, t%ese materials and traditional constrction tec%ni1es<
BcC :dopt standards and ot%er re!lator$ measres 2%ic% promote t%e increased se o,
ener!$-e,,icient desi!ns and tec%nolo!ies and sstainable tili5ation o, natral resorces
in an economicall$ and environmentall$ appropriate 2a$<
BdC Formlate appropriate land-se policies and introdce plannin! re!lations speciall$
aimed at t%e protection o, eco-sensitive 5ones a!ainst p%$sical disrption b$ constrction
and constrction-related activities<
BeC Promote t%e se o, labor-intensive constrction and maintenance tec%nolo!ies 2%ic%
!enerate emplo$ment in t%e constrction sector ,or t%e nderemplo$ed labor ,orce
,ond in most lar!e cities0 2%ile at t%e same time promotin! t%e development o, s*ills in
t%e constrction sector<
B,C Develop policies and practices to reac% t%e in,ormal sector and sel,-%elp %osin!
bilders b$ adoptin! measres to increase t%e a,,ordabilit$ o, bildin! materials on t%e
part o, t%e rban and rral poor0 t%ro!%0 inter alia0 credit sc%emes and bl* procrement
o, bildin! materials ,or sale to small-scale bilders and commnities.
&.&). :ll contries s%old.
BaC Promote t%e ,ree e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on t%e entire ran!e o, environmental and
%ealt% aspects o, constrction0 incldin! t%e development and dissemination o, databases
on t%e adverse environmental e,,ects o, bildin! materials t%ro!% t%e collaborative
e,,orts o, t%e private and pblic sectors<
BbC Promote t%e development and dissemination o, databases on t%e adverse
environmental and %ealt% e,,ects o, bildin! materials and introdce le!islation and
,inancial incentives to promote rec$clin! o, ener!$-intensive materials in t%e constrction
indstr$ and conservation o, 2aste ener!$ in bildin!-materials prodction met%ods<
BcC Promote t%e se o, economic instrments0 sc% as prodct c%ar!es0 to discora!e t%e
se o, constrction materials and prodcts t%at create polltion drin! t%eir li,e c$cle<
BdC Promote in,ormation e3c%an!e and appropriate tec%nolo!$ trans,er amon! all
contries0 2it% particlar attention to developin! contries0 ,or resorce mana!ement in
constrction0 particlarl$ ,or non-rene2able resorces<
BeC Promote researc% in constrction indstries and related activities0 and establis% and
stren!t%en instittions in t%is sector.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.&1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D") billion0 incldin! abot
D" billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ *uman resource development and capacit01building
&.&2. Developin! contries s%old be assisted b$ international spport and ,ndin!
a!encies in p!radin! t%e tec%nical and mana!erial capacities o, t%e small entreprener
and t%e vocational s*ills o, operatives and spervisors in t%e bildin! materials indstr$0
sin! a variet$ o, trainin! met%ods. T%ese contries s%old also be assisted in developin!
pro!rammes to encora!e t%e se o, non-2aste and clean tec%nolo!ies t%ro!%
appropriate trans,er o, tec%nolo!$.
&.&#. 7eneral edcation pro!rammes s%old be developed in all contries0 as appropriate0
to increase bilder a2areness o, available sstainable tec%nolo!ies.
&.&". 8ocal at%orities are called pon to pla$ a pioneerin! role in promotin! t%e
increased se o, environmentall$ sond bildin! materials and constrction tec%nolo!ies0
e.!.0 b$ prsin! an innovative procrement polic$.
*$ Promoting uman resource development and capacit01building for
uman settlements development
-asis for action
&.&'. -ost contries0 in addition to s%ortcomin!s in t%e availabilit$ o, speciali5ed
e3pertise in t%e areas o, %osin!0 settlement mana!ement0 land mana!ement0
in,rastrctre0 constrction0 ener!$0 transport0 and pre-disaster plannin! and
reconstrction0 ,ace t%ree cross-sectoral %man resorce development and capacit$-
bildin! s%ort,alls. First is t%e absence o, an enablin! polic$ environment capable o,
inte!ratin! t%e resorces and activities o, t%e pblic sector0 t%e private sector and t%e
commnit$0 or social sector< second is t%e 2ea*ness o, speciali5ed trainin! and researc%
instittions< and t%ird is t%e ins,,icient capacit$ ,or tec%nical trainin! and assistance ,or
lo2-income commnities0 bot% rban and rral.
#b.ective
&.&6. T%e ob?ective is to improve %man resorce development and capacit$-bildin! in
all contries b$ en%ancin! t%e personal and instittional capacit$ o, all actors0
particlarl$ indi!enos people and 2omen0 involved in %man settlement development.
In t%is re!ard0 accont s%old be ta*en o, traditional cltral practices o, indi!enos
people and t%eir relations%ip to t%e environment.
Activities
&.&&. Speci,ic %man resorce development and capacit$-bildin! activities %ave been
bilt into eac% o, t%e pro!ramme areas o, t%is c%apter. -ore !enerall$0 %o2ever0
additional steps s%old be ta*en to rein,orce t%ose activities. In order to do so0 all
contries0 as appropriate0 s%old ta*e t%e ,ollo2in! action.
BaC Stren!t%enin! t%e development o, %man resorces and o, capacities o, pblic sector
instittions t%ro!% tec%nical assistance and international cooperation so as to ac%ieve b$
t%e $ear 2))) sbstantial improvement in t%e e,,icienc$ o, !overnmental activities<
BbC Creatin! an enablin! polic$ environment spportive o, t%e partners%ip bet2een t%e
pblic0 private and commnit$ sectors<
BcC Providin! en%anced trainin! and tec%nical assistance to instittions providin! trainin!
,or tec%nicians0 pro,essionals and administrators0 and appointed0 elected and pro,essional
members o, local !overnments and stren!t%enin! t%eir capacit$ to address priorit$
trainin! needs0 particlarl$ in re!ard to social0 economic and environmental aspects o,
%man settlements development<
BdC Providin! direct assistance ,or %man settlement development at t%e commnit$ level0
inter alia0 b$.
1. Stren!t%enin! and promotin! pro!rammes ,or social mobili5ation and raisin!
a2areness o, t%e potential o, 2omen and $ot% in %man settlements activities<
2. Facilitatin! coordination o, t%e activities o, 2omen0 $ot%0 commnit$ !rops
and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations in %man settlements development<
#. Promotin! researc% on 2omen9s pro!rammes and ot%er !rops0 and evalatin!
pro!ress made 2it% a vie2 to identi,$in! bottlenec*s and needed assistance<
BeC Promotin! t%e inclsion o, inte!rated environmental mana!ement into !eneral local
!overnment activities.
&.&(. Eot% international or!ani5ations and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations s%old
spport t%e above activities b$0 inter alia0 stren!t%enin! sbre!ional trainin! instittions0
providin! pdated trainin! materials and disseminatin! t%e reslts o, sccess,l %man
resorce and capacit$-bildin! activities0 pro!rammes and pro?ects.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
&.&+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D6' million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
&.(). Eot% ,ormal trainin! and non-,ormal t$pes o, %man resorce development and
capacit$-bildin! pro!rammes s%old be combined0 and se s%old be made o, ser-
oriented trainin! met%ods0 p-to-date trainin! materials and modern adio-visal
commnication s$stems.
Notes
1= ;o a!!re!ate ,i!res are available on internal e3penditre or o,,icial development
assistance on %man settlements. 4o2ever0 data available in t%e 6orld Development
Report0 1++10 ,or 16 lo2-income developin! contries s%o2 t%at t%e percenta!e o, central
!overnment e3penditre on %osin!0 amenities and social secrit$ and 2el,are ,or 1+(+
avera!ed '.6 per cent0 2it% a %i!% o, 1'.1 per cent in t%e case o, Sri 8an*a0 2%ic% %as
embar*ed on a vi!oros %osin! pro!ramme. In O/CD indstriali5ed contries0 drin!
t%e same $ear0 t%e percenta!e o, central !overnment e3penditre on %osin!0 amenities
and social secrit$ and 2el,are ran!ed ,rom a minimm o, 2+.# per cent to a ma3imm
o, "+." per cent0 2it% an avera!e o, #+ per cent B6orld Ean*0 6orld Development
Report0 1++10 6orld Development Indicators0 table 11 B6as%in!ton0 D.C.0 1++1CC.
2= See t%e report o, t%e Director-7eneral ,or Development and International /conomic
Cooperation containin! preliminar$ statistical data on operational activities o, t%e >nited
;ations s$stem ,or 1+(( B:=""=#2"-/=1+(+=1)6=:dd."0 anne3C.
#= 6orld Ean*0 :nnal Report0 1++1 B6as%in!ton0 D.C.0 1++1C.
"= >;DP0 AReported investment commitments related to >;DP-assisted pro?ects0 1+((A0
table 10 ASectoral distribtion o, investment commitment in 1+((-1+(+A.
'= : pilot pro!ramme o, t%is t$pe0 t%e Cit$ Data Pro!ramme BCDPC0 is alread$ in
operation in t%e >nited ;ations Centre on 4man Settlements B4abitatC aimed at t%e
prodction and dissemination to participatin! cities o, microcompter application
so,t2are desi!ned to store0 process and retrieve cit$ data ,or local0 national and
international e3c%an!e and dissemination.
6= T%is calls ,or inte!rated land-resorce mana!ement policies0 2%ic% are also addressed
in c%apter 1) o, :!enda 21 BInte!rated approac% to plannin! and mana!ement o, land
resorcesC.
&= T%e !oals o, t%e International Decade ,or ;atral Disaster Redction0 set ot in t%e
anne3 to 7eneral :ssembl$ resoltion ""=2#60 are as ,ollo2s.
1. To improve t%e capacit$ o, eac% contr$ to miti!ate t%e e,,ects o, natral disasters
e3peditiosl$ and e,,ectivel$0 pa$in! special attention to assistin! developin!
contries in t%e assessment o, disaster dama!e potential and in t%e establis%ment
o, earl$ 2arnin! s$stems and disaster-resistant strctres 2%en and 2%ere needed<
2. To devise appropriate !idelines and strate!ies ,or appl$in! e3istin! scienti,ic and
tec%nical *no2led!e0 ta*in! into accont t%e cltral and economic diversit$
amon! nations<
#. To ,oster scienti,ic and en!ineerin! endeavors aimed at closin! critical !aps in
*no2led!e in order to redce loss o, li,e and propert$<
". To disseminate e3istin! and ne2 tec%nical in,ormation related to measres ,or t%e
assessment0 prediction and miti!ation o, natral disasters<
'. To develop measres ,or t%e assessment0 prediction0 prevention and miti!ation o,
natral disasters t%ro!% pro!rammes o, tec%nical assistance and tec%nolo!$
trans,er0 demonstration pro?ects0 and edcation and trainin!0 tailored to speci,ic
disasters and locations0 and to evalate t%e e,,ectiveness o, t%ose pro!rammes.
Section "
Social , Economic Dimensions
Capter ?
"ntegrating Environment , Development in Decision1%aking
"ntroduction
(.1. T%is c%apter contains t%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas.
BaC Inte!ratin! environment and development at t%e polic$0 plannin! and mana!ement
levels<
BbC Providin! an e,,ective le!al and re!lator$ ,rame2or*<
BcC -a*in! e,,ective se o, economic instrments and mar*et and ot%er incentives<
BdC /stablis%in! s$stems ,or inte!rated environmental and economic accontin!.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ "ntegrating environment and development at te polic05 planning and
management levels
-asis for action
(.2. Prevailin! s$stems ,or decision-ma*in! in man$ contries tend to separate economic0
social and environmental ,actors at t%e polic$0 plannin! and mana!ement levels. T%is
in,lences t%e actions o, all !rops in societ$0 incldin! 7overnments0 indstr$ and
individals0 and %as important implications ,or t%e e,,icienc$ and sstainabilit$ o,
development. :n ad?stment or even a ,ndamental res%apin! o, decision-ma*in!0 in t%e
li!%t o, contr$-speci,ic conditions0 ma$ be necessar$ i, environment and development is
to be pt at t%e centre o, economic and political decision-ma*in!0 in e,,ect ac%ievin! a
,ll inte!ration o, t%ese ,actors. In recent $ears0 some 7overnments %ave also be!n to
ma*e si!ni,icant c%an!es in t%e instittional strctres o, !overnment in order to enable
more s$stematic consideration o, t%e environment 2%en decisions are made on economic0
social0 ,iscal0 ener!$0 a!ricltral0 transportation0 trade and ot%er policies0 as 2ell as t%e
implications o, policies in t%ese areas ,or t%e environment. ;e2 ,orms o, dialo!e are
also bein! developed ,or ac%ievin! better inte!ration amon! national and local
!overnment0 indstr$0 science0 environmental !rops and t%e pblic in t%e process o,
developin! e,,ective approac%es to environment and development. T%e responsibilit$ ,or
brin!in! abot c%an!es lies 2it% 7overnments in partners%ip 2it% t%e private sector and
local at%orities0 and in collaboration 2it% national0 re!ional and international
or!ani5ations0 incldin! in particlar >;/P0 >;DP and t%e 6orld Ean*. /3c%an!e o,
e3perience bet2een contries can also be si!ni,icant. ;ational plans0 !oals and
ob?ectives0 national rles0 re!lations and la20 and t%e speci,ic sitation in 2%ic%
di,,erent contries are placed are t%e overall ,rame2or* in 2%ic% sc% inte!ration ta*es
place. In t%is conte3t0 it mst be borne in mind t%at environmental standards ma$ pose
severe economic and social costs i, t%e$ are ni,orml$ applied in developin! contries.
#b.ectives
(.#. T%e overall ob?ective is to improve or restrctre t%e decision-ma*in! process so t%at
consideration o, socio-economic and environmental isses is ,ll$ inte!rated and a
broader ran!e o, pblic participation assred. Reco!ni5in! t%at contries 2ill develop
t%eir o2n priorities in accordance 2it% t%eir prevailin! conditions0 needs0 national plans0
policies and pro!rammes0 t%e ,ollo2in! ob?ectives are proposed.
BaC To condct a national revie2 o, economic0 sectoral and environmental policies0
strate!ies and plans to ensre t%e pro!ressive inte!ration o, environmental and
developmental isses<
BbC To stren!t%en instittional strctres to allo2 t%e ,ll inte!ration o, environmental
and developmental isses0 at all levels o, decision-ma*in!<
BcC To develop or improve mec%anisms to ,acilitate t%e involvement o, concerned
individals0 !rops and or!ani5ations in decision-ma*in! at all levels<
BdC To establis% domesticall$ determined procedres to inte!rate environment and
development isses in decision-ma*in!.
Activities
A/ "mproving decision1making processes
(.". T%e primar$ need is to inte!rate environmental and developmental decision-ma*in!
processes. To do t%is0 7overnments s%old condct a national revie2 and0 2%ere
appropriate0 improve t%e processes o, decision-ma*in! so as to ac%ieve t%e pro!ressive
inte!ration o, economic0 social and environmental isses in t%e prsit o, development
t%at is economicall$ e,,icient0 sociall$ e1itable and responsible and environmentall$
sond. Contries 2ill develop t%eir o2n priorities in accordance 2it% t%eir national plans0
policies and pro!rammes ,or t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC /nsrin! t%e inte!ration o, economic0 social and environmental considerations in
decision-ma*in! at all levels and in all ministries<
BbC :doptin! a domesticall$ ,ormlated polic$ ,rame2or* t%at re,lects a lon!-term
perspective and cross-sectoral approac% as t%e basis ,or decisions0 ta*in! accont o, t%e
lin*a!es bet2een and 2it%in t%e varios political0 economic0 social and environmental
isses involved in t%e development process<
BcC /stablis%in! domesticall$ determined 2a$s and means to ensre t%e co%erence o,
sectoral0 economic0 social and environmental policies0 plans and polic$ instrments0
incldin! ,iscal measres and t%e bd!et< t%ese mec%anisms s%old appl$ at varios
levels and brin! to!et%er t%ose interested in t%e development process<
BdC -onitorin! and evalatin! t%e development process s$stematicall$0 condctin!
re!lar revie2s o, t%e state o, %man resorces development0 economic and social
conditions and trends0 t%e state o, t%e environment and natral resorces< t%is cold be
complemented b$ annal environment and development revie2s0 2it% a vie2 to assessin!
sstainable development ac%ievements b$ t%e varios sectors and departments o,
!overnment<
BeC /nsrin! transparenc$ o,0 and accontabilit$ ,or0 t%e environmental implications o,
economic and sectoral policies<
B,C /nsrin! access b$ t%e pblic to relevant in,ormation0 ,acilitatin! t%e reception o,
pblic vie2s and allo2in! ,or e,,ective participation.
-/ "mproving planning and management s0stems
(.'. To spport a more inte!rated approac% to decision-ma*in!0 t%e data s$stems and
anal$tical met%ods sed to spport sc% decision-ma*in! processes ma$ need to be
improved. 7overnments0 in collaboration0 2%ere appropriate0 2it% national and
international or!ani5ations0 s%old revie2 t%e stats o, t%e plannin! and mana!ement
s$stem and0 2%ere necessar$0 modi,$ and stren!t%en procedres so as to ,acilitate t%e
inte!rated consideration o, social0 economic and environmental isses. Contries 2ill
develop t%eir o2n priorities in accordance 2it% t%eir national plans0 policies and
pro!rammes ,or t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC Improvin! t%e se o, data and in,ormation at all sta!es o, plannin! and mana!ement0
ma*in! s$stematic and simltaneos se o, social0 economic0 developmental0 ecolo!ical
and environmental data< anal$sis s%old stress interactions and s$ner!isms< a broad ran!e
o, anal$tical met%ods s%old be encora!ed so as to provide varios points o, vie2<
BbC :doptin! compre%ensive anal$tical procedres ,or prior and simltaneos assessment
o, t%e impacts o, decisions0 incldin! t%e impacts 2it%in and amon! t%e economic0 social
and environmental sp%eres< t%ese procedres s%old e3tend be$ond t%e pro?ect level to
policies and pro!rammes< anal$sis s%old also inclde assessment o, costs0 bene,its and
ris*s<
BcC :doptin! ,le3ible and inte!rative plannin! approac%es t%at allo2 t%e consideration o,
mltiple !oals and enable ad?stment o, c%an!in! needs< inte!rative area approac%es at
t%e ecos$stem or 2aters%ed level can assist in t%is approac%<
BdC :doptin! inte!rated mana!ement s$stems0 particlarl$ ,or t%e mana!ement o, natral
resorces< traditional or indi!enos met%ods s%old be stdied and considered 2%erever
t%e$ %ave proved e,,ective< 2omen9s traditional roles s%old not be mar!inali5ed as a
reslt o, t%e introdction o, ne2 mana!ement s$stems<
BeC :doptin! inte!rated approac%es to sstainable development at t%e re!ional level0
incldin! transbondar$ areas0 sb?ect to t%e re1irements o, particlar circmstances
and needs<
B,C >sin! polic$ instrments Ble!al=re!lator$ and economicC as a tool ,or plannin! and
mana!ement0 see*in! incorporation o, e,,icienc$ criteria in decisions< instrments s%old
be re!larl$ revie2ed and adapted to ensre t%at t%e$ contine to be e,,ective<
B!C Dele!atin! plannin! and mana!ement responsibilities to t%e lo2est level o, pblic
at%orit$ consistent 2it% e,,ective action< in particlar t%e advanta!es o, e,,ective and
e1itable opportnities ,or participation b$ 2omen s%old be discssed<
B%C /stablis%in! procedres ,or involvin! local commnities in contin!enc$ plannin! ,or
environmental and indstrial accidents0 and maintainin! an open e3c%an!e o, in,ormation
on local %a5ards.
C/ Data and information
(.6. Contries cold develop s$stems ,or monitorin! and evalation o, pro!ress to2ards
ac%ievin! sstainable development b$ adoptin! indicators t%at measre c%an!es across
economic0 social and environmental dimensions.
D/ Adopting a national strateg0 for sustainable development
(.&. 7overnments0 in cooperation0 2%ere appropriate0 2it% international or!ani5ations0
s%old adopt a national strate!$ ,or sstainable development based on0 inter alia0 t%e
implementation o, decisions ta*en at t%e Con,erence0 particlarl$ in respect o, :!enda
21. T%is strate!$ s%old bild pon and %armoni5e t%e varios sectoral economic0 social
and environmental policies and plans t%at are operatin! in t%e contr$. T%e e3perience
!ained t%ro!% e3istin! plannin! e3ercises sc% as national reports ,or t%e Con,erence0
national conservation strate!ies and environment action plans s%old be ,ll$ sed and
incorporated into a contr$-driven sstainable development strate!$. Its !oals s%old be
to ensre sociall$ responsible economic development 2%ile protectin! t%e resorce base
and t%e environment ,or t%e bene,it o, ,tre !enerations. It s%old be developed t%ro!%
t%e 2idest possible participation. It s%old be based on a t%oro!% assessment o, t%e
crrent sitation and initiatives.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
(.(. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ &esearcing environment and development interactions
(.+. 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% t%e national and international scienti,ic
commnit$ and in cooperation 2it% international or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old
intensi,$ e,,orts to clari,$ t%e interactions bet2een and 2it%in social0 economic and
environmental considerations. Researc% s%old be nderta*en 2it% t%e e3plicit ob?ective
o, assistin! polic$ decisions and providin! recommendations on improvin! mana!ement
practices.
C/ Enancing education and training
(.1). Contries0 in cooperation0 2%ere appropriate0 2it% national0 re!ional or
international or!ani5ations0 s%old ensre t%at essential %man resorces e3ist0 or be
developed0 to nderta*e t%e inte!ration o, environment and development at varios sta!es
o, t%e decision-ma*in! and implementation process. To do t%is0 t%e$ s%old improve
edcation and tec%nical trainin!0 particlarl$ ,or 2omen and !irls0 b$ incldin!
interdisciplinar$ approac%es0 as appropriate0 in tec%nical0 vocational0 niversit$ and ot%er
crricla. T%e$ s%old also nderta*e s$stematic trainin! o, !overnment personnel0
planners and mana!ers on a re!lar basis0 !ivin! priorit$ to t%e re1isite inte!rative
approac%es and plannin! and mana!ement tec%ni1es t%at are sited to contr$-speci,ic
conditions.
D/ Promoting public a4areness
(.11. Contries0 in cooperation 2it% national instittions and !rops0 t%e media and t%e
international commnit$0 s%old promote a2areness in t%e pblic at lar!e0 as 2ell as in
speciali5ed circles0 o, t%e importance o, considerin! environment and development in an
inte!rated manner0 and s%old establis% mec%anisms ,or ,acilitatin! a direct e3c%an!e o,
in,ormation and vie2s 2it% t%e pblic. Priorit$ s%old be !iven to %i!%li!%tin! t%e
responsibilities and potential contribtions o, di,,erent social !rops.
E/ Strengten national institutional capacit0
(.12. 7overnments0 in cooperation0 2%ere appropriate0 2it% international or!ani5ations0
s%old stren!t%en national instittional capabilit$ and capacit$ to inte!rate social0
economic0 developmental and environmental isses at all levels o, development decision-
ma*in! and implementation. :ttention s%old be !iven to movin! a2a$ ,rom narro2
sectoral approac%es0 pro!ressin! to2ards ,ll cross-sectoral coordination and
cooperation.
-$ Providing an effective legal and regulator0 frame4ork
-asis for action
(.1#. 8a2s and re!lations sited to contr$-speci,ic conditions are amon! t%e most
important instrments ,or trans,ormin! environment and development policies into
action0 not onl$ t%ro!% Acommand and controlA met%ods0 bt also as a normative
,rame2or* ,or economic plannin! and mar*et instrments. Het0 alt%o!% t%e volme o,
le!al te3ts in t%is ,ield is steadil$ increasin!0 mc% o, t%e la2-ma*in! in man$ contries
seems to be ad %oc and piecemeal0 or %as not been endo2ed 2it% t%e necessar$
instittional mac%iner$ and at%orit$ ,or en,orcement and timel$ ad?stment.
(.1". 6%ile t%ere is continos need ,or la2 improvement in all contries0 man$
developin! contries %ave been a,,ected b$ s%ortcomin!s o, la2s and re!lations. To
e,,ectivel$ inte!rate environment and development in t%e policies and practices o, eac%
contr$0 it is essential to develop and implement inte!rated0 en,orceable and e,,ective
la2s and re!lations t%at are based pon sond social0 ecolo!ical0 economic and
scienti,ic principles. It is e1all$ critical to develop 2or*able pro!rammes to revie2 and
en,orce compliance 2it% t%e la2s0 re!lations and standards t%at are adopted. Tec%nical
spport ma$ be needed ,or man$ contries to accomplis% t%ese !oals. Tec%nical
cooperation re1irements in t%is ,ield inclde le!al in,ormation0 advisor$ services and
speciali5ed trainin! and instittional capacit$-bildin!.
(.1'. T%e enactment and en,orcement o, la2s and re!lations Bat t%e re!ional0 national0
state=provincial or local=mnicipal levelC are also essential ,or t%e implementation o, most
international a!reements in t%e ,ield o, environment and development0 as illstrated b$
t%e ,re1ent treat$ obli!ation to report on le!islative measres. T%e srve$ o, e3istin!
a!reements nderta*en in t%e conte3t o, con,erence preparations %as indicated problems
o, compliance in t%is respect0 and t%e need ,or improved national implementation and0
2%ere appropriate0 related tec%nical assistance. In developin! t%eir national priorities0
contries s%old ta*e accont o, t%eir international obli!ations.
#b.ectives
(.16. T%e overall ob?ective is to promote0 in t%e li!%t o, contr$-speci,ic conditions0 t%e
inte!ration o, environment and development policies t%ro!% appropriate le!al and
re!lator$ policies0 instrments and en,orcement mec%anisms at t%e national0 state0
provincial and local level. Reco!ni5in! t%at contries 2ill develop t%eir o2n priorities in
accordance 2it% t%eir needs and national and0 2%ere appropriate0 re!ional plans0 policies
and pro!rammes0 t%e ,ollo2in! ob?ectives are proposed.
BaC To disseminate in,ormation on e,,ective le!al and re!lator$ innovations in t%e ,ield
o, environment and development0 incldin! appropriate instrments and compliance
incentives0 2it% a vie2 to encora!in! t%eir 2ider se and adoption at t%e national0 state0
provincial and local level<
BbC To spport contries t%at re1est it in t%eir national e,,orts to moderni5e and
stren!t%en t%e polic$ and le!al ,rame2or* o, !overnance ,or sstainable development0
%avin! de re!ard ,or local social vales and in,rastrctres<
BcC To encora!e t%e development and implementation o, national0 state0 provincial and
local pro!rammes t%at assess and promote compliance and respond appropriatel$ to non-
compliance.
Activities
A/ %aking la4s and regulations more effective
(.1&. 7overnments0 2it% t%e spport0 2%ere appropriate0 o, competent international
or!ani5ations0 s%old re!larl$ assess t%e la2s and re!lations enacted and t%e related
instittional=administrative mac%iner$ establis%ed at t%e national=state and
local=mnicipal level in t%e ,ield o, environment and sstainable development0 2it% a
vie2 to renderin! t%em e,,ective in practice. Pro!rammes ,or t%is prpose cold inclde
t%e promotion o, pblic a2areness0 preparation and distribtion o, !idance material0 and
speciali5ed trainin!0 incldin! 2or*s%ops0 seminars0 edcation pro!rammes and
con,erences0 ,or pblic o,,icials 2%o desi!n0 implement0 monitor and en,orce la2s and
re!lations.
-/ Establising .udicial and administrative procedures
(.1(. 7overnments and le!islators0 2it% t%e spport0 2%ere appropriate0 o, competent
international or!ani5ations0 s%old establis% ?dicial and administrative procedres ,or
le!al redress and remed$ o, actions a,,ectin! environment and development t%at ma$ be
nla2,l or in,rin!e on ri!%ts nder t%e la20 and s%old provide access to individals0
!rops and or!ani5ations 2it% a reco!ni5ed le!al interest.
C/ Providing legal reference and support services
(.1+. Competent inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations cold cooperate
to provide 7overnments and le!islators0 pon re1est0 2it% an inte!rated pro!ramme o,
environment and development la2 Bsstainable development la2C services0 care,ll$
adapted to t%e speci,ic re1irements o, t%e recipient le!al and administrative s$stems.
Sc% s$stems cold se,ll$ inclde assistance in t%e preparation o, compre%ensive
inventories and revie2s o, national le!al s$stems. Past e3perience %as demonstrated t%e
se,lness o, combinin! speciali5ed le!al in,ormation services 2it% le!al e3pert advice.
6it%in t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 closer cooperation amon! all a!encies concerned
2old avoid dplication o, databases and ,acilitate division o, labor. T%ese a!encies
cold e3amine t%e possibilit$ and merit o, per,ormin! revie2s o, selected national le!al
s$stems.
D/ Establising a cooperative training net4ork for sustainable development la4
(.2). Competent international and academic instittions cold0 2it%in a!reed
,rame2or*s0 cooperate to provide0 especiall$ ,or trainees ,rom developin! contries0
post!radate pro!rammes and in-service trainin! ,acilities in environment and
development la2. Sc% trainin! s%old address bot% t%e e,,ective application and t%e
pro!ressive improvement o, applicable la2s0 t%e related s*ills o, ne!otiatin!0 dra,tin! and
mediation0 and t%e trainin! o, trainers. Inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations alread$ active in t%is ,ield cold cooperate 2it% related niversit$
pro!rammes to %armoni5e crriclm plannin! and to o,,er an optimal ran!e o, options
to interested 7overnments and potential sponsors.
E/ Developing effective national programmes for revie4ing and enforcing
compliance 4it national5 state5 provincial and local la4s on environment
and development
(.21. /ac% contr$ s%old develop inte!rated strate!ies to ma3imi5e compliance 2it% its
la2s and re!lations relatin! to sstainable development0 2it% assistance ,rom
international or!ani5ations and ot%er contries as appropriate. T%e strate!ies cold
inclde.
BaC /n,orceable0 e,,ective la2s0 re!lations and standards t%at are based on sond
economic0 social and environmental principles and appropriate ris* assessment0
incorporatin! sanctions desi!ned to pnis% violations0 obtain redress and deter ,tre
violations<
BbC -ec%anisms ,or promotin! compliance<
BcC Instittional capacit$ ,or collectin! compliance data0 re!larl$ revie2in! compliance0
detectin! violations0 establis%in! en,orcement priorities0 nderta*in! e,,ective
en,orcement0 and condctin! periodic evalations o, t%e e,,ectiveness o, compliance and
en,orcement pro!rammes<
BdC -ec%anisms ,or appropriate involvement o, individals and !rops in t%e
development and en,orcement o, la2s and re!lations on environment and development.
)/ National monitoring of legal follo41up to international instruments
(.22. Contractin! parties to international a!reements0 in consltation 2it% t%e appropriate
secretariats o, relevant international conventions as appropriate0 s%old improve practices
and procedres ,or collectin! in,ormation on le!al and re!lator$ measres ta*en.
Contractin! parties to international a!reements cold nderta*e sample srve$s o,
domestic ,ollo2-p action sb?ect to a!reement b$ t%e soverei!n States concerned.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
(.2#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D6 million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
(.2". T%e pro!ramme relies essentiall$ on a contination o, on!oin! 2or* ,or le!al data
collection0 translation and assessment. Closer cooperation bet2een e3istin! databases
ma$ be e3pected to lead to better division o, labor Be.!.0 in !eo!rap%ical covera!e o,
national le!islative !a5ettes and ot%er re,erence sorcesC and to improved standardi5ation
and compatibilit$ o, data0 as appropriate.
C/ *uman resource development
(.2'. Participation in trainin! is e3pected to bene,it practitioners ,rom developin!
contries and to en%ance trainin! opportnities ,or 2omen. Demand ,or t%is t$pe o,
post!radate and in-service trainin! is *no2n to be %i!%. T%e seminars0 2or*s%ops and
con,erences on revie2 and en,orcement t%at %ave been %eld to date %ave been ver$
sccess,l and 2ell attended. T%e prpose o, t%ese e,,orts is to develop resorces Bbot%
%man and instittionalC to desi!n and implement e,,ective pro!rammes to continosl$
revie2 and en,orce national and local la2s0 re!lations and standards on sstainable
development.
D/ Strengtening legal and institutional capacit0
(.26. : ma?or part o, t%e pro!ramme s%old be oriented to2ards improvin! t%e le!al-
instittional capacities o, contries to cope 2it% national problems o, !overnance and
e,,ective la2-ma*in! and la2-appl$in! in t%e ,ield o, environment and sstainable
development. Re!ional centres o, e3cellence cold be desi!nated and spported to bild
p speciali5ed databases and trainin! ,acilities ,or lin!istic=cltral !rops o, le!al
s$stems.
C$ %aking effective use of economic instruments and market and oter
incentives
-asis for action
(.2&. /nvironmental la2 and re!lation are important bt cannot alone be e3pected to
deal 2it% t%e problems o, environment and development. Prices0 mar*ets and
!overnmental ,iscal and economic policies also pla$ a complementar$ role in s%apin!
attitdes and be%avior to2ards t%e environment.
(.2(. Drin! t%e past several $ears0 man$ 7overnments0 primaril$ in indstriali5ed
contries bt also in Central and /astern /rope and in developin! contries0 %ave been
ma*in! increasin! se o, economic approac%es0 incldin! t%ose t%at are mar*et-oriented.
/3amples inclde t%e pollter-pa$s principle and t%e more recent natral-resorce-ser-
pa$s concept.
(.2+. 6it%in a spportive international and national economic conte3t and !iven t%e
necessar$ le!al and re!lator$ ,rame2or*0 economic and mar*et-oriented approac%es can
in man$ cases en%ance capacit$ to deal 2it% t%e isses o, environment and development.
T%is 2old be ac%ieved b$ providin! cost-e,,ective soltions0 appl$in! inte!rated
polltion prevention control0 promotin! tec%nolo!ical innovation and in,lencin!
environmental be%avior0 as 2ell as providin! ,inancial resorces to meet sstainable
development ob?ectives.
(.#). 6%at is needed is an appropriate e,,ort to e3plore and ma*e more e,,ective and
2idespread se o, economic and mar*et-oriented approac%es 2it%in a broad ,rame2or*
o, development policies0 la2 and re!lation sited to contr$-speci,ic conditions as part
o, a !eneral transition to economic and environmental policies t%at are spportive and
mtall$ rein,orcin!.
#b.ectives
(.#1. Reco!ni5in! t%at contries 2ill develop t%eir o2n priorities in accordance 2it% t%eir
needs and national plans0 policies and pro!rammes0 t%e c%allen!e is to ac%ieve si!ni,icant
pro!ress in t%e $ears a%ead in meetin! t%ree ,ndamental ob?ectives.
BaC To incorporate environmental costs in t%e decisions o, prodcers and consmers0 to
reverse t%e tendenc$ to treat t%e environment as a A,ree !oodA and to pass t%ese costs on
to ot%er parts o, societ$0 ot%er contries0 or to ,tre !enerations<
BbC To move more ,ll$ to2ards inte!ration o, social and environmental costs into
economic activities0 so t%at prices 2ill appropriatel$ re,lect t%e relative scarcit$ and total
vale o, resorces and contribte to2ards t%e prevention o, environmental de!radation<
BcC To inclde0 2%erever appropriate0 t%e se o, mar*et principles in t%e ,ramin! o,
economic instrments and policies to prse sstainable development.
Activities
A/ "mproving or reorienting governmental policies
(.#2. In t%e near term0 7overnments s%old consider !radall$ bildin! on e3perience
2it% economic instrments and mar*et mec%anisms b$ nderta*in! to reorient t%eir
policies0 *eepin! in mind national plans0 priorities and ob?ectives0 in order to.
BaC /stablis% e,,ective combinations o, economic0 re!lator$ and volntar$ Bsel,-
re!lator$C approac%es<
BbC Remove or redce t%ose sbsidies t%at do not con,orm 2it% sstainable development
ob?ectives<
BcC Re,orm or recast e3istin! strctres o, economic and ,iscal incentives to meet
environment and development ob?ectives<
BdC /stablis% a polic$ ,rame2or* t%at encora!es t%e creation o, ne2 mar*ets in polltion
control and environmentall$ sonder resorce mana!ement<
BeC -ove to2ards pricin! consistent 2it% sstainable development ob?ectives.
(.##. In particlar0 7overnments s%old e3plore0 in cooperation 2it% bsiness and
indstr$0 as appropriate0 %o2 e,,ective se can be made o, economic instrments and
mar*et mec%anisms in t%e ,ollo2in! areas.
BaC Isses related to ener!$0 transportation0 a!ricltre and ,orestr$0 2ater0 2astes0 %ealt%0
torism and tertiar$ services<
BbC 7lobal and transbondar$ isses<
BcC T%e development and introdction o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$ and its
adaptation0 di,,sion and trans,er to developin! contries in con,ormit$ 2it% c%apter #".
-/ !aking account of te particular circumstances of developing countries and
countries 4it economies in transition
(.#". : special e,,ort s%old be made to develop applications o, t%e se o, economic
instrments and mar*et mec%anisms !eared to t%e particlar needs o, developin!
contries and contries 2it% economies in transition0 2it% t%e assistance o, re!ional and
international economic and environmental or!ani5ations and0 as appropriate0 non-
!overnmental researc% instittes0 b$.
BaC Providin! tec%nical spport to t%ose contries on isses relatin! to t%e application o,
economic instrments and mar*et mec%anisms<
BbC /ncora!in! re!ional seminars and0 possibl$0 t%e development o, re!ional centres o,
e3pertise.
C/ Creating an inventor0 of effective uses of economic instruments and market
mecanisms
(.#'. 7iven t%e reco!nition t%at t%e se o, economic instrments and mar*et mec%anisms
is relativel$ recent0 e3c%an!e o, in,ormation abot di,,erent contries9 e3periences 2it%
sc% approac%es s%old be activel$ encora!ed. In t%is re!ard0 7overnments s%old
encora!e t%e se o, e3istin! means o, in,ormation e3c%an!e to loo* at e,,ective ses o,
economic instrments.
D/ "ncreasing understanding of te role of economic instruments and market
mecanisms
(.#6. 7overnments s%old encora!e researc% and anal$sis on e,,ective ses o, economic
instrments and incentives 2it% t%e assistance and spport o, re!ional and international
economic and environmental or!ani5ations0 as 2ell as non-!overnmental researc%
instittes0 2it% a ,ocs on sc% *e$ isses as.
BaC T%e role o, environmental ta3ation sited to national conditions<
BbC T%e implications o, economic instrments and incentives ,or competitiveness and
international trade0 and potential needs ,or appropriate ,tre international cooperation
and coordination<
BcC T%e possible social and distribtive implications o, sin! varios instrments.
E/ Establising a process for focusing on pricing
(.#&. T%e t%eoretical advanta!es o, sin! pricin! policies0 2%ere appropriate0 need to be
better nderstood0 and accompanied b$ !reater nderstandin! o, 2%at it means to ta*e
si!ni,icant steps in t%is direction. Processes s%old t%ere,ore be initiated0 in cooperation
2it% bsiness0 indstr$0 lar!e enterprises0 transnational corporations0 as 2ell as ot%er
social !rops0 as appropriate0 at bot% t%e national and international levels0 to e3amine.
BaC T%e practical implications o, movin! to2ards !reater reliance on pricin! t%at
internali5e environmental costs appropriate to %elp ac%ieve sstainable development
ob?ectives<
BbC T%e implications ,or resorce pricin! in t%e case o, resorce-e3portin! contries0
incldin! t%e implications o, sc% pricin! policies ,or developin! contries<
BcC T%e met%odolo!ies sed in valin! environmental costs.
)/ Enancing understanding of sustainable development economics
(.#(. Increased interest in economic instrments0 incldin! mar*et mec%anisms0 also
re1ires a concerted e,,ort to improve nderstandin! o, sstainable development
economics b$.
BaC /ncora!in! instittions o, %i!%er learnin! to revie2 t%eir crricla and stren!t%en
stdies in sstainable development economics<
BbC /ncora!in! re!ional and international economic or!ani5ations and non-
!overnmental researc% instittes 2it% e3pertise in t%is area to provide trainin! sessions
and seminars ,or !overnment o,,icials<
BcC /ncora!in! bsiness and indstr$0 incldin! lar!e indstrial enterprises and
transnational corporations 2it% e3pertise in environmental matters0 to or!ani5e trainin!
pro!rammes ,or t%e private sector and ot%er !rops.
%eans of implementation
(.#+. T%is pro!ramme involves ad?stments or reorientation o, policies on t%e part o,
7overnments. It also involves international and re!ional economic and environmental
or!ani5ations and a!encies 2it% e3pertise in t%is area0 incldin! transnational
corporations.
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
(."). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D' million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
D$ Establising s0stems for integrated environmental and economic
accounting
-asis for action
(."1. : ,irst step to2ards t%e inte!ration o, sstainabilit$ into economic mana!ement is
t%e establis%ment o, better measrement o, t%e crcial role o, t%e environment as a sorce
o, natral capital and as a sin* ,or b$-prodcts !enerated drin! t%e prodction o, man-
made capital and ot%er %man activities. :s sstainable development encompasses social0
economic and environmental dimensions0 it is also important t%at national accontin!
procedres are not restricted to measrin! t%e prodction o, !oods and services t%at are
conventionall$ remnerated. : common ,rame2or* needs to be developed 2%ereb$ t%e
contribtions made b$ all sectors and activities o, societ$0 t%at are not inclded in t%e
conventional national acconts0 are inclded0 to t%e e3tent consistent 2it% sond t%eor$
and practicabilit$0 in satellite acconts. : pro!ramme to develop national s$stems o,
inte!rated environmental and economic accontin! in all contries is proposed.
#b.ectives
(."2. T%e main ob?ective is to e3pand e3istin! s$stems o, national economic acconts in
order to inte!rate environment and social dimensions in t%e accontin! ,rame2or*0
incldin! at least satellite s$stems o, acconts ,or natral resorces in all member States.
T%e resltin! s$stems o, inte!rated environmental and economic accontin! BI//:C to be
establis%ed in all member States at t%e earliest date s%old be seen as a complement to0
rat%er t%an a sbstitte ,or0 traditional national accontin! practices ,or t%e ,oreseeable
,tre. I//:s 2old be desi!ned to pla$ an inte!ral part in t%e national development
decision-ma*in! process. ;ational accontin! a!encies s%old 2or* in close
collaboration 2it% national environmental statistics as 2ell as t%e !eo!rap%ic and natral
resorce departments. T%e de,inition o, economicall$ active cold be e3panded to
inclde people per,ormin! prodctive bt npaid tas*s in all contries. T%is 2old enable
t%eir contribtion to be ade1atel$ measred and ta*en into accont in decision-ma*in!.
Activities
A/ Strengtening international cooperation
(."#. T%e Statistical O,,ice o, t%e >nited ;ations Secretariat s%old.
BaC -a*e available to all member States t%e met%odolo!ies contained in t%e S;:
4andboo* on Inte!rated /nvironmental and /conomic :ccontin!<
BbC In collaboration 2it% ot%er relevant >nited ;ations or!ani5ations0 ,rt%er develop0
test0 re,ine and t%en standardi5e t%e provisional concepts and met%ods sc% as t%ose
proposed b$ t%e S;: 4andboo*0 *eepin! member States in,ormed o, t%e stats o, t%e
2or* t%ro!%ot t%is process<
BdC Coordinate0 in close cooperation 2it% ot%er international or!ani5ations0 t%e trainin! o,
national accontants0 environmental statisticians and national tec%nical sta,, in small
!rops ,or t%e establis%ment0 adaptation and development o, national I//:s.
(."". T%e Department o, /conomic and Social Development o, t%e >nited ;ations
Secretariat0 in close collaboration 2it% ot%er relevant >nited ;ations or!ani5ations0
s%old.
BaC Spport0 in all member States0 t%e tili5ation o, sstainable development indicators in
national economic and social plannin! and decision-ma*in! practices0 2it% a vie2 to
ensrin! t%at I//:s are se,ll$ inte!rated in economic development plannin! at t%e
national level<
BbC Promote improved environmental and economic and social data collection.
-/ Strengtening national accounting s0stems
(."'. :t t%e national level0 t%e pro!ramme cold be adopted mainl$ b$ t%e a!encies
dealin! 2it% national acconts0 in close cooperation 2it% environmental statistics and
natral resorce departments0 2it% a vie2 to assistin! national economic anal$sts and
decision ma*ers in c%ar!e o, national economic plannin!. ;ational instittions s%old
pla$ a crcial role not onl$ as t%e depositar$ o, t%e s$stem bt also in its adaptation0
establis%ment and continos se. >npaid prodctive 2or* sc% as domestic 2or* and
c%ild care s%old be inclded0 2%ere appropriate0 in satellite national acconts and
economic statistics. Time-se srve$s cold be a ,irst step in t%e process o, developin!
t%ese satellite acconts.
C/ Establising an assessment process
(."6. :t t%e international level0 t%e Statistical Commission s%old assemble and revie2
e3perience and advise member States on tec%nical and met%odolo!ical isses related to
t%e ,rt%er development and implementation o, I//:s in member States.
(."&. 7overnments s%old see* to identi,$ and consider measres to correct price
distortions arisin! ,rom environmental pro!rammes a,,ectin! land0 2ater0 ener!$ and
ot%er natral resorces.
(."(. 7overnments s%old encora!e corporations.
BaC To provide relevant environmental in,ormation t%ro!% transparent reportin! to
s%are%olders0 creditors0 emplo$ees0 !overnmental at%orities0 consmers and t%e pblic<
BbC To develop and implement met%ods and rles ,or accontin! ,or sstainin!
development.
D/ Strengtening data and information collection
(."+. ;ational 7overnments cold consider implementin! t%e necessar$ en%ancement in
data collection to set in place national I//:s 2it% a vie2 to contribtin! pra!maticall$ to
sond economic mana!ement. -a?or e,,orts s%old be made to a!ment t%e capacit$ to
collect and anal$se environmental data and in,ormation and to inte!rate it 2it% economic
data0 incldin! !ender disa!!re!ated data. /,,orts s%old also be made to develop
p%$sical environmental acconts. International donor a!encies s%old consider ,inancin!
t%e development o, intersectoral data ban*s to %elp ensre t%at national plannin! ,or
sstainable development is based on precise0 reliable and e,,ective in,ormation and is
sited to national conditions.
E/ Strengtening tecnical cooperation
(.'). T%e Statistical O,,ice o, t%e >nited ;ations Secretariat0 in close collaboration 2it%
relevant >nited ;ations or!ani5ations0 s%old stren!t%en e3istin! mec%anisms ,or
tec%nical cooperation amon! contries. T%is s%old also inclde e3c%an!e o, e3perience
in t%e establis%ment o, I//:s0 particlarl$ in connection 2it% t%e valation o, non-
mar*eted natral resorces and standardi5ation in data collection. T%e cooperation o,
bsiness and indstr$0 incldin! lar!e indstrial enterprises and transnational
corporations 2it% e3perience in valation o, sc% resorces0 s%old also be so!%t.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
(.'1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D2 million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Strengtening institutions
(.'2. To ensre t%e application o, I//:s.
BaC ;ational instittions in developin! contries cold be stren!t%ened to ensre t%e
e,,ective inte!ration o, environment and development at t%e plannin! and decision-
ma*in! levels<
BbC T%e Statistical O,,ice s%old provide t%e necessar$ tec%nical spport to member
States0 in close collaboration 2it% t%e assessment process to be establis%ed b$ t%e
Statistical Commission< t%e Statistical O,,ice s%old provide appropriate spport ,or
establis%in! I//:s0 in collaboration 2it% relevant >nited ;ations a!encies.
C/ Enancing te use of information tecnolog0
(.'#. 7idelines and mec%anisms cold be developed and a!reed pon ,or t%e adaptation
and di,,sion o, in,ormation tec%nolo!ies to developin! contries. State-o,-t%e-art data
mana!ement tec%nolo!ies s%old be adopted ,or t%e most e,,icient and 2idespread se o,
I//:s.
D/ Strengtening national capacit0
(.'". 7overnments0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e international commnit$0 s%old stren!t%en
national instittional capacit$ to collect0 store0 or!ani5e0 assess and se data in decision-
ma*in!. Trainin! in all areas related to t%e establis%ment o, I//:s0 and at all levels0 2ill
be re1ired0 especiall$ in developin! contries. T%is s%old inclde tec%nical trainin! o,
t%ose involved in economic and environmental anal$sis0 data collection and national
accontin!0 as 2ell as trainin! decision ma*ers to se sc% in,ormation in a pra!matic
and appropriate 2a$.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter @
Protection of te Atmospere
"ntroduction
+.1. Protection o, t%e atmosp%ere is a broad and mltidimensional endeavor involvin!
varios sectors o, economic activit$. T%e options and measres described in t%e present
c%apter are recommended ,or consideration and0 as appropriate0 implementation b$
7overnments and ot%er bodies in t%eir e,,orts to protect t%e atmosp%ere.
+.2. It is reco!ni5ed t%at man$ o, t%e isses discssed in t%is c%apter are also addressed in
sc% international a!reements as t%e 1+(' Vienna Convention ,or t%e Protection o, t%e
O5one 8a$er0 t%e 1+(& -ontreal Protocol on Sbstances t%at Deplete t%e O5one 8a$er as
amended0 t%e 1++2 >nited ;ations Frame2or* Convention on Climate C%an!e and ot%er
international0 incldin! re!ional0 instrments. In t%e case o, activities covered b$ sc%
a!reements0 it is nderstood t%at t%e recommendations contained in t%is c%apter do not
obli!e an$ 7overnment to ta*e measres 2%ic% e3ceed t%e provisions o, t%ese le!al
instrments. 4o2ever0 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, t%is c%apter0 7overnments are ,ree to
carr$ ot additional measres 2%ic% are consistent 2it% t%ose le!al instrments.
+.#. It is also reco!ni5ed t%at activities t%at ma$ be nderta*en in prsit o, t%e ob?ectives
o, t%is c%apter s%old be coordinated 2it% social and economic development in an
inte!rated manner 2it% a vie2 to avoidin! adverse impacts on t%e latter0 ta*in! into ,ll
accont t%e le!itimate priorit$ needs o, developin! contries ,or t%e ac%ievement o,
sstained economic !ro2t% and t%e eradication o, povert$.
+.". In t%is conte3t particlar re,erence is also made to pro!ramme area : o, c%apter 2 o,
:!enda 21 BPromotin! sstainable development t%ro!% tradeC.
+.'. T%e present c%apter incldes t%e ,ollo2in! ,or pro!ramme areas.
A/ Addressing te uncertainties< improving te scientific basis for decision1makingA
-/ Promoting sustainable development<
1. /ner!$ development0 e,,icienc$ and consmption<
2. Transportation<
#. Indstrial development<
". Terrestrial and marine resorce development and land se<
C/ Preventing stratosperic o7one depletionA
D/ !ransboundar0 atmosperic pollution$
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Addressing te uncertainties< improving te scientific basis for decision1
making
-asis for action
+.6. Concern abot climate c%an!e and climate variabilit$0 air polltion and o5one
depletion %as created ne2 demands ,or scienti,ic0 economic and social in,ormation to
redce t%e remainin! ncertainties in t%ese ,ields. Eetter nderstandin! and prediction o,
t%e varios properties o, t%e atmosp%ere and o, t%e a,,ected ecos$stems0 as 2ell as %ealt%
impacts and t%eir interactions 2it% socio-economic ,actors0 are needed.
#b.ectives
+.&. T%e basic ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme area is to improve t%e nderstandin! o,
processes t%at in,lence and are in,lenced b$ t%e /art%9s atmosp%ere on a !lobal0
re!ional and local scale0 incldin!0 inter alia0 p%$sical0 c%emical0 !eolo!ical0 biolo!ical0
oceanic0 %$drolo!ical0 economic and social processes< to bild capacit$ and en%ance
international cooperation< and to improve nderstandin! o, t%e economic and social
conse1ences o, atmosp%eric c%an!es and o, miti!ation and response measres
addressin! sc% c%an!es.
Activities
+.(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 and t%e private sector0 s%old.
BaC Promote researc% related to t%e natral processes a,,ectin! and bein! a,,ected b$ t%e
atmosp%ere0 as 2ell as t%e critical lin*a!es bet2een sstainable development and
atmosp%eric c%an!es0 incldin! impacts on %man %ealt%0 ecos$stems0 economic sectors
and societ$<
BbC /nsre a more balanced !eo!rap%ical covera!e o, t%e 7lobal Climate Observin!
S$stem and its components0 incldin! t%e 7lobal :tmosp%ere 6atc%0 b$ ,acilitatin!0 inter
alia0 t%e establis%ment and operation o, additional s$stematic observation stations0 and b$
contribtin! to t%e development0 tili5ation and accessibilit$ o, t%ese databases<
BcC Promote cooperation in.
1. T%e development o, earl$ detection s$stems concernin! c%an!es and ,lctations
in t%e atmosp%ere<
2. T%e establis%ment and improvement o, capabilities to predict sc% c%an!es and
,lctations and to assess t%e resltin! environmental and socio-economic
impacts<
BdC Cooperate in researc% to develop met%odolo!ies and identi,$ t%res%old levels o,
atmosp%eric polltants0 as 2ell as atmosp%eric levels o, !reen%ose !as concentrations0
t%at 2old case dan!eros ant%ropo!enic inter,erence 2it% t%e climate s$stem and t%e
environment as a 2%ole0 and t%e associated rates o, c%an!e t%at 2old not allo2
ecos$stems to adapt natrall$<
BeC Promote0 and cooperate in t%e bildin! o, scienti,ic capacities0 t%e e3c%an!e o,
scienti,ic data and in,ormation0 and t%e ,acilitation o, t%e participation and trainin! o,
e3perts and tec%nical sta,,0 particlarl$ o, developin! contries0 in t%e ,ields o, researc%0
data assembl$0 collection and assessment0 and s$stematic observation related to t%e
atmosp%ere.
-$ Promoting sustainable development
1$ Energ0 development5 efficienc0 and consumption
-asis for action
+.+. /ner!$ is essential to economic and social development and improved 1alit$ o, li,e.
-c% o, t%e 2orld9s ener!$0 %o2ever0 is crrentl$ prodced and consmed in 2a$s t%at
cold not be sstained i, tec%nolo!$ 2ere to remain constant and i, overall 1antities
2ere to increase sbstantiall$. T%e need to control atmosp%eric emissions o, !reen%ose
and ot%er !ases and sbstances 2ill increasin!l$ need to be based on e,,icienc$ in ener!$
prodction0 transmission0 distribtion and consmption0 and on !ro2in! reliance on
environmentall$ sond ener!$ s$stems0 particlarl$ ne2 and rene2able sorces o,
ener!$. 1= :ll ener!$ sorces 2ill need to be sed in 2a$s t%at respect t%e atmosp%ere0
%man %ealt% and t%e environment as a 2%ole.
+.1). T%e e3istin! constraints to increasin! t%e environmentall$ sond ener!$ spplies
re1ired ,or prsin! t%e pat% to2ards sstainable development0 particlarl$ in
developin! contries0 need to be removed.
#b.ectives
+.11. T%e basic and ltimate ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme area is to redce adverse e,,ects
on t%e atmosp%ere ,rom t%e ener!$ sector b$ promotin! policies or pro!rammes0 as
appropriate0 to increase t%e contribtion o, environmentall$ sond and cost-e,,ective
ener!$ s$stems0 particlarl$ ne2 and rene2able ones0 t%ro!% less polltin! and more
e,,icient ener!$ prodction0 transmission0 distribtion and se. T%is ob?ective s%old
re,lect t%e need ,or e1it$0 ade1ate ener!$ spplies and increasin! ener!$ consmption
in developin! contries0 and s%old ta*e into consideration t%e sitations o, contries t%at
are %i!%l$ dependent on income !enerated ,rom t%e prodction0 processin! and e3port0
and=or consmption o, ,ossil ,els and associated ener!$-intensive prodcts and=or t%e
se o, ,ossil ,els ,or 2%ic% contries %ave serios di,,iclties in s2itc%in! to
alternatives0 and t%e sitations o, contries %i!%l$ vlnerable to adverse e,,ects o, climate
c%an!e.
Activities
+.12. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 and t%e private sector0 s%old.
BaC Cooperate in identi,$in! and developin! economicall$ viable0 environmentall$ sond
ener!$ sorces to promote t%e availabilit$ o, increased ener!$ spplies to spport
sstainable development e,,orts0 in particlar in developin! contries<
BbC Promote t%e development at t%e national level o, appropriate met%odolo!ies ,or
ma*in! inte!rated ener!$0 environment and economic polic$ decisions ,or sstainable
development0 inter alia0 t%ro!% environmental impact assessments<
BcC Promote t%e researc%0 development0 trans,er and se o, improved ener!$-e,,icient
tec%nolo!ies and practices0 incldin! endo!enos tec%nolo!ies in all relevant sectors0
!ivin! special attention to t%e re%abilitation and moderni5ation o, po2er s$stems0 2it%
particlar attention to developin! contries<
BdC Promote t%e researc%0 development0 trans,er and se o, tec%nolo!ies and practices ,or
environmentall$ sond ener!$ s$stems0 incldin! ne2 and rene2able ener!$ s$stems0
2it% particlar attention to developin! contries<
BeC Promote t%e development o, instittional0 scienti,ic0 plannin! and mana!ement
capacities0 particlarl$ in developin! contries0 to develop0 prodce and se increasin!l$
e,,icient and less polltin! ,orms o, ener!$<
B,C Revie2 crrent ener!$ sppl$ mi3es to determine %o2 t%e contribtion o,
environmentall$ sond ener!$ s$stems as a 2%ole0 particlarl$ ne2 and rene2able
ener!$ s$stems0 cold be increased in an economicall$ e,,icient manner0 ta*in! into
accont respective contries9 ni1e social0 p%$sical0 economic and political
c%aracteristics0 and e3aminin! and implementin!0 2%ere appropriate0 measres to
overcome an$ barriers to t%eir development and se<
B!C Coordinate ener!$ plans re!ionall$ and sbre!ionall$0 2%ere applicable0 and std$ t%e
,easibilit$ o, e,,icient distribtion o, environmentall$ sond ener!$ ,rom ne2 and
rene2able ener!$ sorces<
B%C In accordance 2it% national socio-economic development and environment priorities0
evalate and0 as appropriate0 promote cost-e,,ective policies or pro!rammes0 incldin!
administrative0 social and economic measres0 in order to improve ener!$ e,,icienc$<
BiC Eild capacit$ ,or ener!$ plannin! and pro!ramme mana!ement in ener!$ e,,icienc$0
as 2ell as ,or t%e development0 introdction0 and promotion o, ne2 and rene2able
sorces o, ener!$<
B?C Promote appropriate ener!$ e,,icienc$ and emission standards or recommendations at
t%e national level0 2= aimed at t%e development and se o, tec%nolo!ies t%at minimi5e
adverse impacts on t%e environment<
B*C /ncora!e edcation and a2areness-raisin! pro!rammes at t%e local0 national0
sbre!ional and re!ional levels concernin! ener!$ e,,icienc$ and environmentall$ sond
ener!$ s$stems<
BlC /stablis% or en%ance0 as appropriate0 in cooperation 2it% t%e private sector0 labellin!
pro!rammes ,or prodcts to provide decision ma*ers and consmers 2it% in,ormation on
opportnities ,or ener!$ e,,icienc$.
2$ !ransportation
-asis for action
+.1#. T%e transport sector %as an essential and positive role to pla$ in economic and
social development0 and transportation needs 2ill ndobtedl$ increase. 4o2ever0 since
t%e transport sector is also a sorce o, atmosp%eric emissions0 t%ere is need ,or a revie2
o, e3istin! transport s$stems and ,or more e,,ective desi!n and mana!ement o, tra,,ic and
transport s$stems.
#b.ectives
+.1". T%e basic ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme area is to develop and promote cost-e,,ective
policies or pro!rammes0 as appropriate0 to limit0 redce or control0 as appropriate0
%arm,l emissions into t%e atmosp%ere and ot%er adverse environmental e,,ects o, t%e
transport sector0 ta*in! into accont development priorities as 2ell as t%e speci,ic local
and national circmstances and sa,et$ aspects.
Activities
+.1'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 and t%e private sector0 s%old.
BaC Develop and promote0 as appropriate0 cost-e,,ective0 more e,,icient0 less polltin! and
sa,er transport s$stems0 particlarl$ inte!rated rral and rban mass transit0 as 2ell as
environmentall$ sond road net2or*s0 ta*in! into accont t%e needs ,or sstainable
social0 economic and development priorities0 particlarl$ in developin! contries<
BbC Facilitate at t%e international0 re!ional0 sbre!ional and national levels access to and
t%e trans,er o, sa,e0 e,,icient0 incldin! resorce-e,,icient0 and less polltin! transport
tec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ to t%e developin! contries0 incldin! t%e implementation o,
appropriate trainin! pro!rammes<
BcC Stren!t%en0 as appropriate0 t%eir e,,orts at collectin!0 anal$sin! and e3c%an!in!
relevant in,ormation on t%e relation bet2een environment and transport0 2it% particlar
emp%asis on t%e s$stematic observation o, emissions and t%e development o, a transport
database<
BdC In accordance 2it% national socio-economic development and environment priorities0
evalate and0 as appropriate0 promote cost-e,,ective policies or pro!rammes0 incldin!
administrative0 social and economic measres0 in order to encora!e se o, transportation
modes t%at minimi5e adverse impacts on t%e atmosp%ere<
BeC Develop or en%ance0 as appropriate0 mec%anisms to inte!rate transport plannin!
strate!ies and rban and re!ional settlement plannin! strate!ies0 2it% a vie2 to redcin!
t%e environmental impacts o, transport<
B,C Std$0 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, t%e >nited ;ations and its re!ional commissions0 t%e
,easibilit$ o, convenin! re!ional con,erences on transport and t%e environment.
3$ "ndustrial development
-asis for action
+.16. Indstr$ is essential ,or t%e prodction o, !oods and services and is a ma?or sorce
o, emplo$ment and income0 and indstrial development as sc% is essential ,or economic
!ro2t%. :t t%e same time0 indstr$ is a ma?or resorce and materials ser and
conse1entl$ indstrial activities reslt in emissions into t%e atmosp%ere and t%e
environment as a 2%ole. Protection o, t%e atmosp%ere can be en%anced0 inter alia0 b$
increasin! resorce and materials e,,icienc$ in indstr$0 installin! or improvin! polltion
abatement tec%nolo!ies and replacin! c%loro,lorocarbons BCFCsC and ot%er o5one-
depletin! sbstances 2it% appropriate sbstittes0 as 2ell as b$ redcin! 2astes and b$-
prodcts.
#b.ectives
+.1&. T%e basic ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme area is to encora!e indstrial development
in 2a$s t%at minimi5e adverse impacts on t%e atmosp%ere b$0 inter alia0 increasin!
e,,icienc$ in t%e prodction and consmption b$ indstr$ o, all resorces and materials0
b$ improvin! polltion-abatement tec%nolo!ies and b$ developin! ne2 environmentall$
sond tec%nolo!ies.
Activities
+.1(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 and t%e private sector0 s%old.
BaC In accordance 2it% national socio-economic development and environment priorities0
evalate and0 as appropriate0 promote cost-e,,ective policies or pro!rammes0 incldin!
administrative0 social and economic measres0 in order to minimi5e indstrial polltion
and adverse impacts on t%e atmosp%ere<
BbC /ncora!e indstr$ to increase and stren!t%en its capacit$ to develop tec%nolo!ies0
prodcts and processes t%at are sa,e0 less polltin! and ma*e more e,,icient se o, all
resorces and materials0 incldin! ener!$<
BcC Cooperate in t%e development and trans,er o, sc% indstrial tec%nolo!ies and in t%e
development o, capacities to mana!e and se sc% tec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ 2it% respect
to developin! contries<
BdC Develop0 improve and appl$ environmental impact assessments to ,oster sstainable
indstrial development<
BeC Promote e,,icient se o, materials and resorces0 ta*in! into accont t%e li,e c$cles o,
prodcts0 in order to reali5e t%e economic and environmental bene,its o, sin! resorces
more e,,icientl$ and prodcin! ,e2er 2astes<
B,C Spport t%e promotion o, less polltin! and more e,,icient tec%nolo!ies and processes
in indstries0 ta*in! into accont area-speci,ic accessible potentials ,or ener!$0
particlarl$ sa,e and rene2able sorces o, ener!$0 2it% a vie2 to limitin! indstrial
polltion0 and adverse impacts on t%e atmosp%ere.
6$ !errestrial and marine resource development and land use
-asis for action
+.1+. 8and-se and resorce policies 2ill bot% a,,ect and be a,,ected b$ c%an!es in t%e
atmosp%ere. Certain practices related to terrestrial and marine resorces and land se can
decrease !reen%ose !as sin*s and increase atmosp%eric emissions. T%e loss o, biolo!ical
diversit$ ma$ redce t%e resilience o, ecos$stems to climatic variations and air polltion
dama!e. :tmosp%eric c%an!es can %ave important impacts on ,orests0 biodiversit$0 and
,res%2ater and marine ecos$stems0 as 2ell as on economic activities0 sc% as a!ricltre.
Polic$ ob?ectives in di,,erent sectors ma$ o,ten diver!e and 2ill need to be %andled in an
inte!rated manner.
#b.ectives
+.2). T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To promote terrestrial and marine resorce tili5ation and appropriate land-se
practices t%at contribte to.
1. T%e redction o, atmosp%eric polltion and=or t%e limitation o, ant%ropo!enic
emissions o, !reen%ose !ases<
2. T%e conservation0 sstainable mana!ement and en%ancement0 2%ere appropriate0
o, all sin*s ,or !reen%ose !ases<
#. T%e conservation and sstainable se o, natral and environmental resorces<
BbC To ensre t%at actal and potential atmosp%eric c%an!es and t%eir socio-economic and
ecolo!ical impacts are ,ll$ ta*en into accont in plannin! and implementin! policies and
pro!rammes concernin! terrestrial and marine resorces tili5ation and land-se
practices.
Activities
+.21. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 and t%e private sector0 s%old.
BaC In accordance 2it% national socio-economic development and environment priorities0
evalate and0 as appropriate0 promote cost-e,,ective policies or pro!rammes0 incldin!
administrative0 social and economic measres0 in order to encora!e environmentall$
sond land-se practices<
BbC Implement policies and pro!rammes t%at 2ill discora!e inappropriate and polltin!
land-se practices and promote sstainable tili5ation o, terrestrial and marine resorces<
BcC Consider promotin! t%e development and se o, terrestrial and marine resorces and
land-se practices t%at 2ill be more resilient to atmosp%eric c%an!es and ,lctations<
BdC Promote sstainable mana!ement and cooperation in t%e conservation and
en%ancement0 as appropriate0 o, sin*s and reservoirs o, !reen%ose !ases0 incldin!
biomass0 ,orests and oceans0 as 2ell as ot%er terrestrial0 coastal and marine ecos$stems.
C$ Preventing stratosperic o7one depletion
-asis for action
+.22. :nal$sis o, recent scienti,ic data %as con,irmed t%e !ro2in! concern abot t%e
continin! depletion o, t%e /art%9s stratosp%eric o5one la$er b$ reactive c%lorine and
bromine ,rom man-made CFCs0 %alons and related sbstances. 6%ile t%e 1+(' Vienna
Convention ,or t%e Protection o, t%e O5one 8a$er and t%e 1+(& -ontreal Protocol on
Sbstances t%at Deplete t%e O5one 8a$er Bas amended in 8ondon in 1++)C 2ere
important steps in international action0 t%e total c%lorine loadin! o, t%e atmosp%ere o,
o5one-depletin! sbstances %as contined to rise. T%is can be c%an!ed t%ro!%
compliance 2it% t%e control measres identi,ied 2it%in t%e Protocol.
#b.ectives
+.2#. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To reali5e t%e ob?ectives de,ined in t%e Vienna Convention and t%e -ontreal Protocol
and its 1++) amendments0 incldin! t%e consideration in t%ose instrments o, t%e special
needs and conditions o, t%e developin! contries and t%e availabilit$ to t%em o,
alternatives to sbstances t%at deplete t%e o5one la$er. Tec%nolo!ies and natral prodcts
t%at redce demand ,or t%ese sbstances s%old be encora!ed<
BbC To develop strate!ies aimed at miti!atin! t%e adverse e,,ects o, ltraviolet radiation
reac%in! t%e /art%9s sr,ace as a conse1ence o, depletion and modi,ication o, t%e
stratosp%eric o5one la$er.
Activities
+.2". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 and t%e private sector0 s%old.
BaC Rati,$0 accept or approve t%e -ontreal Protocol and its 1++) amendments< pa$ t%eir
contribtions to2ards t%e Vienna=-ontreal trst ,nds and t%e interim mltilateral o5one
,nd promptl$< and contribte0 as appropriate0 to2ards on!oin! e,,orts nder t%e
-ontreal Protocol and its implementin! mec%anisms0 incldin! ma*in! available
sbstittes ,or CFCs and ot%er o5one-depletin! sbstances and ,acilitatin! t%e trans,er o,
t%e correspondin! tec%nolo!ies to developin! contries in order to enable t%em to compl$
2it% t%e obli!ations o, t%e Protocol<
BbC Spport ,rt%er e3pansion o, t%e 7lobal O5one Observin! S$stem b$ ,acilitatin! -
t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral ,ndin! - t%e establis%ment and operation o, additional
s$stematic observation stations0 especiall$ in t%e tropical belt in t%e sot%ern %emisp%ere<
BcC Participate activel$ in t%e continos assessment o, scienti,ic in,ormation and t%e
%ealt% and environmental e,,ects0 as 2ell as o, t%e tec%nolo!ical=economic implications
o, stratosp%eric o5one depletion< and consider ,rt%er actions t%at prove 2arranted and
,easible on t%e basis o, t%ese assessments<
BdC Eased on t%e reslts o, researc% on t%e e,,ects o, t%e additional ltraviolet radiation
reac%in! t%e /art%9s sr,ace0 consider ta*in! appropriate remedial measres in t%e ,ields
o, %man %ealt%0 a!ricltre and marine environment<
BeC Replace CFCs and ot%er o5one-depletin! sbstances0 consistent 2it% t%e -ontreal
Protocol0 reco!ni5in! t%at a replacement9s sitabilit$ s%old be evalated %olisticall$ and
not simpl$ based on its contribtion to solvin! one atmosp%eric or environmental
problem.
D$ !ransboundar0 atmosperic pollution
-asis for action
+.2'. Transbondar$ air polltion %as adverse %ealt% impacts on %mans and ot%er
detrimental environmental impacts0 sc% as tree and ,orest loss and t%e acidi,ication o,
2ater bodies. T%e !eo!rap%ical distribtion o, atmosp%eric polltion monitorin!
net2or*s is neven0 2it% t%e developin! contries severel$ nderrepresented. T%e lac* o,
reliable emissions data otside /rope and ;ort% :merica is a ma?or constraint to
measrin! transbondar$ air polltion. T%ere is also ins,,icient in,ormation on t%e
environmental and %ealt% e,,ects o, air polltion in ot%er re!ions.
+.26. T%e 1+&+ Convention on 8on!-ran!e Transbondar$ :ir Polltion0 and its
protocols0 %ave establis%ed a re!ional re!ime in /rope and ;ort% :merica0 based on a
revie2 process and cooperative pro!rammes ,or s$stematic observation o, air polltion0
assessment and in,ormation e3c%an!e. T%ese pro!rammes need to be contined and
en%anced0 and t%eir e3perience needs to be s%ared 2it% ot%er re!ions o, t%e 2orld.
#b.ectives
+.2&. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To develop and appl$ polltion control and measrement tec%nolo!ies ,or stationar$
and mobile sorces o, air polltion and to develop alternative environmentall$ sond
tec%nolo!ies<
BbC To observe and assess s$stematicall$ t%e sorces and e3tent o, transbondar$ air
polltion resltin! ,rom natral processes and ant%ropo!enic activities<
BcC To stren!t%en t%e capabilities0 particlarl$ o, developin! contries0 to measre0 model
and assess t%e ,ate and impacts o, transbondar$ air polltion0 t%ro!%0 inter alia0
e3c%an!e o, in,ormation and trainin! o, e3perts<
BdC To develop capabilities to assess and miti!ate transbondar$ air polltion resltin!
,rom indstrial and nclear accidents0 natral disasters and t%e deliberate and=or
accidental destrction o, natral resorces<
BeC To encora!e t%e establis%ment o, ne2 and t%e implementation o, e3istin! re!ional
a!reements ,or limitin! transbondar$ air polltion<
B,C To develop strate!ies aimin! at t%e redction o, emissions casin! transbondar$ air
polltion and t%eir e,,ects.
Activities
+.2(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 t%e private sector and ,inancial instittions0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% and=or stren!t%en re!ional a!reements ,or transbondar$ air polltion
control and cooperate0 particlarl$ 2it% developin! contries0 in t%e areas o, s$stematic
observation and assessment0 modellin! and t%e development and e3c%an!e o, emission
control tec%nolo!ies ,or mobile and stationar$ sorces o, air polltion. In t%is conte3t0
!reater emp%asis s%old be pt on addressin! t%e e3tent0 cases0 %ealt% and socio-
economic impacts o, ltraviolet radiation0 acidi,ication o, t%e environment and p%oto-
o3idant dama!e to ,orests and ot%er ve!etation<
BbC /stablis% or stren!t%en earl$ 2arnin! s$stems and response mec%anisms ,or
transbondar$ air polltion resltin! ,rom indstrial accidents and natral disasters and
t%e deliberate and=or accidental destrction o, natral resorces<
BcC Facilitate trainin! opportnities and e3c%an!e o, data0 in,ormation and national and=or
re!ional e3periences<
BdC Cooperate on re!ional0 mltilateral and bilateral bases to assess transbondar$ air
polltion0 and elaborate and implement pro!rammes identi,$in! speci,ic actions to redce
atmosp%eric emissions and to address t%eir environmental0 economic0 social and ot%er
e,,ects.
%eans of implementation
International and re!ional cooperation
+.2+. /3istin! le!al instrments %ave created instittional strctres 2%ic% relate to t%e
prposes o, t%ese instrments0 and relevant 2or* s%old primaril$ contine in t%ose
conte3ts. 7overnments s%old contine to cooperate and en%ance t%eir cooperation at t%e
re!ional and !lobal levels0 incldin! cooperation 2it%in t%e >nited ;ations s$stem. In
t%is conte3t re,erence is made to t%e recommendations in c%apter #( o, :!enda 21
BInternational instittional arran!ementsC.
Capacit$-bildin!
+.#). Contries0 in cooperation 2it% t%e relevant >nited ;ations bodies0 international
donors and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 s%old mobili5e tec%nical and ,inancial
resorces and ,acilitate tec%nical cooperation 2it% developin! contries to rein,orce t%eir
tec%nical0 mana!erial0 plannin! and administrative capacities to promote sstainable
development and t%e protection o, t%e atmosp%ere0 in all relevant sectors.
*uman resource development
+.#1. /dcation and a2areness-raisin! pro!rammes concernin! t%e promotion o,
sstainable development and t%e protection o, t%e atmosp%ere need to be introdced and
stren!t%ened at t%e local0 national and international levels in all relevant sectors.
)inancial and cost evaluation
+.#2. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities nder pro!ramme area : to be abot D6") million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
+.##. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%e ,or-part pro!ramme nder pro!ramme area E to be
abot D2) billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese
are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
+.#". T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities nder pro!ramme area C to be in t%e ran!e o, D16)-'+)
million on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde
estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial
terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic
strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
+.#'. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as inclded costin! ,or tec%nical assistance and pilot
pro!rammes nder para!rap%s +.#2 and +.##.
Notes
1= ;e2 and rene2able ener!$ sorces are solar t%ermal0 solar p%otovoltaic0 2ind0 %$dro0
biomass0 !eot%ermal0 ocean0 animal and %man po2er0 as re,erred to in t%e reports o, t%e
Committee on t%e Development and >tili5ation o, ;e2 and Rene2able Sorces o,
/ner!$0 prepared speci,icall$ ,or t%e Con,erence Bsee :=CO;F.1'1=PC=11+ and
:=:C.21(=1++2='C.
2= T%is incldes standards or recommendations promoted b$ re!ional economic
inte!ration or!ani5ations.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 1B
"ntegrated Approac to te Planning , %anagement of Land &esources
"ntroduction
1).1. 8and is normall$ de,ined as a p%$sical entit$ in terms o, its topo!rap%$ and spatial
natre< a broader inte!rative vie2 also incldes natral resorces. t%e soils0 minerals0
2ater and biota t%at t%e land comprises. T%ese components are or!ani5ed in ecos$stems
2%ic% provide a variet$ o, services essential to t%e maintenance o, t%e inte!rit$ o, li,e-
spport s$stems and t%e prodctive capacit$ o, t%e environment. 8and resorces are sed
in 2a$s t%at ta*e advanta!e o, all t%ese c%aracteristics. 8and is a ,inite resorce0 2%ile
t%e natral resorces it spports can var$ over time and accordin! to mana!ement
conditions and ses. /3pandin! %man re1irements and economic activities are placin!
ever increasin! pressres on land resorces0 creatin! competition and con,licts and
resltin! in sboptimal se o, bot% land and land resorces. I,0 in t%e ,tre0 %man
re1irements are to be met in a sstainable manner0 it is no2 essential to resolve t%ese
con,licts and move to2ards more e,,ective and e,,icient se o, land and its natral
resorces. Inte!rated p%$sical and land-se plannin! and mana!ement is an eminentl$
practical 2a$ to ac%ieve t%is. E$ e3aminin! all ses o, land in an inte!rated manner0 it
ma*es it possible to minimi5e con,licts0 to ma*e t%e most e,,icient trade-o,,s and to lin*
social and economic development 2it% environmental protection and en%ancement0 t%s
%elpin! to ac%ieve t%e ob?ectives o, sstainable development. T%e essence o, t%e
inte!rated approac% ,inds e3pression in t%e coordination o, t%e sectoral plannin! and
mana!ement activities concerned 2it% t%e varios aspects o, land se and land resorces.
1).2. T%e present c%apter consists o, one pro!ramme area0 t%e inte!rated approac% to t%e
plannin! and mana!ement o, land resorces0 2%ic% deals 2it% t%e reor!ani5ation and0
2%ere necessar$0 some stren!t%enin! o, t%e decision-ma*in! strctre0 incldin! e3istin!
policies0 plannin! and mana!ement procedres and met%ods t%at can assist in pttin! in
place an inte!rated approac% to land resorces. It does not deal 2it% t%e operational
aspects o, plannin! and mana!ement0 2%ic% are more appropriatel$ dealt 2it% nder t%e
relevant sectoral pro!rammes. Since t%e pro!ramme deals 2it% an important cross-
sectoral aspect o, decision-ma*in! ,or sstainable development0 it is closel$ related to a
nmber o, ot%er pro!rammes t%at deal 2it% t%at isse directl$.
P&#(&A%%E A&EA
A/ "ntegrated approac to te planning and management of land resources
-asis for action
1).#. 8and resorces are sed ,or a variet$ o, prposes 2%ic% interact and ma$ compete
2it% one anot%er< t%ere,ore0 it is desirable to plan and mana!e all ses in an inte!rated
manner. Inte!ration s%old ta*e place at t2o levels0 considerin!0 on t%e one %and0 all
environmental0 social and economic ,actors Bincldin!0 ,or e3ample0 impacts o, t%e
varios economic and social sectors on t%e environment and natral resorcesC and0 on
t%e ot%er0 all environmental and resorce components to!et%er Bi.e.0 air0 2ater0 biota0 land0
!eolo!ical and natral resorcesC. Inte!rated consideration ,acilitates appropriate c%oices
and trade-o,,s0 t%s ma3imi5in! sstainable prodctivit$ and se. Opportnities to
allocate land to di,,erent ses arise in t%e corse o, ma?or settlement or development
pro?ects or in a se1ential ,as%ion as lands become available on t%e mar*et. T%is in trn
provides opportnities to spport traditional patterns o, sstainable land mana!ement or
to assi!n protected stats ,or conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ or critical ecolo!ical
services.
1).". : nmber o, tec%ni1es0 ,rame2or*s and processes can be combined to ,acilitate an
inte!rated approac%. T%e$ are t%e indispensable spport ,or t%e plannin! and
mana!ement process0 at t%e national and local level0 ecos$stem or area levels and ,or t%e
development o, speci,ic plans o, action. -an$ o, its elements are alread$ in place bt
need to be more 2idel$ applied0 ,rt%er developed and stren!t%ened. T%is pro!ramme
area is concerned primaril$ 2it% providin! a ,rame2or* t%at 2ill coordinate decision-
ma*in!< t%e content and operational ,nctions are t%ere,ore not inclded %ere bt are
dealt 2it% in t%e relevant sectoral pro!rammes o, :!enda 21.
#b.ectives
1).'. T%e broad ob?ective is to ,acilitate allocation o, land to t%e ses t%at provide t%e
!reatest sstainable bene,its and to promote t%e transition to a sstainable and inte!rated
mana!ement o, land resorces. In doin! so0 environmental0 social and economic isses
s%old be ta*en into consideration. Protected areas0 private propert$ ri!%ts0 t%e ri!%ts o,
indi!enos people and t%eir commnities and ot%er local commnities and t%e economic
role o, 2omen in a!ricltre and rral development0 amon! ot%er isses0 s%old be ta*en
into accont. In more speci,ic terms0 t%e ob?ectives are as ,ollo2s.
BaC To revie2 and develop policies to spport t%e best possible se o, land and t%e
sstainable mana!ement o, land resorces0 b$ not later t%an 1++6<
BbC To improve and stren!t%en plannin!0 mana!ement and evalation s$stems ,or land
and land resorces0 b$ not later t%an 2)))<
BcC To stren!t%en instittions and coordinatin! mec%anisms ,or land and land resorces0
b$ not later t%an 1++(<
BdC To create mec%anisms to ,acilitate t%e active involvement and participation o, all
concerned0 particlarl$ commnities and people at t%e local level0 in decision-ma*in! on
land se and mana!ement0 b$ not later t%an 1++6.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
Developin! spportive policies and polic$ instrments
1).6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional and international
or!ani5ations0 s%old ensre t%at policies and polic$ instrments spport t%e best possible
land se and sstainable mana!ement o, land resorces. Particlar attention s%old be
!iven to t%e role o, a!ricltral land. To do t%is0 t%e$ s%old.
BaC Develop inte!rated !oal-settin! and polic$ ,ormlation at t%e national0 re!ional and
local levels t%at ta*es into accont environmental0 social0 demo!rap%ic and economic
isses<
BbC Develop policies t%at encora!e sstainable land se and mana!ement o, land
resorces and ta*e t%e land resorce base0 demo!rap%ic isses and t%e interests o, t%e
local poplation into accont<
BcC Revie2 t%e re!lator$ ,rame2or*0 incldin! la2s0 re!lations and en,orcement
procedres0 in order to identi,$ improvements needed to spport sstainable land se and
mana!ement o, land resorces and restricts t%e trans,er o, prodctive arable land to ot%er
ses<
BdC :ppl$ economic instrments and develop instittional mec%anisms and incentives to
encora!e t%e best possible land se and sstainable mana!ement o, land resorces<
BeC /ncora!e t%e principle o, dele!atin! polic$-ma*in! to t%e lo2est level o, pblic
at%orit$ consistent 2it% e,,ective action and a locall$ driven approac%.
Stren!t%enin! plannin! and mana!ement s$stems
1).&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional and international
or!ani5ations0 s%old revie2 and0 i, appropiate0 revise plannin! and mana!ement s$stems
to ,acilitate an inte!rated approac%. To do t%is0 t%e$ s%old.
BaC :dopt plannin! and mana!ement s$stems t%at ,acilitate t%e inte!ration o,
environmental components sc% as air0 2ater0 land and ot%er natral resorces0 sin!
landscape ecolo!ical plannin! B8:;D/PC or ot%er approac%es t%at ,ocs on0 ,or
e3ample0 an ecos$stem or a 2aters%ed<
BbC :dopt strate!ic ,rame2or*s t%at allo2 t%e inte!ration o, bot% developmental and
environmental !oals< e3amples o, t%ese ,rame2or*s inclde sstainable liveli%ood
s$stems0 rral development0 t%e 6orld Conservation Strate!$=Carin! ,or t%e /art%0
primar$ environmental care BP/CC and ot%ers<
BcC /stablis% a !eneral ,rame2or* ,or land-se and p%$sical plannin! 2it%in 2%ic%
speciali5ed and more detailed sectoral plans Be.!.0 ,or protected areas0 a!ricltre0 ,orests0
%man settlements0 rral developmentC can be developed< establis% intersectoral
consltative bodies to streamline pro?ect plannin! and implementation<
BdC Stren!t%en mana!ement s$stems ,or land and natral resorces b$ incldin!
appropriate traditional and indi!enos met%ods< e3amples o, t%ese practices inclde
pastoralism0 4ema reserves Btraditional Islamic land reservesC and terraced a!ricltre<
BeC /3amine and0 i, necessar$0 establis% innovative and ,le3ible approac%es to pro!ramme
,ndin!<
B,C Compile detailed land capabilit$ inventories to !ide sstainable land resorces
allocation0 mana!ement and se at t%e national and local levels.
Promotin! application o, appropriate tools ,or plannin! and mana!ement
1).(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, national and international
or!ani5ations0 s%old promote t%e improvement0 ,rt%er development and 2idespread
application o, plannin! and mana!ement tools t%at ,acilitate an inte!rated and sstainable
approac% to land and resorces. To do t%is0 t%e$ s%old.
BaC :dopt improved s$stems ,or t%e interpretation and inte!rated anal$sis o, data on land
se and land resorces<
BbC S$stematicall$ appl$ tec%ni1es and procedres ,or assessin! t%e environmental0
social and economic impacts0 ris*s0 costs and bene,its o, speci,ic actions<
BcC :nal$se and test met%ods to inclde land and ecos$stem ,nctions and land resorces
vales in national acconts.
Raisin! a2areness
1).+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in collaboration 2it% national instittions and
interest !rops and 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional and international or!ani5ations0 s%old
lanc% a2areness-raisin! campai!ns to alert and edcate people on t%e importance o,
inte!rated land and land resorces mana!ement and t%e role t%at individals and social
!rops can pla$ in it. T%is s%old be accompanied b$ provision o, t%e means to adopt
improved practices ,or land se and sstainable mana!ement.
Promotin! pblic participation
1).1). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in collaboration 2it% national or!ani5ations
and 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional and international or!ani5ations0 s%old establis%
innovative procedres0 pro!rammes0 pro?ects and services t%at ,acilitate and encora!e
t%e active participation o, t%ose a,,ected in t%e decision-ma*in! and implementation
process0 especiall$ o, !rops t%at %ave0 %it%erto0 o,ten been e3clded0 sc% as 2omen0
$ot%0 indi!enos people and t%eir commnities and ot%er local commnities.
-/ Data and information
Stren!t%enin! in,ormation s$stems
1).11. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in collaboration 2it% national instittions
and t%e private sector and 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional and international or!ani5ations0
s%old stren!t%en t%e in,ormation s$stems necessar$ ,or ma*in! decisions and evalatin!
,tre c%an!es on land se and mana!ement. T%e needs o, bot% men and 2omen s%old
be ta*en into accont. To do t%is0 t%e$ s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en in,ormation0 s$stematic observation and assessment s$stems ,or
environmental0 economic and social data related to land resorces at t%e !lobal0 re!ional0
national and local levels and ,or land capabilit$ and land-se and mana!ement patterns<
BbC Stren!t%en coordination bet2een e3istin! sectoral data s$stems on land and land
resorces and stren!t%en national capacit$ to !at%er and assess data<
BcC Provide t%e appropriate tec%nical in,ormation necessar$ ,or in,ormed decision-ma*in!
on land se and mana!ement in an accessible ,orm to all sectors o, t%e poplation0
especiall$ to local commnities and 2omen<
BdC Spport lo2-cost0 commnit$-mana!ed s$stems ,or t%e collection o, comparable
in,ormation on t%e stats and processes o, c%an!e o, land resorces0 incldin! soils0
,orest cover0 2ildli,e0 climate and ot%er elements.
C/ "nternational and regional coordination and cooperation
/stablis%in! re!ional mac%iner$
1).12. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional and
international or!ani5ations0 s%old stren!t%en re!ional cooperation and e3c%an!e o,
in,ormation on land resorces. To do t%is0 t%e$ s%old.
BaC Std$ and desi!n re!ional policies to spport pro!rammes ,or land-se and p%$sical
plannin!<
BbC Promote t%e development o, land-se and p%$sical plans in t%e contries o, t%e
re!ion<
BcC Desi!n in,ormation s$stems and promote trainin!<
BdC /3c%an!e0 t%ro!% net2or*s and ot%er appropriate means0 in,ormation on e3periences
2it% t%e process and reslts o, inte!rated and participator$ plannin! and mana!ement o,
land resorces at t%e national and local levels.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1).1#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
/n%ancin! scienti,ic nderstandin! o, t%e land resorces s$stem
1).1". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in collaboration 2it% t%e national and
international scienti,ic commnit$ and 2it% t%e spport o, appropriate national and
international or!ani5ations0 s%old promote and spport researc%0 tailored to local
environments0 on t%e land resorces s$stem and t%e implications ,or sstainable
development and mana!ement practices. Priorit$ s%old be !iven0 as appropriate0 to.
BaC :ssessment o, land potential capabilit$ and ecos$stem ,nctions<
BbC /cos$stemic interactions and interactions bet2een land resorces and social0
economic and environmental s$stems<
BcC Developin! indicators o, sstainabilit$ ,or land resorces0 ta*in! into accont
environmental0 economic0 social0 demo!rap%ic0 cltral and political ,actors.
Testin! researc% ,indin!s t%ro!% pilot pro?ects
1).1'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in collaboration 2it% t%e national and
international scienti,ic commnit$ and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
or!ani5ations0 s%old researc% and test0 t%ro!% pilot pro?ects0 t%e applicabilit$ o,
improved approac%es to t%e inte!rated plannin! and mana!ement o, land resorces0
incldin! tec%nical0 social and instittional ,actors.
C/ *uman resource development
/n%ancin! edcation and trainin!
1).16. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in collaboration 2it% t%e appropriate local
at%orities0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and international instittions0 s%old
promote t%e development o, t%e %man resorces t%at are re1ired to plan and mana!e
land and land resorces sstainabl$. T%is s%old be done b$ providin! incentives ,or local
initiatives and b$ en%ancin! local mana!ement capacit$0 particlarl$ o, 2omen0 t%ro!%.
BaC /mp%asi5in! interdisciplinar$ and inte!rative approac%es in t%e crricla o, sc%ools
and tec%nical0 vocational and niversit$ trainin!<
BbC Trainin! all relevant sectors concerned to deal 2it% land resorces in an inte!rated
and sstainable manner<
BcC Trainin! commnities0 relevant e3tension services0 commnit$-based !rops and non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations on land mana!ement tec%ni1es and approac%es applied
sccess,ll$ else2%ere.
D/ Capacit01building
Stren!t%enin! tec%nolo!ical capacit$
1).1&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 in cooperation 2it% ot%er 7overnments and
2it% t%e spport o, relevant international or!ani5ations0 s%old promote ,ocsed and
concerted e,,orts ,or edcation and trainin! and t%e trans,er o, tec%ni1es and
tec%nolo!ies t%at spport t%e varios aspects o, t%e sstainable plannin! and mana!ement
process at t%e national0 state=provincial and local levels.
Stren!t%enin! instittions
1).1(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, appropriate international
or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Revie2 and0 2%ere appropriate0 revise t%e mandates o, instittions t%at deal 2it% land
and natral resorces to inclde e3plicitl$ t%e interdisciplinar$ inte!ration o,
environmental0 social and economic isses<
BbC Stren!t%en coordinatin! mec%anisms bet2een instittions t%at deal 2it% land-se and
resorces mana!ement to ,acilitate inte!ration o, sectoral concerns and strate!ies<
BcC Stren!t%en local decision-ma*in! capacit$ and improve coordination 2it% %i!%er
levels.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 11
Combating Deforestation
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Sustaining te multiple roles and functions of all t0pes of forests5 forest
lands and 4oodlands
-asis for action
11.1. T%ere are ma?or 2ea*nesses in t%e policies0 met%ods and mec%anisms adopted to
spport and develop t%e mltiple ecolo!ical0 economic0 social and cltral roles o, trees0
,orests and ,orest lands. -an$ developed contries are con,ronted 2it% t%e e,,ects o, air
polltion and ,ire dama!e on t%eir ,orests. -ore e,,ective measres and approac%es are
o,ten re1ired at t%e national level to improve and %armoni5e polic$ ,ormlation0
plannin! and pro!rammin!< le!islative measres and instrments< development patterns<
participation o, t%e !eneral pblic0 especiall$ 2omen and indi!enos people<
involvement o, $ot%< roles o, t%e private sector0 local or!ani5ations0 non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations and cooperatives< development o, tec%nical and mltidisciplinar$ s*ills and
1alit$ o, %man resorces< ,orestr$ e3tension and pblic edcation< researc% capabilit$
and spport< administrative strctres and mec%anisms0 incldin! intersectoral
coordination0 decentrali5ation and responsibilit$ and incentive s$stems< and
dissemination o, in,ormation and pblic relations. T%is is especiall$ important to ensre a
rational and %olistic approac% to t%e sstainable and environmentall$ sond development
o, ,orests. T%e need ,or secrin! t%e mltiple roles o, ,orests and ,orest lands t%ro!%
ade1ate and appropriate instittional stren!t%enin! %as been repeatedl$ emp%asi5ed in
man$ o, t%e reports0 decisions and recommendations o, F:O0 ITTO0 >;/P0 t%e 6orld
Ean*0 I>C; and ot%er or!ani5ations.
#b.ectives
11.2. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are as ,ollo2s.
BaC To stren!t%en ,orest-related national instittions0 to en%ance t%e scope and
e,,ectiveness o, activities related to t%e mana!ement0 conservation and sstainable
development o, ,orests0 and to e,,ectivel$ ensre t%e sstainable tili5ation and
prodction o, ,orests9 !oods and services in bot% t%e developed and t%e developin!
contries< b$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to stren!t%en t%e capacities and capabilities o, national
instittions to enable t%em to ac1ire t%e necessar$ *no2led!e ,or t%e protection and
conservation o, ,orests0 as 2ell as to e3pand t%eir scope and0 correspondin!l$0 en%ance
t%e e,,ectiveness o, pro!rammes and activities related to t%e mana!ement and
development o, ,orests<
BbC To stren!t%en and improve %man0 tec%nical and pro,essional s*ills0 as 2ell as
e3pertise and capabilities to e,,ectivel$ ,ormlate and implement policies0 plans0
pro!rammes0 researc% and pro?ects on mana!ement0 conservation and sstainable
development o, all t$pes o, ,orests and ,orest-based resorces0 and ,orest lands inclsive0
as 2ell as ot%er areas ,rom 2%ic% ,orest bene,its can be derived.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
11.# 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, re!ional0 sbre!ional and
international or!ani5ations0 s%old0 2%ere necessar$0 en%ance instittional capabilit$ to
promote t%e mltiple roles and ,nctions o, all t$pes o, ,orests and ve!etation inclsive o,
ot%er related lands and ,orest-based resorces in spportin! sstainable development and
environmental conservation in all sectors. T%is s%old be done0 2%erever possible and
necessar$0 b$ stren!t%enin! and=or modi,$in! t%e e3istin! strctres and arran!ements0
and b$ improvin! cooperation and coordination o, t%eir respective roles. Some o, t%e
ma?or activities in t%is re!ard are as ,ollo2s.
BaC Rationali5in! and stren!t%enin! administrative strctres and mec%anisms0 incldin!
provision o, ade1ate levels o, sta,, and allocation o, responsibilities0 decentrali5ation o,
decision-ma*in!0 provision o, in,rastrctral ,acilities and e1ipment0 intersectoral
coordination and an e,,ective s$stem o, commnication<
BbC Promotin! participation o, t%e private sector0 labor nions0 rral cooperatives0 local
commnities0 indi!enos people0 $ot%0 2omen0 ser !rops and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations in ,orest-related activities0 and access to in,ormation and trainin!
pro!rammes 2it%in t%e national conte3t<
BcC Revie2in! and0 i, necessar$0 revisin! measres and pro!rammes relevant to all t$pes
o, ,orests and ve!etation0 inclsive o, ot%er related lands and ,orest-based resorces0 and
relatin! t%em to ot%er land ses and development policies and le!islation< promotin!
ade1ate le!islation and ot%er measres as a basis a!ainst ncontrolled conversion to
ot%er t$pes o, land ses<
BdC Developin! and implementin! plans and pro!rammes0 incldin! de,inition o, national
and0 i, necessar$0 re!ional and sbre!ional !oals0 pro!rammes and criteria ,or t%eir
implementation and sbse1ent improvement<
BeC /stablis%in!0 developin! and sstainin! an e,,ective s$stem o, ,orest e3tension and
pblic edcation to ensre better a2areness0 appreciation and mana!ement o, ,orests 2it%
re!ard to t%e mltiple roles and vales o, trees0 ,orests and ,orest lands<
B,C /stablis%in! and=or stren!t%enin! instittions ,or ,orest edcation and trainin!0 as 2ell
as ,orestr$ indstries0 ,or developin! an ade1ate cadre o, trained and s*illed sta,, at t%e
pro,essional0 tec%nical and vocational levels0 2it% emp%asis on $ot% and 2omen<
B!C /stablis%in! and stren!t%enin! capabilities ,or researc% related to t%e di,,erent aspects
o, ,orests and ,orest prodcts0 ,or e3ample0 on t%e sstainable mana!ement o, ,orests0
researc% on biodiversit$0 on t%e e,,ects o, air-borne polltants0 on traditional ses o,
,orest resorces b$ local poplations and indi!enos people0 and on improvin! mar*et
retrns and ot%er non-mar*et vales ,rom t%e mana!ement o, ,orests.
-/ Data and information
11.". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e assistance and cooperation o,
international0 re!ional0 sbre!ional and bilateral a!encies0 2%ere relevant0 s%old develop
ade1ate databases and baseline in,ormation necessar$ ,or plannin! and pro!ramme
evalation. Some o, t%e more speci,ic activities inclde t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC Collectin!0 compilin! and re!larl$ pdatin! and distribtin! in,ormation on land
classi,ication and land se0 incldin! data on ,orest cover0 areas sitable ,or a,,orestation0
endan!ered species0 ecolo!ical vales0 traditional=indi!enos land se vales0 biomass
and prodctivit$0 correlatin! demo!rap%ic0 socio-economic and ,orest resorces
in,ormation at t%e micro- and macro-levels0 and nderta*in! periodic anal$ses o, ,orest
pro!rammes<
BbC /stablis%in! lin*a!es 2it% ot%er data s$stems and sorces relevant to spportin!
,orest mana!ement0 conservation and development0 2%ile ,rt%er developin! or
rein,orcin! e3istin! s$stems sc% as !eo!rap%ic in,ormation s$stems0 as appropriate<
BcC Creatin! mec%anisms to ensre pblic access to t%is in,ormation.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
11.'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and instittions s%old cooperate in t%e
provision o, e3pertise and ot%er spport and t%e promotion o, international researc%
e,,orts0 in particlar 2it% a vie2 to en%ancin! trans,er o, tec%nolo!$ and speciali5ed
trainin! and ensrin! access to e3periences and researc% reslts. T%ere is need ,or
stren!t%enin! coordination and improvin! t%e per,ormance o, e3istin! ,orest-related
international or!ani5ations in providin! tec%nical cooperation and spport to interested
contries ,or t%e mana!ement0 conservation and sstainable development o, ,orests.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
11.6. T%e secretariat o, t%e Con,erence %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D2.' billion0
incldin! abot D(6) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
11.&. T%e plannin!0 researc% and trainin! activities speci,ied 2ill ,orm t%e scienti,ic and
tec%nolo!ical means ,or implementin! t%e pro!ramme0 as 2ell as its otpt. T%e s$stems0
met%odolo!$ and *no2-%o2 !enerated b$ t%e pro!ramme 2ill %elp improve e,,icienc$.
Some o, t%e speci,ic steps involved s%old inclde.
BaC :nal$sin! ac%ievements0 constraints and social isses ,or spportin! pro!ramme
,ormlation and implementation<
BbC :nal$sin! researc% problems and researc% needs0 researc% plannin! and
implementation o, speci,ic researc% pro?ects<
BcC :ssessin! needs ,or %man resorces0 s*ill development and trainin!<
BdC Developin!0 testin! and appl$in! appropriate met%odolo!ies=approac%es in
implementin! ,orest pro!rammes and plans.
C/ *uman resource development
11.(. T%e speci,ic components o, ,orest edcation and trainin! 2ill e,,ectivel$ contribte
to %man resorce development. T%ese inclde.
BaC 8anc%in! o, !radate and post-!radate de!ree0 speciali5ation and researc%
pro!rammes<
BbC Stren!t%enin! o, pre-service0 in-service and e3tension service trainin! pro!rammes at
t%e tec%nical and vocational levels0 incldin! trainin! o, trainers=teac%ers0 and developin!
crriclm and teac%in! materials=met%ods<
BcC Special trainin! ,or sta,, o, national ,orest-related or!ani5ations in aspects sc% as
pro?ect ,ormlation0 evalation and periodical evalations.
D/ Capacit01building
11.+. T%is pro!ramme area is speci,icall$ concerned 2it% capacit$-bildin! in t%e ,orest
sector and all pro!ramme activities speci,ied contribte to t%at end. In bildin! ne2 and
stren!t%ened capacities0 ,ll advanta!e s%old be ta*en o, t%e e3istin! s$stems and
e3perience.
-$ Enancing te protection5 sustainable management and conservation of
all forests5 and te greening of degraded areas5 troug forest
reabilitation5 afforestation5 reforestation and oter reabilitative
means
-asis for action
11.1). Forests 2orld 2ide %ave been and are bein! t%reatened b$ ncontrolled
de!radation and conversion to ot%er t$pes o, land ses0 in,lenced b$ increasin! %man
needs< a!ricltral e3pansion< and environmentall$ %arm,l mismana!ement0 incldin!0
,or e3ample0 lac* o, ade1ate ,orest-,ire control and anti-poac%in! measres0
nsstainable commercial lo!!in!0 over!ra5in! and nre!lated bro2sin!0 %arm,l
e,,ects o, airborne polltants0 economic incentives and ot%er measres ta*en b$ ot%er
sectors o, t%e econom$. T%e impacts o, loss and de!radation o, ,orests are in t%e ,orm o,
soil erosion< loss o, biolo!ical diversit$0 dama!e to 2ildli,e %abitats and de!radation o,
2aters%ed areas0 deterioration o, t%e 1alit$ o, li,e and redction o, t%e options ,or
development.
11.11. T%e present sitation calls ,or r!ent and consistent action ,or conservin! and
sstainin! ,orest resorces. T%e !reenin! o, sitable areas0 in all its component activities0
is an e,,ective 2a$ o, increasin! pblic a2areness and participation in protectin! and
mana!in! ,orest resorces. It s%old inclde t%e consideration o, land se and tenre
patterns and local needs and s%old spell ot and clari,$ t%e speci,ic ob?ectives o, t%e
di,,erent t$pes o, !reenin! activities.
#b.ectives
11.12. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are as ,ollo2s.
BaC To maintain e3istin! ,orests t%ro!% conservation and mana!ement0 and sstain and
e3pand areas nder ,orest and tree cover0 in appropriate areas o, bot% developed and
developin! contries0 t%ro!% t%e conservation o, natral ,orests0 protection0 ,orest
re%abilitation0 re!eneration0 a,,orestation0 re,orestation and tree plantin!0 2it% a vie2 to
maintainin! or restorin! t%e ecolo!ical balance and e3pandin! t%e contribtion o, ,orests
to %man needs and 2el,are<
BbC To prepare and implement0 as appropriate0 national ,orestr$ action pro!rammes and=or
plans ,or t%e mana!ement0 conservation and sstainable development o, ,orests. T%ese
pro!rammes and=or plans s%old be inte!rated 2it% ot%er land ses. In t%is conte3t0
contr$-driven national ,orestr$ action pro!rammes and=or plans nder t%e Tropical
Forestr$ :ction Pro!ramme are crrentl$ bein! implemented in more t%an () contries0
2it% t%e spport o, t%e international commnit$<
BcC To ensre sstainable mana!ement and0 2%ere appropriate0 conservation o, e3istin!
and ,tre ,orest resorces<
BdC To maintain and increase t%e ecolo!ical0 biolo!ical0 climatic0 socio-cltral and
economic contribtions o, ,orest resorces<
BeC To ,acilitate and spport t%e e,,ective implementation o, t%e non-le!all$ bindin!
at%oritative statement o, principles ,or a !lobal consenss on t%e mana!ement0
conservation and sstainable development o, all t$pes o, ,orests0 adopted b$ t%e >nited
;ations Con,erence on /nvironment and Development0 and on t%e basis o, t%e
implementation o, t%ese principles to consider t%e need ,or and t%e ,easibilit$ o, all *inds
o, appropriate internationall$ a!reed arran!ements to promote international cooperation
on ,orest mana!ement0 conservation and sstainable development o, all t$pes o, ,orests0
incldin! a,,orestation0 re,orestation and re%abilitation.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
11.1#. 7overnments s%old reco!ni5e t%e importance o, cate!ori5in! ,orests0 2it%in t%e
,rame2or* o, lon!-term ,orest conservation and mana!ement policies0 into di,,erent
,orest t$pes and settin! p sstainable nits in ever$ re!ion=2aters%ed 2it% a vie2 to
secrin! t%e conservation o, ,orests. 7overnments0 2it% t%e participation o, t%e private
sector0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 local commnit$ !rops0 indi!enos people0
2omen0 local !overnment nits and t%e pblic at lar!e0 s%old act to maintain and e3pand
t%e e3istin! ve!etative cover 2%erever ecolo!icall$0 sociall$ and economicall$ ,easible0
t%ro!% tec%nical cooperation and ot%er ,orms o, spport. -a?or activities to be
considered inclde.
BaC /nsrin! t%e sstainable mana!ement o, all ,orest ecos$stems and 2oodlands0
t%ro!% improved proper plannin!0 mana!ement and timel$ implementation o,
silvicltral operations0 incldin! inventor$ and relevant researc%0 as 2ell as
re%abilitation o, de!raded natral ,orests to restore prodctivit$ and environmental
contribtions0 !ivin! particlar attention to %man needs ,or economic and ecolo!ical
services0 2ood-based ener!$0 a!ro,orestr$0 non-timber ,orest prodcts and services0
2aters%ed and soil protection0 2ildli,e mana!ement0 and ,orest !enetic resorces<
BbC /stablis%in!0 e3pandin! and mana!in!0 as appropriate to eac% national conte3t0
protected area s$stems0 2%ic% incldes s$stems o, conservation nits ,or t%eir
environmental0 social and spirital ,nctions and vales0 incldin! conservation o, ,orests
in representative ecolo!ical s$stems and landscapes0 primar$ old-!ro2t% ,orests0
conservation and mana!ement o, 2ildli,e0 nomination o, 6orld 4erita!e Sites nder t%e
6orld 4erita!e Convention0 as appropriate0 conservation o, !enetic resorces0 involvin!
in sit and e3 sit measres and nderta*in! spportive measres to ensre sstainable
tili5ation o, biolo!ical resorces and conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e
traditional ,orest %abitats o, indi!enos people0 ,orest d2ellers and local commnities<
BcC >nderta*in! and promotin! b,,er and transition 5one mana!ement<
BdC Carr$in! ot reve!etation in appropriate montain areas0 %i!%lands0 bare lands0
de!raded ,arm lands0 arid and semi-arid lands and coastal areas ,or combatin!
deserti,ication and preventin! erosion problems and ,or ot%er protective ,nctions and
national pro!rammes ,or re%abilitation o, de!raded lands0 incldin! commnit$ ,orestr$0
social ,orestr$0 a!ro,orestr$ and silvipastre0 2%ile also ta*in! into accont t%e role o,
,orests as national carbon reservoirs and sin*s<
BeC Developin! indstrial and non-indstrial planted ,orests in order to spport and
promote national ecolo!icall$ sond a,,orestation and re,orestation=re!eneration
pro!rammes in sitable sites0 incldin! p!radin! o, e3istin! planted ,orests o, bot%
indstrial and non-indstrial and commercial prpose to increase t%eir contribtion to
%man needs and to o,,set pressre on primar$=old !ro2t% ,orests. -easres s%old be
ta*en to promote and provide intermediate $ields and to improve t%e rate o, retrns on
investments in planted ,orests0 t%ro!% interplantin! and nderplantin! valable crops<
B,C Developin!=stren!t%enin! a national and=or master plan ,or planted ,orests as a
priorit$0 indicatin!0 inter alia0 t%e location0 scope and species0 and speci,$in! areas o,
e3istin! planted ,orests re1irin! re%abilitation0 ta*in! into accont t%e economic aspect
,or ,tre planted ,orest development0 !ivin! emp%asis to native species<
B!C Increasin! t%e protection o, ,orests ,rom polltants0 ,ire0 pests and diseases and ot%er
%man-made inter,erences sc% as ,orest poac%in!0 minin! and nmiti!ated s%i,tin!
cltivation0 t%e ncontrolled introdction o, e3otic plant and animal species0 as 2ell as
developin! and acceleratin! researc% ,or a better nderstandin! o, problems relatin! to
t%e mana!ement and re!eneration o, all t$pes o, ,orests< stren!t%enin! and=or
establis%in! appropriate measres to assess and=or c%ec* inter-border movement o, plants
and related materials<
B%C Stimlatin! development o, rban ,orestr$ ,or t%e !reenin! o, rban0 peri-rban and
rral %man settlements ,or amenit$0 recreation and prodction prposes and ,or
protectin! trees and !roves<
BiC 8anc%in! or improvin! opportnities ,or particpation o, all people0 incldin! $ot%0
2omen0 indi!enos people and local commnities in t%e ,ormlation0 development and
implementation o, ,orest-related pro!rammes and ot%er activities0 ta*in! de accont o,
t%e local needs and cltral vales<
B?C 8imitin! and aimin! to %alt destrctive s%i,tin! cltivation b$ addressin! t%e
nderl$in! social and ecolo!ical cases.
-/ Data and information
11.1". -ana!ement-related activities s%old involve collection0 compilation and anal$sis
o, data=in,ormation0 incldin! baseline srve$s. Some o, t%e speci,ic activities inclde
t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC Carr$in! ot srve$s and developin! and implementin! land-se plans ,or appropriate
!reenin!=plantin!=a,,orestation=re,orestation=,orest re%abilitation<
BbC Consolidatin! and pdatin! land-se and ,orest inventor$ and mana!ement
in,ormation ,or mana!ement and land-se plannin! o, 2ood and non-2ood resorces0
incldin! data on s%i,tin! cltivation and ot%er a!ents o, ,orest destrction<
BcC Consolidatin! in,ormation on !enetic resorces and related biotec%nolo!$0 incldin!
srve$s and stdies0 as necessar$<
BdC Carr$in! ot srve$s and researc% on local=indi!enos *no2led!e o, trees and ,orests
and t%eir ses to improve t%e plannin! and implementation o, sstainable ,orest
mana!ement<
BeC Compilin! and anal$sin! researc% data on species=site interaction o, species sed in
planted ,orests and assessin! t%e potential impact on ,orests o, climatic c%an!e0 as 2ell as
e,,ects o, ,orests on climate0 and initiatin! in-dept% stdies on t%e carbon c$cle relatin! to
di,,erent ,orest t$pes to provide scienti,ic advice and tec%nical spport<
B,C /stablis%in! lin*a!es 2it% ot%er data=in,ormation sorces t%at relate to sstainable
mana!ement and se o, ,orests and improvin! access to data and in,ormation<
B!C Developin! and intensi,$in! researc% to improve *no2led!e and nderstandin! o,
problems and natral mec%anisms related to t%e mana!ement and re%abilitation o, ,orests0
incldin! researc% on ,ana and its interrelation 2it% ,orests<
B%C Consolidatin! in,ormation on ,orest conditions and site-in,lencin! immissions and
emissions.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
11.1'. T%e !reenin! o, appropriate areas is a tas* o, !lobal importance and impact. T%e
international and re!ional commnit$ s%old provide tec%nical cooperation and ot%er
means ,or t%is pro!ramme area. Speci,ic activities o, an international natre0 in spport
o, national e,,orts0 s%old inclde t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC Increasin! cooperative actions to redce polltants and trans-bondar$ impacts
a,,ectin! t%e %ealt% o, trees and ,orests and conservation o, representative ecos$stems<
BbC Coordinatin! re!ional and sbre!ional researc% on carbon se1estration0 air polltion
and ot%er environmental isses<
BcC Docmentin! and e3c%an!in! in,ormation=e3perience ,or t%e bene,it o, contries 2it%
similar problems and prospects<
BdC Stren!t%enin! t%e coordination and improvin! t%e capacit$ and abilit$ o,
inter!overnmental or!ani5ations sc% as F:O0 ITTO0 >;/P and >;/SCO to provide
tec%nical spport ,or t%e mana!ement0 conservation and sstainable development o,
,orests0 incldin! spport ,or t%e ne!otiation o, t%e International Tropical Timber
:!reement o, 1+(#0 de in 1++2=+#.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
11.16. T%e secretariat o, t%e Con,erence %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost
B1++#-2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1) billion0
incldin! abot D#.& billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
11.1&. Data anal$sis0 plannin!0 researc%0 trans,er=development o, tec%nolo!$ and=or
trainin! activities ,orm an inte!ral part o, t%e pro!ramme activities0 providin! t%e
scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means o, implementation. ;ational instittions s%old.
BaC Develop ,easibilit$ stdies and operational plannin! related to ma?or ,orest activities<
BbC Develop and appl$ environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$ relevant to t%e varios
activities listed<
BcC Increase action related to !enetic improvement and application o, biotec%nolo!$ ,or
improvin! prodctivit$ and tolerance to environmental stress and incldin!0 ,or e3ample0
tree breedin!0 seed tec%nolo!$0 seed procrement net2or*s0 !erm-plasm ban*s0 Ain vitroA
tec%ni1es0 and in sit and e3 sit conservation.
C/ *uman resource development
11.1(. /ssential means ,or e,,ectivel$ implementin! t%e activities inclde trainin! and
development o, appropriate s*ills0 2or*in! ,acilities and conditions0 pblic motivation
and a2areness. Speci,ic activities inclde.
BaC Providin! speciali5ed trainin! in plannin!0 mana!ement0 environmental conservation0
biotec%nolo!$ etc.<
BbC /stablis%in! demonstration areas to serve as models and trainin! ,acilities<
BcC Spportin! local or!ani5ations0 commnities0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
private land o2ners0 in particlar 2omen0 $ot%0 ,armers and indi!enos people=s%i,tin!
cltivators0 t%ro!% e3tension and provision o, inpts and trainin!.
D/ Capacit01building
11.1+. ;ational 7overnments0 t%e private sector0 local or!ani5ations=commnities0
indi!enos people0 labor nions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations s%old develop
capacities0 dl$ spported b$ relevant international or!ani5ations0 to implement t%e
pro!ramme activities. Sc% capacities s%old be developed and stren!t%ened in %armon$
2it% t%e pro!ramme activities. Capacit$-bildin! activities inclde polic$ and le!al
,rame2or*s0 national instittion bildin!0 %man resorce development0 development o,
researc% and tec%nolo!$0 development o, in,rastrctre0 en%ancement o, pblic
a2areness etc.
C$ Promoting efficient utili7ation and assessment to recover te full
valuation of te goods and services provided b0 forests5 forest lands
and 4oodlands
-asis for action
11.2). T%e vast potential o, ,orests and ,orest lands as a ma?or resorce ,or development
is not $et ,ll$ reali5ed. T%e improved mana!ement o, ,orests can increase t%e prodction
o, !oods and services and0 in particlar0 t%e $ield o, 2ood and non-2ood ,orest prodcts0
t%s %elpin! to !enerate additional emplo$ment and income0 additional vale t%ro!%
processin! and trade o, ,orest prodcts0 increased contribtion to ,orei!n e3c%an!e
earnin!s0 and increased retrn on investment. Forest resorces0 bein! rene2able0 can be
sstainabl$ mana!ed in a manner t%at is compatible 2it% environmental conservation.
T%e implications o, t%e %arvestin! o, ,orest resorces ,or t%e ot%er vales o, t%e ,orest
s%old be ta*en ,ll$ into consideration in t%e development o, ,orest policies. It is also
possible to increase t%e vale o, ,orests t%ro!% non-dama!in! ses sc% as eco-torism
and t%e mana!ed sppl$ o, !enetic materials. Concerted action is needed in order to
increase people9s perception o, t%e vale o, ,orests and o, t%e bene,its t%e$ provide. T%e
srvival o, ,orests and t%eir contined contribtion to %man 2el,are depends to a !reat
e3tent on scceedin! in t%is endeavor.
#b.ectives
11.21. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are as ,ollo2s.
BaC To improve reco!nition o, t%e social0 economic and ecolo!ical vales o, trees0 ,orests
and ,orest lands0 incldin! t%e conse1ences o, t%e dama!e cased b$ t%e lac* o, ,orests<
to promote met%odolo!ies 2it% a vie2 to incorporatin! social0 economic and ecolo!ical
vales o, trees0 ,orests and ,orest lands into t%e national economic accontin! s$stems< to
ensre t%eir sstainable mana!ement in a 2a$ t%at is consistent 2it% land se0
environmental considerations and development needs<
BbC To promote e,,icient0 rational and sstainable tili5ation o, all t$pes o, ,orests and
ve!etation inclsive o, ot%er related lands and ,orest-based resorces0 t%ro!% t%e
development o, e,,icient ,orest-based processin! indstries0 vale-addin! secondar$
processin! and trade in ,orest prodcts0 based on sstainabl$ mana!ed ,orest resorces
and in accordance 2it% plans t%at inte!rate all 2ood and non-2ood vales o, ,orests<
BcC To promote more e,,icient and sstainable se o, ,orests and trees ,or ,el2ood and
ener!$ spplies<
BdC To promote more compre%ensive se and economic contribtions o, ,orest areas b$
incorporatin! eco-torism into ,orest mana!ement and plannin!.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
11.22. 7overnments0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e private sector0 scienti,ic instittions0
indi!enos people0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 cooperatives and entrepreners0
2%ere appropriate0 s%old nderta*e t%e ,ollo2in! activities0 properl$ coordinated at t%e
national level0 2it% ,inancial and tec%nical cooperation ,rom international or!ani5ations.
BaC Carr$in! ot detailed investment stdies0 sppl$-demand %armoni5ation and
environmental impact anal$sis to rationali5e and improve trees and ,orest tili5ation and
to develop and establis% appropriate incentive sc%emes and re!lator$ measres0
incldin! tenrial arran!ements0 to provide a ,avorable investment climate and promote
better mana!ement<
BbC Formlatin! scienti,icall$ sond criteria and !idelines ,or t%e mana!ement0
conservation and sstainable development o, all t$pes o, ,orests<
BcC Improvin! environmentall$ sond met%ods and practices o, ,orest %arvestin!0 2%ic%
are ecolo!icall$ sond and economicall$ viable0 incldin! plannin! and mana!ement0
improved se o, e1ipment0 stora!e and transportation to redce and0 i, possible0
ma3imi5e t%e se o, 2aste and improve vale o, bot% 2ood and non-2ood ,orest
prodcts<
BdC Promotin! t%e better se and development o, natral ,orests and 2oodlands0 incldin!
planted ,orests0 2%erever possible0 t%ro!% appropriate and environmentall$ sond and
economicall$ viable activities0 incldin! silvicltral practices and mana!ement o, ot%er
plant and animal species<
BeC Promotin! and spportin! t%e do2nstream processin! o, ,orest prodcts to increase
retained vale and ot%er bene,its<
B,C Promotin!=poplari5in! non-2ood ,orest prodcts and ot%er ,orms o, ,orest resorces0
apart ,rom ,el2ood Be.!.0 medicinal plants0 d$es0 ,ibres0 !ms0 resins0 ,odder0 cltral
prodcts0 rattan0 bambooC t%ro!% pro!rammes and social ,orestr$=participator$ ,orest
activities0 incldin! researc% on t%eir processin! and ses<
B!C Developin!0 e3pandin! and=or improvin! t%e e,,ectiveness and e,,icienc$ o, ,orest-
based processin! indstries0 bot% 2ood and non-2ood based0 involvin! sc% aspects as
e,,icient conversion tec%nolo!$ and improved sstainable tili5ation o, %arvestin! and
process resides< promotin! ndertili5ed species in natral ,orests t%ro!% researc%0
demonstration and commerciali5ation< promotin! vale-addin! secondar$ processin! ,or
improved emplo$ment0 income and retained vale< and promotin!=improvin! mar*ets ,or0
and trade in0 ,orest prodcts t%ro!% relevant instittions0 policies and ,acilities<
B%C Promotin! and spportin! t%e mana!ement o, 2ildli,e0 as 2ell as eco-torism0
incldin! ,armin!0 and encora!in! and spportin! t%e %sbandr$ and cltivation o, 2ild
species0 ,or improved rral income and emplo$ment0 ensrin! economic and social
bene,its 2it%ot %arm,l ecolo!ical impacts<
BiC Promotin! appropriate small-scale ,orest-based enterprises ,or spportin! rral
development and local entrepreners%ip<
B?C Improvin! and promotin! met%odolo!ies ,or a compre%ensive assessment t%at 2ill
captre t%e ,ll vale o, ,orests0 2it% a vie2 to incldin! t%at vale in t%e mar*et-based
pricin! strctre o, 2ood and non-2ood based prodcts<
B*C 4armoni5in! sstainable development o, ,orests 2it% national development needs and
trade policies t%at are compatible 2it% t%e ecolo!icall$ sond se o, ,orest resorces0
sin!0 ,or e3ample0 t%e ITTO 7idelines ,or Sstainable -ana!ement o, Tropical
Forests<
BlC Developin!0 adoptin! and stren!t%enin! national pro!rammes ,or accontin! t%e
economic and non-economic vale o, ,orests.
-/ Data and information
11.2#. T%e ob?ectives and mana!ement-related activities presppose data and in,ormation
anal$sis0 ,easibilit$ stdies0 mar*et srve$s and revie2 o, tec%nolo!ical in,ormation.
Some o, t%e relevant activities inclde.
BaC >nderta*in! anal$sis o, sppl$ and demand ,or ,orest prodcts and services0 to ensre
e,,icienc$ in t%eir tili5ation0 2%erever necessar$<
BbC Carr$in! ot investment anal$sis and ,easibilit$ stdies0 incldin! environmental
impact assessment0 ,or establis%in! ,orest-based processin! enterprises<
BcC Condctin! researc% on t%e properties o, crrentl$ ndertili5ed species ,or t%eir
promotion and commerciali5ation<
BdC Spportin! mar*et srve$s o, ,orest prodcts ,or trade promotion and intelli!ence<
BeC Facilitatin! t%e provision o, ade1ate tec%nolo!ical in,ormation as a measre to
promote better tili5ation o, ,orest resorces.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
11.2". Cooperation and assistance o, international or!ani5ations and t%e international
commnit$ in tec%nolo!$ trans,er0 speciali5ation and promotion o, ,air terms o, trade0
2it%ot resortin! to nilateral restrictions and=or bans on ,orest prodcts contrar$ to
7:TT and ot%er mltilateral trade a!reements0 t%e application o, appropriate mar*et
mec%anisms and incentives 2ill %elp in addressin! !lobal environmental concerns.
Stren!t%enin! t%e coordination and per,ormance o, e3istin! international or!ani5ations0
in particlar F:O0 >;IDO0 >;/SCO0 >;/P0 ITC=>;CT:D=7:TT0 ITTO and I8O0 ,or
providin! tec%nical assistance and !idance in t%is pro!ramme area is anot%er speci,ic
activit$.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
11.2'. T%e secretariat o, t%e Con,erence %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost
B1++#-2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1( billion0
incldin! abot D(() million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
11.26. T%e pro!ramme activities presppose ma?or researc% e,,orts and stdies0 as 2ell as
improvement o, tec%nolo!$. T%is s%old be coordinated b$ national 7overnments0 in
collaboration 2it% and spported b$ relevant international or!ani5ations and instittions.
Some o, t%e speci,ic components inclde.
BaC Researc% on properties o, 2ood and non-2ood prodcts and t%eir ses0 to promote
improved tili5ation<
BbC Development and application o, environmentall$ sond and less-polltin! tec%nolo!$
,or ,orest tili5ation<
BcC -odels and tec%ni1es o, otloo* anal$sis and development plannin!<
BdC Scienti,ic investi!ations on t%e development and tili5ation o, non-timber ,orest
prodcts<
BeC ppropriate met%odolo!ies to compre%ensivel$ assess t%e vale o, ,orests.
C/ *uman resource development
11.2&. T%e sccess and e,,ectiveness o, t%e pro!ramme area depends on t%e availabilit$
o, s*illed personnel. Speciali5ed trainin! is an important ,actor in t%is re!ard. ;e2
emp%asis s%old be !iven to t%e incorporation o, 2omen. 4man resorce development
,or pro!ramme implementation0 in 1antitative and 1alitative terms0 s%old inclde.
BaC Developin! re1ired speciali5ed s*ills to implement t%e pro!ramme0 incldin!
establis%in! special trainin! ,acilities at all levels<
BbC Introdcin!=stren!t%enin! re,res%er trainin! corses0 incldin! ,ello2s%ips and std$
tors0 to pdate s*ills and tec%nolo!ical *no2-%o2 and improve prodctivit$<
BcC Stren!t%enin! capabilit$ ,or researc%0 plannin!0 economic anal$sis0 periodical
evalations and evalation0 relevant to improved tili5ation o, ,orest resorces<
BdC Promotin! e,,icienc$ and capabilit$ o, private and cooperative sectors t%ro!%
provision o, ,acilities and incentives.
D/ Capacit01building
11.2(. Capacit$-bildin!0 incldin! stren!t%enin! o, e3istin! capacit$0 is implicit in t%e
pro!ramme activities. Improvin! administration0 polic$ and plans0 national instittions0
%man resorces0 researc% and scienti,ic capabilities0 tec%nolo!$ development0 and
periodical evalations and evalation are important components o, capacit$-bildin!.
D$ Establising and:or strengtening capacities for te planning5
assessment and s0stematic observations of forests and related
programmes5 pro.ects and activities5 including commercial trade
and processes
-asis for action
11.2+. :ssessment and s$stematic observations are essential components o, lon!-term
plannin!0 ,or evalatin! e,,ects0 1antitativel$ and 1alitativel$0 and ,or recti,$in!
inade1acies. T%is mec%anism0 %o2ever0 is one o, t%e o,ten ne!lected aspects o, ,orest
resorces0 mana!ement0 conservation and development. In man$ cases0 even t%e basic
in,ormation related to t%e area and t$pe o, ,orests0 e3istin! potential and volme o,
%arvest is lac*in!. In man$ developin! contries0 t%ere is a lac* o, strctres and
mec%anisms to carr$ ot t%ese ,nctions. T%ere is an r!ent need to recti,$ t%is sitation
,or a better nderstandin! o, t%e role and importance o, ,orests and to realisticall$ plan
,or t%eir e,,ective conservation0 mana!ement0 re!eneration0 and sstainable development.
#b.ectives
11.#). T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are as ,ollo2s.
BaC To stren!t%en or establis% s$stems ,or t%e assessment and s$stematic observations o,
,orests and ,orest lands 2it% a vie2 to assessin! t%e impacts o, pro!rammes0 pro?ects and
activities on t%e 1alit$ and e3tent o, ,orest resorces0 land available ,or a,,orestation0
and land tenre0 and to inte!rate t%e s$stems in a continin! process o, researc% and in-
dept% anal$sis0 2%ile ensrin! necessar$ modi,ications and improvements ,or plannin!
and decision-ma*in!. Speci,ic emp%asis s%old be !iven to t%e participation o, rral
people in t%ese processes<
BbC To provide economists0 planners0 decision ma*ers and local commnities 2it% sond
and ade1ate pdated in,ormation on ,orests and ,orest land resorces.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
11.#1. 7overnments and instittions0 in collaboration0 2%ere necessar$0 2it% appropriate
international a!encies and or!ani5ations0 niversities and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 s%old nderta*e assessments and s$stematic observations o, ,orests and
related pro!rammes and processes 2it% a vie2 to t%eir continos improvement. T%is
s%old be lin*ed to related activities o, researc% and mana!ement and0 2%erever possible0
be bilt pon e3istin! s$stems. -a?or activities to be considered are.
BaC :ssessin! and carr$in! ot s$stematic observations o, t%e 1antitative and 1alitative
sitation and c%an!es o, ,orest cover and ,orest resorces endo2ments0 incldin! land
classi,ication0 land se and pdates o, its stats0 at t%e appropriate national level0 and
lin*in! t%is activit$0 as appropriate0 2it% plannin! as a basis ,or polic$ and pro!ramme
,ormlation<
BbC /stablis%in! national assessment and s$stematic observation s$stems and evalation
o, pro!rammes and processes0 incldin! establis%ment o, de,initions0 standards0 norms
and intercalibration met%ods0 and t%e capabilit$ ,or initiatin! corrective actions as 2ell as
improvin! t%e ,ormlation and implementation o, pro!rammes and pro?ects<
BcC -a*in! estimates o, impacts o, activities a,,ectin! ,orestr$ developments and
conservation proposals0 in terms o, *e$ variables sc% as developmental !oals0 bene,its
and costs0 contribtions o, ,orests to ot%er sectors0 commnit$ 2el,are0 environmental
conditions and biolo!ical diversit$ and t%eir impacts at t%e local0 re!ional and !lobal
levels0 2%ere appropriate0 to assess t%e c%an!in! tec%nolo!ical and ,inancial needs o,
contries<
BdC Developin! national s$stems o, ,orest resorce assessment and valation0 incldin!
necessar$ researc% and data anal$sis0 2%ic% accont ,or0 2%ere possible0 t%e ,ll ran!e o,
2ood and non-2ood ,orest prodcts and services0 and incorporatin! reslts in plans and
strate!ies and0 2%ere ,easible0 in national s$stems o, acconts and plannin!<
BeC /stablis%in! necessar$ intersectoral and pro!ramme lin*a!es0 incldin! improved
access to in,ormation0 in order to spport a %olistic approac% to plannin! and
pro!rammin!.
-/ Data and information
11.#2. Reliable data and in,ormation are vital to t%is pro!ramme area. ;ational
7overnments0 in collaboration0 2%ere necessar$0 2it% relevant international
or!ani5ations0 s%old0 as appropriate0 nderta*e to improve data and in,ormation
continosl$ and to ensre its e3c%an!e. -a?or activities to be considered are as ,ollo2s.
BaC Collectin!0 consolidatin! and e3c%an!in! e3istin! in,ormation and establis%in!
baseline in,ormation on aspects relevant to t%is pro!ramme area<
BbC 4armoni5in! t%e met%odolo!ies ,or pro!rammes involvin! data and in,ormation
activities to ensre accrac$ and consistenc$<
BcC >nderta*in! special srve$s on0 ,or e3ample0 land capabilit$ and sitabilit$ ,or
a,,orestation action<
BdC /n%ancin! researc% spport and improvin! access to and e3c%an!e o, researc% reslts.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
11.##. T%e international commnit$ s%old e3tend to t%e 7overnments concerned
necessar$ tec%nical and ,inancial spport ,or implementin! t%is pro!ramme area0
incldin! consideration o, t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC /stablis%in! conceptal ,rame2or* and ,ormlatin! acceptable criteria0 norms and
de,initions ,or s$stematic observations and assessment o, ,orest resorces<
BbC /stablis%in! and stren!t%enin! national instittional coordination mec%anisms ,or
,orest assessment and s$stematic observation activities<
BcC Stren!t%enin! e3istin! re!ional and !lobal net2or*s ,or t%e e3c%an!e o, relevant
in,ormation<
BdC Stren!t%enin! t%e capacit$ and abilit$ and improvin! t%e per,ormance o, e3istin!
international or!ani5ations0 sc% as t%e Consltative 7rop on International :!ricltral
Researc% BC7I:RC0 F:O0 ITTO0 >;/P0 >;/SCO and >;IDO0 to provide tec%nical
spport and !idance in t%is pro!ramme area.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
11.#". T%e secretariat o, t%e Con,erence %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost
B1++#-2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D&') million0
incldin! abot D2#) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
11.#'. :cceleratin! development consists o, implementin! t%e mana!ement-related and
data=in,ormation activities cited above. :ctivities related to !lobal environmental isses
are t%ose t%at 2ill contribte to !lobal in,ormation ,or assessin!=evalatin!=addressin!
environmental isses on a 2orld2ide basis. Stren!t%enin! t%e capacit$ o, international
instittions consists o, en%ancin! t%e tec%nical sta,, and t%e e3ectin! capacit$ o, several
international or!ani5ations in order to meet t%e re1irements o, contries.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
11.#6. :ssessment and s$stematic observation activities involve ma?or researc% e,,orts0
statistical modellin! and tec%nolo!ical innovation. T%ese %ave been internali5ed into t%e
mana!ement-related activities. T%e activities in trn 2ill improve t%e tec%nolo!ical and
scienti,ic content o, assessment and periodical evalations. Some o, t%e speci,ic scienti,ic
and tec%nolo!ical components inclded nder t%ese activities are.
BaC Developin! tec%nical0 ecolo!ical and economic met%ods and models related to
periodical evalations and evalation<
BbC Developin! data s$stems0 data processin! and statistical modellin!<
BcC Remote sensin! and !rond srve$s<
BdC Developin! !eo!rap%ic in,ormation s$stems<
BeC :ssessin! and improvin! tec%nolo!$.
11.#&. T%ese are to be lin*ed and %armoni5ed 2it% similar activities and components in
t%e ot%er pro!ramme areas.
C/ *uman resource development
11.#(. T%e pro!ramme activities ,oresee t%e need and inclde provision ,or %man
resorce development in terms o, speciali5ation Be.!.0 t%e se o, remote-sensin!0 mappin!
and statistical modellin!C0 trainin!0 tec%nolo!$ trans,er0 ,ello2s%ips and ,ield
demonstrations.
D/ Capacit01building
11.#+. ;ational 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% appropriate international
or!ani5ations and instittions0 s%old develop t%e necessar$ capacit$ ,or implementin!
t%is pro!ramme area. T%is s%old be %armoni5ed 2it% capacit$-bildin! ,or ot%er
pro!ramme areas. Capacit$-bildin! s%old cover sc% aspects as policies0 pblic
administration0 national-level instittions0 %man resorce and s*ill development0
researc% capabilit$0 tec%nolo!$ development0 in,ormation s$stems0 pro!ramme
evalation0 intersectoral coordination and international cooperation.
E/ )unding of international and regional cooperation
11."). T%e secretariat o, t%e Con,erence %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost
B1++#-2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D&') million0
incldin! abot D'#) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 12
%anaging )ragile Ecos0stems< Combating Desertification , Drougt
"ntroduction
12.1. Fra!ile ecos$stems are important ecos$stems0 2it% ni1e ,eatres and resorces.
Fra!ile ecos$stems inclde deserts0 semi-arid lands0 montains0 2etlands0 small islands
and certain coastal areas. -ost o, t%ese ecos$stems are re!ional in scope0 as t%e$
transcend national bondaries. T%is c%apter addresses land resorce isses in deserts0 as
2ell as arid0 semi-arid and dr$ sb-%mid areas. Sstainable montain development is
addressed in c%apter 1#< small islands and coastal areas are discssed in c%apter 1&.
12.2. Deserti,ication is land de!radation in arid0 semi-arid and dr$ sb-%mid areas
resltin! ,rom varios ,actors0 incldin! climatic variations and %man activities.
Deserti,ication a,,ects abot one si3t% o, t%e 2orld9s poplation0 &) per cent o, all
dr$lands0 amontin! to #.6 billion %ectares0 and one 1arter o, t%e total land area o, t%e
2orld. T%e most obvios impact o, deserti,ication0 in addition to 2idespread povert$0 is
t%e de!radation o, #.# billion %ectares o, t%e total area o, ran!eland0 constittin! &# per
cent o, t%e ran!eland 2it% a lo2 potential ,or %man and animal carr$in! capacit$<
decline in soil ,ertilit$ and soil strctre on abot "& per cent o, t%e dr$land areas
constittin! mar!inal rain,ed cropland< and t%e de!radation o, irri!ated cropland0
amontin! to #) per cent o, t%e dr$land areas 2it% a %i!% poplation densit$ and
a!ricltral potential.
12.#. T%e priorit$ in combatin! deserti,ication s%old be t%e implementation o,
preventive measres ,or lands t%at are not $et de!raded0 or 2%ic% are onl$ sli!%tl$
de!raded. 4o2ever0 t%e severel$ de!raded areas s%old not be ne!lected. In combatin!
deserti,ication and dro!%t0 t%e participation o, local commnities0 rral or!ani5ations0
national 7overnments0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and international and re!ional
or!ani5ations is essential.
12.". T%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas are inclded in t%is c%apter.
BaC Stren!t%enin! t%e *no2led!e base and developin! in,ormation and monitorin!
s$stems ,or re!ions prone to deserti,ication and dro!%t0 incldin! t%e economic and
social aspects o, t%ese ecos$stems<
BbC Combatin! land de!radation t%ro!%0 inter alia0 intensi,ied soil conservation0
a,,orestation and re,orestation activities<
BcC Developin! and stren!t%enin! inte!rated development pro!rammes ,or t%e eradication
o, povert$ and promotion o, alternative liveli%ood s$stems in areas prone to
deserti,ication<
BdC Developin! compre%ensive anti-deserti,ication pro!rammes and inte!ratin! t%em into
national development plans and national environmental plannin!<
BeC Developin! compre%ensive dro!%t preparedness and dro!%t-relie, sc%emes0
incldin! sel,-%elp arran!ements0 ,or dro!%t-prone areas and desi!nin! pro!rammes to
cope 2it% environmental re,!ees<
B,C /ncora!in! and promotin! poplar participation and environmental edcation0
,ocsin! on deserti,ication control and mana!ement o, t%e e,,ects o, dro!%t.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Strengtening te kno4ledge base and developing information and
monitoring s0stems for regions prone to desertification and drougt5
including te economic and social aspects of tese ecos0stems
-asis for action
12.'. T%e !lobal assessments o, t%e stats and rate o, deserti,ication condcted b$ t%e
>nited ;ations /nvironment Pro!ramme B>;/PC in 1+&&0 1+(" and 1++1 %ave revealed
ins,,icient basic *no2led!e o, deserti,ication processes. :de1ate 2orld-2ide
s$stematic observation s$stems are %elp,l ,or t%e development and implementation o,
e,,ective anti-deserti,ication pro!rammes. T%e capacit$ o, e3istin! international0 re!ional
and national instittions0 particlarl$ in developin! contries0 to !enerate and e3c%an!e
relevant in,ormation is limited. :n inte!rated and coordinated in,ormation and s$stematic
observation s$stem based on appropriate tec%nolo!$ and embracin! !lobal0 re!ional0
national and local levels is essential ,or nderstandin! t%e d$namics o, deserti,ication and
dro!%t processes. It is also important ,or developin! ade1ate measres to deal 2it%
deserti,ication and dro!%t and improvin! socio-economic conditions.
#b.ectives
12.6. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To promote t%e establis%ment and=or stren!t%enin! o, national environmental
in,ormation coordination centres t%at 2ill act as ,ocal points 2it%in 7overnments ,or
sectoral ministries and provide t%e necessar$ standardi5ation and bac*-p services< to
ensre also t%at national environmental in,ormation s$stems on deserti,ication and
dro!%t are lin*ed to!et%er t%ro!% a net2or* at sbre!ional0 re!ional and interre!ional
levels<
BbC To stren!t%en re!ional and !lobal s$stematic observation net2or*s lin*ed to t%e
development o, national s$stems ,or t%e observation o, land de!radation and
deserti,ication cased bot% b$ climate ,lctations and b$ %man impact0 and to identi,$
priorit$ areas ,or action<
BcC To establis% a permanent s$stem at bot% national and international levels ,or
monitorin! deserti,ication and land de!radation 2it% t%e aim o, improvin! livin!
conditions in t%e a,,ected areas.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
12.&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% and=or stren!t%en environmental in,ormation s$stems at t%e national level<
BbC Stren!t%en national0 state=provincial and local assessment and ensre
cooperation=net2or*in! bet2een e3istin! environmental in,ormation and monitorin!
s$stems0 sc% as /art%2atc% and t%e Sa%ara and Sa%el Observator$<
BcC Stren!t%en t%e capacit$ o, national instittions to anal$se environmental data so t%at
ecolo!ical c%an!e can be monitored and environmental in,ormation obtained on a
continin! basis at t%e national level.
-/ Data and information
12.(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Revie2 and std$ t%e means ,or measrin! t%e ecolo!ical0 economic and social
conse1ences o, deserti,ication and land de!radation and introdce t%e reslts o, t%ese
stdies internationall$ into deserti,ication and land de!radation assessment practices<
BbC Revie2 and std$ t%e interactions bet2een t%e socio-economic impacts o, climate0
dro!%t and deserti,ication and tili5e t%e reslts o, t%ese stdies to secre concrete
action.
12.+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Spport t%e inte!rated data collection and researc% 2or* o, pro!rammes related to
deserti,ication and dro!%t problems<
BbC Spport national0 re!ional and !lobal pro!rammes ,or inte!rated data collection and
researc% net2or*s carr$in! ot assessment o, soil and land de!radation<
BcC Stren!t%en national and re!ional meteorolo!ical and %$drolo!ical net2or*s and
monitorin! s$stems to ensre ade1ate collection o, basic in,ormation and
commnication amon! national0 re!ional and international centres.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
12.1). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en re!ional pro!rammes and international cooperation0 sc% as t%e Permanent
Inter-State Committee on Dro!%t Control in t%e Sa%el BCI8SSC0 t%e Inter!overnmental
:t%orit$ ,or Dro!%t and Development BI7:DDC0 t%e Sot%ern :,rican Development
Coordination Con,erence BS:DCCC0 t%e :rab -a!%reb >nion and ot%er re!ional
or!ani5ations0 as 2ell as sc% or!ani5ations as t%e Sa%ara and Sa%el Observator$<
BbC /stablis% and=or develop a compre%ensive deserti,ication0 land de!radation and
%man condition database component t%at incorporates bot% p%$sical and socio-economic
parameters. T%is s%old be based on e3istin! and0 2%ere necessar$0 additional ,acilities0
sc% as t%ose o, /art%2atc% and ot%er in,ormation s$stems o, international0 re!ional and
national instittions stren!t%ened ,or t%is prpose<
BcC Determine benc%mar*s and de,ine indicators o, pro!ress t%at ,acilitate t%e 2or* o,
local and re!ional or!ani5ations in trac*in! pro!ress in t%e ,i!%t ,or anti-deserti,ication.
Particlar attention s%old be paid to indicators o, local participation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
12.11. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D#') million0
incldin! abot D1&' million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
12.12. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations 2or*in! on t%e isse o, deserti,ication and dro!%t0 s%old.
BaC >nderta*e and pdate e3istin! inventories o, natral resorces0 sc% as ener!$0 2ater0
soil0 minerals0 plant and animal access to ,ood0 as 2ell as ot%er resorces0 sc% as
%osin!0 emplo$ment0 %ealt%0 edcation and demo!rap%ic distribtion in time and space<
BbC Develop inte!rated in,ormation s$stems ,or environmental monitorin!0 accontin!
and impact assessment<
BcC International bodies s%old cooperate 2it% national 7overnments to ,acilitate t%e
ac1isition and development o, appropriate tec%nolo!$ ,or monitorin! and combatin!
dro!%t and deserti,ication.
C/ *uman resource development
12.1#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations 2or*in! on t%e isse o, deserti,ication and dro!%t0 s%old
develop t%e tec%nical and pro,essional s*ills o, people en!a!ed in monitorin! and
assessin! t%e isse o, deserti,ication and dro!%t.
D/ Capacit01building
12.1". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations 2or*in! on t%e isse o, deserti,ication and dro!%t0 s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en national and local instittions b$ providin! ade1ate sta,, e1ipment and
,inance ,or assessin! deserti,ication<
BbC Promote t%e involvement o, t%e local poplation0 particlarl$ 2omen and $ot%0 in
t%e collection and tili5ation o, environmental in,ormation t%ro!% edcation and
a2areness-bildin!.
-$ Combating land degradation troug5 inter alia5 intensified soil
conservation5 afforestation and reforestation activities
-asis for action
12.1'. Deserti,ication a,,ects abot #.6 billion %ectares0 2%ic% is abot &) per cent o, t%e
total area o, t%e 2orld9s dr$lands or nearl$ one 1arter o, t%e !lobal land area. In
combatin! deserti,ication on ran!eland0 rain,ed cropland and irri!ated land0 preventative
measres s%old be lanc%ed in areas 2%ic% are not $et a,,ected or are onl$ sli!%tl$
a,,ected b$ deserti,ication< corrective measres s%old be implemented to sstain t%e
prodctivit$ o, moderatel$ deserti,ied land< and re%abilitative measres s%old be ta*en
to recover severel$ or ver$ severel$ deserti,ied dr$lands.
12.16. :n increasin! ve!etation cover 2old promote and stabili5e t%e %$drolo!ical
balance in t%e dr$land areas and maintain land 1alit$ and land prodctivit$. Prevention
o, not $et de!raded land and application o, corrective measres and re%abilitation o,
moderate and severel$ de!raded dr$lands0 incldin! areas a,,ected b$ sand dne
movements0 t%ro!% t%e introdction o, environmentall$ sond0 sociall$ acceptable0 ,air
and economicall$ ,easible land-se s$stems. T%is 2ill en%ance t%e land carr$in! capacit$
and maintenance o, biotic resorces in ,ra!ile ecos$stems.
#b.ectives
12.1&. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC :s re!ards areas not $et a,,ected or onl$ sli!%tl$ a,,ected b$ deserti,ication0 to ensre
appropriate mana!ement o, e3istin! natral ,ormations Bincldin! ,orestsC ,or t%e
conservation o, biodiversit$0 2aters%ed protection0 sstainabilit$ o, t%eir prodction and
a!ricltral development0 and ot%er prposes0 2it% t%e ,ll participation o, indi!enos
people<
BbC To re%abilitate moderatel$ to severel$ deserti,ied dr$lands ,or prodctive tili5ation
and sstain t%eir prodctivit$ ,or a!ropastoral=a!ro,orestr$ development t%ro!%0 inter
alia0 soil and 2ater conservation<
BcC To increase t%e ve!etation cover and spport mana!ement o, biotic resorces in
re!ions a,,ected or prone to deserti,ication and dro!%t0 notabl$ t%ro!% sc% activities as
a,,orestation=re,orestation0 a!ro,orestr$0 commnit$ ,orestr$ and ve!etation retention
sc%emes<
BdC To improve mana!ement o, ,orest resorces0 incldin! 2ood,el0 and to redce
2ood,el consmption t%ro!% more e,,icient tili5ation0 conservation and t%e
en%ancement0 development and se o, ot%er sorces o, ener!$0 incldin! alternative
sorces o, ener!$.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
12.1(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Implement r!ent direct preventive measres in dr$lands t%at are vlnerable bt not
$et a,,ected0 or onl$ sli!%tl$ deserti,ied dr$lands0 b$ introdcin! BiC improved land-se
policies and practices ,or more sstainable land prodctivit$< BiiC appropriate0
environmentall$ sond and economicall$ ,easible a!ricltral and pastoral tec%nolo!ies<
and BiiiC improved mana!ement o, soil and 2ater resorces<
BbC Carr$ ot accelerated a,,orestation and re,orestation pro!rammes0 sin! dro!%t-
resistant0 ,ast-!ro2in! species0 in particlar native ones0 incldin! le!mes and ot%er
species0 combined 2it% commnit$-based a!ro,orestr$ sc%emes. In t%is re!ard0 creation
o, lar!e-scale re,orestation and a,,orestation sc%emes0 particlarl$ t%ro!% t%e
establis%ment o, !reen belts0 s%old be considered0 bearin! in mind t%e mltiple bene,its
o, sc% measres<
BcC Implement r!ent direct corrective measres in moderatel$ to severel$ deserti,ied
dr$lands0 in addition to t%e measres listed in para!rap% 1+ BaC above0 2it% a vie2 to
restorin! and sstainin! t%eir prodctivit$<
BdC Promote improved land=2ater=crop-mana!ement s$stems0 ma*in! it possible to
combat salini5ation in e3istin! irri!ated croplands< and to stabili5e rain,ed croplands and
introdce improved soil=crop-mana!ement s$stems into land-se practice<
BeC Promote participator$ mana!ement o, natral resorces0 incldin! ran!eland0 to meet
bot% t%e needs o, rral poplations and conservation prposes0 based on innovative or
adapted indi!enos tec%nolo!ies<
B,C Promote in sit protection and conservation o, special ecolo!ical areas t%ro!%
le!islation and ot%er means ,or t%e prpose o, combatin! deserti,ication 2%ile ensrin!
t%e protection o, biodiversit$<
B!C Promote and encora!e investment in ,orestr$ development in dr$lands t%ro!%
varios incentives0 incldin! le!islative measres<
B%C Promote t%e development and se o, sorces o, ener!$ 2%ic% 2ill lessen pressre on
li!neos resorces0 incldin! alternative sorces o, ener!$ and improved stoves.
-/ Data and information
12.1+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop land-se models based on local practices ,or t%e improvement o, sc%
practices0 2it% a ,ocs on preventin! land de!radation. T%e models s%old !ive a better
nderstandin! o, t%e variet$ o, natral and %man-indced ,actors t%at ma$ contribte to
deserti,ication. -odels s%old incorporate t%e interaction o, bot% ne2 and traditional
practices to prevent land de!radation and re,lect t%e resilience o, t%e 2%ole ecolo!ical
and social s$stem<
BbC Develop0 test and introdce0 2it% de re!ard to environmental secrit$ considerations0
dro!%t resistant0 ,ast-!ro2in! and prodctive plant species appropriate to t%e
environment o, t%e re!ions concerned.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
12.2). T%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies0 international and re!ional or!ani5ations0
non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and bilateral a!encies s%old.
BaC Coordinate t%eir roles in combatin! land de!radation and promotin! re,orestation0
a!ro,orestr$ and land-mana!ement s$stems in a,,ected contries<
BbC Spport re!ional and sbre!ional activities in tec%nolo!$ development and
dissemination0 trainin! and pro!ramme implementation to arrest dr$land de!radation.
12.21. T%e national 7overnments concerned0 t%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies and
bilateral a!encies s%old stren!t%en t%e coordinatin! role in dr$land de!radation o,
sbre!ional inter!overnmental or!ani5ations set p to cover t%ese activities0 sc% as
CI8SS0 I7:DD0 S:DCC and t%e :rab -a!%reb >nion.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
12.22. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D6 billion0 incldin!
abot D# billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese
are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
12.2#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and local commnities0 2it% t%e spport o,
t%e relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Inte!rate indi!enos *no2led!e related to ,orests0 ,orest lands0 ran!eland and natral
ve!etation into researc% activities on deserti,ication and dro!%t<
BbC Promote inte!rated researc% pro!rammes on t%e protection0 restoration and
conservation o, 2ater and land resorces and land-se mana!ement based on traditional
approac%es0 2%ere ,easible.
C/ *uman resource development
12.2". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and local commnities0 2it% t%e spport o,
t%e relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% mec%anisms to ensre t%at land sers0 particlarl$ 2omen0 are t%e main
actors in implementin! improved land se0 incldin! a!ro,orestr$ s$stems0 in combatin!
land de!radation<
BbC Promote e,,icient e3tension-service ,acilities in areas prone to deserti,ication and
dro!%t0 particlarl$ ,or trainin! ,armers and pastoralists in t%e improved mana!ement o,
land and 2ater resorces in dr$lands.
D/ Capacit01building
12.2'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and local commnities0 2it% t%e spport o,
t%e relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and adopt0 t%ro!% appropriate national le!islation0 and introdce
instittionall$0 ne2 and environmentall$ sond development-oriented land-se policies<
BbC Spport commnit$-based people9s or!ani5ations0 especiall$ ,armers and pastoralists.
C$ Developing and strengtening integrated development programmes for
te eradication of povert0 and promotion of alternative liveliood
s0stems in areas prone to desertification
-asis for action
12.26. In areas prone to deserti,ication and dro!%t0 crrent liveli%ood and resorce-se
s$stems are not able to maintain livin! standards. In most o, t%e arid and semi-arid areas0
t%e traditional liveli%ood s$stems based on a!ropastoral s$stems are o,ten inade1ate and
nsstainable0 particlarl$ in vie2 o, t%e e,,ects o, dro!%t and increasin! demo!rap%ic
pressre. Povert$ is a ma?or ,actor in acceleratin! t%e rate o, de!radation and
deserti,ication. :ction is t%ere,ore needed to re%abilitate and improve t%e a!ropastoral
s$stems ,or sstainable mana!ement o, ran!elands0 as 2ell as alternative liveli%ood
s$stems.
#b.ectives
12.2&. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To create t%e capacit$ o, villa!e commnities and pastoral !rops to ta*e c%ar!e o,
t%eir development and t%e mana!ement o, t%eir land resorces on a sociall$ e1itable and
ecolo!icall$ sond basis<
BbC To improve prodction s$stems in order to ac%ieve !reater prodctivit$ 2it%in
approved pro!rammes ,or conservation o, national resorces and in t%e ,rame2or* o, an
inte!rated approac% to rral development<
BcC To provide opportnities ,or alternative liveli%oods as a basis ,or redcin! pressre on
land resorces 2%ile at t%e same time providin! additional sorces o, income0
particlarl$ ,or rral poplations0 t%ereb$ improvin! t%eir standard o, livin!.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
12.2(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC :dopt policies at t%e national level re!ardin! a decentrali5ed approac% to land-
resorce mana!ement0 dele!atin! responsibilit$ to rral or!ani5ations<
BbC Create or stren!t%en rral or!ani5ations in c%ar!e o, villa!e and pastoral land
mana!ement<
BcC /stablis% and develop local0 national and intersectoral mec%anisms to %andle
environmental and developmental conse1ences o, land tenre e3pressed in terms o, land
se and land o2ners%ip. Particlar attention s%old be !iven to protectin! t%e propert$
ri!%ts o, 2omen and pastoral and nomadic !rops livin! in rral areas<
BdC Create or stren!t%en villa!e associations ,ocsed on economic activities o, common
pastoral interest Bmar*et !ardenin!0 trans,ormation o, a!ricltral prodcts0 livestoc*0
%erdin!0 etc.C<
BeC Promote rral credit and mobili5ation o, rral savin!s t%ro!% t%e establis%ment o,
rral ban*in! s$stems<
B,C Develop in,rastrctre0 as 2ell as local prodction and mar*etin! capacit$0 b$
involvin! t%e local people to promote alternative liveli%ood s$stems and alleviate
povert$<
B!C /stablis% a revolvin! ,nd ,or credit to rral entrepreners and local !rops to
,acilitate t%e establis%ment o, cotta!e indstries=bsiness ventres and credit ,or inpt to
a!ropastoral activities.
-/ Data and information
12.2+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Condct socio-economic baseline stdies in order to %ave a !ood nderstandin! o, t%e
sitation in t%e pro!ramme area re!ardin!0 particlarl$0 resorce and land tenre isses0
traditional land-mana!ement practices and c%aracteristics o, prodction s$stems<
BbC Condct inventor$ o, natral resorces Bsoil0 2ater and ve!etationC and t%eir state o,
de!radation0 based primaril$ on t%e *no2led!e o, t%e local poplation Be.!.0 rapid rral
appraisalC<
BcC Disseminate in,ormation on tec%nical pac*a!es adapted to t%e social0 economic and
ecolo!ical conditions o, eac%<
BdC Promote e3c%an!e and s%arin! o, in,ormation concernin! t%e development o,
alternative liveli%oods 2it% ot%er a!ro-ecolo!ical re!ions.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
12.#). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Promote cooperation and e3c%an!e o, in,ormation amon! t%e arid and semi-arid land
researc% instittions concernin! tec%ni1es and tec%nolo!ies to improve land and labor
prodctivit$0 as 2ell as viable prodction s$stems<
BbC Coordinate and %armoni5e t%e implementation o, pro!rammes and pro?ects ,nded b$
t%e international or!ani5ation commnities and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations t%at are
directed to2ards t%e alleviation o, povert$ and promotion o, an alternative liveli%ood
s$stem.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
12.#1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e costs ,or t%is pro!ramme area in
c%apter # BCombatin! povert$C and c%apter 1" BPromotin! sstainable a!ricltre and
rral developmentC.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
12.#2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC >nderta*e applied researc% in land se 2it% t%e spport o, local researc% instittions<
BbC Facilitate re!lar national0 re!ional and interre!ional commnication on and e3c%an!e
o, in,ormation and e3perience bet2een e3tension o,,icers and researc%ers<
BcC Spport and encora!e t%e introdction and se o, tec%nolo!ies ,or t%e !eneration o,
alternative sorces o, incomes.
C/ *uman resource development
12.##. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Train members o, rral or!ani5ations in mana!ement s*ills and train a!ropastoralists
in sc% special tec%ni1es as soil and 2ater conservation0 2ater %arvestin!0 a!ro,orestr$
and small-scale irri!ation<
BbC Train e3tension a!ents and o,,icers in t%e participator$ approac% to inte!rated land
mana!ement.
D/ Capacit01building
12.#". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old establis% and maintain mec%anisms to ensre t%e
inte!ration into sectoral and national development plans and pro!rammes o, strate!ies ,or
povert$ alleviation amon! t%e in%abitants o, lands prone to deserti,ication.
D$ Developing compreensive anti1desertification programmes and
integrating tem into national development plans and national
environmental planning
-asis for action
12.#'. In a nmber o, developin! contries a,,ected b$ deserti,ication0 t%e natral
resorce base is t%e main resorce pon 2%ic% t%e development process mst rel$. T%e
social s$stems interactin! 2it% land resorces ma*e t%e problem mc% more comple30
re1irin! an inte!rated approac% to t%e plannin! and mana!ement o, land resorces.
:ction plans to combat deserti,ication and dro!%t s%old inclde mana!ement aspects
o, t%e environment and development0 t%s con,ormin! 2it% t%e approac% o, inte!ratin!
national development plans and national environmental action plans.
#b.ectives
12.#6. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To stren!t%en national instittional capabilities to develop appropriate anti-
deserti,ication pro!rammes and to inte!rate t%em into national development plannin!<
BbC To develop and inte!rate strate!ic plannin! ,rame2or*s ,or t%e development0
protection and mana!ement o, natral resorces in dr$land areas into national
development plans0 incldin! national plans to combat deserti,ication0 and environmental
action plans in contries most prone to deserti,ication<
BcC To initiate a lon!-term process ,or implementin! and monitorin! strate!ies related to
natral resorces mana!ement<
BdC To stren!t%en re!ional and international cooperation ,or combatin! deserti,ication
t%ro!%0 inter alia0 t%e adoption o, le!al and ot%er instrments.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
12.#&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% or stren!t%en0 national and local anti-deserti,ication at%orities 2it%in
!overnment and local e3ective bodies0 as 2ell as local committees=associations o, land
sers0 in all rral commnities a,,ected0 2it% a vie2 to or!ani5in! 2or*in! cooperation
bet2een all actors concerned0 ,rom t%e !rass-roots level B,armers and pastoralistsC to t%e
%i!%er levels o, !overnment<
BbC Develop national plans o, action to combat deserti,ication and as appropriate0 ma*e
t%em inte!ral parts o, national development plans and national environmental action
plans<
BcC Implement policies directed to2ards improvin! land se0 mana!in! common lands
appropriatel$0 providin! incentives to small ,armers and pastoralists0 involvin! 2omen
and encora!in! private investment in t%e development o, dr$lands<
BdC /nsre coordination amon! ministries and instittions 2or*in! on anti-deserti,ication
pro!rammes at national and local levels.
-/ Data and information
12.#(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old promote in,ormation e3c%an!e and
cooperation 2it% respect to national plannin! and pro!rammin! amon! a,,ected
contries0 inter alia0 t%ro!% net2or*in!.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
12.#+. T%e relevant international or!ani5ations0 mltilateral ,inancial instittions0 non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations and bilateral a!encies s%old stren!t%en t%eir cooperation in
assistin! 2it% t%e preparation o, deserti,ication control pro!rammes and t%eir inte!ration
into national plannin! strate!ies0 2it% t%e establis%ment o, national coordinatin! and
s$stematic observation mec%anisms and 2it% t%e re!ional and !lobal net2or*in! o, t%ese
plans and mec%anisms.
12."). T%e 7eneral :ssembl$0 at its ,ort$-sevent% session0 s%old be re1ested to
establis%0 nder t%e ae!is o, t%e 7eneral :ssembl$0 an inter!overnmental ne!otiatin!
committee ,or t%e elaboration o, an international convention to combat deserti,ication in
in t%ose contries e3periencin! serios dro!%t and=or deserti,ication0 particlarl$ in
:,rica0 2it% a vie2 to ,inali5in! sc% a convention b$ Gne 1++".
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
12."1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1() million0
incldin! abot D+) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
12."2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and introdce appropriate improved sstainable a!ricltral and pastoral
tec%nolo!ies t%at are sociall$ and environmentall$ acceptable and economicall$ ,easible<
BbC >nderta*e applied std$ on t%e inte!ration o, environmental and developmental
activities into national development plans.
C/ *uman resource development
12."#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old nderta*e nation2ide ma?or anti-deserti,ication
a2areness=trainin! campai!ns 2it%in contries a,,ected t%ro!% e3istin! national mass
media ,acilities0 edcational net2or*s and ne2l$ created or stren!t%ened e3tension
services. T%is s%old ensre people9s access to *no2led!e o, deserti,ication and dro!%t
and to national plans o, action to combat deserti,ication.
D/ Capacit01building
12."". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old establis% and maintain mec%anisms to ensre
coordination o, sectoral ministries and instittions0 incldin! local-level instittions and
appropriate non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 in inte!ratin! anti-deserti,ication
pro!rammes into national development plans and national environmental action plans.
E$ Developing compreensive drougt preparedness and drougt1relief
scemes5 including self1elp arrangements5 for drougt1prone areas
and designing programmes to cope 4it environmental refugees
-asis for action
12."'. Dro!%t0 in di,,erin! de!rees o, ,re1enc$ and severit$0 is a recrrin! p%enomenon
t%ro!%ot mc% o, t%e developin! 2orld0 especiall$ :,rica. :part ,rom t%e %man toll -
an estimated # million people died in t%e mid-1+()s becase o, dro!%t in sb-Sa%aran
:,rica - t%e economic costs o, dro!%t-related disasters are also %i!% in terms o, lost
prodction0 missed inpts and diversion o, development resorces.
12."6. /arl$-2arnin! s$stems to ,orecast dro!%t 2ill ma*e possible t%e implementation
o, dro!%t-preparedness sc%emes. Inte!rated pac*a!es at t%e ,arm and 2aters%ed level0
sc% as alternative croppin! strate!ies0 soil and 2ater conservation and promotion o,
2ater %arvestin! tec%ni1es0 cold en%ance t%e capacit$ o, land to cope 2it% dro!%t and
provide basic necessities0 t%ereb$ minimi5in! t%e nmber o, environmental re,!ees and
t%e need ,or emer!enc$ dro!%t relie,. :t t%e same time0 contin!enc$ arran!ements ,or
relie, are needed ,or periods o, acte scarcit$.
#b.ectives
12."&. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To develop national strate!ies ,or dro!%t preparedness in bot% t%e s%ort and lon!
term0 aimed at redcin! t%e vlnerabilit$ o, prodction s$stems to dro!%t<
BbC To stren!t%en t%e ,lo2 o, earl$-2arnin! in,ormation to decision ma*ers and land
sers to enable nations to implement strate!ies ,or dro!%t intervention<
BcC To develop and inte!rate dro!%t-relie, sc%emes and means o, copin! 2it%
environmental re,!ees into national and re!ional development plannin!.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
12."(. In dro!%t-prone areas0 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o,
t%e relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Desi!n strate!ies to deal 2it% national ,ood de,iciencies in periods o, prodction
s%ort,all. T%ese strate!ies s%old deal 2it% isses o, stora!e and stoc*s0 imports0 port
,acilities0 ,ood stora!e0 transport and distribtion<
BbC Improve national and re!ional capacit$ ,or a!rometeorolo!$ and contin!enc$ crop
plannin!. :!rometeorolo!$ lin*s t%e ,re1enc$0 content and re!ional covera!e o, 2eat%er
,orecasts 2it% t%e re1irements o, crop plannin! and a!ricltral e3tension<
BcC Prepare rral pro?ects ,or providin! s%ort-term rral emplo$ment to dro!%t-a,,ected
%ose%olds. T%e loss o, income and entitlement to ,ood is a common sorce o, distress in
times o, dro!%t. Rral 2or*s %elp to !enerate t%e income re1ired to b$ ,ood ,or poor
%ose%olds<
BdC /stablis% contin!enc$ arran!ements0 2%ere necessar$0 ,or ,ood and ,odder
distribtion and 2ater sppl$<
BeC /stablis% bd!etar$ mec%anisms ,or providin!0 at s%ort notice0 resorces ,or dro!%t
relie,<
B,C /stablis% sa,et$ nets ,or t%e most vlnerable %ose%olds.
-/ Data and information
12."+. 7overnments o, a,,ected contries0 at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e
relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Implement researc% on seasonal ,orecasts to improve contin!enc$ plannin! and relie,
operations and allo2 preventive measres to be ta*en at t%e ,arm level0 sc% as t%e
selection o, appropriate varieties and ,armin! practices0 in times o, dro!%t<
BbC Spport applied researc% on 2a$s o, redcin! 2ater loss ,rom soils0 on 2a$s o,
increasin! t%e 2ater absorption capacities o, soils and on 2ater %arvestin! tec%ni1es in
dro!%t-prone areas<
BcC Stren!t%en national earl$-2arnin! s$stems0 2it% particlar emp%asis on t%e area o,
ris*-mappin!0 remote-sensin!0 a!rometeorolo!ical modellin!0 inte!rated
mltidisciplinar$ crop-,orecastin! tec%ni1es and compteri5ed ,ood sppl$=demand
anal$sis.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
12.'). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% a s$stem o, stand-b$ capacities in terms o, ,oodstoc*0 lo!istical spport0
personnel and ,inance ,or a speed$ international response to dro!%t-related emer!encies<
BbC Spport pro!rammes o, t%e 6orld -eteorolo!ical Or!ani5ation B6-OC on
a!ro%$drolo!$ and a!rometeorolo!$0 t%e Pro!ramme o, t%e Re!ional Trainin! Centre ,or
:!rometeorolo!$ and Operational 4$drolo!$ and t%eir :pplications B:7R4H-/TC0
dro!%t-monitorin! centres and t%e :,rican Centre o, -eteorolo!ical :pplications ,or
Development B:C-:DC0 as 2ell as t%e e,,orts o, t%e Permanent Inter-State Committee
on Dro!%t Control in t%e Sa%el BCI8SSC and t%e Inter!overnmental :t%orit$ ,or
Dro!%t and Development BI7:DDC<
BcC Spport F:O pro!rammes and ot%er pro!rammes ,or t%e development o, national
earl$-2arnin! s$stems and ,ood secrit$ assistance sc%emes<
BdC Stren!t%en and e3pand t%e scope o, e3istin! re!ional pro!rammes and t%e activities o,
appropriate >nited ;ations or!ans and or!ani5ations0 sc% as t%e 6orld Food Pro!ramme
B6FPC0 t%e O,,ice o, t%e >nited ;ations Disaster Relie, Coordinator B>;DROC and t%e
>nited ;ations Sdano-Sa%elian O,,ice as 2ell as o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0
aimed at miti!atin! t%e e,,ects o, dro!%t and emer!encies.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
12.'1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1.2 billion0
incldin! abot D1.1 billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
12.'2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and dro!%t-prone commnities0 2it% t%e
spport o, t%e relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC >se traditional mec%anisms to cope 2it% %n!er as a means o, c%annellin! relie, and
development assistance<
BbC Stren!t%en and develop national0 re!ional and local interdisciplinar$ researc% and
trainin! capabilities ,or dro!%t-prevention strate!ies.
C/ *uman resource development
12.'#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Promote t%e trainin! o, decision ma*ers and land sers in t%e e,,ective tili5ation o,
in,ormation ,rom earl$-2arnin! s$stems<
BbC Stren!t%en researc% and national trainin! capabilities to assess t%e impact o, dro!%t
and to develop met%odolo!ies to ,orecast dro!%t.
D/ Capacit01building
12.'". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Improve and maintain mec%anisms 2it% ade1ate sta,,0 e1ipment and ,inances ,or
monitorin! dro!%t parameters to ta*e preventive measres at re!ional0 national and local
levels<
BbC /stablis% interministerial lin*a!es and coordinatin! nits ,or dro!%t monitorin!0
impact assessment and mana!ement o, dro!%t-relie, sc%emes.
)$ Encouraging and promoting popular participation and environmental
education5 focusing on desertification control and management of
te effects of drougt
-asis for action
12.''. T%e e3perience to date on t%e sccesses and ,ailres o, pro!rammes and pro?ects
points to t%e need ,or poplar spport to sstain activities related to deserti,ication and
dro!%t control. Et it is necessar$ to !o be$ond t%e t%eoretical ideal o, poplar
participation and to ,ocs on obtainin! actal active poplar involvement0 rooted in t%e
concept o, partners%ip. T%is implies t%e s%arin! o, responsibilities and t%e mtal
involvement o, all parties. In t%is conte3t0 t%is pro!ramme area s%old be considered an
essential spportin! component o, all deserti,ication-control and dro!%t-related
activities.
#b.ectives
12.'6. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To develop and increase pblic a2areness and *no2led!e concernin! deserti,ication
and dro!%t0 incldin! t%e inte!ration o, environmental edcation in t%e crriclm o,
primar$ and secondar$ sc%ools<
BbC To establis% and promote tre partners%ip bet2een !overnment at%orities0 at bot% t%e
national and local levels0 ot%er e3ectin! a!encies0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
land sers stric*en b$ dro!%t and deserti,ication0 !ivin! land sers a responsible role in
t%e plannin! and e3ection processes in order to bene,it ,ll$ ,rom development pro?ects<
BcC To ensre t%at t%e partners nderstand one anot%er9s needs0 ob?ectives and points o,
vie2 b$ providin! a variet$ o, means sc% as trainin!0 pblic a2areness and open
dialo!e<
BdC To spport local commnities in t%eir o2n e,,orts in combatin! deserti,ication0 and to
dra2 on t%e *no2led!e and e3perience o, t%e poplations concerned0 ensrin! t%e ,ll
participation o, 2omen and indi!enos poplations.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
12.'&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC :dopt policies and establis% administrative strctres ,or more decentrali5ed decision-
ma*in! and implementation<
BbC /stablis% and tili5e mec%anisms ,or t%e consltation and involvement o, land sers
and ,or en%ancin! capabilit$ at t%e !rass-roots level to identi,$ and=or contribte to t%e
identi,ication and plannin! o, action<
BcC De,ine speci,ic pro!ramme=pro?ect ob?ectives in cooperation 2it% local commnities<
desi!n local mana!ement plans to inclde sc% measres o, pro!ress0 t%ereb$ providin! a
means o, alterin! pro?ect desi!n or c%an!in! mana!ement practices0 as appropriate<
BdC Introdce le!islative0 instittional=or!ani5ational and ,inancial measres to secre
ser involvement and access to land resorces<
BeC /stablis% and=or e3pand ,avorable conditions ,or t%e provision o, services0 sc% as
credit ,acilities and mar*etin! otlets ,or rral poplations<
B,C Develop trainin! pro!rammes to increase t%e level o, edcation and participation o,
people0 particlarl$ 2omen and indi!enos !rops0 t%ro!%0 inter alia0 literac$ and t%e
development o, tec%nical s*ills<
B!C Create rral ban*in! s$stems to ,acilitate access to credit ,or rral poplations0
particlarl$ 2omen and indi!enos !rops0 and to promote rral savin!s<
B%C :dopt appropriate policies to stimlate private and pblic investment.
-/ Data and information
12.'(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Revie20 develop and disseminate !ender-disa!!re!ated in,ormation0 s*ills and *no2-
%o2 at all levels on 2a$s o, or!ani5in! and promotin! poplar participation<
BbC :ccelerate t%e development o, tec%nolo!ical *no2-%o20 ,ocsin! on appropriate and
intermediate tec%nolo!$<
BcC Disseminate *no2led!e abot applied researc% reslts on soil and 2ater isses0
appropriate species0 a!ricltral tec%ni1es and tec%nolo!ical *no2-%o2.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
12.'+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop pro!rammes o, spport to re!ional or!ani5ations sc% as CI8SS0 I7:DD0
S:DCC and t%e :rab -a!%reb >nion and ot%er inter!overnmental or!ani5ations in
:,rica and ot%er parts o, t%e 2orld0 to stren!t%en otreac% pro!rammes and increase t%e
participation o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations to!et%er 2it% rral poplations<
BbC Develop mec%anisms ,or ,acilitatin! cooperation in tec%nolo!$ and promote sc%
cooperation as an element o, all e3ternal assistance and activities related to tec%nical
assistance pro?ects in t%e pblic or private sector<
BcC Promote collaboration amon! di,,erent actors in environment and development
pro!rammes<
BdC /ncora!e t%e emer!ence o, representative or!ani5ational strctres to ,oster and
sstain interor!ani5ational cooperation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
12.6). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1.) billion0
incldin! abot D')) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
12.61. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old promote t%e development o, indi!enos
*no2-%o2 and tec%nolo!$ trans,er.
C/ *uman resource development
12.62. 7overnments0 at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Spport and=or stren!t%en instittions involved in pblic edcation0 incldin! t%e
local media0 sc%ools and commnit$ !rops<
BbC Increase t%e level o, pblic edcation.
D/ Capacit01building
12.6#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old promote members o, local rral
or!ani5ations and train and appoint more e3tension o,,icers 2or*in! at t%e local level.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 13
%anaging )ragile Ecos0stems< Sustainable %ountain Development
"ntroduction
1#.1. -ontains are an important sorce o, 2ater0 ener!$ and biolo!ical diversit$.
Frt%ermore0 t%e$ are a sorce o, sc% *e$ resorces as minerals0 ,orest prodcts and
a!ricltral prodcts and o, recreation. :s a ma?or ecos$stem representin! t%e comple3
and interrelated ecolo!$ o, or planet0 montain environments are essential to t%e
srvival o, t%e !lobal ecos$stem. -ontain ecos$stems are0 %o2ever0 rapidl$ c%an!in!.
T%e$ are ssceptible to accelerated soil erosion0 landslides and rapid loss o, %abitat and
!enetic diversit$. On t%e %man side0 t%ere is 2idespread povert$ amon! montain
in%abitants and loss o, indi!enos *no2led!e. :s a reslt0 most !lobal montain areas are
e3periencin! environmental de!radation. 4ence0 t%e proper mana!ement o, montain
resorces and socio-economic development o, t%e people deserves immediate action.
1#.2. :bot 1) per cent o, t%e 2orld9s poplation depends on montain resorces. :
mc% lar!er percenta!e dra2s on ot%er montain resorces0 incldin! and especiall$
2ater. -ontains are a store%ose o, biolo!ical diversit$ and endan!ered species.
1#.#. T2o pro!ramme areas are inclded in t%is c%apter to ,rt%er elaborate t%e problem
o, ,ra!ile ecos$stems 2it% re!ard to all montains o, t%e 2orld. T%ese are.
BaC 7eneratin! and stren!t%enin! *no2led!e abot t%e ecolo!$ and sstainable
development o, montain ecos$stems<
BbC Promotin! inte!rated 2aters%ed development and alternative liveli%ood opportnities.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ (enerating and strengtening kno4ledge about te ecolog0 and
sustainable development of mountain ecos0stems
-asis for action
1#.". -ontains are %i!%l$ vlnerable to %man and natral ecolo!ical imbalance.
-ontains are t%e areas most sensitive to all climatic c%an!es in t%e atmosp%ere. Speci,ic
in,ormation on ecolo!$0 natral resorce potential and socio-economic activities is
essential. -ontain and %illside areas %old a ric% variet$ o, ecolo!ical s$stems. Eecase
o, t%eir vertical dimensions0 montains create !radients o, temperatre0 precipitation and
insolation. : !iven montain slope ma$ inclde several climatic s$stems - sc% as
tropical0 sbtropical0 temperate and alpine - eac% o, 2%ic% represents a microcosm o, a
lar!er %abitat diversit$. T%ere is0 %o2ever0 a lac* o, *no2led!e o, montain ecos$stems.
T%e creation o, a !lobal montain database is t%ere,ore vital ,or lanc%in! pro!rammes
t%at contribte to t%e sstainable development o, montain ecos$stems.
#b.ectives
1#.'. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To nderta*e a srve$ o, t%e di,,erent ,orms o, soils0 ,orest0 2ater se0 crop0 plant and
animal resorces o, montain ecos$stems0 ta*in! into accont t%e 2or* o, e3istin!
international and re!ional or!ani5ations<
BbC To maintain and !enerate database and in,ormation s$stems to ,acilitate t%e inte!rated
mana!ement and environmental assessment o, montain ecos$stems0 ta*in! into accont
t%e 2or* o, e3istin! international and re!ional or!ani5ations<
BcC To improve and bild t%e e3istin! land=2ater ecolo!ical *no2led!e base re!ardin!
tec%nolo!ies and a!ricltral and conservation practices in t%e montain re!ions o, t%e
2orld0 2it% t%e participation o, local commnities<
BdC To create and stren!t%en t%e commnications net2or* and in,ormation clearin!-%ose
,or e3istin! or!ani5ations concerned 2it% montain isses<
BeC To improve coordination o, re!ional e,,orts to protect ,ra!ile montain ecos$stems
t%ro!% t%e consideration o, appropriate mec%anisms0 incldin! re!ional le!al and ot%er
instrments<
B,C To !enerate in,ormation to establis% databases and in,ormation s$stems to ,acilitate an
evalation o, environmental ris*s and natral disasters in montain ecos$stems.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1#.6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en e3istin! instittions or establis% ne2 ones at local0 national and re!ional
levels to !enerate a mltidisciplinar$ land=2ater ecolo!ical *no2led!e base on montain
ecos$stems<
BbC Promote national policies t%at 2old provide incentives to local people ,or t%e se
and trans,er o, environment-,riendl$ tec%nolo!ies and ,armin! and conservation
practices<
BcC Eild p t%e *no2led!e base and nderstandin! b$ creatin! mec%anisms ,or
cooperation and in,ormation e3c%an!e amon! national and re!ional instittions 2or*in!
on ,ra!ile ecos$stems<
BdC /ncora!e policies t%at 2old provide incentives to ,armers and local people to
nderta*e conservation and re!enerative measres<
BeC Diversi,$ montain economies0 inter alia0 b$ creatin! and=or stren!t%enin! torism0 in
accordance 2it% inte!rated mana!ement o, montain areas<
B,C Inte!rate all ,orest0 ran!eland and 2ildli,e activities in sc% a 2a$ t%at speci,ic
montain ecos$stems are maintained<
B!C /stablis% appropriate natral reserves in representative species-ric% sites and areas.
-/ Data and information
1#.&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC -aintain and establis% meteorolo!ical0 %$drolo!ical and p%$sical monitorin! anal$sis
and capabilities t%at 2old encompass t%e climatic diversit$ as 2ell as 2ater distribtion
o, varios montain re!ions o, t%e 2orld<
BbC Eild an inventor$ o, di,,erent ,orms o, soils0 ,orests0 2ater se0 and crop0 plant and
animal !enetic resorces0 !ivin! priorit$ to t%ose nder t%reat o, e3tinction. 7enetic
resorces s%old be protected in sit b$ maintainin! and establis%in! protected areas and
improvin! traditional ,armin! and animal %sbandr$ activities and establis%in!
pro!rammes ,or evalatin! t%e potential vale o, t%e resorces<
BcC Identi,$ %a5ardos areas t%at are most vlnerable to erosion0 ,loods0 landslides0
eart%1a*es0 sno2 avalanc%es and ot%er natral %a5ards<
BdC Identi,$ montain areas t%reatened b$ air polltion ,rom nei!%borin! indstrial and
rban areas.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation
1#.(. ;ational 7overnments and inter!overnmental or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC Coordinate re!ional and international cooperation and ,acilitate an e3c%an!e o,
in,ormation and e3perience amon! t%e speciali5ed a!encies0 t%e 6orld Ean*0 IF:D and
ot%er international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 national 7overnments0 researc%
instittions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations 2or*in! on montain development<
BbC /ncora!e re!ional0 national and international net2or*in! o, people9s initiatives and
t%e activities o, international0 re!ional and local non-!overnmental or!ani5ations 2or*in!
on montain development0 sc% as t%e >nited ;ations >niversit$ B>;>C0 t%e 6oodland
-ontain Instittes B6-IC0 t%e International Center ,or Inte!rated -ontain
Development BICI-ODC0 t%e International -ontain Societ$ BI-SC0 t%e :,rican
-ontain :ssociation and t%e :ndean -ontain :ssociation0 besides spportin! t%ose
or!ani5ations in e3c%an!e o, in,ormation and e3perience<
BcC Protect Fra!ile -ontain /cos$stem t%ro!% t%e consideration o, appropriate
mec%anisms incldin! re!ional le!al and ot%er instrments.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1#.+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1#.1). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old stren!t%en scienti,ic researc% and tec%nolo!ical
development pro!rammes0 incldin! di,,sion t%ro!% national and re!ional instittions0
particlarl$ in meteorolo!$0 %$drolo!$0 ,orestr$0 soil sciences and plant sciences.
C/ *uman resource development
1#.11. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC 8anc% trainin! and e3tension pro!rammes in environmentall$ appropriate
tec%nolo!ies and practices t%at 2old be sitable to montain ecos$stems<
BbC Spport %i!%er edcation t%ro!% ,ello2s%ips and researc% !rants ,or environmental
stdies in montains and %ill areas0 particlarl$ ,or candidates ,rom indi!enos montain
poplations<
BcC >nderta*e environmental edcation ,or ,armers0 in particlar ,or 2omen0 to %elp t%e
rral poplation better nderstand t%e ecolo!ical isses re!ardin! t%e sstainable
development o, montain ecos$stems.
D/ Capacit01building
1#.12. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old bild p national and re!ional instittional bases t%at
cold carr$ ot researc%0 trainin! and dissemination o, in,ormation on t%e sstainable
development o, t%e economies o, ,ra!ile ecos$stems.
-$ Promoting integrated 4atersed development and alternative liveliood
opportunities
-asis for action
1#.1#. ;earl$ %al, o, t%e 2orld9s poplation is a,,ected in varios 2a$s b$ montain
ecolo!$ and t%e de!radation o, 2aters%ed areas. :bot 1) per cent o, t%e /art%9s
poplation lives in montain areas 2it% %i!%er slopes0 2%ile abot ") per cent occpies
t%e ad?acent medim- and lo2er-2aters%ed areas. T%ere are serios problems o,
ecolo!ical deterioration in t%ese 2aters%ed areas. For e3ample0 in t%e %illside areas o, t%e
:ndean contries o, Sot% :merica a lar!e portion o, t%e ,armin! poplation is no2
,aced 2it% a rapid deterioration o, land resorces. Similarl$0 t%e montain and pland
areas o, t%e 4imala$as0 Sot%-/ast :sia and /ast and Central :,rica0 2%ic% ma*e vital
contribtions to a!ricltral prodction0 are t%reatened b$ cltivation o, mar!inal lands
de to e3pandin! poplation. In man$ areas t%is is accompanied b$ e3cessive livestoc*
!ra5in!0 de,orestation and loss o, biomass cover.
1#.1". Soil erosion can %ave a devastatin! impact on t%e vast nmbers o, rral people
2%o depend on rain,ed a!ricltre in t%e montain and %illside areas. Povert$0
nemplo$ment0 poor %ealt% and bad sanitation are 2idespread. Promotin! inte!rated
2aters%ed development pro!rammes t%ro!% e,,ective participation o, local people is a
*e$ to preventin! ,rt%er ecolo!ical imbalance. :n inte!rated approac% is needed ,or
conservin!0 p!radin! and sin! t%e natral resorce base o, land0 2ater0 plant0 animal
and %man resorces. In addition0 promotin! alternative liveli%ood opportnities0
particlarl$ t%ro!% development o, emplo$ment sc%emes t%at increase t%e prodctive
base0 2ill %ave a si!ni,icant role in improvin! t%e standard o, livin! amon! t%e lar!e rral
poplation livin! in montain ecos$stems. Ob?ectives
#b.ectives
1#.1'. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to develop appropriate land-se plannin! and mana!ement ,or bot%
arable and non-arable land in montain-,ed 2aters%ed areas to prevent soil erosion0
increase biomass prodction and maintain t%e ecolo!ical balance<
BbC To promote income-!eneratin! activities0 sc% as sstainable torism0 ,is%eries and
environmentall$ sond minin!0 and to improve in,rastrctre and social services0 in
particlar to protect t%e liveli%oods o, local commnities and indi!enos people<
BcC To develop tec%nical and instittional arran!ements ,or a,,ected contries to miti!ate
t%e e,,ects o, natral disasters t%ro!% %a5ard-prevention measres0 ris* 5onin!0 earl$-
2arnin! s$stems0 evacation plans and emer!enc$ spplies.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1#.16. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC >nderta*e measres to prevent soil erosion and promote erosion-control activities in
all sectors<
BbC /stablis% tas* ,orces or 2aters%ed development committees0 complementin! e3istin!
instittions0 to coordinate inte!rated services to spport local initiatives in animal
%sbandr$0 ,orestr$0 %orticltre and rral development at all administrative levels<
BcC /n%ance poplar participation in t%e mana!ement o, local resorces t%ro!%
appropriate le!islation<
BdC Spport non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and ot%er private !rops assistin! local
or!ani5ations and commnities in t%e preparation o, pro?ects t%at 2old en%ance
participator$ development o, local people<
BeC Provide mec%anisms to preserve t%reatened areas t%at cold protect 2ildli,e0 conserve
biolo!ical diversit$ or serve as national par*s<
B,C Develop national policies t%at 2old provide incentives to ,armers and local people to
nderta*e conservation measres and to se environment-,riendl$ tec%nolo!ies<
B!C >nderta*e income-!eneratin! activities in cotta!e and a!ro-processin! indstries0
sc% as t%e cltivation and processin! o, medicinal and aromatic plants<
B%C >nderta*e t%e above activities0 ta*in! into accont t%e need ,or ,ll participation o,
2omen0 incldin! indi!enos people and local commnities0 in development.
-/ Data and information
1#.1&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC -aintain and establis% s$stematic observation and evalation capacities at t%e
national0 state or provincial level to !enerate in,ormation ,or dail$ operations and to
assess t%e environmental and socio-economic impacts o, pro?ects<
BbC 7enerate data on alternative liveli%oods and diversi,ied prodction s$stems at t%e
villa!e level on annal and tree crops0 livestoc*0 poltr$0 bee*eepin!0 ,is%eries0 villa!e
indstries0 mar*ets0 transport and income-earnin! opportnities0 ta*in! ,ll$ into accont
t%e role o, 2omen and inte!ratin! t%em into t%e plannin! and implementation process.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation
1#.1(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en t%e role o, appropriate international researc% and trainin! instittes sc% as
t%e Consltative 7rop on International :!ricltral Researc% Centers BC7I:RC and t%e
International Eoard ,or Soil Researc% and -ana!ement BIESR:-C0 as 2ell as re!ional
researc% centres0 sc% as t%e 6oodland -ontain Instittes and t%e International Center
,or Inte!rated -ontain Development0 in nderta*in! applied researc% relevant to
2aters%ed development<
BbC Promote re!ional cooperation and e3c%an!e o, data and in,ormation amon! contries
s%arin! t%e same montain ran!es and river basins0 particlarl$ t%ose a,,ected b$
montain disasters and ,loods<
BcC -aintain and establis% partners%ips 2it% non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and ot%er
private !rops 2or*in! in 2aters%ed development.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
1#.1+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1# billion0 incldin!
abot D1.+ billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
1#.2). Financin! ,or t%e promotion o, alternative liveli%oods in montain ecos$stems
s%old be vie2ed as part o, a contr$9s anti-povert$ or alternative liveli%oods
pro!ramme0 2%ic% is also discssed in c%apter # BCombatin! povert$C and c%apter 1"
BPromotin! sstainable a!ricltre and rral developmentC o, :!enda 21.
-/ Scientific and tecnical means
1#.21. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Consider nderta*in! pilot pro?ects t%at combine environmental protection and
development ,nctions 2it% particlar emp%asis on some o, t%e traditional environmental
mana!ement practices or s$stems t%at %ave a !ood impact on t%e environment<
BbC 7enerate tec%nolo!ies ,or speci,ic 2aters%ed and ,arm conditions t%ro!% a
participator$ approac% involvin! local men and 2omen0 researc%ers and e3tension a!ents
2%o 2ill carr$ ot e3periments and trials on ,arm conditions<
BcC Promote tec%nolo!ies o, ve!etative conservation measres ,or erosion prevention0 in
sit moistre mana!ement0 improved croppin! tec%nolo!$0 ,odder prodction and
a!ro,orestr$ t%at are lo2-cost0 simple and easil$ adopted b$ local people.
C/ *uman resource development
1#.22. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Promote a mltidisciplinar$ and cross-sectoral approac% in trainin! and t%e
dissemination o, *no2led!e to local people on a 2ide ran!e o, isses0 sc% as %ose%old
prodction s$stems0 conservation and tili5ation o, arable and non-arable land0 treatment
o, draina!e lines and rec%ar!in! o, !rond2ater0 livestoc* mana!ement0 ,is%eries0
a!ro,orestr$ and %orticltre<
BbC Develop %man resorces b$ providin! access to edcation0 %ealt%0 ener!$ and
in,rastrctre<
BcC Promote local a2areness and preparedness ,or disaster prevention and miti!ation0
combined 2it% t%e latest available tec%nolo!$ ,or earl$ 2arnin! and ,orecastin!.
D/ Capacit01building
1#.2#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old develop and stren!t%en national centres ,or 2aters%ed
mana!ement to encora!e a compre%ensive approac% to t%e environmental0 socio-
economic0 tec%nolo!ical0 le!islative0 ,inancial and administrative aspects and provide
spport to polic$ ma*ers0 administrators0 ,ield sta,, and ,armers ,or 2aters%ed
development.
1#.2". T%e private sector and local commnities0 in cooperation 2it% national
7overnments0 s%old promote local in,rastrctre development0 incldin!
commnication net2or*s0 mini- or micro-%$dro development to spport cotta!e
indstries0 and access to mar*ets.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 16
Promoting Sustainable Agriculture , &ural Development
"ntroduction
1".1. E$ t%e $ear 2)2'0 (# per cent o, t%e e3pected !lobal poplation o, (.' billion 2ill
be livin! in developin! contries. Het t%e capacit$ o, available resorces and tec%nolo!ies
to satis,$ t%e demands o, t%is !ro2in! poplation ,or ,ood and ot%er a!ricltral
commodities remains ncertain. :!ricltre %as to meet t%is c%allen!e0 mainl$ b$
increasin! prodction on land alread$ in se and b$ avoidin! ,rt%er encroac%ment on
land t%at is onl$ mar!inall$ sitable ,or cltivation.
1".2. -a?or ad?stments are needed in a!ricltral0 environmental and macroeconomic
polic$0 at bot% national and international levels0 in developed as 2ell as developin!
contries0 to create t%e conditions ,or sstainable a!ricltre and rral development
BS:RDC. T%e ma?or ob?ective o, S:RD is to increase ,ood prodction in a sstainable
2a$ and en%ance ,ood secrit$. T%is 2ill involve edcation initiatives0 tili5ation o,
economic incentives and t%e development o, appropriate and ne2 tec%nolo!ies0 t%s
ensrin! stable spplies o, ntritionall$ ade1ate ,ood0 access to t%ose spplies b$
vlnerable !rops0 and prodction ,or mar*ets< emplo$ment and income !eneration to
alleviate povert$< and natral resorce mana!ement and environmental protection.
1".#. T%e priorit$ mst be on maintainin! and improvin! t%e capacit$ o, t%e %i!%er
potential a!ricltral lands to spport an e3pandin! poplation. 4o2ever0 conservin! and
re%abilitatin! t%e natral resorces on lo2er potential lands in order to maintain
sstainable man=land ratios is also necessar$. T%e main tools o, S:RD are polic$ and
a!rarian re,orm0 participation0 income diversi,ication0 land conservation and improved
mana!ement o, inpts. T%e sccess o, S:RD 2ill depend lar!el$ on t%e spport and
participation o, rral people0 national 7overnments0 t%e private sector and international
cooperation0 incldin! tec%nical and scienti,ic cooperation.
1".". T%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas are inclded in t%is c%apter.
1. :!ricltral polic$ revie20 plannin! and inte!rated pro!rammin! in t%e li!%t o,
t%e mlti,nctional aspect o, a!ricltre0 particlarl$ 2it% re!ard to ,ood secrit$
and sstainable development<
2. /nsrin! people9s participation and promotin! %man resorce development ,or
sstainable a!ricltre<
#. Improvin! ,arm prodction and ,armin! s$stems t%ro!% diversi,ication o, ,arm
and non-,arm emplo$ment and in,rastrctre development<
". 8and-resorce plannin! in,ormation and edcation ,or a!ricltre<
'. 8and conservation and re%abilitation<
6. 6ater ,or sstainable ,ood prodction and sstainable rral development<
&. Conservation and sstainable tili5ation o, plant !enetic resorces ,or ,ood and
sstainable a!ricltre<
(. Conservation and sstainable tili5ation o, animal !enetic resorces ,or
sstainable a!ricltre<
+. Inte!rated pest mana!ement and control in a!ricltre<
1). Sstainable plant ntrition to increase ,ood prodction<
11. Rral ener!$ transition to en%ance prodctivit$<
12. /valation o, t%e e,,ects o, ltraviolet radiation on plants and animals cased b$
t%e depletion o, t%e stratosp%eric o5one la$er.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Agricultural polic0 revie45 planning and integrated programmes in te
ligt of te multifunctional aspect of agriculture5 particularl0 4it
regard to food securit0 and sustainable development
-asis for action
1".'. T%ere is a need to inte!rate sstainable development considerations 2it%
a!ricltral polic$ anal$sis and plannin! in all contries0 particlarl$ in developin!
contries. Recommendations s%old contribte directl$ to development o, realistic and
operational medim- to lon!-term plans and pro!rammes0 and t%s to concrete actions.
Spport to and monitorin! o, implementation s%old ,ollo2.
1".6. T%e absence o, a co%erent national polic$ ,rame2or* ,or sstainable a!ricltre and
rral development BS:RDC is 2idespread and is not limited to t%e developin! contries.
In particlar t%e economies in transition ,rom planned to mar*et-oriented s$stems need
sc% a ,rame2or* to incorporate environmental considerations into economic activities0
incldin! a!ricltre. :ll contries need to assess compre%ensivel$ t%e impacts o, sc%
policies on ,ood and a!ricltre sector per,ormance0 ,ood secrit$0 rral 2el,are and
international tradin! relations as a means ,or identi,$in! appropriate o,,settin! measres.
T%e ma?or t%rst o, ,ood secrit$ in t%is case is to brin! abot a si!ni,icant increase in
a!ricltral prodction in a sstainable 2a$ and to ac%ieve a sbstantial improvement in
people9s entitlement to ade1ate ,ood and cltrall$ appropriate ,ood spplies.
1".&. Sond polic$ decisions pertainin! to international trade and capital ,lo2s also
necessitate action to overcome.
BaC a lac* o, a2areness o, t%e environmental costs incrred b$ sectoral and
macroeconomic policies and %ence t%eir t%reat to sstainabilit$<
BbC ins,,icient s*ills and e3perience in incorporatin! isses o, sstainabilit$ into policies
and pro!rammes< and BcC
inade1ac$ o, tools o, anal$sis and monitorin!. 1=
#b.ectives
1".(. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is Pro!ramme area are.
BaC E$ 1++'0 to revie2 and0 2%ere appropriate0 establis% a pro!ramme to inte!rate
environmental and sstainable development 2it% polic$ anal$sis ,or t%e ,ood and
a!ricltre sector and relevant macroeconomic polic$ anal$sis0 ,ormlation and
implementation<
BbC To maintain and develop0 as appropriate0 operational mltisectoral plans0 pro!rammes
and polic$ measres0 incldin! pro!rammes and measres to en%ance sstainable ,ood
prodction and ,ood secrit$ 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, sstainable development0 not later
t%an 1++(<
BcC To maintain and en%ance t%e abilit$ o, developin! contries0 particlarl$ t%e least
developed ones0 to t%emselves mana!e polic$0 pro!rammin! and plannin! activities0 not
later t%an 2))'.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Carr$ ot national polic$ revie2s related to ,ood secrit$0 incldin! ade1ate levels
and stabilit$ o, ,ood sppl$ and access to ,ood b$ all %ose%olds<
BbC Revie2 national and re!ional a!ricltral polic$ in relation0 inter alia0 to ,orei!n
trade0 price polic$0 e3c%an!e rate policies0 a!ricltral sbsidies and ta3es0 as 2ell as
or!ani5ation ,or re!ional economic inte!ration<
BcC Implement policies to in,lence land tenre and propert$ ri!%ts positivel$ 2it% de
reco!nition o, t%e minimm si5e o, land-%oldin! re1ired to maintain prodction and
c%ec* ,rt%er ,ra!mentation<
BdC Consider demo!rap%ic trends and poplation movements and identi,$ critical areas
,or a!ricltral prodction<
BeC Formlate0 introdce and monitor policies0 la2s and re!lations and incentives
leadin! to sstainable a!ricltral and rral development and improved ,ood secrit$ and
to t%e development and trans,er o, appropriate ,arm tec%nolo!ies0 incldin!0 2%ere
appropriate0 lo2-inpt sstainable a!ricltral B8IS:C s$stems<
B,C Spport national and re!ional earl$ 2arnin! s$stems t%ro!% ,ood-secrit$ assistance
sc%emes t%at monitor ,ood sppl$ and demand and ,actors a,,ectin! %ose%old access to
,ood<
B!C Revie2 policies 2it% respect to improvin! %arvestin!0 stora!e0 processin!0
distribtion and mar*etin! o, prodcts at t%e local0 national and re!ional levels<
B%C Formlate and implement inte!rated a!ricltral pro?ects t%at inclde ot%er natral
resorce activities0 sc% as mana!ement o, ran!elands0 ,orests0 and 2ildli,e0 as
appropriate<
BiC Promote social and economic researc% and policies t%at encora!e sstainable
a!ricltre development0 particlarl$ in ,ra!ile ecos$stems and densel$ poplated areas<
B?C Identi,$ stora!e and distribtion problems a,,ectin! ,ood availabilit$< spport researc%0
2%ere necessar$0 to overcome t%ese problems and cooperate 2it% prodcers and
distribtors to implement improved practices and s$stems.
-/ Data and information
1".1). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Cooperate activel$ to e3pand and improve t%e in,ormation on earl$ 2arnin! s$stems
on ,ood and a!ricltre at bot% re!ional and national levels<
BbC /3amine and nderta*e srve$s and researc% to establis% baseline in,ormation on t%e
stats o, natral resorces relatin! to ,ood and a!ricltral prodction and plannin! in
order to assess t%e impacts o, varios ses on t%ese resorces0 and develop met%odolo!ies
and tools o, anal$sis0 sc% as environmental accontin!.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".11. >nited ;ations a!encies0 sc% as F:O0 t%e 6orld Ean*0 IF:D and 7:TT0 and
re!ional or!ani5ations0 bilateral donor a!encies and ot%er bodies s%old0 2it%in t%eir
respective mandates0 assme a role in 2or*in! 2it% national 7overnments in t%e
,ollo2in! activities.
BaC Implement inte!rated and sstainable a!ricltral development and ,ood secrit$
strate!ies at t%e sbre!ional level t%at se re!ional prodction and trade potentials0
incldin! or!ani5ations ,or re!ional economic inte!ration0 to promote ,ood secrit$<
BbC /ncora!e0 in t%e conte3t o, ac%ievin! sstainable a!ricltral development and
consistent 2it% relevant internationall$ a!reed principles on trade and environment0 a
more open and non-discriminator$ tradin! s$stem and t%e avoidance o, n?sti,iable
trade barriers 2%ic% to!et%er 2it% ot%er policies 2ill ,acilitate t%e ,rt%er inte!ration o,
a!ricltral and environmental policies so as to ma*e t%em mtall$ spportive<
BcC Stren!t%en and establis% national0 re!ional and international s$stems and net2or*s to
increase t%e nderstandin! o, t%e interaction bet2een a!ricltre and t%e state o, t%e
environment0 identi,$ ecolo!icall$ sond tec%nolo!ies and ,acilitate t%e e3c%an!e
in,ormation on data sorces0 policies0 and tec%ni1es and tools o, anal$sis.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".12. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C on implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D# billion0 incldin!
abot D"') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".1#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations s%old assist ,armin! %ose%olds and
commnities to appl$ tec%nolo!ies related to improved ,ood prodction and secrit$0
incldin! stora!e0 monitorin! o, prodction and distribtion.
C/ *uman resource development
1".1". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Involve and train local economists0 planners and anal$sts to initiate national and
international polic$ revie2s and develop ,rame2or*s ,or sstainable a!ricltre<
BbC /stablis% le!al measres to promote access o, 2omen to land and remove biases in
t%eir involvement in rral development.
D/ Capacit01building
1".1'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old stren!t%en ministries ,or a!ricltre0 natral resorces
and plannin!.
-$ Ensuring peopleCs participation and promoting uman resource
development for sustainable agriculture
-asis for action
1".16. T%is component brid!es polic$ and inte!rated resorce mana!ement. T%e !reater
t%e de!ree o, commnit$ control over t%e resorces on 2%ic% it relies0 t%e !reater 2ill be
t%e incentive ,or economic and %man resorces development. :t t%e same time0 polic$
instrments to reconcile lon!-rn and s%ort-rn re1irements mst be set b$ national
7overnments. T%e approac%es ,ocs on ,osterin! sel,-reliance and cooperation0 providin!
in,ormation and spportin! ser-based or!ani5ations. /mp%asis s%old be on
mana!ement practices0 bildin! a!reements ,or c%an!es in resorce tili5ation0 t%e ri!%ts
and dties associated 2it% se o, land0 2ater and ,orests0 t%e ,nctionin! o, mar*ets0
prices0 and t%e access to in,ormation0 capital and inpts. T%is 2old re1ire trainin! and
capacit$-bildin! to assme !reater responsibilities in sstainable development e,,orts. 2=
#b.ectives
1".1&. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To promote !reater pblic a2areness o, t%e role o, people9s participation and people9s
or!ani5ations0 especiall$ 2omen9s !rops0 $ot%0 indi!enos people0 local commnities
and small ,armers0 in sstainable a!ricltre and rral development<
BbC To ensre e1itable access o, rral people0 particlarl$ 2omen0 small ,armers0
landless and indi!enos people0 to land0 2ater and ,orest resorces and to tec%nolo!ies0
,inancin!0 mar*etin!0 processin! and distribtion<
BcC To stren!t%en and develop t%e mana!ement and t%e internal capacities o, rral
people9s or!ani5ations and e3tension services and to decentrali5e decision-ma*in! to t%e
lo2est commnit$ level.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".1(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and improve inte!rated a!ricltral e3tension services and ,acilities and rral
or!ani5ations and nderta*e natral resorce mana!ement and ,ood secrit$ activities0
ta*in! into accont t%e di,,erent needs o, sbsistence a!ricltre as 2ell as mar*et-
oriented crops<
BbC Revie2 and re,ocs e3istin! measres to ac%ieve 2ider access to land0 2ater and
,orest resorces and ensre e1al ri!%ts o, 2omen and ot%er disadvanta!ed !rops0 2it%
particlar emp%asis on rral poplations0 indi!enos people and local commnities<
BcC :ssi!n clear titles0 ri!%ts and responsibilities ,or land and ,or individals or
commnities to encora!e investment in land resorces<
BdC Develop !idelines ,or decentrali5ation policies ,or rral development t%ro!%
reor!ani5ation and stren!t%enin! o, rral instittions<
BeC Develop policies in e3tension0 trainin!0 pricin!0 inpt distribtion0 credit and ta3ation
to ensre necessar$ incentives and e1itable access b$ t%e poor to prodction-spport
services<
B,C Provide spport services and trainin!0 reco!ni5in! t%e variation in a!ricltral
circmstances and practices b$ location< t%e optimal se o, on-,arm inpts and t%e
minimal se o, e3ternal inpts< optimal se o, local natral resorces and mana!ement o,
rene2able ener!$ sorces< and t%e establis%ment o, net2or*s t%at deal 2it% t%e e3c%an!e
o, in,ormation on alternative ,orms o, a!ricltre.
-/ Data and information
1".1+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old collect0 anal$se0 and disseminate
in,ormation on %man resorces0 t%e role o, 7overnments0 local commnities and non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations in social innovation and strate!ies ,or rral development.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".2). :ppropriate international and re!ional a!encies s%old.
BaC Rein,orce t%eir 2or* 2it% non-!overnmental or!ani5ations in collectin! and
disseminatin! in,ormation on people9s participation and people9s or!ani5ations0 testin!
participator$ development met%ods0 trainin! and edcation ,or %man resorce
development and stren!t%enin! t%e mana!ement strctres o, rral or!ani5ations<
BbC 4elp develop in,ormation available t%ro!% non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
promote an international ecolo!ical a!ricltral net2or* to accelerate t%e development
and implementation o, ecolo!ical a!ricltre practices.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".21. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D"." billion0
incldin! abot D6') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".22. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /ncora!e people9s participation on ,arm tec%nolo!$ development and trans,er0
incorporatin! indi!enos ecolo!ical *no2led!e and practices<
BbC 8anc% applied researc% on participator$ met%odolo!ies0 mana!ement strate!ies and
local or!ani5ations.
C/ *uman resource development
1".2#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old provide mana!ement and tec%nical trainin! to
!overnment administrators and members o, resorce-ser !rops in t%e principles0
practice and bene,its o, people9s participation in rral development.
D/ Capacit01building
1".2". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old introdce mana!ement strate!ies and mec%anisms0
sc% as accontin! and adit services ,or rral people9s or!ani5ations and instittions ,or
%man resorce development0 and dele!ate administrative and ,inancial responsibilities
to local levels ,or decision-ma*in!0 revene-raisin! and e3penditre.
C$ "mproving farm production and farming s0stems troug
diversification of farm and non1farm emplo0ment and
infrastructure development
-asis for action
1".2'. :!ricltre needs to be intensi,ied to meet ,tre demands ,or commodities and to
avoid ,rt%er e3pansion onto mar!inal lands and encroac%ment on ,ra!ile ecos$stems.
Increased se o, e3ternal inpts and development o, speciali5ed prodction and ,armin!
s$stems tend to increase vlnerabilit$ to environmental stresses and mar*et ,lctations.
T%ere is0 t%ere,ore0 a need to intensi,$ a!ricltre b$ diversi,$in! t%e prodction s$stems
,or ma3imm e,,icienc$ in t%e tili5ation o, local resorces0 2%ile minimi5in!
environmental and economic ris*s. 6%ere intensi,ication o, ,armin! s$stems is not
possible0 ot%er on-,arm and o,,-,arm emplo$ment opportnities s%old be identi,ied and
developed0 sc% as cotta!e indstries0 2ildli,e tili5ation0 a1acltre and ,is%eries0 non-
,arm activities0 sc% as li!%t villa!e-based man,actrin!0 ,arm commodit$ processin!0
a!ribsiness0 recreation and torism0 etc.
#b.ectives
1".26. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To improve ,arm prodctivit$ in a sstainable manner0 as 2ell as to increase
diversi,ication0 e,,icienc$0 ,ood secrit$ and rral incomes0 2%ile ensrin! t%at ris*s to
t%e ecos$stem are minimi5ed<
BbC To en%ance t%e sel,-reliance o, ,armers in developin! and improvin! rral
in,rastrctre0 and to ,acilitate t%e trans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies ,or
inte!rated prodction and ,armin! s$stems0 incldin! indi!enos tec%nolo!ies and t%e
sstainable se o, biolo!ical and ecolo!ical processes0 incldin! a!ro,orestr$0 sstainable
2ildli,e conservation and mana!ement0 a1acltre0 inland ,is%eries and animal
%sbandr$<
BcC To create ,arm and non-,arm emplo$ment opportnities0 particlarl$ amon! t%e poor
and t%ose livin! in mar!inal areas0 ta*in! into accont t%e alternative liveli%ood proposal
inter alia in dr$land areas.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".2&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and disseminate to ,armin! %ose%olds inte!rated ,arm mana!ement
tec%nolo!ies0 sc% as crop rotation0 or!anic manrin! and ot%er tec%ni1es involvin!
redced se o, a!ricltral c%emicals0 mltiple tec%ni1es ,or sorces o, ntrients and t%e
e,,icient tili5ation o, e3ternal inpts0 2%ile en%ancin! tec%ni1es ,or 2aste and b$-
prodct tili5ation and prevention o, pre- and post-%arvest losses0 ta*in! particlar note
o, t%e role o, 2omen<
BbC Create non-,arm emplo$ment opportnities t%ro!% private small-scale a!ro-
processin! nits0 rral service centres and related in,rastrctral improvements<
BcC Promote and improve rral ,inancial net2or*s t%at tili5e investment capital resorces
raised locall$<
BdC Provide t%e essential rral in,rastrctre ,or access to a!ricltral inpts and services0
as 2ell as to national and local mar*ets0 and redce ,ood losses<
BeC Initiate and maintain ,arm srve$s0 on-,arm testin! o, appropriate tec%nolo!ies and
dialo!e 2it% rral commnities to identi,$ constraints and bottlenec*s and ,ind
soltions<
B,C :nal$se and identi,$ possibilities ,or economic inte!ration o, a!ricltral and ,orestr$
activities0 as 2ell as 2ater and ,is%eries0 and to ta*e e,,ective measres to encora!e
,orest mana!ement and !ro2in! o, trees b$ ,armers B,arm ,orestr$C as an option ,or
resorce development.
-/ Data and information
1".2(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC :nal$se t%e e,,ects o, tec%nical innovations and incentives on ,arm-%ose%old income
and 2ell-bein!<
BbC Initiate and maintain on-,arm and o,,-,arm pro!rammes to collect and record
indi!enos *no2led!e.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".2+ International instittions0 sc% as F:O and IF:D0 international a!ricltral
researc% centres0 sc% as C7I:R0 and re!ional centres s%old dia!nose t%e 2orld9s ma?or
a!ro-ecos$stems0 t%eir e3tension0 ecolo!ical and socio-economic c%aracteristics0 t%eir
ssceptibilit$ to deterioration and t%eir prodctive potential. T%is cold ,orm t%e basis ,or
tec%nolo!$ development and e3c%an!e and ,or re!ional researc% collaboration.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".#). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1) billion0 incldin!
abot D1.' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".#1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old stren!t%en researc% on a!ricltral prodction s$stems
in areas 2it% di,,erent endo2ments and a!ro-ecolo!ical 5ones0 incldin! comparative
anal$sis o, t%e intensi,ication0 diversi,ication and di,,erent levels o, e3ternal and internal
inpts.
C/ *uman resource development
1".#2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Promote edcational and vocational trainin! ,or ,armers and rral commnities
t%ro!% ,ormal and non-,ormal edcation<
BbC 8anc% a2areness and trainin! pro!rammes ,or entrepreners0 mana!ers0 ban*ers and
traders in rral servicin! and small-scale a!ro-processin! tec%ni1es.
D/ Capacit01building
1".##. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Improve t%eir or!ani5ational capacit$ to deal 2it% isses related to o,,-,arm activities
and rral indstr$ development<
BbC /3pand credit ,acilities and rral in,rastrctre related to processin!0 transportation
and mar*etin!.
D$ Land1resource planning5 information and education for agriculture
-asis for action
1".#". Inappropriate and ncontrolled land ses are a ma?or case o, de!radation and
depletion o, land resorces. Present land se o,ten disre!ards t%e actal potentials0
carr$in! capacities and limitations o, land resorces0 as 2ell as t%eir diversit$ in space. It
is estimated t%at t%e 2orld9s poplation0 no2 at '." billion0 2ill be 6.2' billion b$ t%e trn
o, t%e centr$. T%e need to increase ,ood prodction to meet t%e e3pandin! needs o, t%e
poplation 2ill pt enormos pressre on all natral resorces0 incldin! land.
1".#'. Povert$ and malntrition are alread$ endemic in man$ re!ions. T%e destrction
and de!radation o, a!ricltral and environmental resorces is a ma?or isse. Tec%ni1es
,or increasin! prodction and conservin! soil and 2ater resorces are alread$ available
bt are not 2idel$ or s$stematicall$ applied. : s$stematic approac% is needed ,or
identi,$in! land ses and prodction s$stems t%at are sstainable in eac% land and climate
5one0 incldin! t%e economic0 social and instittional mec%anisms necessar$ ,or t%eir
implementation. #=
#b.ectives
1".#6. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To %armoni5e plannin! procedres0 involve ,armers in t%e plannin! process0 collect
land-resorce data0 desi!n and establis% databases0 de,ine land areas o, similar capabilit$0
identi,$ resorce problems and vales t%at need to be ta*en into accont to establis%
mec%anisms to encora!e e,,icient and environmentall$ sond se o, resorces<
BbC To establis% a!ricltral plannin! bodies at national and local levels to decide
priorities0 c%annel resorces and implement pro!rammes.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".#&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% and stren!t%en a!ricltral land-se and land-resorce plannin!0
mana!ement0 edcation and in,ormation at national and local levels<
BbC Initiate and maintain district and villa!e a!ricltral land-resorce plannin!0
mana!ement and conservation !rops to assist in problem identi,ication0 development o,
tec%nical and mana!ement soltions0 and pro?ect implementation.
-/ Data and information
1".#(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Collect0 continosl$ monitor0 pdate and disseminate in,ormation0 2%enever
possible0 on t%e tili5ation o, natral resorces and livin! conditions0 climate0 2ater and
soil ,actors0 and on land se0 distribtion o, ve!etation cover and animal species0
tili5ation o, 2ild plants0 prodction s$stems and $ields0 costs and prices0 and social and
cltral considerations t%at a,,ect a!ricltral and ad?acent land se<
BbC /stablis% pro!rammes to provide in,ormation0 promote discssion and encora!e t%e
,ormation o, mana!ement !rops.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".#+. T%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies and re!ional or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en or establis% international0 re!ional and sbre!ional tec%nical 2or*in!
!rops 2it% speci,ic terms o, re,erence and bd!ets to promote t%e inte!rated se o, land
resorces ,or a!ricltre0 plannin!0 data collection and di,,sion o, simlation models o,
prodction and in,ormation dissemination<
BbC Develop internationall$ acceptable met%odolo!ies ,or t%e establis%ment o, databases0
description o, land ses and mltiple !oal optimi5ation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1"."). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1.& billion0
incldin! abot D2') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1"."1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop databases and !eo!rap%ical in,ormation s$stems to store and displa$
p%$sical0 social and economic in,ormation pertainin! to a!ricltre0 and t%e de,inition o,
ecolo!ical 5ones and development areas<
BbC Select combinations o, land ses and prodction s$stems appropriate to land nits
t%ro!% mltiple !oal optimi5ation procedres0 and stren!t%en deliver$ s$stems and local
commnit$ participation<
BcC /ncora!e inte!rated plannin! at t%e 2aters%ed and landscape level to redce soil loss
and protect sr,ace and !rond2ater resorces ,rom c%emical polltion.
C/ *uman resource development
1"."2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Train pro,essionals and plannin! !rops at national0 district and villa!e levels t%ro!%
,ormal and in,ormal instrctional corses0 travel and interaction<
BbC 7enerate discssion at all levels on polic$0 development and environmental isses
related to a!ricltral land se and mana!ement0 t%ro!% media pro!rammes0
con,erences and seminars.
D/ Capacit01building
1"."#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% land-resorce mappin! and plannin! nits at national0 district and villa!e
levels to act as ,ocal points and lin*s bet2een instittions and disciplines0 and bet2een
7overnments and people<
BbC /stablis% or stren!t%en 7overnments and international instittions 2it% responsibilit$
,or a!ricltral resorce srve$0 mana!ement and development< rationali5e and
stren!t%en le!al ,rame2or*s< and provide e1ipment and tec%nical assistance.
E$ Land conservation and reabilitation
-asis for action
1"."". 8and de!radation is t%e most important environmental problem a,,ectin! e3tensive
areas o, land in bot% developed and developin! contries. T%e problem o, soil erosion is
particlarl$ acte in developin! contries0 2%ile problems o, salini5ation0 2aterlo!!in!0
soil polltion and loss o, soil ,ertilit$ are increasin! in all contries. 8and de!radation is
serios becase t%e prodctivit$ o, %!e areas o, land is declinin! ?st 2%en poplations
are increasin! rapidl$ and t%e demand on t%e land is !ro2in! to prodce more ,ood0 ,ibre
and ,el. /,,orts to control land de!radation0 particlarl$ in developin! contries0 %ave
%ad limited sccess to date. 6ell planned0 lon!-term national and re!ional land
conservation and re%abilitation pro!rammes0 2it% stron! political spport and ade1ate
,ndin!0 are no2 needed. 6%ile land-se plannin! and land 5onin!0 combined 2it% better
land mana!ement0 s%old provide lon!-term soltions0 it is r!ent to arrest land
de!radation and lanc% conservation and re%abilitation pro!rammes in t%e most criticall$
a,,ected and vlnerable areas.
#b.ectives
1"."'. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to revie2 and initiate0 as appropriate0 national land-resorce
srve$s0 detailin! t%e location0 e3tent and severit$ o, land de!radation<
BbC To prepare and implement compre%ensive policies and pro!rammes leadin! to t%e
reclamation o, de!raded lands and t%e conservation o, areas at ris*0 as 2ell as improve
t%e !eneral plannin!0 mana!ement and tili5ation o, land resorces and preserve soil
,ertilit$ ,or sstainable a!ricltral development.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1"."6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and implement pro!rammes to remove and resolve t%e p%$sical0 social and
economic cases o, land de!radation0 sc% as land tenre0 appropriate tradin! s$stems
and a!ricltral pricin! strctres0 2%ic% lead to inappropriate land-se mana!ement<
BbC Provide incentives and0 2%ere appropriate and possible0 resorces ,or t%e participation
o, local commnities in t%e plannin!0 implementation and maintenance o, t%eir o2n
conservation and reclamation pro!rammes<
BcC Develop and implement pro!rammes ,or t%e re%abilitation o, land de!raded b$ 2ater-
lo!!in! and salinit$<
BdC Develop and implement pro!rammes ,or t%e pro!ressive se o, non-cltivated land
2it% a!ricltral potential in a sstainable 2a$.
-/ Data and information
1"."&. 7overnments0 at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Condct periodic srve$s to assess t%e e3tent and state o, its land resorces<
BbC Stren!t%en and establis% national land-resorce data ban*s0 incldin! identi,ication o,
t%e location0 e3tent and severit$ o, e3istin! land de!radation0 as 2ell as areas at ris*0 and
evalate t%e pro!ress o, t%e conservation and re%abilitation pro!rammes lanc%ed in t%is
re!ard<
BcC Collect and record in,ormation on indi!enos conservation and re%abilitation
practices and ,armin! s$stems as a basis ,or researc% and e3tension pro!rammes.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1"."(. T%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies0 re!ional or!ani5ations and non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC Develop priorit$ conservation and re%abilitation pro!rammes 2it% advisor$ services
to 7overnments and re!ional or!ani5ations<
BbC /stablis% re!ional and sbre!ional net2or*s ,or scientists and tec%nicians to e3c%an!e
e3periences0 develop ?oint pro!rammes and spread sccess,l tec%nolo!ies on land
conservation and re%abilitation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1"."+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D' billion0 incldin!
abot D()) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".'). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old %elp ,armin! %ose%old commnities to investi!ate
and promote site-speci,ic tec%nolo!ies and ,armin! s$stems t%at conserve and re%abilitate
land0 2%ile increasin! a!ricltral prodction0 incldin! conservation tilla!e a!ro,orestr$0
terracin! and mi3ed croppin!.
C/ *uman resource development
1".'1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old train ,ield sta,, and land sers in indi!enos and
modern tec%ni1es o, conservation and re%abilitation and s%old establis% trainin!
,acilities ,or e3tension sta,, and land sers.
D/ Capacit01building
1".'2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and stren!t%en national researc% instittional capacit$ to identi,$ and
implement e,,ective conservation and re%abilitation practices t%at are appropriate to t%e
e3istin! socio-economic p%$sical conditions o, t%e land sers<
BbC Coordinate all land conservation and re%abilitation policies0 strate!ies and
pro!rammes 2it% related on!oin! pro!rammes0 sc% as national environment action
plans0 t%e Tropical Forestr$ :ction Plan and national development pro!rammes.
)$ Dater for sustainable food production and sustainable rural
development
1".'#. T%is pro!ramme area is inclded in c%apter 1( BProtection o, t%e 1alit$ and
sppl$ o, ,res%2ater resorcesC0 pro!ramme area F.
($ Conservation and sustainable utili7ation of plant genetic resources for
food and sustainable agriculture
-asis for action
1".'". Plant !enetic resorces ,or a!ricltre BP7RF:C are an essential resorce to meet
,tre needs ,or ,ood. T%reats to t%e secrit$ o, t%ese resorces are !ro2in!0 and e,,orts
to conserve0 develop and se !enetic diversit$ are nder,nded and ndersta,,ed. -an$
e3istin! !ene ban*s provide inade1ate secrit$ and0 in some instances0 t%e loss o, plant
!enetic diversit$ in !ene ban*s is as !reat as it is in t%e ,ield.
1".''. T%e primar$ ob?ective is to sa,e!ard t%e 2orld9s !enetic resorces 2%ile
preservin! t%em to se sstainabl$. T%is incldes t%e development o, measres to
,acilitate t%e conservation and se o, plant !enetic resorces0 net2or*s o, in sit
conservation areas and se o, tools sc% as e3 sit collections and !erm plasma ban*s.
Special emp%asis cold be placed on t%e bildin! o, endo!enos capacit$ ,or
c%aracteri5ation0 evalation and tili5ation o, P7RF:0 particlarl$ ,or t%e minor crops
and ot%er ndertili5ed or non-tili5ed species o, ,ood and a!ricltre0 incldin! tree
species ,or a!ro-,orestr$. Sbse1ent action cold be aimed at consolidation and e,,icient
mana!ement o, net2or*s o, in sit conservation areas and se o, tools sc% as e3 sit
collections and !erm plasma ban*s.
1".'6. -a?or !aps and 2ea*nesses e3ist in t%e capacit$ o, e3istin! national and
international mec%anisms to assess0 std$0 monitor and se plant !enetic resorces to
increase ,ood prodction. /3istin! instittional capacit$0 strctres and pro!rammes are
!enerall$ inade1ate and lar!el$ nder,nded. T%ere is !enetic erosion o, invalable crop
species. /3istin! diversit$ in crop species is not sed to t%e e3tent possible ,or increased
,ood prodction in a sstainable 2a$. "=
#b.ectives
1".'&. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To complete t%e ,irst re!eneration and sa,e dplication o, e3istin! e3 sit collections
on a 2orld-2ide basis as soon as possible<
BbC To collect and std$ plants se,l ,or increasin! ,ood prodction t%ro!% ?oint
activities0 incldin! trainin!0 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, net2or*s o, collaboratin!
instittions<
BcC ;ot later t%an t%e $ear 2)))0 to adopt policies and stren!t%en or establis% pro!rammes
,or in sit on-,arm and e3 sit conservation and sstainable se o, plant !enetic resorces
,or ,ood and a!ricltre0 inte!rated into strate!ies and pro!rammes ,or sstainable
a!ricltre<
BdC To ta*e appropriate measres ,or t%e ,air and e1itable s%arin! o, bene,its and reslts
o, researc% and development in plant breedin! bet2een t%e sorces and sers o, plant
!enetic resorces.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".'(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and stren!t%en instittional capacit$0 strctres and pro!rammes ,or
conservation and se o, P7RF:<
BbC Stren!t%en and establis% researc% in t%e pblic domain on P7RF: evalation and
tili5ation0 2it% t%e ob?ectives o, sstainable a!ricltre and rral development in vie2<
BcC Develop mltiplication=propa!ation0 e3c%an!e and dissemination ,acilities ,or
P7RF:s Bseeds and plantin! materialsC0 particlarl$ in developin! contries and monitor0
control and evalate plant introdctions<
BdC Prepare plans or pro!rammes o, priorit$ action on conservation and sstainable se o,
P7RF:0 based0 as appropriate0 on contr$ stdies on P7RF:<
BeC Promote crop diversi,ication in a!ricltral s$stems 2%ere appropriate0 incldin! ne2
plants 2it% potential vale as ,ood crops<
B,C Promote tili5ation as 2ell as researc% on poorl$ *no2n0 bt potentiall$ se,l0 plants
and crops0 2%ere appropriate<
B!C Stren!t%en national capabilities ,or tili5ation o, P7RF:0 plant breedin! and seed
prodction capabilities0 bot% b$ speciali5ed instittions and ,armin! commnities.
-/ Data and information
1".'+. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop strate!ies ,or net2or*s o, in sit conservation areas and se o, tools sc% as
on-,arm e3 sit collections0 !ermplasm ban*s and related tec%nolo!ies<
BbC /stablis% e3 sit base collection net2or*s<
BcC Revie2 periodicall$ and report on t%e sitation on P7RF:0 sin! e3istin! s$stems
and procedres<
BdC C%aracteri5e and evalate P7RF: material collected0 disseminate in,ormation to
,acilitate t%e se o, P7RF: collections and assess !enetic variation in collections.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".6). T%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies and re!ional or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en t%e 7lobal S$stem on t%e Conservation and Sstainable >se o, P7RF: b$0
inter alia0 acceleratin! t%e development o, t%e 7lobal In,ormation and /arl$ 6arnin!
S$stem to ,acilitate t%e e3c%an!e o, in,ormation< developin! 2a$s to promote t%e trans,er
o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies0 in particlar to developin! contries< and ta*in!
,rt%er steps to reali5e ,armers9 ri!%ts<
BbC Develop sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal net2or*s o, P7RF: in sit in protected
areas<
BcC Prepare periodic state o, t%e 2orld reports on P7RF:<
BdC Prepare a rollin! !lobal cooperative plan o, action on P7RF:<
BeC Promote0 ,or 1++"0 t%e Fort% International Tec%nical Con,erence on t%e Conservation
and Sstainable >se o, P7RF:0 2%ic% is to adopt t%e ,irst state o, t%e 2orld report and
t%e ,irst !lobal plan o, action on t%e conservation and sstainable se o, P7RF:<
B,C :d?st t%e 7lobal S$stem ,or t%e Conservation and Sstainable >se o, P7RF: in line
2it% t%e otcome o, t%e ne!otiations o, a convention on biolo!ical diversit$.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".61. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D6)) million0
incldin! abot D#)) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".62. 7overnments0 at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop basic science researc% in sc% areas as plant ta3onom$ and p%$to!eo!rap%$0
tili5in! recent developments0 sc% as compter sciences0 moleclar !enetics and in vitro
cr$opreservation<
BbC Develop ma?or collaborative pro?ects bet2een researc% pro!rammes in developed and
developin! contries0 particlarl$ ,or t%e en%ancement o, poorl$ *no2n or ne!lected
crops<
BcC Promote cost-e,,ective tec%nolo!ies ,or *eepin! dplicate sets o, e3 sit collections
B2%ic% can also be sed b$ local commnitiesC<
BdC Develop ,rt%er conservation sciences in relation to in sit conservation and tec%nical
means to lin* it 2it% e3 sit conservation e,,orts.
C/ *uman resource development
1".6#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level and 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC Promote trainin! pro!rammes at bot% nder!radate and post-!radate levels in
conservation sciences ,or rnnin! P7RF: ,acilities and ,or t%e desi!n and
implementation o, national pro!rammes in P7RF:<
BbC Raise t%e a2areness o, a!ricltral e3tension services in order to lin* P7RF:
activities 2it% ser commnities<
BcC Develop trainin! materials to promote conservation and tili5ation o, P7RF: at t%e
local level.
D/ Capacit01building
1".6". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old establis% national policies to provide le!al stats ,or
and stren!t%en le!al aspects o, P7RF:0 incldin! lon!-term ,inancial commitments ,or
!ermplasm collections and implementation o, activities in P7RF:.
*$ Conservation and sustainable utili7ation of animal genetic resources for
sustainable agriculture
-asis for action
1".6'. T%e need ,or increased 1antit$ and 1alit$ o, animal prodcts and ,or dra!%t
animals calls ,or conservation o, t%e e3istin! diversit$ o, animal breeds to meet ,tre
re1irements0 incldin! t%ose ,or se in biotec%nolo!$. Some local animal breeds0 in
addition to t%eir socio-cltral vale0 %ave ni1e attribtes ,or adaptation0 disease
resistance and speci,ic ses and s%old be preserved. T%ese local breeds are t%reatened b$
e3tinction as a reslt o, t%e introdction o, e3otic breeds and o, c%an!es in livestoc*
prodction s$stems.
#b.ectives
1".66. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To enmerate and describe all breeds o, livestoc* sed in animal a!ricltre in as
broad a 2a$ as possible and be!in a 1)-$ear pro!ramme o, action<
BbC To establis% and implement action pro!rammes to identi,$ breeds at ris*0 to!et%er
2it% t%e natre o, t%e ris* and appropriate preservation measres<
BcC To establis% and implement development pro!rammes ,or indi!enos breeds in order
to !arantee t%eir srvival0 avoidin! t%e ris* o, t%eir bein! replaced b$ breed sbstittion
or cross-breedin! pro!rammes.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".6&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Dra2 p breed preservation plans0 ,or endan!ered poplations0 incldin!
semen=embr$o collection and stora!e0 ,arm-based conservation o, indi!enos stoc* or in
sit preservation<
BbC Plan and initiate breed development strate!ies<
BcC Select indi!enos poplations on t%e basis o, re!ional importance and !enetic
ni1eness0 ,or a 1)-$ear pro!ramme0 ,ollo2ed b$ selection o, an additional co%ort o,
indi!enos breeds ,or development.
-/ Data and information
1".6(. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old prepare and complete national inventories o, available
animal !enetic resorces. Cr$o!enic stora!e cold be !iven priorit$ over c%aracteri5ation
and evalation. Trainin! o, nationals in conservation and assessment tec%ni1es 2old be
!iven special attention.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".6+. T%e appropriate >nited ;ations and ot%er international and re!ional a!encies
s%old.
BaC Promote t%e establis%ment o, re!ional !ene ban*s to t%e e3tent t%at t%e$ are ?sti,ied0
based on principles o, tec%nical cooperation amon! developin! contries<
BbC Process0 store and anal$se animal !enetic data at t%e !lobal level0 incldin! t%e
establis%ment o, a 2orld 2atc% list and an earl$ 2arnin! s$stem ,or endan!ered breeds<
!lobal assessment o, scienti,ic and inter!overnmental !idance o, t%e pro!ramme and
revie2 o, re!ional and national activities< development o, met%odolo!ies0 norms and
standards Bincldin! international a!reementsC< monitorin! o, t%eir implementation< and
related tec%nical and ,inancial assistance<
BcC Prepare and pblis% a compre%ensive database o, animal !enetic resorces0 describin!
eac% breed0 its derivation0 its relations%ip 2it% ot%er breeds0 e,,ective poplation si5e and
a concise set o, biolo!ical and prodction c%aracteristics<
BdC Prepare and pblis% a 2orld 2atc% list on ,arm animal species at ris* to enable
national 7overnments to ta*e action to preserve endan!ered breeds and to see* tec%nical
assistance0 2%ere necessar$.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".&). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D2)) million0
incldin! abot D1)) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".&1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC >se compter-based data ban*s and 1estionnaires to prepare a !lobal
inventor$=2orld 2atc% list<
BbC >sin! cr$o!enic stora!e o, !ermplasm0 preserve breeds at serios ris* and ot%er
material ,rom 2%ic% !enes can be reconstrcted.
C/ *uman resource development
1".&2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Sponsor trainin! corses ,or nationals to obtain t%e necessar$ e3pertise ,or data
collection and %andlin! and ,or t%e samplin! o, !enetic material<
BbC /nable scientists and mana!ers to establis% an in,ormation base ,or indi!enos
livestoc* breeds and promote pro!rammes to develop and conserve essential livestoc*
!enetic material.
D/ Capacit01building
1".&#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% in-contr$ ,acilities ,or arti,icial insemination centres and in sit breedin!
,arms<
BbC Promote in-contr$ pro!rammes and related p%$sical in,rastrctre ,or animal
livestoc* conservation and breed development0 as 2ell as ,or stren!t%enin! national
capacities to ta*e preventive action 2%en breeds are endan!ered.
"$ "ntegrated pest management and control in agriculture
-asis for action
1".&". 6orld ,ood demand pro?ections indicate an increase o, ') per cent b$ t%e $ear
2))) 2%ic% 2ill more t%an doble a!ain b$ 2)'). Conservative estimates pt pre-%arvest
and post-%arvest losses cased b$ pests bet2een 2' and ') per cent. Pests a,,ectin!
animal %ealt% also case %eav$ losses and in man$ areas prevent livestoc* development.
C%emical control o, a!ricltral pests %as dominated t%e scene0 bt its overse %as
adverse e,,ects on ,arm bd!ets0 %man %ealt% and t%e environment0 as 2ell as on
international trade. ;e2 pest problems contine to develop. Inte!rated pest mana!ement0
2%ic% combines biolo!ical control0 %ost plant resistance and appropriate ,armin!
practices and minimi5es t%e se o, pesticides0 is t%e best option ,or t%e ,tre0 as it
!arantees $ields0 redces costs0 is environmentall$ ,riendl$ and contribtes to t%e
sstainabilit$ o, a!ricltre. Inte!rated pest mana!ement s%old !o %and in %and 2it%
appropriate pesticide mana!ement to allo2 ,or pesticide re!lation and control0 incldin!
trade0 and ,or t%e sa,e %andlin! and disposal o, pesticides0 particlarl$ t%ose t%at are to3ic
and persistent.
#b.ectives
1".&'. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC ;ot later t%an t%e $ear 2)))0 to improve and implement plant protection and animal
%ealt% services0 incldin! mec%anisms to control t%e distribtion and se o, pesticides0
and to implement t%e International Code o, Condct on t%e Distribtion and >se o,
Pesticides<
BbC To improve and implement pro!rammes to pt inte!rated pest-mana!ement practices
2it%in t%e reac% o, ,armers t%ro!% ,armer net2or*s0 e3tension services and researc%
instittions<
BcC ;ot later t%an t%e $ear 1++(0 to establis% operational and interactive net2or*s amon!
,armers0 researc%ers and e3tension services to promote and develop inte!rated pest
mana!ement.
Activities
>A/ %anagement1related activities
1".&6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Revie2 and re,orm national policies and t%e mec%anisms t%at 2old ensre t%e sa,e
and appropriate se o, pesticides - ,or e3ample0 pesticide pricin!0 pest control bri!ades0
price-strctre o, inpts and otpts and inte!rated pest-mana!ement policies and action
plans<
BbC Develop and adopt e,,icient mana!ement s$stems to control and monitor t%e
incidence o, pests and disease in a!ricltre and t%e distribtion and se o, pesticides at
t%e contr$ level<
BcC /ncora!e researc% and development into pesticides t%at are tar!et-speci,ic and
readil$ de!rade into %armless constitent parts a,ter se<
BdC /nsre t%at pesticide labels provide ,armers 2it% nderstandable in,ormation abot
sa,e %andlin!0 application and disposal.
-/ Data and information
1".&&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Consolidate and %armoni5e e3istin! in,ormation and pro!rammes on t%e se o,
pesticides t%at %ave been banned or severel$ restricted in di,,erent contries<
BbC Consolidate0 docment and disseminate in,ormation on biolo!ical control a!ents and
or!anic pesticides0 as 2ell as on traditional and ot%er relevant *no2led!e and s*ills
re!ardin! alternative non-c%emical 2a$s o, controllin! pests<
BcC >nderta*e national srve$s to establis% baseline in,ormation on t%e se o, pesticides
in eac% contr$ and t%e side-e,,ects on %man %ealt% and environment0 and also
nderta*e appropriate edcation.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".&(. :ppropriate >nited ;ations a!encies and re!ional or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC /stablis% a s$stem ,or collectin!0 anal$sin! and disseminatin! data on t%e 1antit$
and 1alit$ o, pesticides sed ever$ $ear and t%eir impact on %man %ealt% and t%e
environment<
BbC Stren!t%en re!ional interdisciplinar$ pro?ects and establis% inte!rated pest
mana!ement BIP-C net2or*s to demonstrate t%e social0 economic and environmental
bene,its o, IP- ,or ,ood and cas% crops in a!ricltre<
BcC Develop proper IP-0 comprisin! t%e selection o, t%e variet$ o, biolo!ical0 p%$sical
and cltral controls0 as 2ell as c%emical controls0 ta*in! into accont speci,ic re!ional
conditions.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".&+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1.+ billion0
incldin! abot D2(' million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".(). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old lanc% on-,arm researc% in t%e development o, non-
c%emical alternative pest mana!ement tec%nolo!ies.
C/ *uman resource development
1".(1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Prepare and condct trainin! pro!rammes on approac%es and tec%ni1es ,or
inte!rated pest mana!ement and control o, pesticide se0 to in,orm polic$ ma*ers0
researc%ers0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and ,armers<
BbC Train e3tension a!ents and involve ,armers and 2omen9s !rops in crop %ealt% and
alternative non-c%emical 2a$s o, controllin! pests in a!ricltre.
D/ Capacit01building
1".(2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old stren!t%en national pblic administrations and
re!lator$ bodies in t%e control o, pesticides and t%e trans,er o, tec%nolo!$ ,or inte!rated
pest mana!ement.
+$ Sustainable plant nutrition to increase food production
-asis for action
1".(#. Plant ntrient depletion is a serios problem resltin! in loss o, soil ,ertilit$0
particlarl$ in developin! contries. To maintain soil prodctivit$0 t%e F:O sstainable
plant ntrition pro!rammes cold be %elp,l. In sb-Sa%aran :,rica0 ntrient otpt ,rom
all sorces crrentl$ e3ceeds inpts b$ a ,actor o, t%ree or ,or0 t%e net loss bein!
estimated at some 1) million metric tons per $ear. :s a reslt0 more mar!inal lands and
,ra!ile natral ecos$stems are pt nder a!ricltral se0 t%s creatin! ,rt%er land
de!radation and ot%er environmental problems. T%e inte!rated plant ntrition approac%
aims at ensrin! a sstainable sppl$ o, plant ntrients to increase ,tre $ields 2it%ot
%armin! t%e environment and soil prodctivit$.
1".(". In man$ developin! contries0 poplation !ro2t% rates e3ceed # per cent a $ear0
and national a!ricltral prodction %as ,allen be%ind ,ood demand. In t%ese contries t%e
!oal s%old be to increase a!ricltral prodction b$ at least " per cent a $ear0 2it%ot
destro$in! t%e soil ,ertilit$. T%is 2ill re1ire increasin! a!ricltral prodction in %i!%-
potential areas t%ro!% e,,icienc$ in t%e se o, inpts. Trained labor0 ener!$ sppl$0
adapted tools and tec%nolo!ies0 plant ntrients and soil enric%ment 2ill all be essential.
#b.ectives
1".('. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC ;ot later t%an t%e $ear 2)))0 to develop and maintain in all contries t%e inte!rated
plant ntrition approac%0 and to optimi5e availabilit$ o, ,ertili5er and ot%er plant ntrient
sorces<
BbC ;ot later t%an t%e $ear 2)))0 to establis% and maintain instittional and %man
in,rastrctre to en%ance e,,ective decision-ma*in! on soil prodctivit$<
BcC To develop and ma*e available national and international *no2-%o2 to ,armers0
e3tension a!ents0 planners and polic$ ma*ers on environmentall$ sond ne2 and e3istin!
tec%nolo!ies and soil-,ertilit$ mana!ement strate!ies ,or application in promotin!
sstainable a!ricltre.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".(6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Formlate and appl$ strate!ies t%at 2ill en%ance soil ,ertilit$ maintenance to meet
sstainable a!ricltral prodction and ad?st t%e relevant a!ricltral polic$ instrments
accordin!l$<
BbC Inte!rate or!anic and inor!anic sorces o, plant ntrients in a s$stem to sstain soil
,ertilit$ and determine mineral ,ertili5er needs<
BcC Determine plant ntrient re1irements and sppl$ strate!ies and optimi5e t%e se o,
bot% or!anic and inor!anic sorces0 as appropriate0 to increase ,armin! e,,icienc$ and
prodction<
BdC Develop and encora!e processes ,or t%e rec$clin! o, or!anic and inor!anic 2aste
into t%e soil strctre0 2it%ot %armin! t%e environment0 plant !ro2t% and %man %ealt%.
-/ Data and information
1".(&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC :ssess Anational accontsA ,or plant ntrients0 incldin! spplies BinptsC and losses
BotptsC and prepare balance s%eets and pro?ections b$ croppin! s$stems<
BbC Revie2 tec%nical and economic potentials o, plant ntrient sorces0 incldin! national
deposits0 improved or!anic spplies0 rec$clin!0 2astes0 topsoil prodced ,rom discarded
or!anic matter and biolo!ical nitro!en ,i3ation.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".((. T%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies0 sc% as F:O0 t%e international
a!ricltral researc% instittes0 and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations s%old collaborate in
carr$in! ot in,ormation and pblicit$ campai!ns abot t%e inte!rated plant ntrients
approac%0 e,,icienc$ o, soil prodctivit$ and t%eir relations%ip to t%e environment.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".(+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D#.2 billion0
incldin! abot D"&' million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".+). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop site-speci,ic tec%nolo!ies at benc%mar* sites and ,armers9 ,ields t%at ,it
prevailin! socio-economic and ecolo!ical conditions t%ro!% researc% t%at involves t%e
,ll collaboration o, local poplations<
BbC Rein,orce interdisciplinar$ international researc% and trans,er o, tec%nolo!$ in
croppin! and ,armin! s$stems researc%0 improved in sit biomass prodction tec%ni1es0
or!anic reside mana!ement and a!ro,orestr$ tec%nolo!ies.
C/ *uman resource development
1".+1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Train e3tension o,,icers and researc%ers in plant ntrient mana!ement0 croppin!
s$stems and ,armin! s$stems0 and in economic evalation o, plant ntrient impact<
BbC Train ,armers and 2omen9s !rops in plant ntrition mana!ement0 2it% special
emp%asis on topsoil conservation and prodction.
D/ Capacit01building
1".+2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop sitable instittional mec%anisms ,or polic$ ,ormlation to monitor and
!ide t%e implementation o, inte!rated plant ntrition pro!rammes t%ro!% an interactive
process involvin! ,armers0 researc%0 e3tension services and ot%er sectors o, societ$<
BbC 6%ere appropriate0 stren!t%en e3istin! advisor$ services and train sta,,0 develop and
test ne2 tec%nolo!ies and ,acilitate t%e adoption o, practices to p!rade and maintain ,ll
prodctivit$ o, t%e land.
E$ &ural energ0 transition to enance productivit0
-asis for action
1".+#. /ner!$ spplies in man$ contries are not commensrate 2it% t%eir development
needs and are %i!%l$ priced and nstable. In rral areas o, t%e developin! contries0 t%e
c%ie, sorces o, ener!$ are ,el2ood0 crop resides and manre0 to!et%er 2it% animal and
%man ener!$. -ore intensive ener!$ inpts are re1ired ,or increased prodctivit$ o,
%man labor and ,or income-!eneration. To t%is end0 rral ener!$ policies and
tec%nolo!ies s%old promote a mi3 o, cost-e,,ective ,ossil and rene2able ener!$ sorces
t%at is itsel, sstainable and ensres sstainable a!ricltral development. Rral areas
provide ener!$ spplies in t%e ,orm o, 2ood. T%e ,ll potential o, a!ricltre and
a!ro,orestr$0 as 2ell as common propert$ resorces0 as sorces o, rene2able ener!$0 is
,ar ,rom bein! reali5ed. T%e attainment o, sstainable rral development is intimatel$
lin*ed 2it% ener!$ demand and sppl$ patterns. '=
#b.ectives
1".+". T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC ;ot later t%an t%e $ear 2)))0 to initiate and encora!e a process o, environmentall$
sond ener!$ transition in rral commnities0 ,rom nsstainable ener!$ sorces0 to
strctred and diversi,ied ener!$ sorces b$ ma*in! available alternative ne2 and
rene2able sorces o, ener!$<
BbC To increase t%e ener!$ inpts available ,or rral %ose%old and a!ro-indstrial needs
t%ro!% plannin! and appropriate tec%nolo!$ trans,er and development<
BcC To implement sel,-reliant rral pro!rammes ,avorin! sstainable development o,
rene2able ener!$ sorces and improved ener!$ e,,icienc$.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1".+'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Promote pilot plans and pro?ects consistin! o, electrical0 mec%anical and t%ermal
po2er B!asi,iers0 biomass0 solar driers0 2ind-pmps and combstion s$stemsC t%at are
appropriate and li*el$ to be ade1atel$ maintained<
BbC Initiate and promote rral ener!$ pro!rammes spported b$ tec%nical trainin!0
ban*in! and related in,rastrctre<
BcC Intensi,$ researc% and t%e development0 diversi,ication and conservation o, ener!$0
ta*in! into accont t%e need ,or e,,icient se and environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$.
-/ Data and information
1".+6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Collect and disseminate data on rral ener!$ sppl$ and demand patterns related to
ener!$ needs ,or %ose%olds0 a!ricltre and a!ro-indstr$<
BbC :nal$se sectoral ener!$ and prodction data in order to identi,$ rral ener!$
re1irements.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1".+&. T%e appropriate >nited ;ations a!encies and re!ional or!ani5ations s%old0
dra2in! on t%e e3perience and available in,ormation o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations
in t%is ,ield0 e3c%an!e contr$ and re!ional e3perience on rral ener!$ plannin!
met%odolo!ies in order to promote e,,icient plannin! and select cost-e,,ective
tec%nolo!ies.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1".+(. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1.( billion per $ear0
incldin! abot D26' million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1".++. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Intensi,$ pblic and private sector researc% in developin! and indstriali5ed contries
on rene2able sorces o, ener!$ ,or a!ricltre<
BbC >nderta*e researc% and trans,er o, ener!$ tec%nolo!ies in biomass and solar ener!$ to
a!ricltral prodction and post-%arvest activities.
C/ *uman resource development
1".1)). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old en%ance pblic a2areness o, rral ener!$
problems0 stressin! t%e economic and environmental advanta!es o, rene2able ener!$
sorces.
D/ Capacit01building
1".1)1. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC /stablis% national instittional mec%anisms ,or rral ener!$ plannin! and
mana!ement t%at 2old improve e,,icienc$ in a!ricltral prodctivit$ and reac% t%e
villa!e and %ose%old level<
BbC Stren!t%en e3tension services and local or!ani5ations to implement plans and
pro!rammes ,or ne2 and rene2able sorces o, ener!$ at t%e villa!e level.
L$ Evaluation of te effects of ultraviolet radiation on plants and animals
caused b0 te depletion of te stratosperic o7one la0er
-asis for action
1".1)2. T%e increase o, ltraviolet radiation as a conse1ence o, t%e depletion o, t%e
stratosp%eric o5one la$er is a p%enomenon t%at %as been recorded in di,,erent re!ions o,
t%e 2orld0 particlarl$ in t%e sot%ern %emisp%ere. Conse1entl$0 it is important to
evalate its e,,ects on plant and animal li,e0 as 2ell as on sstainable a!ricltral
development.
#b.ective
1".1)#. T%e ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme area is to nderta*e researc% to determine t%e
e,,ects o, increased ltraviolet radiation resltin! ,rom stratosp%eric o5one la$er
depletion on t%e /art%9s sr,ace0 and on plant and animal li,e in a,,ected re!ions0 as 2ell
as its impact on a!ricltre0 and to develop0 as appropriate0 strate!ies aimed at miti!atin!
its adverse e,,ects.
Activities
%anagement1related activities
1".1)". In a,,ected re!ions0 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e
relevant international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old ta*e t%e necessar$ measres0
t%ro!% instittional cooperation0 to ,acilitate t%e implementation o, researc% and
evalation re!ardin! t%e e,,ects o, en%anced ltraviolet radiation on plant and animal li,e0
as 2ell as on a!ricltral activities0 and consider ta*in! appropriate remedial measres.
Notes
1= Some o, t%e isses in t%is pro!ramme area are presented in c%apter # o, :!enda 21
BCombatin! povert$C.
2= Some o, t%e isses in t%is pro!ramme area are discssed in c%apter ( o, :!enda 21
BInte!ratin! environment and development in decision-ma*in!C and in c%apter #&
B;ational mec%anisms and international cooperation ,or capacit$-bildin! in developin!
contriesC.
#= Some o, t%e isses are presented in c%apter 1) o, :!enda 21 BInte!rated approac% to
t%e plannin! and mana!ement o, land resorcesC.
"= T%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme area are related to some o, t%e activities in c%apter 1'
o, :!enda 21 BConservation o, biolo!ical diversit$C.
'= T%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme area are related to some o, t%e activities in c%apter +
o, :!enda 21 BProtection o, t%e atmosp%ereC.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 19
Conservation of -iological Diversit0
"ntroduction
1'.1. T%e ob?ectives and activities in t%is c%apter o, :!enda 21 are intended to improve
t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces0 as
2ell as to spport t%e Convention on Eiolo!ical Diversit$.
1'.2. Or planet9s essential !oods and services depend on t%e variet$ and variabilit$ o,
!enes0 species0 poplations and ecos$stems. Eiolo!ical resorces ,eed and clot%e s and
provide %osin!0 medicines and spirital noris%ment. T%e natral ecos$stems o, ,orests0
savanna%s0 pastres and ran!elands0 deserts0 tndras0 rivers0 la*es and seas contain most
o, t%e /art%9s biodiversit$. Farmers9 ,ields and !ardens are also o, !reat importance as
repositories0 2%ile !ene ban*s0 botanical !ardens0 5oos and ot%er !ermplasm repositories
ma*e a small bt si!ni,icant contribtion. T%e crrent decline in biodiversit$ is lar!el$
t%e reslt o, %man activit$ and represents a serios t%reat to %man development.
P&#(&A%%E A&EA
Conservation of biological diversit0
-asis for action
1'.#. Despite montin! e,,orts over t%e past 2) $ears0 t%e loss o, t%e 2orld9s biolo!ical
diversit$0 mainl$ ,rom %abitat destrction0 over-%arvestin!0 polltion and t%e
inappropriate introdction o, ,orei!n plants and animals0 %as contined. Eiolo!ical
resorces constitte a capital asset 2it% !reat potential ,or $ieldin! sstainable bene,its.
>r!ent and decisive action is needed to conserve and maintain !enes0 species and
ecos$stems0 2it% a vie2 to t%e sstainable mana!ement and se o, biolo!ical resorces.
Capacities ,or t%e assessment0 std$ and s$stematic observation and evalation o,
biodiversit$ need to be rein,orced at national and international levels. /,,ective national
action and international cooperation is re1ired ,or t%e in sit protection o, ecos$stems0
,or t%e e3 sit conservation o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces and ,or t%e en%ancement
o, ecos$stem ,nctions. T%e participation and spport o, local commnities are elements
essential to t%e sccess o, sc% an approac%. Recent advances in biotec%nolo!$ %ave
pointed p t%e li*el$ potential ,or a!ricltre0 %ealt% and 2el,are and ,or t%e
environmental prposes o, t%e !enetic material contained in plants0 animals and micro-
or!anisms. :t t%e same time0 it is particlarl$ important in t%is conte3t to stress t%at
States %ave t%e soverei!n ri!%t to e3ploit t%eir o2n biolo!ical resorces prsant to t%eir
environmental policies0 as 2ell as t%e responsibilit$ to conserve t%eir biodiversit$ and se
t%eir biolo!ical resorces sstainabl$0 and to ensre t%at activities 2it%in t%eir ?risdiction
or control do not case dama!e to t%e biolo!ical diversit$ o, ot%er States or o, areas
be$ond t%e limits o, national ?risdiction.
#b.ectives
1'.". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and re!ional0 inter!overnmental and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 t%e
private sector and ,inancial instittions0 and ta*in! into consideration indi!enos people
and t%eir commnities0 as 2ell as social and economic ,actors0 s%old.
BaC Press ,or t%e earl$ entr$ into ,orce o, t%e Convention on Eiolo!ical Diversit$0 2it% t%e
2idest possible participation<
BbC Develop national strate!ies ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e
sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces<
BcC Inte!rate strate!ies ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se
o, biolo!ical resorces into national development strate!ies and=or plans<
BdC Ta*e appropriate measres ,or t%e ,air and e1itable s%arin! o, bene,its derived ,rom
researc% and development and se o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces0 incldin!
biotec%nolo!$0 bet2een t%e sorces o, t%ose resorces and t%ose 2%o se t%em<
BeC Carr$ ot contr$ stdies0 as appropriate0 on t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$
and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces0 incldin! anal$ses o, relevant costs and
bene,its0 2it% particlar re,erence to socio-economic aspects<
B,C Prodce re!larl$ pdated 2orld reports on biodiversit$ based pon national
assessments<
B!C Reco!ni5e and ,oster t%e traditional met%ods and t%e *no2led!e o, indi!enos people
and t%eir commnities0 emp%asi5in! t%e particlar role o, 2omen0 relevant to t%e
conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces0 and
ensre t%e opportnit$ ,or t%e participation o, t%ose !rops in t%e economic and
commercial bene,its derived ,rom t%e se o, sc% traditional met%ods and *no2led!e< 1=
B%C Implement mec%anisms ,or t%e improvement0 !eneration0 development and
sstainable se o, biotec%nolo!$ and its sa,e trans,er0 particlarl$ to developin!
contries0 ta*in! accont t%e potential contribtion o, biotec%nolo!$ to t%e conservation
o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces< 2=
BiC Promote broader international and re!ional cooperation in ,rt%erin! scienti,ic and
economic nderstandin! o, t%e importance o, biodiversit$ and its ,nctions in
ecos$stems<
B?C Develop measres and arran!ements to implement t%e ri!%ts o, contries o, ori!in o,
!enetic resorces or contries providin! !enetic resorces0 as de,ined in t%e Convention
on Eiolo!ical Diversit$0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 to bene,it ,rom t%e
biotec%nolo!ical development and t%e commercial tili5ation o, prodcts derived ,rom
sc% resorces. 2= #=
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1'.'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate levels0 consistent 2it% national policies and
practices0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited ;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0
inter!overnmental or!ani5ations and0 2it% t%e spport o, indi!enos people and t%eir
commnities0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and ot%er !rops0 incldin! t%e bsiness
and scienti,ic commnities0 and consistent 2it% t%e re1irements o, international la20
s%old0 as appropriate.
BaC Develop ne2 or stren!t%en e3istin! strate!ies0 plans or pro!rammes o, action ,or t%e
conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces0 ta*in!
accont o, edcation and trainin! needs< "=
BbC Inte!rate strate!ies ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se
o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans0
pro!rammes and policies0 2it% particlar re,erence to t%e special importance o, terrestrial
and a1atic biolo!ical and !enetic resorces ,or ,ood and a!ricltre< '=
BcC >nderta*e contr$ stdies or se ot%er met%ods to identi,$ components o, biolo!ical
diversit$ important ,or its conservation and ,or t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical
resorces0 ascribe vales to biolo!ical and !enetic resorces0 identi,$ processes and
activities 2it% si!ni,icant impacts pon biolo!ical diversit$0 evalate t%e potential
economic implications o, t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se
o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces0 and s!!est priorit$ action<
BdC Ta*e e,,ective economic0 social and ot%er appropriate incentive measres to
encora!e t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical
resorces0 incldin! t%e promotion o, sstainable prodction s$stems0 sc% as traditional
met%ods o, a!ricltre0 a!ro,orestr$0 ,orestr$0 ran!e and 2ildli,e mana!ement0 2%ic% se0
maintain or increase biodiversit$< '=
BeC Sb?ect to national le!islation0 ta*e action to respect0 record0 protect and promote t%e
2ider application o, t%e *no2led!e0 innovations and practices o, indi!enos and local
commnities embod$in! traditional li,est$les ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$
and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces0 2it% a vie2 to t%e ,air and e1itable
s%arin! o, t%e bene,its arisin!0 and promote mec%anisms to involve t%ose commnities0
incldin! 2omen0 in t%e conservation and mana!ement o, ecos$stems< 1=
B,C >nderta*e lon!-term researc% into t%e importance o, biodiversit$ ,or t%e ,nctionin!
o, ecos$stems and t%e role o, ecos$stems in prodcin! !oods0 environmental services and
ot%er vales spportin! sstainable development0 2it% particlar re,erence to t%e biolo!$
and reprodctive capacities o, *e$ terrestrial and a1atic species0 incldin! native0
cltivated and cltred species< ne2 observation and inventor$ tec%ni1es< ecolo!ical
conditions necessar$ ,or biodiversit$ conservation and contined evoltion< and social
be%avior and ntrition %abits dependent on natral ecos$stems0 2%ere 2omen pla$ *e$
roles. T%e 2or* s%old be nderta*en 2it% t%e 2idest possible participation0 especiall$ o,
indi!enos people and t%eir commnities0 incldin! 2omen< 1=
B!C Ta*e action 2%ere necessar$ ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ t%ro!% t%e
in sit conservation o, ecos$stems and natral %abitats0 as 2ell as primitive cltivars and
t%eir 2ild relatives0 and t%e maintenance and recover$ o, viable poplations o, species in
t%eir natral srrondin!s0 and implement e3 sit measres0 pre,erabl$ in t%e sorce
contr$. In sit measres s%old inclde t%e rein,orcement o, terrestrial0 marine and
a1atic protected area s$stems and embrace0 inter alia0 vlnerable ,res%2ater and ot%er
2etlands and coastal ecos$stems0 sc% as estaries0 coral ree,s and man!roves< 6=
B%C Promote t%e re%abilitation and restoration o, dama!ed ecos$stems and t%e recover$ o,
t%reatened and endan!ered species<
BiC Develop policies to encora!e t%e conservation o, biodiversit$ and t%e sstainable se
o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces on private lands<
B?C Promote environmentall$ sond and sstainable development in areas ad?acent to
protected areas 2it% a vie2 to ,rt%erin! protection o, t%ese areas<
B*C Introdce appropriate environmental impact assessment procedres ,or proposed
pro?ects li*el$ to %ave si!ni,icant impacts pon biolo!ical diversit$0 providin! ,or
sitable in,ormation to be made 2idel$ available and ,or pblic participation0 2%ere
appropriate0 and encora!e t%e assessment o, t%e impacts o, relevant policies and
pro!rammes on biolo!ical diversit$<
BlC Promote0 2%ere appropriate0 t%e establis%ment and stren!t%enin! o, national
inventor$0 re!lation or mana!ement and control s$stems related to biolo!ical resorces0
at t%e appropriate level<
BmC Ta*e measres to encora!e a !reater nderstandin! and appreciation o, t%e vale o,
biolo!ical diversit$0 as mani,ested bot% in its component parts and in t%e ecos$stem
services provided.
-/ Data and information
1'.6. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 consistent 2it% national policies and
practices0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited ;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0
inter!overnmental or!ani5ations0 and 2it% t%e spport o, indi!enos people and t%eir
commnities0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and ot%er !rops0 incldin! t%e bsiness
and scienti,ic commnities0 and consistent 2it% t%e re1irements o, international la20
s%old0 as appropriate. &=
BaC Re!larl$ collate0 evalate and e3c%an!e in,ormation on t%e conservation o,
biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces<
BbC Develop met%odolo!ies 2it% a vie2 to nderta*in! s$stematic samplin! and
evalation on a national basis o, t%e components o, biolo!ical diversit$ identi,ied b$
means o, contr$ stdies<
BcC Initiate or ,rt%er develop met%odolo!ies and be!in or contine 2or* on srve$s at
t%e appropriate level on t%e stats o, ecos$stems and establis% baseline in,ormation on
biolo!ical and !enetic resorces0 incldin! t%ose in terrestrial0 a1atic0 coastal and marine
ecos$stems0 as 2ell as inventories nderta*en 2it% t%e participation o, local and
indi!enos people and t%eir commnities<
BdC Identi,$ and evalate t%e potential economic and social implications and bene,its o,
t%e conservation and sstainable se o, terrestrial and a1atic species in eac% contr$0
bildin! pon t%e reslts o, contr$ stdies<
BeC >nderta*e t%e pdatin!0 anal$sis and interpretation o, data derived ,rom t%e
identi,ication0 samplin! and evalation activities described above<
B,C Collect0 assess and ma*e available relevant and reliable in,ormation in a timel$
manner and in a ,orm sitable ,or decision-ma*in! at all levels0 2it% t%e ,ll spport and
participation o, local and indi!enos people and t%eir commnities.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1'.&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e relevant >nited
;ations bodies and0 as appropriate0 inter!overnmental or!ani5ations0 and0 2it% t%e
spport o, indi!enos people and t%eir commnities0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
ot%er !rops0 incldin! t%e bsiness and scienti,ic commnities0 and consistent 2it% t%e
re1irements o, international la20 s%old0 as appropriate.
BaC Consider t%e establis%ment or stren!t%enin! o, national or international capabilities
and net2or*s ,or t%e e3c%an!e o, data and in,ormation o, relevance to t%e conservation
o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces< &=
BbC Prodce re!larl$ pdated 2orld reports on biodiversit$ based pon national
assessments in all contries<
BcC Promote tec%nical and scienti,ic cooperation in t%e ,ield o, conservation o, biolo!ical
diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical and !enetic resorces. Special attention
s%old be !iven to t%e development and stren!t%enin! o, national capabilities b$ means
o, %man resorce development and instittion-bildin!0 incldin! t%e trans,er o,
tec%nolo!$ and=or development o, researc% and mana!ement ,acilities0 sc% as %erbaria0
msems0 !ene ban*s0 and laboratories0 related to t%e conservation o, biodiversit$< (=
BdC 6it%ot pre?dice to t%e relevant provisions o, t%e Convention on Eiolo!ical
Diversit$0 ,acilitate ,or t%is c%apter t%e trans,er o, tec%nolo!ies relevant to t%e
conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces or
tec%nolo!ies t%at ma*e se o, !enetic resorces and case no si!ni,icant dama!e to t%e
environment0 in con,ormit$ 2it% c%apter #"0 and reco!ni5in! t%at tec%nolo!$ incldes
biotec%nolo!$< 2= (=
BeC Promote cooperation bet2een t%e parties to relevant international conventions and
action plans 2it% t%e aim o, stren!t%enin! and coordinatin! e,,orts to conserve biolo!ical
diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces<
B,C Stren!t%en spport ,or international and re!ional instrments0 pro!rammes and action
plans concerned 2it% t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o,
biolo!ical resorces<
B!C Promote improved international coordination o, measres ,or t%e e,,ective
conservation and mana!ement o, endan!ered=non-pest mi!rator$ species0 incldin!
appropriate levels o, spport ,or t%e establis%ment and mana!ement o, protected areas in
transbondar$ locations<
B%C Promote national e,,orts 2it% respect to srve$s0 data collection0 samplin! and
evalation0 and t%e maintenance o, !ene ban*s.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1'.(. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is c%apter to be abot D#.' billion0 incldin! abot
D1.&' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1'.+. Speci,ic aspects to be addressed inclde t%e need to develop.
BaC /,,icient met%odolo!ies ,or baseline srve$s and inventories0 as 2ell as ,or t%e
s$stematic samplin! and evalation o, biolo!ical resorces<
BbC -et%ods and tec%nolo!ies ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e
sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces<
BcC Improved and diversi,ied met%ods ,or e3 sit conservation 2it% a vie2 to t%e lon!-
term conservation o, !enetic resorces o, importance ,or researc% and development.
C/ *uman resource development
1'.1). T%ere is a need0 2%ere appropriate0 to.
BaC Increase t%e nmber and=or ma*e more e,,icient se o, trained personnel in scienti,ic
and tec%nolo!ical ,ields relevant to t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e
sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces<
BbC -aintain or establis% pro!rammes ,or scienti,ic and tec%nical edcation and trainin!
o, mana!ers and pro,essionals0 especiall$ in developin! contries0 on measres ,or t%e
identi,ication0 conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical
resorces<
BcC Promote and encora!e nderstandin! o, t%e importance o, t%e measres re1ired ,or
t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces at
all polic$-ma*in! and decision-ma*in! levels in 7overnments0 bsiness enterprises and
lendin! instittions0 and promote and encora!e t%e inclsion o, t%ese topics in
edcational pro!rammes.
D/ Capacit01building
1'.11. T%ere is a need0 2%ere appropriate0 to.
BaC Stren!t%en e3istin! instittions and=or establis% ne2 ones responsible ,or t%e
conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and to consider t%e development o, mec%anisms sc%
as national biodiversit$ instittes or centres<
BbC Contine to bild capacit$ ,or t%e conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e
sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces in all relevant sectors<
BcC Eild capacit$0 especiall$ 2it%in 7overnments0 bsiness enterprises and bilateral and
mltilateral development a!encies0 ,or inte!ratin! biodiversit$ concerns0 potential
bene,its and opportnit$ cost calclations into pro?ect desi!n0 implementation and
evalation processes0 as 2ell as ,or evalatin! t%e impact on biolo!ical diversit$ o,
proposed development pro?ects<
BdC /n%ance t%e capacit$ o, !overnmental and private instittions0 at t%e appropriate
level0 responsible ,or protected area plannin! and mana!ement to nderta*e intersectoral
coordination and plannin! 2it% ot%er !overnmental instittions0 non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations and0 2%ere appropriate0 indi!enos people and t%eir commnities.
1= See c%apter 26 BReco!ni5in! and stren!t%enin! t%e role o, indi!enos people and t%eir
commnitiesC and c%apter 2" B7lobal action ,or 2omen to2ards sstainable and e1itable
developmentC.
2= See c%apter 16 B/nvironmentall$ sond mana!ement o, biotec%nolo!$C.
#= :rticle 2 B>se o, termsC o, t%e Convention on Eiolo!ical Diversit$ incldes t%e
,ollo2in! de,initions. AContr$ providin! !enetic resorcesA means t%e contr$
sppl$in! !enetic resorces collected ,rom in situ sorces0 incldin! poplations o, bot%
2ild and domesticated species0 or ta*en ,rom ex situ sorces0 2%ic% ma$ or ma$ not %ave
ori!inated in t%at contr$.
"= See c%apter #6 BPromotin! edcation0 pblic a2areness and trainin!C.
'= See c%apter 1" BPromotin! sstainable a!ricltre and rral developmentC and c%apter
11 BCombatin! de,orestationC.
6= See c%apter 1& BProtection o, t%e oceans0 all *inds o, seas0 incldin! enclosed and
semi-enclosed seas0 and coastal areas and t%e protection0 rational se and development o,
t%eir livin! resorcesC
&= See c%apter ") BIn,ormation ,or decision-ma*in!C
(= See c%apter #" BTrans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$0 cooperation and
capacit$-bildin!C.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 1;
Environmentall0 Sound %anagement of -iotecnolog0
"ntroduction
16.1. Eiotec%nolo!$ is t%e inte!ration o, t%e ne2 tec%ni1es emer!in! ,rom modern
biotec%nolo!$ 2it% t%e 2ell-establis%ed approac%es o, traditional biotec%nolo!$.
Eiotec%nolo!$0 an emer!in! *no2led!e-intensive ,ield0 is a set o, enablin! tec%ni1es ,or
brin!in! abot speci,ic man-made c%an!es in deo3$riboncleic acid BD;:C0 or !enetic
material0 in plants0 animals and microbial s$stems0 leadin! to se,l prodcts and
tec%nolo!ies. E$ itsel,0 biotec%nolo!$ cannot resolve all t%e ,ndamental problems o,
environment and development0 so e3pectations need to be tempered b$ realism.
;evert%eless0 it promises to ma*e a si!ni,icant contribtion in enablin! t%e development
o,0 ,or e3ample0 better %ealt% care0 en%anced ,ood secrit$ t%ro!% sstainable
a!ricltral practices0 improved spplies o, potable 2ater0 more e,,icient indstrial
development processes ,or trans,ormin! ra2 materials0 spport ,or sstainable met%ods
o, a,,orestation and re,orestation0 and deto3i,ication o, %a5ardos 2astes. Eiotec%nolo!$
also o,,ers ne2 opportnities ,or !lobal partners%ips0 especiall$ bet2een t%e contries
ric% in biolo!ical resorces B2%ic% inclde !enetic resorcesC bt lac*in! t%e e3pertise
and investments needed to appl$ sc% resorces t%ro!% biotec%nolo!$ and t%e contries
t%at %ave developed t%e tec%nolo!ical e3pertise to trans,orm biolo!ical resorces so t%at
t%e$ serve t%e needs o, sstainable development. 1= Eiotec%nolo!$ can assist in t%e
conservation o, t%ose resorces t%ro!%0 ,or e3ample0 e3 sit tec%ni1es. T%e pro!ramme
areas set ot belo2 see* to ,oster internationall$ a!reed principles to be applied to ensre
t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, biotec%nolo!$0 to en!ender pblic trst and
con,idence0 to promote t%e development o, sstainable applications o, biotec%nolo!$ and
to establis% appropriate enablin! mec%anisms0 especiall$ 2it%in developin! contries0
t%ro!% t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC Increasin! t%e availabilit$ o, ,ood0 ,eed and rene2able ra2 materials<
BbC Improvin! %man %ealt%<
BcC /n%ancin! protection o, t%e environment<
BdC /n%ancin! sa,et$ and developin! international mec%anisms ,or cooperation<
BeC /stablis%in! enablin! mec%anisms ,or t%e development and t%e environmentall$
sond application o, biotec%nolo!$.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ "ncreasing te availabilit0 of food5 feed and rene4able ra4 materials
-asis for action
16.2. To meet t%e !ro2in! consmption needs o, t%e !lobal poplation0 t%e c%allen!e is
not onl$ to increase ,ood sppl$0 bt also to improve ,ood distribtion si!ni,icantl$ 2%ile
simltaneosl$ developin! more sstainable a!ricltral s$stems. -c% o, t%is increased
prodctivit$ 2ill need to ta*e place in developin! contries. It 2ill re1ire t%e sccess,l
and environmentall$ sa,e application o, biotec%nolo!$ in a!ricltre0 in t%e environment
and in %man %ealt% care. -ost o, t%e investment in modern biotec%nolo!$ %as been in
t%e indstriali5ed 2orld. Si!ni,icant ne2 investments and %man resorce development
2ill be re1ired in biotec%nolo!$0 especiall$ in t%e developin! 2orld.
#b.ectives
16.#. T%e ,ollo2in! ob?ectives are proposed0 *eepin! in mind t%e need to promote t%e se
o, appropriate sa,et$ measres based on pro!ramme area D.
BaC To increase to t%e optimm possible e3tent t%e $ield o, ma?or crops0 livestoc*0 and
a1acltre species0 b$ sin! t%e combined resorces o, modern biotec%nolo!$ and
conventional plant=animal=micro-or!anism improvement0 incldin! t%e more diverse se
o, !enetic material resorces0 bot% %$brid and ori!inal. 2= Forest prodct $ields s%old
similarl$ be increased0 to ensre t%e sstainable se o, ,orests< #=
BbC To redce t%e need ,or volme increases o, ,ood0 ,eed and ra2 materials b$ improvin!
t%e ntritional vale BcompositionC o, t%e sorce crops0 animals and micro-or!anisms0 and
to redce post-%arvest losses o, plant and animal prodcts<
BcC To increase t%e se o, inte!rated pest0 disease and crop mana!ement tec%ni1es to
eliminate overdependence on a!roc%emicals0 t%ereb$ encora!in! environmentall$
sstainable a!ricltral practices<
BdC To evalate t%e a!ricltral potential o, mar!inal lands in comparison 2it% ot%er
potential ses and to develop0 2%ere appropriate0 s$stems allo2in! ,or sstainable
prodctivit$ increases<
BeC To e3pand t%e applications o, biotec%nolo!$ in ,orestr$0 bot% ,or increasin! $ields and
more e,,icient tili5ation o, ,orest prodcts and ,or improvin! a,,orestation and
re,orestation tec%ni1es. /,,orts s%old be concentrated on species and prodcts t%at are
!ro2n in and are o, vale particlarl$ ,or developin! contries<
B,C To increase t%e e,,icienc$ o, nitro!en ,i3ation and mineral absorption b$ t%e s$mbiosis
o, %i!%er plants 2it% micro-or!anisms<
B!C To improve capabilities in basic and applied sciences and in t%e mana!ement o,
comple3 interdisciplinar$ researc% pro?ects.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
16.". 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e assistance o, international and
re!ional or!ani5ations and 2it% t%e spport o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 t%e
private sector and academic and scienti,ic instittions0 s%old improve bot% plant and
animal breedin! and micro-or!anisms t%ro!% t%e se o, traditional and modern
biotec%nolo!ies0 to en%ance sstainable a!ricltral otpt to ac%ieve ,ood secrit$0
particlarl$ in developin! contries0 2it% de re!ard to t%e prior identi,ication o, desired
c%aracteristics be,ore modi,ication0 ta*in! into accont t%e needs o, ,armers0 t%e socio-
economic0 cltral and environmental impacts o, modi,ications and t%e need to promote
sstainable social and economic development0 pa$in! particlar attention to %o2 t%e se
o, biotec%nolo!$ 2ill impact on t%e maintenance o, environmental inte!rit$.
16.'. -ore speci,icall$0 t%ese entities s%old.
BaC Improve prodctivit$0 ntritional 1alit$ and s%el,-li,e o, ,ood and animal ,eed
prodcts0 2it% e,,orts incldin! 2or* on pre- and post-%arvest losses<
BbC Frt%er develop resistance to diseases and pests<
BcC Develop plant cltivars tolerant and=or resistant to stress ,rom ,actors sc% as pests
and diseases and ,rom abiotic cases<
BdC Promote t%e se o, ndertili5ed crops o, possible ,tre importance ,or %man
ntrition and indstrial sppl$ o, ra2 materials<
BeC Increase t%e e,,icienc$ o, s$mbiotic processes t%at assist sstainable a!ricltral
prodction<
B,C Facilitate t%e conservation and sa,e e3c%an!e o, plant0 animal and microbial !erm
plasm b$ appl$in! ris* assessment and mana!ement procedres0 incldin! improved
dia!nostic tec%ni1es ,or detection o, pests and diseases b$ better met%ods o, rapid
propa!ation<
B!C Develop improved dia!nostic tec%ni1es and vaccines ,or t%e prevention and spread
o, diseases and ,or rapid assessment o, to3ins or in,ectios or!anisms in prodcts ,or
%man se or livestoc* ,eed<
B%C Identi,$ more prodctive strains o, ,ast-!ro2in! trees0 especiall$ ,or ,el 2ood0 and
develop rapid propa!ation met%ods to aid t%eir 2ider dissemination and se<
BiC /valate t%e se o, varios biotec%nolo!$ tec%ni1es to improve t%e $ields o, ,is%0
al!al and ot%er a1atic species<
B?C Promote sstainable a!ricltral otpt b$ stren!t%enin! and broadenin! t%e capacit$
and scope o, e3istin! researc% centres to ac%ieve t%e necessar$ critical mass t%ro!%
encora!ement and monitorin! o, researc% into t%e development o, biolo!ical prodcts
and processes o, prodctive and environmental vale t%at are economicall$ and sociall$
,easible0 2%ile ta*in! sa,et$ considerations into accont<
B*C Promote t%e inte!ration o, appropriate and traditional biotec%nolo!ies ,or t%e
prposes o, cltivatin! !eneticall$ modi,ied plants0 rearin! %ealt%$ animals and
protectin! ,orest !enetic resorces<
BlC Develop processes to increase t%e availabilit$ o, materials derived ,rom biotec%nolo!$
,or se in ,ood0 ,eed and rene2able ra2 materials prodction.
-/ Data and information
16.6. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC Consideration o, comparative assessments o, t%e potential o, t%e di,,erent
tec%nolo!ies ,or ,ood prodction0 to!et%er 2it% a s$stem ,or assessin! t%e possible e,,ects
o, biotec%nolo!ies on international trade in a!ricltral prodcts<
BbC /3amination o, t%e implications o, t%e 2it%dra2al o, sbsidies and t%e possible se o,
ot%er economic instrments to re,lect t%e environmental costs associated 2it% t%e
nsstainable se o, a!roc%emicals<
BcC -aintenance and development o, data ban*s o, in,ormation on environmental and
%ealt% impacts o, or!anisms to ,acilitate ris* assessment<
BdC :cceleration o, tec%nolo!$ ac1isition0 trans,er and adaptation b$ developin!
contries to spport national activities t%at promote ,ood secrit$.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
16.&. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international and
re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old promote t%e ,ollo2in! activities in con,ormit$ 2it%
international a!reements or :rran!ements on biolo!ical diversit$0 as appropriate.
BaC Cooperation on isses related to conservation o,0 access to and e3c%an!e o, !erm
plasm< ri!%ts associated 2it% intellectal propert$ and in,ormal innovations0 incldin!
,armers9 and breeders9 ri!%ts< access to t%e bene,its o, biotec%nolo!$< and bio-sa,et$<
BbC Promotion o, collaborative researc% pro!rammes0 especiall$ in developin! contries0
to spport activities otlined in t%is pro!ramme area0 2it% particlar re,erence to
cooperation 2it% local and indi!enos people and t%eir commnities in t%e conservation
o, biolo!ical diversit$ and sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces0 as 2ell as t%e ,osterin!
o, traditional met%ods and *no2led!e o, sc% !rops in connection 2it% t%ese activities<
BcC :cceleration o, tec%nolo!$ ac1isition0 trans,er and adaptation b$ developin!
contries to spport national activities t%at promote ,ood secrit$0 t%ro!% t%e
development o, s$stems ,or sbstantial and sstainable prodctivit$ increases t%at do not
dama!e or endan!er local ecos$stems< "=
BdC Development o, appropriate sa,et$ procedres based on pro!ramme area D0 ta*in!
accont o, et%ical considerations.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
16.(. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C
o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D' billion0 incldin! abot
D') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological meansF
@ See paras. 16.6 and 16.&.
C/ *uman resource development
16.+. Trainin! o, competent pro,essionals in t%e basic and applied sciences at all levels
Bincldin! scienti,ic personnel0 tec%nical sta,, and e3tension 2or*ersC is one o, t%e most
essential components o, an$ pro!ramme o, t%is *ind. Creatin! a2areness o, t%e bene,its
and ris*s o, biotec%nolo!$ is essential. 7iven t%e importance o, !ood mana!ement o,
researc% resorces ,or t%e sccess,l completion o, lar!e mltidisciplinar$ pro?ects0
continin! pro!rammes o, ,ormal trainin! ,or scientists s%old inclde mana!erial
trainin!. Trainin! pro!rammes s%old also be developed0 2it%in t%e conte3t o, speci,ic
pro?ects0 to meet re!ional or national needs ,or compre%ensivel$ trained personnel
capable o, sin! advanced tec%nolo!$ to redce t%e Abrain drainA ,rom developin! to
developed contries. /mp%asis s%old be !iven to encora!in! collaboration bet2een
and trainin! o, scientists0 e3tension 2or*ers and sers to prodce inte!rated s$stems.
:dditionall$0 special consideration s%old be !iven to t%e e3ection o, pro!rammes ,or
trainin! and e3c%an!e o, *no2led!e on traditional biotec%nolo!ies and ,or trainin! on
sa,et$ procedres.
D/ Capacit01building
16.1). Instittional p!radin! or ot%er appropriate measres 2ill be needed to bild p
tec%nical0 mana!erial0 plannin! and administrative capacities at t%e national level to
spport t%e activities in t%is pro!ramme area. Sc% measres s%old be bac*ed p b$
international0 scienti,ic0 tec%nical and ,inancial assistance ade1ate to ,acilitate tec%nical
cooperation and raise t%e capacities o, t%e developin! contries. Pro!ramme area /
contains ,rt%er details.
-$ "mproving uman ealt
-asis for action
16.11. T%e improvement o, %man %ealt% is one o, t%e most important ob?ectives o,
development. T%e deterioration o, environmental 1alit$0 notabl$ air0 2ater and soil
polltion o2in! to to3ic c%emicals0 %a5ardos 2astes0 radiation and ot%er sorces0 is a
matter o, !ro2in! concern. T%is de!radation o, t%e environment resltin! ,rom
inade1ate or inappropriate development %as a direct ne!ative e,,ect on %man %ealt%.
-alntrition0 povert$0 poor %man settlements0 lac* o, !ood-1alit$ potable 2ater and
inade1ate sanitation ,acilities add to t%e problems o, commnicable and non-
commnicable diseases. :s a conse1ence0 t%e %ealt% and 2ell-bein! o, people are
e3posed to increasin! pressres.
#b.ectives
16.12. T%e main ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme area is to contribte0 t%ro!% t%e
environmentall$ sond application o, biotec%nolo!$ to an overall %ealt% pro!ramme0 to.
'=
BaC Rein,orce or ina!rate Bas a matter o, r!enc$C pro!rammes to %elp combat ma?or
commnicable diseases<
BbC Promote !ood !eneral %ealt% amon! people o, all a!es<
BcC Develop and improve pro!rammes to assist in speci,ic treatment o, and protection
,rom ma?or non-commnicable diseases<
BdC Develop and stren!t%en appropriate sa,et$ procedres based on pro!ramme area D0
ta*in! accont o, et%ical considerations<
BeC Create en%anced capabilities ,or carr$in! ot basic and applied researc% and ,or
mana!in! interdisciplinar$ researc%.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
16.1#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e assistance o, international and
re!ional or!ani5ations0 academic and scienti,ic instittions0 and t%e p%armacetical
indstr$0 s%old0 ta*in! into accont appropriate sa,et$ and et%ical considerations.
BaC Develop national and international pro!rammes ,or identi,$in! and tar!etin! t%ose
poplations o, t%e 2orld most in need o, improvement in !eneral %ealt% and protection
,rom diseases<
BbC Develop criteria ,or evalatin! t%e e,,ectiveness and t%e bene,its and ris*s o, t%e
proposed activities<
BcC /stablis% and en,orce screenin!0 s$stematic samplin! and evalation procedres ,or
dr!s and medical tec%nolo!ies0 2it% a vie2 to barrin! t%e se o, t%ose t%at are nsa,e ,or
t%e prposes o, e3perimentation< ensre t%at dr!s and tec%nolo!ies relatin! to
reprodctive %ealt% are sa,e and e,,ective and ta*e accont o, et%ical considerations<
BdC Improve0 s$stematicall$ sample and evalate drin*in!-2ater 1alit$ b$ introdcin!
appropriate speci,ic measres0 incldin! dia!nosis o, 2ater-borne pat%o!ens and
polltants<
BeC Develop and ma*e 2idel$ available ne2 and improved vaccines a!ainst ma?or
commnicable diseases t%at are e,,icient and sa,e and o,,er protection 2it% a minimm
nmber o, doses0 incldin! intensi,$in! e,,orts directed at t%e vaccines needed to combat
common diseases o, c%ildren<
B,C Develop biode!radable deliver$ s$stems ,or vaccines t%at eliminate t%e need ,or
present mltiple-dose sc%edles0 ,acilitate better covera!e o, t%e poplation and redce
t%e costs o, immni5ation<
B!C Develop e,,ective biolo!ical control a!ents a!ainst disease-transmittin! vectors0 sc%
as mos1itoes and resistant variants0 ta*in! accont o, environmental protection
considerations<
B%C >sin! t%e tools provided b$ modern biotec%nolo!$0 develop0 inter alia0 improved
dia!nostics0 ne2 dr!s and improved treatments and deliver$ s$stems<
BiC Develop t%e improvement and more e,,ective tili5ation o, medicinal plants and ot%er
related sorces<
B?C Develop processes to increase t%e availabilit$ o, materials derived ,rom
biotec%nolo!$0 ,or se in improvin! %man %ealt%.
-/ Data and information
16.1". T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC Researc% to assess t%e comparative social0 environmental and ,inancial costs and
bene,its o, di,,erent tec%nolo!ies ,or basic and reprodctive %ealt% care 2it%in a
,rame2or* o, niversal sa,et$ and et%ical considerations<
BbC Development o, pblic edcation pro!rammes directed at decision ma*ers and t%e
!eneral pblic to encora!e a2areness and nderstandin! o, t%e relative bene,its and
ris*s o, modern biotec%nolo!$0 accordin! to et%ical and cltral considerations.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
16.1'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate levels0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Develop and stren!t%en appropriate sa,et$ procedres based on pro!ramme area D0
ta*in! accont o, et%ical considerations<
BbC Spport t%e development o, national pro!rammes0 particlarl$ in developin!
contries0 ,or improvements in !eneral %ealt%0 especiall$ protection ,rom ma?or
commnicable diseases0 common diseases o, c%ildren and disease-transmittin! ,actors.
%eans of implementation
16.16. To ac%ieve t%e above !oals0 t%e activities need to be implemented 2it% r!enc$ i,
pro!ress to2ards t%e control o, ma?or commnicable diseases is to be ac%ieved b$ t%e
be!innin! o, t%e ne3t centr$. T%e spread o, some diseases to all re!ions o, t%e 2orld
calls ,or !lobal measres. For more locali5ed diseases0 re!ional or national policies 2ill
be more appropriate. T%e ac%ievement o, !oals calls ,or.
BaC Continos international commitment<
BbC ;ational priorities 2it% a de,ined time-,rame<
BcC Scienti,ic and ,inancial inpt at !lobal and national levels.
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
16.1&. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1" billion0 incldin!
abot D1#) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
16.1(. 6ell-coordinated mltidisciplinar$ e,,orts involvin! cooperation bet2een
scientists0 ,inancial instittions and indstries 2ill be re1ired. :t t%e !lobal level0 t%is
ma$ mean collaboration bet2een researc% instittions in di,,erent contries0 2it% ,ndin!
at t%e inter!overnmental level0 possibl$ spported b$ similar collaboration at t%e national
level. Researc% and development spport 2ill also need to be stren!t%ened0 to!et%er 2it%
t%e mec%anisms ,or providin! t%e trans,er o, relevant tec%nolo!$.
C/ *uman resource development
16.1+. Trainin! and tec%nolo!$ trans,er is needed at t%e !lobal level0 2it% re!ions and
contries %avin! access to0 and participation in e3c%an!e o,0 in,ormation and e3pertise0
particlarl$ indi!enos or traditional *no2led!e and related biotec%nolo!$. It is essential
to create or en%ance endo!enos capabilities in developin! contries to enable t%em to
participate activel$ in t%e processes o, biotec%nolo!$ prodction. T%e trainin! o,
personnel cold be nderta*en at t%ree levels.
BaC T%at o, scientists re1ired ,or basic and prodct-oriented researc%<
BbC T%at o, %ealt% personnel Bto be trained in t%e sa,e se o, ne2 prodctsC and o, science
mana!ers re1ired ,or comple3 intermltidisciplinar$ researc%<
BcC T%at o, tertiar$-level tec%nical 2or*ers re1ired ,or deliver$ in t%e ,ield.
D/ Capacit01buildingF
@ See pro!ramme area /.
C$ Enancing protection of te environment
-asis for action
16.2). /nvironmental protection is an inte!ral component o, sstainable development.
T%e environment is t%reatened in all its biotic and abiotic components. animals0 plants0
microbes and ecos$stems comprisin! biolo!ical diversit$< 2ater0 soil and air0 2%ic% ,orm
t%e p%$sical components o, %abitats and ecos$stems< and all t%e interactions bet2een t%e
components o, biodiversit$ and t%eir sstainin! %abitats and ecos$stems. 6it% t%e
contined increase in t%e se o, c%emicals0 ener!$ and non-rene2able resorces b$ an
e3pandin! !lobal poplation0 associated environmental problems 2ill also increase.
Despite increasin! e,,orts to prevent 2aste accmlation and to promote rec$clin!0 t%e
amont o, environmental dama!e cased b$ overconsmption0 t%e 1antities o, 2aste
!enerated and t%e de!ree o, nsstainable land se appear li*el$ to contine !ro2in!.
16.21. T%e need ,or a diverse !enetic pool o, plant0 animal and microbial !erm plasm ,or
sstainable development is 2ell establis%ed. Eiotec%nolo!$ is one o, man$ tools t%at can
pla$ an important role in spportin! t%e re%abilitation o, de!raded ecos$stems and
landscapes. T%is ma$ be done t%ro!% t%e development o, ne2 tec%ni1es ,or
re,orestation and a,,orestation0 !erm plasm conservation0 and cltivation o, ne2 plant
varieties. Eiotec%nolo!$ can also contribte to t%e std$ o, t%e e,,ects e3erted on t%e
remainin! or!anisms and on ot%er or!anisms b$ or!anisms introdced into ecos$stems.
#b.ectives
16.22. T%e aim o, t%is pro!ramme is to prevent0 %alt and reverse environmental
de!radation t%ro!% t%e appropriate se o, biotec%nolo!$ in con?nction 2it% ot%er
tec%nolo!ies0 2%ile spportin! sa,et$ procedres as an inte!ral component o, t%e
pro!ramme. Speci,ic ob?ectives inclde t%e ina!ration as soon as possible o, speci,ic
pro!rammes 2it% speci,ic tar!ets.
BaC To adopt prodction processes ma*in! optimal se o, natral resorces0 b$ rec$clin!
biomass0 recoverin! ener!$ and minimi5in! 2aste !eneration< 6=
BbC To promote t%e se o, biotec%nolo!ies0 2it% emp%asis on bio-remediation o, land and
2ater0 2aste treatment0 soil conservation0 re,orestation0 a,,orestation and land
re%abilitation< &= (=
BcC To appl$ biotec%nolo!ies and t%eir prodcts to protect environmental inte!rit$ 2it% a
vie2 to lon!-term ecolo!ical secrit$.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
16.2#. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 t%e private sector0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
academic and scienti,ic instittions0 s%old.
BaC Develop environmentall$ sond alternatives and improvements ,or environmentall$
dama!in! prodction processes<
BbC Develop applications to minimi5e t%e re1irement ,or nsstainable s$nt%etic
c%emical inpt and to ma3imi5e t%e se o, environmentall$ appropriate prodcts0
incldin! natral prodcts Bsee pro!ramme area :C<
BcC Develop processes to redce 2aste !eneration0 treat 2aste be,ore disposal and ma*e
se o, biode!radable materials<
BdC Develop processes to recover ener!$ and provide rene2able ener!$ sorces0 animal
,eed and ra2 materials ,rom rec$clin! or!anic 2aste and biomass<
eC Develop processes to remove polltants ,rom t%e environment0 incldin! accidental oil
spills0 2%ere conventional tec%ni1es are not available or are e3pensive0 ine,,icient or
inade1ate<
B,C Develop processes to increase t%e availabilit$ o, plantin! materials0 particlarl$
indi!enos varieties0 ,or se in a,,orestation and re,orestation and to improve sstainable
$ields ,rom ,orests<
B!C Develop applications to increase t%e availabilit$ o, stress-tolerant plantin! material
,or land re%abilitation and soil conservation<
B%C Promote t%e se o, inte!rated pest mana!ement based on t%e ?dicios se o, bio-
control a!ents<
BiC Promote t%e appropriate se o, bio-,ertili5ers 2it%in national ,ertili5er pro!rammes<
B?C Promote t%e se o, biotec%nolo!ies relevant to t%e conservation and scienti,ic std$ o,
biolo!ical diversit$ and t%e sstainable se o, biolo!ical resorces<
B*C Develop easil$ applicable tec%nolo!ies ,or t%e treatment o, se2a!e and or!anic 2aste<
BlC Develop ne2 tec%nolo!ies ,or rapid screenin! o, or!anisms ,or se,l biolo!ical
properties<
BmC Promote ne2 biotec%nolo!ies ,or tappin! mineral resorces in an environmentall$
sstainable manner.
-/ Data and information
16.2". Steps s%old be ta*en to increase access bot% to e3istin! in,ormation abot
biotec%nolo!$ and to ,acilities based on !lobal databases.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
16.2'. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en researc%0 trainin! and development capabilities0 particlarl$ in developin!
contries0 to spport t%e activities otlined in t%is pro!ramme area<
BbC Develop mec%anisms ,or scalin! p and disseminatin! environmentall$ sond
biotec%nolo!ies o, %i!% environmental importance0 especiall$ in t%e s%ort term0 even
t%o!% t%ose biotec%nolo!ies ma$ %ave limited commercial potential<
BcC /n%ance cooperation0 incldin! trans,er o, biotec%nolo!$0 bet2een participatin!
contries ,or capacit$-bildin!<
BdC Develop appropriate sa,et$ procedres based on pro!ramme area D0 ta*in! accont o,
et%ical considerations.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
16.26. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1 billion0 incldin!
abot D1) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological meansF
@ See paras. 16.2#-16.2' above.
C/ *uman resource development
16.2&. T%e activities ,or t%is pro!ramme area 2ill increase t%e demand ,or trained
personnel. Spport ,or e3istin! trainin! pro!rammes needs to be increased0 ,or e3ample0
at t%e niversit$ and tec%nical institte level0 as 2ell as t%e e3c%an!e o, trained personnel
bet2een contries and re!ions. ;e2 and additional trainin! pro!rammes also need to be
developed0 ,or e3ample0 ,or tec%nical and spport personnel. T%ere is also an r!ent need
to improve t%e level o, nderstandin! o, biolo!ical principles and t%eir polic$
implications amon! decision ma*ers in 7overnments0 and ,inancial and ot%er instittions.
D/ Capacit01building
16.2(. Relevant instittions 2ill need to %ave t%e responsibilit$ ,or nderta*in!0 and t%e
capacit$ Bpolitical0 ,inancial and 2or*,orceC to nderta*e0 t%e above-mentioned activities
and to be d$namic in response to ne2 biotec%nolo!ical developments Bsee pro!ramme
area /C.
D$ Enancing safet0 and developing international mecanisms for
cooperation
-asis for action
16.2+. T%ere is a need ,or ,rt%er development o, internationall$ a!reed principles on ris*
assessment and mana!ement o, all aspects o, biotec%nolo!$0 2%ic% s%old bild pon
t%ose developed at t%e national level. Onl$ 2%en ade1ate and transparent sa,et$ and
border-control procedres are in place 2ill t%e commnit$ at lar!e be able to derive
ma3imm bene,it ,rom0 and be in a mc% better position to accept t%e potential bene,its
and ris*s o,0 biotec%nolo!$. Several ,ndamental principles cold nderlie man$ o, t%ese
sa,et$ procedres0 incldin! primar$ consideration o, t%e or!anism0 bildin! on t%e
principle o, ,amiliarit$0 applied in a ,le3ible ,rame2or*0 ta*in! into accont national
re1irements and reco!ni5in! t%at t%e lo!ical pro!ression is to start 2it% a step-b$-step
and case-b$-case approac%0 bt also reco!ni5in! t%at e3perience %as s%o2n t%at in man$
instances a more compre%ensive approac% s%old be sed0 based on t%e e3periences o,
t%e ,irst period0 leadin!0 inter alia0 to streamlinin! and cate!ori5in!< complementar$
consideration o, ris* assessment and ris* mana!ement< and classi,ication into contained
se or release to t%e environment.
#b.ectives
16.#). T%e aim o, t%is pro!ramme area is to ensre sa,et$ in biotec%nolo!$ development0
application0 e3c%an!e and trans,er t%ro!% international a!reement on principles to be
applied on ris* assessment and mana!ement0 2it% particlar re,erence to %ealt% and
environmental considerations0 incldin! t%e 2idest possible pblic participation and
ta*in! accont o, et%ical considerations.
Activities
16.#1. T%e proposed activities ,or t%is pro!ramme area call ,or close international
cooperation. T%e$ s%old bild pon planned or e3istin! activities to accelerate t%e
environmentall$ sond application o, biotec%nolo!$0 especiall$ in developin! contries.
A/ %anagement1related activities
16.#2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 t%e private sector0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
academic and scienti,ic instittions0 s%old.
BaC -a*e t%e e3istin! sa,et$ procedres 2idel$ available b$ collectin! t%e e3istin!
in,ormation and adaptin! it to t%e speci,ic needs o, di,,erent contries and re!ions<
BbC Frt%er develop0 as necessar$0 t%e e3istin! sa,et$ procedres to promote scienti,ic
development and cate!ori5ation in t%e areas o, ris* assessment and ris* mana!ement
Bin,ormation re1irements< databases< procedres ,or assessin! ris*s and conditions o,
release< establis%ment o, sa,et$ conditions< monitorin! and inspections0 ta*in! accont o,
on!oin! national0 re!ional and international initiatives and avoidin! dplication 2%erever
possibleC<
BcC Compile0 pdate and develop compatible sa,et$ procedres into a ,rame2or* o,
internationall$ a!reed principles as a basis ,or !idelines to be applied on sa,et$ in
biotec%nolo!$0 incldin! consideration o, t%e need ,or and ,easibilit$ o, an international
a!reement0 and promote in,ormation e3c%an!e as a basis ,or ,rt%er development0
dra2in! on t%e 2or* alread$ nderta*en b$ international or ot%er e3pert bodies<
BdC >nderta*e trainin! pro!rammes at t%e national and re!ional levels on t%e application
o, t%e proposed tec%nical !idelines<
BeC :ssist in e3c%an!in! in,ormation abot t%e procedres re1ired ,or sa,e %andlin! and
ris* mana!ement and abot t%e conditions o, release o, t%e prodcts o, biotec%nolo!$0
and cooperate in providin! immediate assistance in cases o, emer!encies t%at ma$ arise
in con?nction 2it% t%e se o, biotec%nolo!$ prodcts.
-/ Data and informationF
@ See paras. 16.#2 and 16.##.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
16.##. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international
and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old raise a2areness o, t%e relative bene,its and ris*s o,
biotec%nolo!$.
16.#". Frt%er activities s%old inclde t%e ,ollo2in! Bsee also para. 16.#2C.
BaC Or!ani5in! one or more re!ional meetin!s bet2een contries to identi,$ ,rt%er
practical steps to ,acilitate international cooperation in bio-sa,et$<
BbC /stablis%in! an international net2or* incorporatin! national0 re!ional and !lobal
contact points<
BcC Providin! direct assistance pon re1est t%ro!% t%e international net2or*0 sin!
in,ormation net2or*s0 databases and in,ormation procedres<
BdC Considerin! t%e need ,or and ,easibilit$ o, internationall$ a!reed !idelines on sa,et$
in biotec%nolo!$ releases0 incldin! ris* assessment and ris* mana!ement0 and
considerin! std$in! t%e ,easibilit$ o, !idelines 2%ic% cold ,acilitate national
le!islation on liabilit$ and compensation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
16.#'. T%e >;C/D secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C o,
implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!rammes to be abot D2 million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological meansFF
@@ See para. 16.#2.
C/ *uman resource developmentFF
@@ See para. 16.#2.
D/ Capacit01building
16.#6. :de1ate international tec%nical and ,inancial assistance s%old be provided and
tec%nical cooperation to developin! contries ,acilitated in order to bild p tec%nical0
mana!erial0 plannin! and administrative capacities at t%e national level to spport t%e
activities in t%is pro!ramme area Bsee also pro!ramme area /C.
E$ Establising enabling mecanisms for te development and te
environmentall0 sound application of biotecnolog0
-asis for action
16.#&. T%e accelerated development and application o, biotec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ in
developin! contries0 2ill re1ire a ma?or e,,ort to bild p instittional capacities at t%e
national and re!ional levels. In developin! contries0 enablin! ,actors sc% as trainin!
capacit$0 *no2-%o20 researc% and development ,acilities and ,nds0 indstrial bildin!
capacit$0 capital Bincldin! ventre capitalC protection o, intellectal propert$ ri!%ts0 and
e3pertise in areas incldin! mar*etin! researc%0 tec%nolo!$ assessment0 socio-economic
assessment and sa,et$ assessment are ,re1entl$ inade1ate. /,,orts 2ill t%ere,ore need to
be made to bild p capacities in t%ese and ot%er areas and to matc% sc% e,,orts 2it%
appropriate levels o, ,inancial spport. T%ere is t%ere,ore a need to stren!t%en t%e
endo!enos capacities o, developin! contries b$ means o, ne2 international initiatives
to spport researc% in order to speed p t%e development and application o, bot% ne2 and
conventional biotec%nolo!ies to serve t%e needs o, sstainable development at t%e local0
national and re!ional levels. ;ational mec%anisms to allo2 ,or in,ormed comment b$ t%e
pblic 2it% re!ard to biotec%nolo!$ researc% and application s%old be part o, t%e
process.
16.#(. Some activities at t%e national0 re!ional and !lobal levels alread$ address t%e
isses otlined in pro!ramme areas :0 E0 C and D0 as 2ell as t%e provisioin o, advice to
individal contries on t%e development o, national !idelines and s$stems ,or t%e
implementation o, t%ose !idelines. T%ese activities are !enerall$ ncoordinated0
%o2ever0 involvin! man$ di,,erent or!ani5ations0 priorities0 constitencies0 time-scales0
,ndin! sorces and resorce constraints. T%ere is a need ,or a mc% more co%esive and
coordinated approac% to %arness available resorces in t%e most e,,ective manner. :s 2it%
most ne2 tec%nolo!ies0 researc% in biotec%nolo!$ and t%e application o, its ,indin!s
cold %ave si!ni,icant positive and ne!ative socio-economic as 2ell as cltral impacts.
T%ese impacts s%old be care,ll$ identi,ied in t%e earliest p%ases o, t%e development o,
biotec%nolo!$ in order to enable appropriate mana!ement o, t%e conse1ences o,
trans,errin! biotec%nolo!$.
#b.ectives
16.#+. T%e ob?ectives are as ,ollo2s.
BaC To promote t%e development and application o, biotec%nolo!ies0 2it% special
emp%asis on developin! contries0 b$.
1. /n%ancin! e3istin! e,,orts at t%e national0 re!ional and !lobal levels<
2. Providin! t%e necessar$ spport ,or biotec%nolo!$0 particlarl$ researc% and
prodct development0 at t%e national0 re!ional and international levels<
#. Raisin! pblic a2areness re!ardin! t%e relative bene,icial aspects o, and ris*s
related to biotec%nolo!$0 to contribte to sstainable development<
". 4elpin! to create a ,avorable climate ,or investments0 indstrial capacit$-
bildin! and distribtion=mar*etin!<
'. /ncora!in! t%e e3c%an!e o, scientists amon! all contries and discora!in! t%e
Abrain drainA<
6. Reco!ni5in! and ,osterin! t%e traditional met%ods and *no2led!e o, indi!enos
peoples and t%eir commnities and ensrin! t%e opportnit$ ,or t%eir participation
in t%e economic and commercial bene,its arisin! ,rom developments in
biotec%nolo!$<+=
BbC To identi,$ 2a$s and means o, en%ancin! crrent e,,orts0 bildin! 2%erever possible
on e3istin! enablin! mec%anisms0 particlarl$ re!ional0 to determine t%e precise natre o,
t%e needs ,or additional initiatives0 particlarl$ in respect o, developin! contries0 and to
develop appropriate response strate!ies0 incldin! proposals ,or an$ ne2 international
mec%anisms<
BcC To establis% or adapt appropriate mec%anisms ,or sa,et$ appraisal and ris* assessment
at t%e local0 re!ional and international levels0 as appropriate.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
16."). 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e spport o, international and
re!ional or!ani5ations0 t%e private sector0 non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and academic
and scienti,ic instittions0 s%old.
BaC Develop policies and mobili5e additional resorces to ,acilitate !reater access to t%e
ne2 biotec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ b$ and amon! developin! contries<
BbC Implement pro!rammes to create !reater a2areness o, t%e potential and relative
bene,its and ris*s o, t%e environmentall$ sond application o, biotec%nolo!$ amon! t%e
pblic and *e$ decision ma*ers<
BcC >nderta*e an r!ent revie2 o, e3istin! enablin! mec%anisms0 pro!rammes and
activities at t%e national0 re!ional and !lobal levels to identi,$ stren!t%s0 2ea*nesses and
!aps0 and to assess t%e priorit$ needs o, developin! contries<
BdC >nderta*e an r!ent ,ollo2-p and critical revie2 to identi,$ 2a$s and means o,
stren!t%enin! endo!enos capacities 2it%in and amon! developin! contries ,or t%e
environmentall$ sond application o, biotec%nolo!$0 incldin!0 as a ,irst step0 2a$s to
improve e3istin! mec%anisms0 particlarl$ at t%e re!ional level0 and0 as a sbse1ent step0
t%e consideration o, possible ne2 international mec%anisms0 sc% as re!ional
biotec%nolo!$ centres<
BeC Develop strate!ic plans ,or overcomin! tar!eted constraints b$ means o, appropriate
researc%0 prodct development and mar*etin!<
B,C /stablis% additional 1alit$-assrance standards ,or biotec%nolo!$ applications and
prodcts0 2%ere necessar$.
-/ Data and information
16."1. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en. ,acilitation o, access to e3istin!
in,ormation dissemination s$stems0 especiall$ amon! developin! contries< improvement
o, sc% access 2%ere appropriate< and consideration o, t%e development o, a director$ o,
in,ormation.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
16."2. 7overnments at t%e appropriate level0 2it% t%e assistance o, international and
re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old develop appropriate ne2 initiatives to identi,$ priorit$
areas ,or researc% based on speci,ic problems and ,acilitate access to ne2
biotec%nolo!ies0 particlarl$ b$ and amon! developin! contries0 amon! relevant
nderta*in!s 2it%in t%ose contries0 in order to stren!t%en endo!enos capacities and to
spport t%e bildin! o, researc% and instittional capacit$ in t%ose contries.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
16."#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D' million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
16."". 6or*s%ops0 s$mposia0 seminars and ot%er e3c%an!es amon! t%e scienti,ic
commnit$ at t%e re!ional and !lobal levels0 on speci,ic priorit$ t%emes0 2ill need to be
or!ani5ed0 ma*in! ,ll se o, t%e e3istin! scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical manpo2er in eac%
contr$ ,or brin!in! abot sc% e3c%an!es.
C/ *uman resource development
16."'. Personnel development needs 2ill need to be identi,ied and additional trainin!
pro!rammes developed at t%e national0 re!ional and !lobal levels0 especiall$ in
developin! contries. T%ese s%old be spported b$ increased trainin! at all levels0
!radate0 post!radate and post-doctoral0 as 2ell as b$ t%e trainin! o, tec%nicians and
spport sta,,0 2it% particlar re,erence to t%e !eneration o, trained manpo2er in
consltant services0 desi!n0 en!ineerin! and mar*etin! researc%. Trainin! pro!rammes
,or lectrers trainin! scientists and tec%nolo!ists in advanced researc% instittions in
di,,erent contries t%ro!%ot t%e 2orld 2ill also need to be developed0 and s$stems
!ivin! appropriate re2ards0 incentives and reco!nition to scientists and tec%nolo!ists 2ill
need to be institted Bsee para. 16.""C. Conditions o, service 2ill also need to be
improved at t%e national level in developin! contries to encora!e and nrtre trained
manpo2er 2it% a vie2 to retainin! t%at manpo2er locall$. Societ$ s%old be in,ormed o,
t%e social and cltral impact o, t%e development and application o, biotec%nolo!$.
D/ Capacit01building
16."6. Eiotec%nolo!$ researc% and development is nderta*en bot% nder %i!%l$
sop%isticated conditions and at t%e practical level in man$ contries. /,,orts 2ill be
needed to ensre t%at t%e necessar$ in,rastrctre ,acilities ,or researc%0 e3tension and
tec%nolo!$ activities are available on a decentrali5ed basis. 7lobal and re!ional
collaboration ,or basic and applied researc% and development 2ill also need to be ,rt%er
en%anced and ever$ e,,ort s%old be made to ensre t%at e3istin! national and re!ional
,acilities are ,ll$ tili5ed. Sc% instittions alread$ e3ist in some contries and it s%old
be possible to ma*e se o, t%em ,or trainin! prposes and ?oint researc% pro?ects.
Stren!t%enin! o, niversities0 tec%nical sc%ools and local researc% instittions ,or t%e
development o, biotec%nolo!ies and e3tension services ,or t%eir application 2ill need to
be developed0 especiall$ in developin! contries.
1= See c%apter 1' BConservation o, biolo!ical diversit$C
2= See c%apter 1" BPromotin! sstainable a!ricltre and rral developmentC.
#= See c%apter 11 BCombatin! de,orestationC.
"= See c%apter #" Btrans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$.
'= See c%apter 6 BProtectin! and promotin! %man %ealt% conditionsC.
6= See c%apter 21 B/nvironmentall$ sond mana!ement o, solid 2astes and se2a!e-
related issesC.
&= See c%apter 1) BInte!rated approac% to t%e plannin! and mana!ement o, land
resorcesC.
(= See c%apter 1( BProtection o, t%e 1alit$ and sppl$ o, ,res%2ater resorces.
application o, inte!rated approac%es to t%e development0 mana!ement and se o, 2ater
resorcesC.
+= See c%apter 26 BReco!ni5in! and stren!t%enin! t%e role o, indi!enos people and t%eir
commnitiesC.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 1=
Protection of te #ceans5 all Einds of Seas5 "ncluding Enclosed , Semi1
enclosed Seas5 , Coastal Areas , te Protection5 &ational Use ,
Development of teir Living &esources
"ntroduction
1&.1. T%e marine environment - incldin! t%e oceans and all seas and ad?acent coastal
areas - ,orms an inte!rated 2%ole t%at is an essential component o, t%e !lobal li,e-spport
s$stem and a positive asset t%at presents opportnities ,or sstainable development.
International la20 as re,lected in t%e provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e
8a2 o, t%e Sea 1=0 2= re,erred to in t%is c%apter o, :!enda 210 sets ,ort% ri!%ts and
obli!ations o, States and provides t%e international basis pon 2%ic% to prse t%e
protection and sstainable development o, t%e marine and coastal environment and its
resorces. T%is re1ires ne2 approac%es to marine and coastal area mana!ement and
development0 at t%e national0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal levels0 approac%es t%at are
inte!rated in content and are precationar$ and anticipator$ in ambit0 as re,lected in t%e
,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas. #=
1. Inte!rated mana!ement and sstainable development o, coastal areas0 incldin!
e3clsive economic 5ones<
2. -arine environmental protection<
#. Sstainable se and conservation o, marine livin! resorces o, t%e %i!% seas<
". Sstainable se and conservation o, marine livin! resorces nder national
?risdiction<
'. :ddressin! critical ncertainties ,or t%e mana!ement o, t%e marine environment
and climate c%an!e<
6. Stren!t%enin! international0 incldin! re!ional0 cooperation and coordination<
&. Sstainable development o, small islands.
1&.2. T%e implementation b$ developin! contries o, t%e activities set ,ort% belo2 s%all
be commensrate 2it% t%eir individal tec%nolo!ical and ,inancial capacities and
priorities in allocatin! resorces ,or development needs and ltimatel$ depends on t%e
tec%nolo!$ trans,er and ,inancial resorces re1ired and made available to t%em.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ "ntegrated management and sustainable development of coastal and
marine areas5 including e8clusive economic 7ones
-asis for action
1&.#. T%e coastal area contains diverse and prodctive %abitats important ,or %man
settlements0 development and local sbsistence. -ore t%an %al, t%e 2orld9s poplation
lives 2it%in 6) *m o, t%e s%oreline0 and t%is cold rise to t%ree 1arters b$ t%e $ear 2)2).
-an$ o, t%e 2orld9s poor are cro2ded in coastal areas. Coastal resorces are vital ,or
man$ local commnities and indi!enos people. T%e e3clsive economic 5one B//IC is
also an important marine area 2%ere t%e States mana!e t%e development and conservation
o, natral resorces ,or t%e bene,it o, t%eir people. For small island States or contries0
t%ese are t%e areas most available ,or development activities.
1&.". Despite national0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal e,,orts0 crrent approac%es to t%e
mana!ement o, marine and coastal resorces %ave not al2a$s proved capable o,
ac%ievin! sstainable development0 and coastal resorces and t%e coastal environment are
bein! rapidl$ de!raded and eroded in man$ parts o, t%e 2orld.
#b.ectives
1&.'. Coastal States commit t%emselves to inte!rated mana!ement and sstainable
development o, coastal areas and t%e marine environment nder t%eir national
?risdiction. To t%is end0 it is necessar$ to0 inter alia.
BaC Provide ,or an inte!rated polic$ and decision-ma*in! process0 incldin! all involved
sectors0 to promote compatibilit$ and a balance o, ses<
BbC Identi,$ e3istin! and pro?ected ses o, coastal areas and t%eir interactions<
BcC Concentrate on 2ell-de,ined isses concernin! coastal mana!ement<
BdC :ppl$ preventive and precationar$ approac%es in pro?ect plannin! and
implementation0 incldin! prior assessment and s$stematic observation o, t%e impacts o,
ma?or pro?ects<
BeC Promote t%e development and application o, met%ods0 sc% as national resorce and
environmental accontin!0 t%at re,lect c%an!es in vale resltin! ,rom ses o, coastal and
marine areas0 incldin! polltion0 marine erosion0 loss o, resorces and %abitat
destrction<
B,C Provide access0 as ,ar as possible0 ,or concerned individals0 !rops and or!ani5ations
to relevant in,ormation and opportnities ,or consltation and participation in plannin!
and decision-ma*in! at appropriate levels.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1&.6. /ac% coastal State s%old consider establis%in!0 or 2%ere necessar$ stren!t%enin!0
appropriate coordinatin! mec%anisms Bsc% as a %i!%-level polic$ plannin! bod$C ,or
inte!rated mana!ement and sstainable development o, coastal and marine areas and
t%eir resorces0 at bot% t%e local and national levels. Sc% mec%anisms s%old inclde
consltation0 as appropriate0 2it% t%e academic and private sectors0 non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 local commnities0 resorce ser !rops0 and indi!enos people. Sc%
national coordinatin! mec%anisms cold provide0 inter alia0 ,or.
BaC Preparation and implementation o, land and 2ater se and sitin! policies<
BbC Implementation o, inte!rated coastal and marine mana!ement and sstainable
development plans and pro!rammes at appropriate levels<
BcC Preparation o, coastal pro,iles identi,$in! critical areas0 incldin! eroded 5ones0
p%$sical processes0 development patterns0 ser con,licts and speci,ic priorities ,or
mana!ement<
BdC Prior environmental impact assessment0 s$stematic observation and ,ollo2-p o,
ma?or pro?ects0 incldin! t%e s$stematic incorporation o, reslts in decision-ma*in!<
BeC Contin!enc$ plans ,or %man indced and natral disasters0 incldin! li*el$ e,,ects o,
potential climate c%an!e and sealevel rise0 as 2ell as contin!enc$ plans ,or de!radation
and polltion o, ant%ropo!enic ori!in0 incldin! spills o, oil and ot%er materials<
B,C Improvement o, coastal %man settlements0 especiall$ in %osin!0 drin*in! 2ater and
treatment and disposal o, se2a!e0 solid 2astes and indstrial e,,lents<
B!C Periodic assessment o, t%e impacts o, e3ternal ,actors and p%enomena to ensre t%at
t%e ob?ectives o, inte!rated mana!ement and sstainable development o, coastal areas
and t%e marine environment are met<
B%C Conservation and restoration o, altered critical %abitats<
BiC Inte!ration o, sectoral pro!rammes on sstainable development ,or settlements0
a!ricltre0 torism0 ,is%in!0 ports and indstries a,,ectin! t%e coastal area<
B?C In,rastrctre adaptation and alternative emplo$ment<
B*C 4man resorce development and trainin!<
BlC Pblic edcation0 a2areness and in,ormation pro!rammes<
BmC Promotin! environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$ and sstainable practices<
BnC Development and simltaneos implementation o, environmental 1alit$ criteria.
1&.&. Coastal States0 2it% t%e spport o, international or!ani5ations0 pon re1est0 s%old
nderta*e measres to maintain biolo!ical diversit$ and prodctivit$ o, marine species
and %abitats nder national ?risdiction. Inter alia0 t%ese measres mi!%t inclde. srve$s
o, marine biodiversit$0 inventories o, endan!ered species and critical coastal and marine
%abitats< establis%ment and mana!ement o, protected areas< and spport o, scienti,ic
researc% and dissemination o, its reslts.
-/ Data and information
1&.(. Coastal States0 2%ere necessar$0 s%old improve t%eir capacit$ to collect0 anal$se0
assess and se in,ormation ,or sstainable se o, resorces0 incldin! environmental
impacts o, activities a,,ectin! t%e coastal and marine areas. In,ormation ,or mana!ement
prposes s%old receive priorit$ spport in vie2 o, t%e intensit$ and ma!nitde o, t%e
c%an!es occrrin! in t%e coastal and marine areas. To t%is end0 it is necessar$ to0 inter
alia.
BaC Develop and maintain databases ,or assessment and mana!ement o, coastal areas and
all seas and t%eir resorces<
BbC Develop socio-economic and environmental indicators<
BcC Condct re!lar environmental assessment o, t%e state o, t%e environment o, coastal
and marine areas<
BdC Prepare and maintain pro,iles o, coastal area resorces0 activities0 ses0 %abitats and
protected areas based on t%e criteria o, sstainable development<
BeC /3c%an!e in,ormation and data.
1&.+. Cooperation 2it% developin! contries0 and0 2%ere applicable0 sbre!ional and
re!ional mec%anisms0 s%old be stren!t%ened to improve t%eir capacities to ac%ieve t%e
above.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1&.1). T%e role o, international cooperation and coordination on a bilateral basis and0
2%ere applicable0 2it%in a sbre!ional0 interre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal ,rame2or*0 is to
spport and spplement national e,,orts o, coastal States to promote inte!rated
mana!ement and sstainable development o, coastal and marine areas.
1&.11. States s%old cooperate0 as appropriate0 in t%e preparation o, national !idelines
,or inte!rated coastal 5one mana!ement and development0 dra2in! on e3istin!
e3perience. : !lobal con,erence to e3c%an!e e3perience in t%e ,ield cold be %eld be,ore
1++".
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.12. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D6 billion incldin!
abot D') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1&.1#. States s%old cooperate in t%e development o, necessar$ coastal s$stematic
observation0 researc% and in,ormation mana!ement s$stems. T%e$ s%old provide access
to and trans,er environmentall$ sa,e tec%nolo!ies and met%odolo!ies ,or sstainable
development o, coastal and marine areas to developin! contries. T%e$ s%old also
develop tec%nolo!ies and endo!enos scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical capacities.
1&.1". International or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 as
appropriate0 s%old spport coastal States0 pon re1est0 in t%ese e,,orts0 as indicated
above0 devotin! special attention to developin! contries.
C/ *uman resource development
1&.1'. Coastal States s%old promote and ,acilitate t%e or!ani5ation o, edcation and
trainin! in inte!rated coastal and marine mana!ement and sstainable development ,or
scientists0 tec%nolo!ists0 mana!ers Bincldin! commnit$-based mana!ersC and sers0
leaders0 indi!enos peoples0 ,is%er,ol*0 2omen and $ot%0 amon! ot%ers. -ana!ement
and development0 as 2ell as environmental protection concerns and local plannin! isses0
s%old be incorporated in edcational crricla and pblic a2areness campai!ns0 2it%
de re!ard to traditional ecolo!ical *no2led!e and socio-cltral vales.
1&.16. International or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 as
appropriate0 s%old spport coastal States0 pon re1est0 in t%e areas indicated above0
devotin! special attention to developin! contries.
D/ Capacit01building
1&.1&. Fll cooperation s%old be e3tended0 pon re1est0 to coastal States in t%eir
capacit$-bildin! e,,orts and0 2%ere appropriate0 capacit$-bildin! s%old be inclded in
bilateral and mltilateral development cooperation. Coastal States ma$ consider0 inter
alia.
BaC /nsrin! capacit$-bildin! at t%e local level<
BbC Consltin! on coastal and marine isses 2it% local administrations0 t%e bsiness
commnit$0 t%e academic sector0 resorce ser !rops and t%e !eneral pblic<
BcC Coordinatin! sectoral pro!rammes 2%ile bildin! capacit$<
BdC Identi,$in! e3istin! and potential capabilities0 ,acilities and needs ,or %man
resorces development and scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical in,rastrctre<
BeC Developin! scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means and researc%<
B,C Promotin! and ,acilitatin! %man resorce development and edcation<
B!C Spportin! Acentres o, e3cellenceA in inte!rated coastal and marine resorce
mana!ement<
B%C Spportin! pilot demonstration pro!rammes and pro?ects in inte!rated coastal and
marine mana!ement.
-$ %arine environmental protection
-asis for action
1&.1(. De!radation o, t%e marine environment can reslt ,rom a 2ide ran!e o, sorces.
8and-based sorces contribte &) per cent o, marine polltion0 2%ile maritime transport
and dmpin!-at-sea activities contribte 1) per cent eac%. T%e contaminants t%at pose t%e
!reatest t%reat to t%e marine environment are0 in variable order o, importance and
dependin! on di,,erin! national or re!ional sitations0 se2a!e0 ntrients0 s$nt%etic
or!anic componds0 sediments0 litter and plastics0 metals0 radionclides0 oil=%$drocarbons
and pol$c$clic aromatic %$drocarbons BP:4sC. -an$ o, t%e polltin! sbstances
ori!inatin! ,rom land-based sorces are o, particlar concern to t%e marine environment
since t%e$ e3%ibit at t%e same time to3icit$0 persistence and bioaccmlation in t%e ,ood
c%ain. T%ere is crrentl$ no !lobal sc%eme to address marine polltion ,rom land-based
sorces.
1&.1+. De!radation o, t%e marine environment can also reslt ,rom a 2ide ran!e o,
activities on land. 4man settlements0 land se0 constrction o, coastal in,rastrctre0
a!ricltre0 ,orestr$0 rban development0 torism and indstr$ can a,,ect t%e marine
environment. Coastal erosion and siltation are o, particlar concern.
1&.2). -arine polltion is also cased b$ s%ippin! and sea-based activities.
:ppro3imatel$ 6))0))) tons o, oil enter t%e oceans eac% $ear as a reslt o, normal
s%ippin! operations0 accidents and ille!al disc%ar!es. 6it% respect to o,,s%ore oil and !as
activities0 crrentl$ mac%iner$ space disc%ar!es are re!lated internationall$ and si3
re!ional conventions to control plat,orm disc%ar!es %ave been nder consideration. T%e
natre and e3tent o, environmental impacts ,rom o,,s%ore oil e3ploration and prodction
activities !enerall$ accont ,or a ver$ small proportion o, marine polltion.
1&.21. : precationar$ and anticipator$ rat%er t%an a reactive approac% is necessar$ to
prevent t%e de!radation o, t%e marine environment. T%is re1ires0 inter alia0 t%e adoption
o, precationar$ measres0 environmental impact assessments0 clean prodction
tec%ni1es0 rec$clin!0 2aste adits and minimi5ation0 constrction and=or improvement
o, se2a!e treatment ,acilities0 1alit$ mana!ement criteria ,or t%e proper %andlin! o,
%a5ardos sbstances0 and a compre%ensive approac% to dama!in! impacts ,rom air0 land
and 2ater. :n$ mana!ement ,rame2or* mst inclde t%e improvement o, coastal %man
settlements and t%e inte!rated mana!ement and development o, coastal areas.
#b.ectives
1&.22. States0 in accordance 2it% t%e provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e
8a2 o, t%e Sea on protection and preservation o, t%e marine environment0 commit
t%emselves0 in accordance 2it% t%eir policies0 priorities and resorces0 to prevent0 redce
and control de!radation o, t%e marine environment so as to maintain and improve its li,e-
spport and prodctive capacities. To t%is end0 it is necessar$ to.
BaC :ppl$ preventive0 precationar$ and anticipator$ approac%es so as to avoid
de!radation o, t%e marine environment0 as 2ell as to redce t%e ris* o, lon!-term or
irreversible adverse e,,ects pon it<
BbC /nsre prior assessment o, activities t%at ma$ %ave si!ni,icant adverse impacts pon
t%e marine environment<
BcC Inte!rate protection o, t%e marine environment into relevant !eneral environmental0
social and economic development policies<
BdC Develop economic incentives0 2%ere appropriate0 to appl$ clean tec%nolo!ies and
ot%er means consistent 2it% t%e internali5ation o, environmental costs0 sc% as t%e
pollter pa$s principle0 so as to avoid de!radation o, t%e marine environment<
BeC Improve t%e livin! standards o, coastal poplations0 particlarl$ in developin!
contries0 so as to contribte to redcin! t%e de!radation o, t%e coastal and marine
environment.
1&.2#. States a!ree t%at provision o, additional ,inancial resorces0 t%ro!% appropriate
international mec%anisms0 as 2ell as access to cleaner tec%nolo!ies and relevant researc%0
2old be necessar$ to spport action b$ developin! contries to implement t%is
commitment.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
Prevention0 redction and control o, de!radation o, t%e marine environment ,rom
land-based activities
1&.2". In carr$in! ot t%eir commitment to deal 2it% de!radation o, t%e marine
environment ,rom land-based activities0 States s%old ta*e action at t%e national level
and0 2%ere appropriate0 at t%e re!ional and sbre!ional levels0 in concert 2it% action to
implement pro!ramme area :0 and s%old ta*e accont o, t%e -ontreal 7idelines ,or
t%e Protection o, t%e -arine /nvironment ,rom 8and-Eased Sorces.
1&.2'. To t%is end0 States0 2it% t%e spport o, t%e relevant international environmental0
scienti,ic0 tec%nical and ,inancial or!ani5ations0 s%old cooperate0 inter alia0 to.
BaC Consider pdatin!0 stren!t%enin! and e3tendin! t%e -ontreal 7idelines0 as
appropriate<
BbC :ssess t%e e,,ectiveness o, e3istin! re!ional a!reements and action plans0 2%ere
appropriate0 2it% a vie2 to identi,$in! means o, stren!t%enin! action0 2%ere necessar$0 to
prevent0 redce and control marine de!radation cased b$ land-based activities<
BcC Initiate and promote t%e development o, ne2 re!ional a!reements0 2%ere appropriate<
BdC Develop means o, providin! !idance on tec%nolo!ies to deal 2it% t%e ma?or t$pes o,
polltion o, t%e marine environment ,rom land-based sorces0 accordin! to t%e best
scienti,ic evidence<
BeC Develop polic$ !idance ,or relevant !lobal ,ndin! mec%anisms<
B,C Identi,$ additional steps re1irin! international cooperation.
1&.26. T%e >;/P 7overnin! Concil is invited to convene0 as soon as practicable0 an
inter!overnmental meetin! on protection o, t%e marine environment ,rom land-based
activities.
1&.2&. :s concerns se2a!e0 priorit$ actions to be considered b$ States ma$ inclde.
BaC Incorporatin! se2a!e concerns 2%en ,ormlatin! or revie2in! coastal development
plans0 incldin! %man settlement plans<
BbC Eildin! and maintainin! se2a!e treatment ,acilities in accordance 2it% national
policies and capacities and international cooperation available<
BcC 8ocatin! coastal ot,alls so as to maintain an acceptable level o, environmental
1alit$ and to avoid e3posin! s%ell ,is%eries0 2ater inta*es and bat%in! areas to
pat%o!ens<
BdC Promotin! environmentall$ sond co-treatments o, domestic and compatible
indstrial e,,lents0 2it% t%e introdction0 2%ere practicable0 o, controls on t%e entr$ o,
e,,lents t%at are not compatible 2it% t%e s$stem<
BeC Promotin! primar$ treatment o, mnicipal se2a!e disc%ar!ed to rivers0 estaries and
t%e sea0 or ot%er soltions appropriate to speci,ic sites<
B,C /stablis%in! and improvin! local0 national0 sbre!ional and re!ional0 as necessar$0
re!lator$ and monitorin! pro!rammes to control e,,lent disc%ar!e0 sin! minimm
se2a!e e,,lent !idelines and 2ater 1alit$ criteria and !ivin! de consideration to t%e
c%aracteristics o, receivin! bodies and t%e volme and t$pe o, polltants.
1&.2(. :s concerns ot%er sorces o, polltion0 priorit$ actions to be considered b$ States
ma$ inclde.
BaC /stablis%in! or improvin!0 as necessar$0 re!lator$ and monitorin! pro!rammes to
control e,,lent disc%ar!es and emissions0 incldin! t%e development and application o,
control and rec$clin! tec%nolo!ies<
BbC Promotin! ris* and environmental impact assessments to %elp ensre an acceptable
level o, environmental 1alit$<
BcC Promotin! assessment and cooperation at t%e re!ional level0 2%ere appropriate0 2it%
respect to t%e inpt o, point sorce polltants ,rom ne2 installations<
BdC /liminatin! t%e emission or disc%ar!e o, or!ano%alo!en componds t%at t%reaten to
accmlate to dan!eros levels in t%e marine environment<
BeC Redcin! t%e emission or disc%ar!e o, ot%er s$nt%etic or!anic componds t%at
t%reaten to accmlate to dan!eros levels in t%e marine environment<
B,C Promotin! controls over ant%ropo!enic inpts o, nitro!en and p%osp%ors t%at enter
coastal 2aters 2%ere sc% problems as etrop%ication t%reaten t%e marine environment or
its resorces<
B!C Cooperatin! 2it% developin! contries0 t%ro!% ,inancial and tec%nolo!ical spport0
to ma3imi5e t%e best practicable control and redction o, sbstances and 2astes t%at are
to3ic0 persistent or liable to bio-accmlate and to establis% environmentall$ sond land-
based 2aste disposal alternatives to sea dmpin!<
B%C Cooperatin! in t%e development and implementation o, environmentall$ sond land-
se tec%ni1es and practices to redce rn-o,, to 2ater-corses and estaries 2%ic%
2old case polltion or de!radation o, t%e marine environment<
BiC Promotin! t%e se o, environmentall$ less %arm,l pesticides and ,ertili5ers and
alternative met%ods ,or pest control0 and considerin! t%e pro%ibition o, t%ose ,ond to be
environmentall$ nsond<
B?C :doptin! ne2 initiatives at national0 sbre!ional and re!ional levels ,or controllin! t%e
inpt o, non-point sorce polltants0 2%ic% re1ire broad c%an!es in se2a!e and 2aste
mana!ement0 a!ricltral practices0 minin!0 constrction and transportation.
1&.2+. :s concerns p%$sical destrction o, coastal and marine areas casin! de!radation
o, t%e marine environment0 priorit$ actions s%old inclde control and prevention o,
coastal erosion and siltation de to ant%ropo!enic ,actors related to0 inter alia0 land-se
and constrction tec%ni1es and practices. 6aters%ed mana!ement practices s%old be
promoted so as to prevent0 control and redce de!radation o, t%e marine environment.
Prevention0 redction and control o, de!radation o, t%e marine environment ,rom
sea-based activities
1&.#). States0 actin! individall$0 bilaterall$0 re!ionall$ or mltilaterall$ and 2it%in t%e
,rame2or* o, I-O and ot%er relevant international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0
re!ional or !lobal0 as appropriate0 s%old assess t%e need ,or additional measres to
address de!radation o, t%e marine environment.
A) From shipping, by:
1. Spportin! 2ider rati,ication and implementation o, relevant s%ippin!
conventions and protocols<
2. Facilitatin! t%e processes in BiC0 providin! spport to individal States pon
re1est to %elp t%em overcome t%e obstacles identi,ied b$ t%em<
#. Cooperatin! in monitorin! marine polltion ,rom s%ips0 especiall$ ,rom ille!al
disc%ar!es Be.!.0 aerial srveillanceC0 and en,orcin! -:RPO8 disc%ar!e0
provisions more ri!orosl$<
". C:ssessin! t%e state o, polltion cased b$ s%ips in particlarl$ sensitive areas
identi,ied b$ I-O and ta*in! action to implement applicable measres0 2%ere
necessar$0 2it%in sc% areas to ensre compliance 2it% !enerall$ accepted
international re!lations<
'. Ta*in! action to ensre respect o, areas desi!nated b$ coastal States0 2it%in t%eir
e3clsive economic 5ones0 consistent 2it% international la20 in order to protect
and preserve rare or ,ra!ile ecos$stems0 sc% as coral ree,s and man!roves<
6. Considerin! t%e adoption o, appropriate rles on ballast 2ater disc%ar!e to
prevent t%e spread o, non-indi!enos or!anisms<
&. Promotin! navi!ational sa,et$ b$ ade1ate c%artin! o, coasts and s%ip-rotin!0 as
appropriate<
(. :ssessin! t%e need ,or stricter international re!lations to ,rt%er redce t%e ris*
o, accidents and polltion ,rom car!o s%ips Bincldin! bl* carriersC<
+. /ncora!in! I-O and I:/: to 2or* to!et%er to complete consideration o, a code
on t%e carria!e o, irradiated nclear ,el in ,las*s on board s%ips<
1). Revisin! and pdatin! t%e I-O Code o, Sa,et$ ,or ;clear -erc%ant S%ips and
considerin! %o2 best to implement a revised code<
11. Spportin! t%e on!oin! activit$ 2it%in I-O re!ardin! development o,
appropriate measres ,or redcin! air polltion ,rom s%ips<
12. Spportin! t%e on!oin! activit$ 2it%in I-O re!ardin! t%e development o, an
international re!ime !overnin! t%e transportation o, %a5ardos and no3ios
sbstances carried b$ s%ips and ,rt%er considerin! 2%et%er t%e compensation
,nds similar to t%e ones establis%ed nder t%e Fnd Convention 2old be
appropriate in respect o, polltion dama!e cased b$ sbstances ot%er t%an oil<
B) From dumping, by:
1. Spportin! 2ider rati,ication0 implementation and participation in relevant
Conventions on dmpin! at sea0 incldin! earl$ conclsion o, a ,tre strate!$ ,or
t%e 8ondon Dmpin! Convention<
2. /ncora!in! t%e 8ondon Dmpin! Convention parties to ta*e appropriate steps to
stop ocean dmpin! and incineration o, %a5ardos sbstances<
C) From offshore oil and gas platforms, by:
1. :ssessin! e3istin! re!lator$ measres to address disc%ar!es0 emissions and
sa,et$ and assessin! t%e need ,or additional measres<
D) From ports, by:
1. Facilitatin! establis%ment o, port reception ,acilities ,or t%e collection o, oil$ and
c%emical resides and !arba!e ,rom s%ips0 especiall$ in -:RPO8 special areas0
and promotin! t%e establis%ment o, smaller scale ,acilities in marinas and ,is%in!
%arbors.
1&.#1. I-O and as appropriate0 ot%er competent >nited ;ations or!ani5ations0 2%en
re1ested b$ t%e States concerned0 s%old assess0 2%ere appropriate0 t%e state o, marine
polltion in areas o, con!ested s%ippin!0 sc% as %eavil$ sed international straits0 2it% a
vie2 to ensrin! compliance 2it% !enerall$ accepted international re!lations0
particlarl$ t%ose related to ille!al disc%ar!es ,rom s%ips0 in accordance 2it% t%e
provisions o, Part III o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea.
1&.#2. States s%old ta*e measres to redce 2ater polltion cased b$ or!anotin
componds sed in anti-,olin! paints.
1&.##. States s%old consider rati,$in! t%e Convention on Oil Polltion Preparedness0
Response and Cooperation0 2%ic% addresses0 inter alia0 t%e development o, contin!enc$
plans on t%e national and international level0 as appropriate0 incldin! provision o, oil-
spill response material and trainin! o, personnel0 incldin! its possible e3tension to
c%emical spill response.
1&.#". States s%old intensi,$ international cooperation to stren!t%en or establis%0 2%ere
necessar$0 re!ional oil=c%emical-spill response centres and=or0 as appropriate0
mec%anisms in cooperation 2it% relevant sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal
inter!overnmental or!ani5ations and0 2%ere appropriate0 indstr$-based or!ani5ations.
-/ Data and information
1&.#'. States s%old0 as appropriate0 and in accordance 2it% t%e means at t%eir disposal
and 2it% de re!ard ,or t%eir tec%nical and scienti,ic capacit$ and resorces0 ma*e
s$stematic observations on t%e state o, t%e marine environment. To t%is end0 States
s%old0 as appropriate0 consider.
BaC /stablis%in! s$stematic observation s$stems to measre marine environmental 1alit$0
incldin! cases and e,,ects o, marine de!radation0 as a basis ,or mana!ement<
BbC Re!larl$ e3c%an!in! in,ormation on marine de!radation cased b$ land-based and
sea-based activities and on actions to prevent0 control and redce sc% de!radation<
BcC Spportin! and e3pandin! international pro!rammes ,or s$stematic observations sc%
as t%e mssel 2atc% pro!ramme0 bildin! on e3istin! ,acilities 2it% special attention to
developin! contries<
BdC /stablis%in! a clearin!-%ose on marine polltion control in,ormation0 incldin!
processes and tec%nolo!ies to address marine polltion control and to spport t%eir
trans,er to developin! contries and ot%er contries 2it% demonstrated needs<
BeC /stablis%in! a !lobal pro,ile and database providin! in,ormation on t%e sorces0 t$pes0
amonts and e,,ects o, polltants reac%in! t%e marine environment ,rom land-based
activities in coastal areas and sea-based sorces<
B,C :llocatin! ade1ate ,ndin! ,or capacit$-bildin! and trainin! pro!rammes to ensre
t%e ,ll participation o, developin! contries0 in particlar0 in an$ international sc%eme
nder t%e or!ans and or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem ,or t%e collection0
anal$sis and se o, data and in,ormation.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.#6. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D2)) million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1&.#&. ;ational0 sbre!ional and re!ional action pro!rammes 2ill0 2%ere appropriate0
re1ire tec%nolo!$ trans,er0 in con,ormit$ 2it% c%apter #"0 and ,inancial resorces0
particlarl$ 2%ere developin! contries are concerned0 incldin!.
BaC :ssistance to indstries in identi,$in! and adoptin! clean prodction or cost-e,,ective
polltion control tec%nolo!ies<
BbC Plannin! development and application o, lo2-cost and lo2-maintenance se2a!e
installation and treatment tec%nolo!ies ,or developin! contries<
BcC /1ipment o, laboratories to observe s$stematicall$ %man and ot%er impacts on t%e
marine environment<
BdC Identi,ication o, appropriate oil- and c%emical-spill control materials0 incldin! lo2-
cost locall$ available materials and tec%ni1es0 sitable ,or polltion emer!encies in
developin! contries<
BeC Std$ o, t%e se o, persistent or!ano%alo!ens t%at are liable to accmlate in t%e
marine environment to identi,$ t%ose t%at cannot be ade1atel$ controlled and to provide
a basis ,or a decision on a time sc%edle ,or p%asin! t%em ot as soon as practicable<
B,C /stablis%ment o, a clearin!-%ose ,or in,ormation on marine polltion control0
incldin! processes and tec%nolo!ies to address marine polltion control0 and spport ,or
t%eir trans,er to developin! and ot%er contries 2it% demonstrated needs.
C/ *uman resource development
1&.#(. States individall$ or in cooperation 2it% eac% ot%er and 2it% t%e spport o,
international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC Provide trainin! ,or critical personnel re1ired ,or t%e ade1ate protection o, t%e
marine environment as identi,ied b$ trainin! needs9 srve$s at t%e national0 re!ional or
sbre!ional levels<
BbC Promote t%e introdction o, marine environmental protection topics into t%e
crriclm o, marine stdies pro!rammes<
BcC /stablis% trainin! corses ,or oil- and c%emical-spill response personnel0 in
cooperation0 2%ere appropriate0 2it% t%e oil and c%emical indstries<
BdC Condct 2or*s%ops on environmental aspects o, port operations and development<
BeC Stren!t%en and provide secre ,inancin! ,or ne2 and e3istin! speciali5ed international
centres o, pro,essional maritime edcation<
B,C States s%old0 t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation0 spport and spplement
t%e national e,,orts o, developin! contries as re!ards %man resorce development in
relation to prevention and redction o, de!radation o, t%e marine environment.
D/ Capacit01building
1&.#+. ;ational plannin! and coordinatin! bodies s%old be !iven t%e capacit$ and
at%orit$ to revie2 all land-based activities and sorces o, polltion ,or t%eir impacts on
t%e marine environment and to propose appropriate control measres.
1&."). Researc% ,acilities s%old be stren!t%ened or0 2%ere appropriate0 developed in
developin! contries ,or s$stematic observation o, marine polltion0 environmental
impact assessment and development o, control recommendations and s%old be mana!ed
and sta,,ed b$ local e3perts.
1&."1. Special arran!ements 2ill be needed to provide ade1ate ,inancial and tec%nical
resorces to assist developin! contries in preventin! and solvin! problems associated
2it% activities t%at t%reaten t%e marine environment.
1&."2. :n international ,ndin! mec%anism s%old be created ,or t%e application o,
appropriate se2a!e treatment tec%nolo!ies and bildin! se2a!e treatment ,acilities0
incldin! !rants or concessional loans ,rom international a!encies and appropriate
re!ional ,nds0 replenis%ed at least in part on a revolvin! basis b$ ser ,ees.
1&."#. In carr$in! ot t%ese pro!ramme activities0 particlar attention needs to be !iven
to t%e problems o, developin! contries t%at 2old bear an ne1al brden becase o,
t%eir lac* o, ,acilities0 e3pertise or tec%nical capacities.
C$ Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources of te ig
seas
-asis for action
1&."". Over t%e last decade0 ,is%eries on t%e %i!% seas %ave considerabl$ e3panded and
crrentl$ represent appro3imatel$ ' per cent o, total 2orld landin!s. T%e provisions o,
t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea on t%e marine livin! resorces o,
t%e %i!% seas sets ,ort% ri!%ts and obli!ations o, States 2it% respect to conservation and
tili5ation o, t%ose resorces.
1&."'. 4o2ever0 mana!ement o, %i!% seas ,is%eries0 incldin! t%e adoption0 monitorin!
and en,orcement o, e,,ective conservation measres0 is inade1ate in man$ areas and
some resorces are overtili5ed. T%ere are problems o, nre!lated ,is%in!0
overcapitali5ation0 e3cessive ,leet si5e0 vessel re,la!!in! to escape controls0 ins,,icientl$
selective !ear0 nreliable databases and lac* o, s,,icient cooperation bet2een States.
:ction b$ States 2%ose nationals and vessels ,is% on t%e %i!% seas0 as 2ell as cooperation
at t%e bilateral0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal levels0 is essential particlarl$ ,or %i!%l$
mi!rator$ species and straddlin! stoc*s. Sc% action and cooperation s%old address
inade1acies in ,is%in! practices0 as 2ell as in biolo!ical *no2led!e0 ,is%eries statistics
and improvement o, s$stems ,or %andlin! data. /mp%asis s%old also be on mlti-species
mana!ement and ot%er approac%es t%at ta*e into accont t%e relations%ips amon! species0
especiall$ in addressin! depleted species0 bt also in identi,$in! t%e potential o,
ndertili5ed or ntili5ed poplations.
#b.ectives
1&."6. States commit t%emselves to t%e conservation and sstainable se o, marine livin!
resorces on t%e %i!% seas. To t%is end0 it is necessar$ to.
BaC Develop and increase t%e potential o, marine livin! resorces to meet %man
ntritional needs0 as 2ell as social0 economic and development !oals<
BbC -aintain or restore poplations o, marine species at levels t%at can prodce t%e
ma3imm sstainable $ield as 1ali,ied b$ relevant environmental and economic ,actors0
ta*in! into consideration relations%ips amon! species<
BcC Promote t%e development and se o, selective ,is%in! !ear and practices t%at
minimi5e 2aste in t%e catc% o, tar!et species and minimi5e b$-catc% o, non-tar!et
species<
BdC /nsre e,,ective monitorin! and en,orcement 2it% respect to ,is%in! activities<
BeC Protect and restore endan!ered marine species<
B,C Preserve %abitats and ot%er ecolo!icall$ sensitive areas<
B!C Promote scienti,ic researc% 2it% respect to t%e marine livin! resorces in t%e %i!%
seas.
1&."&. ;ot%in! in para!rap% 1&."6 above restricts t%e ri!%t o, a State or t%e competence
o, an international or!ani5ation0 as appropriate0 to pro%ibit0 limit or re!late t%e
e3ploitation o, marine mammals on t%e %i!% seas more strictl$ t%an provided ,or in t%at
para!rap%. States s%all cooperate 2it% a vie2 to t%e conservation o, marine mammals
and0 in t%e case o, cetaceans0 s%all in particlar 2or* t%ro!% t%e appropriate
international or!ani5ations ,or t%eir conservation0 mana!ement and std$.
1&."(. T%e abilit$ o, developin! contries to ,l,il t%e above ob?ectives is dependent pon
t%eir capabilities0 incldin! t%e ,inancial0 scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means at t%eir
disposal. :de1ate ,inancial0 scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical cooperation s%old be provided
to spport action b$ t%em to implement t%ese ob?ectives.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1&."+. States s%old ta*e e,,ective action0 incldin! bilateral and mltilateral cooperation0
2%ere appropriate at t%e sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal levels0 to ensre t%at %i!% seas
,is%eries are mana!ed in accordance 2it% t%e provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations
Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea. In particlar0 t%e$ s%old.
BaC 7ive ,ll e,,ect to t%ese provisions 2it% re!ard to ,is%eries poplations 2%ose ran!es
lie bot% 2it%in and be$ond e3clsive economic 5ones Bstraddlin! stoc*sC<
BbC 7ive ,ll e,,ect to t%ese provisions 2it% re!ard to %i!%l$ mi!rator$ species<
BcC ;e!otiate0 2%ere appropriate0 international a!reements ,or t%e e,,ective mana!ement
and conservation o, ,is%er$ stoc*s<
BdC De,ine and identi,$ appropriate mana!ement nits<
1&.'). States s%old convene0 as soon as possible0 an inter!overnmental con,erence nder
>nited ;ations aspices0 ta*in! into accont relevant activities at t%e sbre!ional0
re!ional and !lobal levels0 2it% a vie2 to promotin! e,,ective implementation o, t%e
provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea on straddlin! ,is%
stoc*s and %i!%l$ mi!rator$ ,is% stoc*s. T%e con,erence0 dra2in!0 inter alia0 on scienti,ic
and tec%nical stdies b$ F:O0 s%old identi,$ and assess e3istin! problems related to t%e
conservation and mana!ement o, sc% ,is% stoc*s0 and consider means o, improvin!
cooperation on ,is%eries amon! States0 and ,ormlate appropriate recommendations. T%e
2or* and t%e reslts o, t%e con,erence s%old be ,ll$ consistent 2it% t%e provisions o,
t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea0 in particlar t%e ri!%ts and
obli!ations o, coastal States and States ,is%in! on t%e %i!% seas.
1&.'1. States s%old ensre t%at ,is%in! activities b$ vessels ,l$in! t%eir ,la!s on t%e %i!%
seas ta*e place in a manner so as to minimi5e incidental catc%.
1&.'2. States s%old ta*e e,,ective action consistent 2it% international la2 to monitor and
control ,is%in! activities b$ vessels ,l$in! t%eir ,la!s on t%e %i!% seas to ensre
compliance 2it% applicable conservation and mana!ement rles0 incldin! ,ll0 detailed0
accrate and timel$ reportin! o, catc%es and e,,ort.
1&.'#. States s%old ta*e e,,ective action0 consistent 2it% international la20 to deter
re,la!!in! o, vessels b$ t%eir nationals as a means o, avoidin! compliance 2it%
applicable conservation and mana!ement rles ,or ,is%in! activities on t%e %i!% seas.
1&.'". States s%old pro%ibit d$namitin!0 poisonin! and ot%er comparable destrctive
,is%in! practices.
1&.''. States s%old ,ll$ implement 7eneral :ssembl$ resoltion "6=21' on lar!e-scale
pela!ic dri,t-net ,is%in!.
1&.'6. States s%old ta*e measres to increase t%e availabilit$ o, marine livin! resorces
as %man ,ood b$ redcin! 2asta!e0 post-%arvest losses and discards0 and improvin!
tec%ni1es o, processin!0 distribtion and transportation.
-/ Data and information
1&.'&. States0 2it% t%e spport o, international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0
re!ional or !lobal0 as appropriate0 s%old cooperate to.
BaC Promote en%anced collection o, data necessar$ ,or t%e conservation and sstainable
se o, t%e marine livin! resorces o, t%e %i!% seas<
BbC /3c%an!e on a re!lar basis p-to-date data and in,ormation ade1ate ,or ,is%eries
assessment<
BcC Develop and s%are anal$tical and predictive tools0 sc% as stoc* assessment and
bioeconomic models<
BdC /stablis% or e3pand appropriate monitorin! and assessment pro!rammes.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1&.'(. States0 t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation and 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o,
sbre!ional and re!ional ,is%eries bodies0 as appropriate0 and 2it% t%e spport o, ot%er
international inter!overnmental a!encies0 s%old assess %i!% seas resorce potentials and
develop pro,iles o, all stoc*s Btar!et and non-tar!etC.
1&.'+. States s%old0 2%ere and as appropriate0 ensre ade1ate coordination and
cooperation in enclosed and semi-enclosed seas and bet2een sbre!ional0 re!ional and
!lobal inter!overnmental ,is%eries bodies.
1&.6). /,,ective cooperation 2it%in e3istin! sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal ,is%eries
bodies s%old be encora!ed. 6%ere sc% or!ani5ations do not e3ist0 States s%old0 as
appropriate0 cooperate to establis% sc% or!ani5ations.
1&.61. States 2it% an interest in a %i!% seas ,is%er$ re!lated b$ an e3istin! sbre!ional
and=or re!ional %i!% seas ,is%eries or!ani5ation o, 2%ic% t%e$ are not members s%old be
encora!ed to ?oin t%at or!ani5ation0 2%ere appropriate.
1&.62. States reco!ni5e.
BaC T%e responsibilit$ o, t%e International 6%alin! Commission ,or t%e conservation and
mana!ement o, 2%ale stoc*s and t%e re!lation o, 2%alin! prsant to t%e 1+"6
International Convention ,or t%e Re!lation o, 6%alin!<
BbC T%e 2or* o, t%e International 6%alin! Commission Scienti,ic Committee in carr$in!
ot stdies o, lar!e 2%ales in particlar0 as 2ell as o, ot%er cetaceans<
BcC T%e 2or* o, ot%er or!ani5ations0 sc% as t%e Inter-:merican Tropical Tna
Commission and t%e :!reement on Small Cetaceans in t%e Ealtic and ;ort% Sea nder
t%e Eonn Convention0 in t%e conservation0 mana!ement and std$ o, cetaceans and ot%er
marine mammals.
1&.6#. States s%old cooperate ,or t%e conservation0 mana!ement and std$ o, cetaceans.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.6". T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D12 million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1&.6'. States0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international or!ani5ations0 2%ere necessar$0
s%old develop collaborative tec%nical and researc% pro!rammes to improve
nderstandin! o, t%e li,e c$cles and mi!rations o, species ,ond on t%e %i!% seas0
incldin! identi,$in! critical areas and li,e sta!es.
1&.66. States0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er
sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 as appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Develop databases on t%e %i!% seas marine livin! resorces and ,is%eries<
BbC Collect and correlate marine environmental data 2it% %i!% seas marine livin!
resorces data0 incldin! t%e impacts o, re!ional and !lobal c%an!es bro!%t abot b$
natral cases and b$ %man activities<
BcC Cooperate in coordinatin! researc% pro!rammes to provide t%e *no2led!e necessar$
to mana!e %i!% seas resorces.
C/ *uman resource development
1&.6&. 4man resorce development at t%e national level s%old be tar!eted at bot%
development and mana!ement o, %i!% seas resorces0 incldin! trainin! in %i!% seas
,is%in! tec%ni1es and in %i!% seas resorce assessment0 stren!t%enin! cadres o,
personnel to deal 2it% %i!% seas resorce mana!ement and conservation and related
environmental isses0 and trainin! observers and inspectors to be placed on ,is%in!
vessels.
D/ Capacit01building
1&.6(. States0 2it% t%e spport0 2%ere appropriate0 o, relevant international or!ani5ations0
2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 s%old cooperate to develop or p!rade s$stems
and instittional strctres ,or monitorin!0 control and srveillance0 as 2ell as t%e
researc% capacit$ ,or assessment o, marine livin! resorce poplations.
1&.6+. Special spport0 incldin! cooperation amon! States0 2ill be needed to en%ance
t%e capacities o, developin! contries in t%e areas o, data and in,ormation0 scienti,ic and
tec%nolo!ical means0 and %man resorce development in order to participate e,,ectivel$
in t%e conservation and sstainable tili5ation o, %i!% seas marine livin! resorces.
D$ Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources under
national .urisdiction
-asis for action
1&.&). -arine ,is%eries $ield () to +) million tons o, ,is% and s%ell,is% per $ear0 +' per
cent o, 2%ic% is ta*en ,rom 2aters nder national ?risdiction. Hields %ave increased
nearl$ ,ive,old over t%e past ,or decades. T%e provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations
Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea on marine livin! resorces o, t%e e3clsive economic
5one and ot%er areas nder national ?risdiction set ,ort% ri!%ts and obli!ations o, States
2it% respect to conservation and tili5ation o, t%ose resorces.
1&.&1. -arine livin! resorces provide an important sorce o, protein in man$ contries
and t%eir se is o,ten o, ma?or importance to local commnities and indi!enos people.
Sc% resorces provide ,ood and liveli%oods to millions o, people and0 i, sstainabl$
tili5ed0 o,,er increased potential to meet ntritional and social needs0 particlarl$ in
developin! contries. To reali5e t%is potential re1ires improved *no2led!e and
identi,ication o, marine livin! resorce stoc*s0 particlarl$ o, ndertili5ed and
ntili5ed stoc*s and species0 se o, ne2 tec%nolo!ies0 better %andlin! and processin!
,acilities to avoid 2asta!e0 and improved 1alit$ and trainin! o, s*illed personnel to
mana!e and conserve e,,ectivel$ t%e marine livin! resorces o, t%e e3clsive economic
5one and ot%er areas nder national ?risdiction. /mp%asis s%old also be on mlti-
species mana!ement and ot%er approac%es t%at ta*e into accont t%e relations%ips amon!
species.
1&.&2. Fis%eries in man$ areas nder national ?risdiction ,ace montin! problems0
incldin! local over,is%in!0 nat%ori5ed incrsions b$ ,orei!n ,leets0 ecos$stem
de!radation0 overcapitali5ation and e3cessive ,leet si5es0 nderevalation o, catc%0
ins,,icientl$ selective !ear0 nreliable databases0 and increasin! competition bet2een
artisanal and lar!e-scale ,is%in!0 and bet2een ,is%in! and ot%er t$pes o, activities.
1&.&#. Problems e3tend be$ond ,is%eries. Coral ree,s and ot%er marine and coastal
%abitats0 sc% as man!roves and estaries0 are amon! t%e most %i!%l$ diverse0 inte!rated
and prodctive o, t%e /art%9s ecos$stems. T%e$ o,ten serve important ecolo!ical
,nctions0 provide coastal protection0 and are critical resorces ,or ,ood0 ener!$0 torism
and economic development. In man$ parts o, t%e 2orld0 sc% marine and coastal s$stems
are nder stress or are t%reatened ,rom a variet$ o, sorces0 bot% %man and natral.
#b.ectives
1&.&". Coastal States0 particlarl$ developin! contries and States 2%ose economies are
over2%elmin!l$ dependent on t%e e3ploitation o, t%e marine livin! resorces o, t%eir
e3clsive economic 5ones0 s%old obtain t%e ,ll social and economic bene,its ,rom
sstainable tili5ation o, marine livin! resorces 2it%in t%eir e3clsive economic 5ones
and ot%er areas nder national ?risdiction.
1&.&'. States commit t%emselves to t%e conservation and sstainable se o, marine livin!
resorces nder national ?risdiction. To t%is end0 it is necessar$ to.
BaC Develop and increase t%e potential o, marine livin! resorces to meet %man
ntritional needs0 as 2ell as social0 economic and development !oals<
BbC Ta*e into accont traditional *no2led!e and interests o, local commnities0 small-
scale artisanal ,is%eries and indi!enos people in development and mana!ement
pro!rammes<
BcC -aintain or restore poplations o, marine species at levels t%at can prodce t%e
ma3imm sstainable $ield as 1ali,ied b$ relevant environmental and economic ,actors0
ta*in! into consideration relations%ips amon! species<
BdC romote t%e development and se o, selective ,is%in! !ear and practices t%at minimi5e
2aste in t%e catc% o, tar!et species and minimi5e b$-catc% o, non-tar!et species<
BeC Protect and restore endan!ered marine species<
B,C Preserve rare or ,ra!ile ecos$stems0 as 2ell as %abitats and ot%er ecolo!icall$ sensitive
areas.
1&.&6. ;ot%in! in para!rap% 1&.&" above restricts t%e ri!%t o, a coastal State or t%e
competence o, an international or!ani5ation0 as appropriate0 to pro%ibit0 limit or re!late
t%e e3ploitation o, marine mammals more strictl$ t%an provided ,or in t%at para!rap%.
States s%all cooperate 2it% a vie2 to t%e conservation o, marine mammals and in t%e case
o, cetaceans s%all in particlar 2or* t%ro!% t%e appropriate international or!ani5ations
,or t%eir conservation0 mana!ement and std$.
1&.&&. T%e abilit$ o, developin! contries to ,l,il t%e above ob?ectives is dependent pon
t%eir capabilities0 incldin! t%e ,inancial0 scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means at t%eir
disposal. :de1ate ,inancial0 scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical cooperation s%old be provided
to spport action b$ t%em to implement t%ese ob?ectives.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1&.&(. States s%old ensre t%at marine livin! resorces o, t%e e3clsive economic 5one
and ot%er areas nder national ?risdiction are conserved and mana!ed in accordance 2it%
t%e provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea.
1&.&+. States0 in implementin! t%e provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e
8a2 o, t%e Sea0 s%old address t%e isses o, straddlin! stoc*s and %i!%l$ mi!rator$
species0 and0 ta*in! ,ll$ into accont t%e ob?ective set ot in para!rap% 1&.&#0 access to
t%e srpls o, allo2able catc%es.
1&.(). Coastal States0 individall$ or t%ro!% bilateral and=or mltilateral cooperation
and 2it% t%e spport0 as appropriate o, international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0
re!ional or !lobal0 s%old inter alia.
BaC :ssess t%e potential o, marine livin! resorces0 incldin! ndertili5ed or ntili5ed
stoc*s and species0 b$ developin! inventories0 2%ere necessar$0 ,or t%eir conservation
and sstainable se<
BbC Implement strate!ies ,or t%e sstainable se o, marine livin! resorces0 ta*in! into
accont t%e special needs and interests o, small-scale artisanal ,is%eries0 local
commnities and indi!enos people to meet %man ntritional and ot%er development
needs<
BcC Implement0 in particlar in developin! contries0 mec%anisms to develop maricltre0
a1acltre and small-scale0 deep-sea and oceanic ,is%eries 2it%in areas nder national
?risdiction 2%ere assessments s%o2 t%at marine livin! resorces are potentiall$
available<
BdC Stren!t%en t%eir le!al and re!lator$ ,rame2or*s0 2%ere appropriate0 incldin!
mana!ement0 en,orcement and srveillance capabilities0 to re!late activities related to
t%e above strate!ies<
BeC Ta*e measres to increase t%e availabilit$ o, marine livin! resorces as %man ,ood
b$ redcin! 2asta!e0 post-%arvest losses and discards0 and improvin! tec%ni1es o,
processin!0 distribtion and transportation<
B,C Develop and promote t%e se o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$ nder criteria
compatible 2it% t%e sstainable se o, marine livin! resorces0 incldin! assessment o,
t%e environmental impact o, ma?or ne2 ,is%er$ practices<
B!C /n%ance t%e prodctivit$ and tili5ation o, t%eir marine livin! resorces ,or ,ood and
income.
1&.(1. Coastal States s%old e3plore t%e scope ,or e3pandin! recreational and torist
activities based on marine livin! resorces0 incldin! t%ose ,or providin! alternative
sorces o, income. Sc% activities s%old be compatible 2it% conservation and
sstainable development policies and plans.
1&.(2. Coastal States s%old spport t%e sstainabilit$ o, small-scale artisanal ,is%eries.
To t%is end0 t%e$ s%old0 as appropriate.
BaC Inte!rate small-scale artisanal ,is%eries development in marine and coastal plannin!0
ta*in! into accont t%e interests and0 2%ere appropriate0 encora!in! representation o,
,is%ermen0 small-scale ,is%er2or*ers0 2omen0 local commnities and indi!enos people<
BbC Reco!ni5e t%e ri!%ts o, small-scale ,is%2or*ers and t%e special sitation o,
indi!enos people and local commnities0 incldin! t%eir ri!%ts to tili5ation and
protection o, t%eir %abitats on a sstainable basis<
BcC Develop s$stems ,or t%e ac1isition and recordin! o, traditional *no2led!e
concernin! marine livin! resorces and environment and promote t%e incorporation o,
sc% *no2led!e into mana!ement s$stems.
1&.(#. Coastal States s%old ensre t%at0 in t%e ne!otiation and implementation o,
international a!reements on t%e development or conservation o, marine livin! resorces0
t%e interests o, local commnities and indi!enos people are ta*en into accont0 in
particlar t%eir ri!%t to sbsistence.
1&.(". Coastal States0 2it% t%e spport0 as appropriate0 o, international or!ani5ations
s%old condct anal$ses o, t%e potential ,or a1acltre in marine and coastal areas nder
national ?risdiction and appl$ appropriate sa,e!ards as to t%e introdction o, ne2
species. 1&.(". States s%old pro%ibit d$namitin!0 poisonin! and ot%er comparable
destrctive ,is%in! practices.
1&.('. States s%old pro%ibit d$namitin!0 poisonin! and ot%er comparable destrctive
,is%in! practices.
1&.(6. States s%old identi,$ marine ecos$stems e3%ibitin! %i!% levels o, biodiversit$ and
prodctivit$ and ot%er critical %abitat areas and s%old provide necessar$ limitations on
se in t%ese areas0 t%ro!%0 inter alia0 desi!nation o, protected areas. Priorit$ s%old be
accorded0 as appropriate0 to.
BaC Coral ree, ecos$stems<
BbC /staries<
BcC Temperate and tropical 2etlands0 incldin! man!roves<
BdC Sea!rass beds<
BeC Ot%er spa2nin! and nrser$ areas.
-/ Data and information
1&.(&. States0 individall$ or t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation and 2it% t%e
spport0 as appropriate0 o, international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or
!lobal0 s%old.
BaC Promote en%anced collection and e3c%an!e o, data necessar$ ,or t%e conservation and
sstainable se o, t%e marine livin! resorces nder national ?risdiction<
BbC /3c%an!e on a re!lar basis p-to-date data and in,ormation necessar$ ,or ,is%eries
assessment<
BcC Develop and s%are anal$tical and predictive tools0 sc% as stoc* assessment and
bioeconomic models<
BdC /stablis% or e3pand appropriate monitorin! and assessment pro!rammes<
BeC Complete or pdate marine biodiversit$0 marine livin! resorce and critical %abitat
pro,iles o, e3clsive economic 5ones and ot%er areas nder national ?risdiction0 ta*in!
accont o, c%an!es in t%e environment bro!%t abot b$ natral cases and %man
activities.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1&.((. States0 t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation0 and 2it% t%e spport o,
relevant >nited ;ations and ot%er international or!ani5ations0 s%old cooperate to.
BaC Develop ,inancial and tec%nical cooperation to en%ance t%e capacities o, developin!
contries in small-scale and oceanic ,is%eries0 as 2ell as in coastal a1acltre and
maricltre<
BbC Promote t%e contribtion o, marine livin! resorces to eliminate malntrition and to
ac%ieve ,ood sel,-s,,icienc$ in developin! contries0 inter alia0 b$ minimi5in! post-
%arvest losses and mana!in! stoc*s ,or !aranteed sstainable $ields<
BcC Develop a!reed criteria ,or t%e se o, selective ,is%in! !ear and practices to minimi5e
2aste in t%e catc% o, tar!et species and minimi5e b$-catc% o, non-tar!et species<
BdC Promote sea,ood 1alit$0 incldin! t%ro!% national 1alit$ assrance s$stems ,or
sea,ood0 in order to promote access to mar*ets0 improve consmer con,idence and
ma3imi5e economic retrns.
1&.(+. States s%old0 2%ere and as appropriate0 ensre ade1ate coordination and
cooperation in enclosed and semi-enclosed seas and bet2een sbre!ional0 re!ional and
!lobal inter!overnmental ,is%eries bodies.
1&.+). States reco!ni5e.
BaC T%e responsibilit$ o, t%e International 6%alin! Commission ,or t%e conservation and
mana!ement o, 2%ale stoc*s and t%e re!lation o, 2%alin! prsant to t%e 1+"6
International Convention ,or t%e Re!lation o, 6%alin!<
BbC T%e 2or* o, t%e International 6%alin! Commission Scienti,ic Committee in carr$in!
ot stdies o, lar!e 2%ales in particlar0 as 2ell as o, ot%er cetaceans<
BcC T%e 2or* o, ot%er or!ani5ations0 sc% as t%e Inter-:merican Tropical Tna
Commission and t%e :!reement on Small Cetaceans in t%e Ealtic and ;ort% Sea nder
t%e Eonn Convention0 in t%e conservation0 mana!ement and std$ o, cetaceans and ot%er
marine mammals.
1&.+1. States s%old cooperate ,or t%e conservation0 mana!ement and std$ o, cetaceans.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.+2. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D6 billion0 incldin!
abot D6) million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and
pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1&.+#. States0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant inter!overnmental or!ani5ations0 as
appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Provide ,or t%e trans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies to develop ,is%eries0
a1acltre and maricltre0 particlarl$ to developin! contries<
BbC :ccord special attention to mec%anisms ,or trans,errin! resorce in,ormation and
improved ,is%in! and a1acltre tec%nolo!ies to ,is%in! commnities at t%e local level<
BcC Promote t%e std$0 scienti,ic assessment and se o, appropriate traditional
mana!ement s$stems<
BdC Consider observin!0 as appropriate0 t%e F:O=IC/S Code o, Practice ,or Consideration
o, Trans,er and Introdction o, -arine and Fres%2ater Or!anisms<
BeC Promote scienti,ic researc% on marine areas o, particlar importance ,or marine livin!
resorces0 sc% as areas o, %i!% diversit$0 endemism and prodctivit$ and mi!rator$
stopover points.
C/ *uman resource development
1&.+". States individall$0 or t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation and 2it% t%e
spport o, relevant international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0
as appropriate0 s%old encora!e and provide spport ,or developin! contries0 inter alia0
to.
BaC /3pand mltidisciplinar$ edcation0 trainin! and researc% on marine livin! resorces0
particlarl$ in t%e social and economic sciences<
BbC Create trainin! opportnities at national and re!ional levels to spport artisanal
Bincldin! sbsistenceC ,is%eries0 to develop small-scale se o, marine livin! resorces
and to encora!e e1itable participation o, local commnities0 small-scale ,is% 2or*ers0
2omen and indi!enos people<
BcC Introdce topics relatin! to t%e importance o, marine livin! resorces in edcational
crricla at all levels.
D/ Capacit01building
1&.+'. Coastal States0 2it% t%e spport o, relevant sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal
a!encies0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Develop researc% capacities ,or assessment o, marine livin! resorce poplations and
monitorin!<
BbC Provide spport to local ,is%in! commnities0 in particlar t%ose t%at rel$ on ,is%in!
,or sbsistence0 indi!enos people and 2omen0 incldin!0 as appropriate0 t%e tec%nical
and ,inancial assistance to or!ani5e0 maintain0 e3c%an!e and improve traditional
*no2led!e o, marine livin! resorces and ,is%in! tec%ni1es0 and p!rade *no2led!e on
marine ecos$stems<
BcC /stablis% sstainable a1acltre development strate!ies0 incldin! environmental
mana!ement in spport o, rral ,is%-,armin! commnities<
BdC evelop and stren!t%en0 2%ere t%e need ma$ arise0 instittions capable o, implementin!
t%e ob?ectives and activities related to t%e conservation and mana!ement o, marine livin!
resorces.
1&.+6. Special spport0 incldin! cooperation amon! States0 2ill be needed to en%ance
t%e capacities o, developin! contries in t%e areas o, data and in,ormation0 scienti,ic and
tec%nolo!ical means and %man resorce development in order to enable t%em to
participate e,,ectivel$ in t%e conservation and sstainable se o, marine livin! resorces
nder national ?risdiction.
E$ Addressing critical uncertainties for te management of te marine
environment and climate cange
-asis for action
1&.+&. T%e marine environment is vlnerable and sensitive to climate and atmosp%eric
c%an!es. Rational se and development o, coastal areas0 all seas and marine resorces0 as
2ell as conservation o, t%e marine environment0 re1ires t%e abilit$ to determine t%e
present state o, t%ese s$stems and to predict ,tre conditions. T%e %i!% de!ree o,
ncertaint$ in present in,ormation in%ibits e,,ective mana!ement and limits t%e abilit$ to
ma*e predictions and assess environmental c%an!e. S$stematic collection o, data on
marine environmental parameters 2ill be needed to appl$ inte!rated mana!ement
approac%es and to predict e,,ects o, !lobal climate c%an!e and o, atmosp%eric
p%enomena0 sc% as o5one depletion0 on livin! marine resorces and t%e marine
environment. In order to determine t%e role o, t%e oceans and all seas in drivin! !lobal
s$stems and to predict natral and %man-indced c%an!es in marine and coastal
environments0 t%e mec%anisms to collect0 s$nt%esi5e and disseminate in,ormation ,rom
researc% and s$stematic observation activities need to be restrctred and rein,orced
considerabl$.
1&.+(. T%ere are man$ ncertainties abot climate c%an!e and particlarl$ abot sealevel
rise. Small increases in sealevel %ave t%e potential o, casin! si!ni,icant dama!e to small
islands and lo2-l$in! coasts. Response strate!ies s%old be based on sond data. : lon!-
term cooperative researc% commitment is needed to provide t%e data re1ired ,or !lobal
climate models and to redce ncertaint$. -ean2%ile0 precationar$ measres s%old be
nderta*en to diminis% t%e ris*s and e,,ects0 particlarl$ on small islands and on lo2-
l$in! and coastal areas o, t%e 2orld.
1&.++. Increased ltraviolet radiation derived ,rom o5one depletion %as been reported in
some areas o, t%e 2orld. :n assessment o, its e,,ects in t%e marine environment is needed
to redce ncertaint$ and to provide a basis ,or action.
#b.ectives
1&.1)). States0 in accordance 2it% provisions o, t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e
8a2 o, t%e Sea on marine scienti,ic researc%0 commit t%emselves to improve t%e
nderstandin! o, t%e marine environment and its role on !lobal processes. To t%is end0 it
is necessar$ to.
BaC Promote scienti,ic researc% on and s$stematic observation o, t%e marine environment
2it%in t%e limits o, national ?risdiction and %i!% seas0 incldin! interactions 2it%
atmosp%eric p%enomena0 sc% as o5one depletion<
BbC Promote e3c%an!e o, data and in,ormation resltin! ,rom scienti,ic researc% and
s$stematic observation and ,rom traditional ecolo!ical *no2led!e and ensre its
availabilit$ to polic$ ma*ers and t%e pblic at t%e national level<
BcC Cooperate 2it% a vie2 to t%e development o, standard inter-calibrated procedres0
measrin! tec%ni1es0 data stora!e and mana!ement capabilities ,or scienti,ic researc%
on and s$stematic observation o, t%e marine environment.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1&.1)1. States s%old consider0 inter alia.
BaC Coordinatin! national and re!ional observation pro!rammes ,or coastal and near-
s%ore p%enomena related to climate c%an!e and ,or researc% parameters essential ,or
marine and coastal mana!ement in all re!ions<
BbC Providin! improved ,orecasts o, marine conditions ,or t%e sa,et$ o, in%abitants o,
coastal areas and ,or t%e e,,icienc$ o, maritime operations<
BcC Cooperatin! 2it% a vie2 to adoptin! special measres to cope 2it% and adapt to
potential climate c%an!e and sealevel rise0 incldin! t%e development o, !loball$
accepted met%odolo!ies ,or coastal vlnerabilit$ assessment0 modellin! and response
strate!ies particlarl$ ,or priorit$ areas0 sc% as small islands and lo2-l$in! and critical
coastal areas<
BdC Identi,$in! on!oin! and planned pro!rammes o, s$stematic observation o, t%e marine
environment0 2it% a vie2 to inte!ratin! activities and establis%in! priorities to address
critical ncertainties ,or oceans and all seas<
BeC Initiatin! a pro!ramme o, researc% to determine t%e marine biolo!ical e,,ects o,
increased levels o, ltraviolet ra$s de to t%e depletion o, t%e stratosp%eric o5one la$er
and to evalate t%e possible e,,ects.
1&.1)2. Reco!ni5in! t%e important role t%at oceans and all seas pla$ in attenatin!
potential climate c%an!e0 IOC and ot%er relevant competent >nited ;ations bodies0 2it%
t%e spport o, contries %avin! t%e resorces and e3pertise0 s%old carr$ ot anal$sis0
assessments and s$stematic observation o, t%e role o, oceans as a carbon sin*.
-/ Data and information
1&.1)#. States s%old consider0 inter alia.
BaC Increasin! international cooperation particlarl$ 2it% a vie2 to stren!t%enin! national
scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical capabilities ,or anal$sin!0 assessin! and predictin! !lobal
climate and environmental c%an!e<
BbC Spportin! t%e role o, t%e IOC in cooperation 2it% 6-O0 >;/P and ot%er
international or!ani5ations in t%e collection0 anal$sis and distribtion o, data and
in,ormation ,rom t%e oceans and all seas0 incldin! as appropriate0 t%ro!% t%e 7lobal
Ocean Observin! S$stem0 !ivin! special attention to t%e need ,or IOC to develop ,ll$
t%e strate!$ ,or providin! trainin! and tec%nical assistance ,or developin! contries
t%ro!% its Trainin!0 /dcation and -tal :ssistance BT/-:C pro!ramme<
BcC Creatin! national mltisectoral in,ormation bases0 coverin! t%e reslts o, researc% and
s$stematic observation pro!rammes<
BdC 8in*in! t%ese databases to e3istin! data and in,ormation services and mec%anisms0
sc% as 6orld 6eat%er 6atc% and /art%2atc%<
BeC Cooperatin! 2it% a vie2 to t%e e3c%an!e o, data and in,ormation and its stora!e and
arc%ivin! t%ro!% t%e 2orld and re!ional data centres<
B,C Cooperatin! to ensre ,ll participation o, developin! contries0 in particlar0 in an$
international sc%eme nder t%e or!ans and or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem ,or
t%e collection0 anal$sis and se o, data and in,ormation.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1&.1)". States s%old consider bilaterall$ and mltilaterall$ and in cooperation 2it%
international or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional0 interre!ional or !lobal0 2%ere
appropriate.
BaC Providin! tec%nical cooperation in developin! t%e capacit$ o, coastal and island States
,or marine researc% and s$stematic observation and ,or sin! its reslts<
BbC Stren!t%enin! e3istin! national instittions and creatin!0 2%ere necessar$0
international anal$sis and prediction mec%anisms in order to prepare and e3c%an!e
re!ional and !lobal oceano!rap%ic anal$ses and ,orecasts and to provide ,acilities ,or
international researc% and trainin! at national0 sbre!ional and re!ional levels0 2%ere
applicable.
1&.1)'. In reco!nition o, t%e vale o, :ntarctica as an area ,or t%e condct o, scienti,ic
researc%0 in particlar researc% essential to nderstandin! t%e !lobal environment0 States
carr$in! ot sc% researc% activities in :ntarctica s%old0 as provided ,or in :rticle III o,
t%e :ntarctic Treat$0 contine to.
BaC /nsre t%at data and in,ormation resltin! ,rom sc% researc% are ,reel$ available to
t%e international commnit$<
BbC /n%ance access o, t%e international scienti,ic commnit$ and speciali5ed a!encies o,
t%e >nited ;ations to sc% data and in,ormation0 incldin! t%e encora!ement o, periodic
seminars and s$mposia.
1&.1)6. States s%old stren!t%en %i!%-level inter-a!enc$0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal
coordination0 as appropriate0 and revie2 mec%anisms to develop and inte!rate s$stematic
observation net2or*s. T%is 2old inclde.
BaC Revie2 o, e3istin! re!ional and !lobal databases<
BbC -ec%anisms to develop comparable and compatible tec%ni1es0 validate
met%odolo!ies and measrements0 or!ani5e re!lar scienti,ic revie2s0 develop options
,or corrective measres0 a!ree on ,ormats ,or presentation and stora!e0 and commnicate
t%e in,ormation !at%ered to potential sers<
BcC S$stematic observation o, coastal %abitats and sealevel c%an!es0 inventories o, marine
polltion sorces and revie2s o, ,is%eries statistics<
BdC Or!ani5ation o, periodic assessments o, ocean and all seas and coastal area stats and
trends.
1&.1)&. International cooperation0 t%ro!% relevant or!ani5ations 2it%in t%e >nited
;ations s$stem0 s%old spport contries to develop and inte!rate re!ional s$stematic
lon!-term observation pro!rammes0 2%en applicable0 into t%e Re!ional Seas Pro!rammes
in a coordinated ,as%ion to implement0 2%ere appropriate0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and
!lobal observin! s$stems based on t%e principle o, e3c%an!e o, data. One aim s%old be
t%e predictin! o, t%e e,,ects o, climate-related emer!encies on e3istin! coastal p%$sical
and socio-economic in,rastrctre.
1&.1)(. Eased on t%e reslts o, researc% on t%e e,,ects o, t%e additional ltraviolet
radiation reac%in! t%e /art%9s sr,ace0 in t%e ,ields o, %man %ealt%0 a!ricltre and
marine environment0 States and international or!ani5ations s%old consider ta*in!
appropriate remedial measres.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.1)+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D&') million0
incldin! abot D"() million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
1&.11). Developed contries s%old provide t%e ,inancin! ,or t%e ,rt%er development
and implementation o, t%e 7lobal Ocean Observin! S$stem.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1&.111. To address critical ncertainties t%ro!% s$stematic coastal and marine
observations and researc%0 coastal States s%old cooperate in t%e development o,
procedres t%at allo2 ,or comparable anal$sis and sondness o, data. T%e$ s%old also
cooperate on a sbre!ional and re!ional basis0 t%ro!% e3istin! pro!rammes 2%ere
applicable0 s%are in,rastrctre and e3pensive and sop%isticated e1ipment0 develop
1alit$ assrance procedres and develop %man resorces ?ointl$. Special attention
s%old be !iven to trans,er o, scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical *no2led!e and means to
spport States0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in t%e development o, endo!enos
capabilities.
1&.112. International or!ani5ations s%old spport0 2%en re1ested0 coastal contries in
implementin! researc% pro?ects on t%e e,,ects o, additional ltraviolet radiation.
C/ *uman resource development
1&.11#. States0 individall$ or t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation and 2it% t%e
spport0 as appropriate0 o, international or!ani5ations 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or
!lobal0 s%old develop and implement compre%ensive pro!rammes0 particlarl$ in
developin! contries0 ,or a broad and co%erent approac% to meetin! t%eir core %man
resorce needs in t%e marine sciences.
D/ Capacit01building
1&.11". States s%old stren!t%en or establis% as necessar$0 national scienti,ic and
tec%nolo!ical oceano!rap%ic commissions or e1ivalent bodies to develop0 spport and
coordinate marine science activities and 2or* closel$ 2it% international or!ani5ations.
1&.11'. States s%old se e3istin! sbre!ional and re!ional mec%anisms0 2%ere
applicable0 to develop *no2led!e o, t%e marine environment0 e3c%an!e in,ormation0
or!ani5e s$stematic observations and assessments0 and ma*e t%e most e,,ective se o,
scientists0 ,acilities and e1ipment. T%e$ s%old also cooperate in t%e promotion o,
endo!enos researc% capabilities in developin! contries.
)$ Strengtening international5 including regional5 cooperation and
coordination
-asis for action
1&.116. It is reco!ni5ed t%at t%e role o, international cooperation is to spport and
spplement national e,,orts. Implementation o, strate!ies and activities nder t%e
pro!ramme areas relative to marine and coastal areas and seas re1ires e,,ective
instittional arran!ements at national0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal levels0 as
appropriate. T%ere are nmeros national and international0 incldin! re!ional0
instittions0 bot% 2it%in and otside t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 2it% competence in
marine isses0 and t%ere is a need to improve coordination and stren!t%en lin*s amon!
t%em. It is also important to ensre t%at an inte!rated and mltisectoral approac% to
marine isses is prsed at all levels.
#b.ectives
1&.11&. States commit t%emselves0 in accordance 2it% t%eir policies0 priorities and
resorces0 to promote instittional arran!ements necessar$ to spport t%e implementation
o, t%e pro!ramme areas in t%is c%apter. To t%is end0 it is necessar$0 as appropriate0 to.
BaC Inte!rate relevant sectoral activities addressin! environment and development in
marine and coastal areas at national0 sbre!ional0 re!ional and !lobal levels0 as
appropriate<
BbC Promote e,,ective in,ormation e3c%an!e and0 2%ere appropriate0 instittional lin*a!es
bet2een bilateral and mltilateral national0 re!ional0 sbre!ional and interre!ional
instittions dealin! 2it% environment and development in marine and coastal areas<
BcC Promote 2it%in t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 re!lar inter!overnmental revie2 and
consideration o, environment and development isses 2it% respect to marine and coastal
areas<
BdC Promote t%e e,,ective operation o, coordinatin! mec%anisms ,or t%e components o,
t%e >nited ;ations s$stem dealin! 2it% isses o, environment and development in marine
and coastal areas0 as 2ell as lin*s 2it% relevant international development bodies.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
(lobal
1&.11(. T%e 7eneral :ssembl$ s%old provide ,or re!lar consideration0 2it%in t%e
>nited ;ations s$stem0 at t%e inter!overnmental level o, !eneral marine and coastal
isses0 incldin! environment and development matters0 and s%old re1est t%e
Secretar$-7eneral and e3ective %eads o, >nited ;ations a!encies and or!ani5ations to.
BaC Stren!t%en coordination and develop improved arran!ements amon! t%e relevant
>nited ;ations or!ani5ations 2it% ma?or marine and coastal responsibilities0 incldin!
t%eir sbre!ional and re!ional components<
BbC Stren!t%en coordination bet2een t%ose or!ani5ations and ot%er >nited ;ations
or!ani5ations0 instittions and speciali5ed a!encies dealin! 2it% development0 trade and
ot%er related economic isses0 as appropriate<
BcC Improve representation o, >nited ;ations a!encies dealin! 2it% t%e marine
environment in >nited ;ations s$stem-2ide coordination e,,orts<
BdC Promote0 2%ere necessar$0 !reater collaboration bet2een t%e >nited ;ations a!encies
and sbre!ional and re!ional coastal and marine pro!rammes<
BeC Develop a centrali5ed s$stem to provide ,or in,ormation on le!islation and advice on
implementation o, le!al a!reements on marine environmental and development isses.
1&.11+. States reco!ni5e t%at environmental policies s%old deal 2it% t%e root cases o,
environmental de!radation0 t%s preventin! environmental measres ,rom resltin! in
nnecessar$ restrictions to trade. Trade polic$ measres ,or environmental prposes
s%old not constitte a means o, arbitrar$ or n?sti,iable discrimination or a dis!ised
restriction on international trade. >nilateral actions to deal 2it% environmental c%allen!es
otside t%e ?risdiction o, t%e importin! contr$ s%old be avoided. /nvironmental
measres addressin! international environmental problems s%old0 as ,ar as possible0 be
based on an international consenss. Domestic measres tar!eted to ac%ieve certain
environmental ob?ectives ma$ need trade measres to render t%em e,,ective. S%old trade
polic$ measres be ,ond necessar$ ,or t%e en,orcement o, environmental policies0
certain principles and rles s%old appl$. T%ese cold inclde0 inter alia0 t%e principle o,
non-discrimination< t%e principle t%at t%e trade measre c%osen s%old be t%e least trade-
restrictive necessar$ to ac%ieve t%e ob?ectives< an obli!ation to ensre transparenc$ in t%e
se o, trade measres related to t%e environment and to provide ade1ate noti,ication o,
national re!lations< and t%e need to !ive consideration to t%e special conditions and
development re1irements o, developin! contries as t%e$ move to2ards internationall$
a!reed environmental ob?ectives.
Subregional and regional
1&.12). States s%old consider0 as appropriate.
BaC Stren!t%enin!0 and e3tendin! 2%ere necessar$0 inter!overnmental re!ional
cooperation0 t%e Re!ional Seas Pro!rammes o, >;/P0 re!ional and sbre!ional ,is%eries
or!ani5ations and re!ional commissions<
BbC Introdce0 2%ere necessar$0 coordination amon! relevant >nited ;ations and ot%er
mltilateral or!ani5ations at t%e sbre!ional and re!ional levels0 incldin! consideration
o, co-location o, t%eir sta,,<
BcC :rran!e ,or periodic intrare!ional consltations<
BdC Facilitate access to and se o, e3pertise and tec%nolo!$ t%ro!% relevant national
bodies to sbre!ional and re!ional centres and net2or*s0 sc% as t%e Re!ional Centres ,or
-arine Tec%nolo!$.
-/ Data and information
1&.121. States s%old0 2%ere appropriate.
BaC Promote e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on marine and coastal isses<
BbC Stren!t%en t%e capacit$ o, international or!ani5ations to %andle in,ormation and
spport t%e development o, national0 sbre!ional and re!ional data and in,ormation
s$stems0 2%ere appropriate. T%is cold also inclde net2or*s lin*in! contries 2it%
comparable environmental problems<
BcC Frt%er develop e3istin! international mec%anisms sc% as /art%2atc% and 7/S:-P.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.122. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means5 uman resource development and capacit01
building
1&.12#. T%e means o, implementation otlined in t%e ot%er pro!ramme areas on marine
and coastal isses0 nder t%e sections on Scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means0 %man
resorce development and capacit$-bildin! are entirel$ relevant ,or t%is pro!ramme area
as 2ell. :dditionall$0 States s%old0 t%ro!% international cooperation0 develop a
compre%ensive pro!ramme ,or meetin! t%e core %man resorce needs in marine
sciences at all levels.
($ Sustainable development of small islands
-asis for action
1&.12". Small island developin! States0 and islands spportin! small commnities are a
special case bot% ,or environment and development. T%e$ are ecolo!icall$ ,ra!ile and
vlnerable. T%eir small si5e0 limited resorces0 !eo!rap%ic dispersion and isolation ,rom
mar*ets0 place t%em at a disadvanta!e economicall$ and prevent economies o, scale. For
small island developin! States t%e ocean and coastal environment is o, strate!ic
importance and constittes a valable development resorce.
1&.12'. T%eir !eo!rap%ic isolation %as reslted in t%eir %abitation o, a comparativel$
lar!e nmber o, ni1e species o, ,lora and ,ana0 !ivin! t%em a ver$ %i!% s%are o,
!lobal biodiversit$. T%e$ also %ave ric% and diverse cltres 2it% special adaptations to
island environments and *no2led!e o, t%e sond mana!ement o, island resorces.
1&.126. Small island developin! States %ave all t%e environmental problems and
c%allen!es o, t%e coastal 5one concentrated in a limited land area. T%e$ are considered
e3tremel$ vlnerable to !lobal 2armin! and sealevel rise0 2it% certain small lo2-l$in!
islands ,acin! t%e increasin! t%reat o, t%e loss o, t%eir entire national territories. -ost
tropical islands are also no2 e3periencin! t%e more immediate impacts o, increasin!
,re1enc$ o, c$clones0 storms and %rricanes associated 2it% climate c%an!e. T%ese are
casin! ma?or set-bac*s to t%eir socio-economic development.
1&.12&. Eecase small island development options are limited0 t%ere are special
c%allen!es to plannin! ,or and implementin! sstainable development. Small island
developin! States 2ill be constrained in meetin! t%ese c%allen!es 2it%ot t%e cooperation
and assistance o, t%e international commnit$.
#b.ectives
1&.12(. States commit t%emselves to addressin! t%e problems o, sstainable development
o, small island developin! States. To t%is end0 it is necessar$.
BaC To adopt and implement plans and pro!rammes to spport t%e sstainable
development and tili5ation o, t%eir marine and coastal resorces0 incldin! meetin!
essential %man needs0 maintainin! biodiversit$ and improvin! t%e 1alit$ o, li,e ,or
island people<
BbC To adopt measres 2%ic% 2ill enable small island developin! States to cope
e,,ectivel$0 creativel$ and sstainabl$ 2it% environmental c%an!e and to miti!ate impacts
and redce t%e t%reats posed to marine and coastal resorces.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1&.12+. Small island developin! States0 2it% t%e assistance as appropriate o, t%e
international commnit$ and on t%e basis o, e3istin! 2or* o, national and international
or!ani5ations0 s%old.
BaC Std$ t%e special environmental and developmental c%aracteristics o, small islands0
prodcin! an environmental pro,ile and inventor$ o, t%eir natral resorces0 critical
marine %abitats and biodiversit$<
BbC Develop tec%ni1es ,or determinin! and monitorin! t%e carr$in! capacit$ o, small
islands nder di,,erent development assmptions and resorce constraints<
BcC Prepare medim- and lon!-term plans ,or sstainable development t%at emp%asi5e
mltiple se o, resorces0 inte!rate environmental considerations 2it% economic and
sectoral plannin! and policies0 de,ine measres ,or maintainin! cltral and biolo!ical
diversit$ and conserve endan!ered species and critical marine %abitats<
BdC :dapt coastal area mana!ement tec%ni1es0 sc% as plannin!0 sitin! and
environmental impact assessments0 sin! 7eo!rap%ical In,ormation S$stems B7ISC0
sitable to t%e special c%aracteristics o, small islands0 ta*in! into accont t%e traditional
and cltral vales o, indi!enos people o, island contries<
BeC Revie2 t%e e3istin! instittional arran!ements and identi,$ and nderta*e appropriate
instittional re,orms essential to t%e e,,ective implementation o, sstainable development
plans0 incldin! intersectoral coordination and commnit$ participation in t%e plannin!
process<
B,C Implement sstainable development plans0 incldin! t%e revie2 and modi,ication o,
e3istin! nsstainable policies and practices<
B!C Eased on precationar$ and anticipator$ approac%es0 desi!n and implement rational
response strate!ies to address t%e environmental0 social and economic impacts o, climate
c%an!e and sealevel rise0 and prepare appropriate contin!enc$ plans<
B%C Promote environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$ ,or sstainable development 2it%in small
island developin! States and identi,$ tec%nolo!ies t%at s%old be e3clded becase o,
t%eir t%reats to essential island ecos$stems.
-/ Data and information
1&.1#). :dditional in,ormation on t%e !eo!rap%ic0 environmental0 cltral and socio-
economic c%aracteristics o, islands s%old be compiled and assessed to assist in t%e
plannin! process. /3istin! island databases s%old be e3panded and !eo!rap%ic
in,ormation s$stems developed and adapted to sit t%e special c%aracteristics o, islands.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1&.1#1. Small island developin! States0 2it% t%e spport0 as appropriate0 o, international
or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 s%old develop and stren!t%en
inter-island0 re!ional and interre!ional cooperation and in,ormation e3c%an!e0 incldin!
periodic re!ional and !lobal meetin!s on sstainable development o, small island
developin! States 2it% t%e ,irst !lobal con,erence on t%e sstainable development o,
small island developin! States0 to be %eld in 1++#.
1&.1#2. International or!ani5ations0 2%et%er sbre!ional0 re!ional or !lobal0 mst
reco!ni5e t%e special development re1irements o, small island developin! States and
!ive ade1ate priorit$ in t%e provision o, assistance0 particlarl$ 2it% respect to t%e
development and implementation o, sstainable development plans.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1&.1##. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1#) million0
incldin! abot D') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnical means
1&.1#". Centres ,or t%e development and di,,sion o, scienti,ic in,ormation and advice on
tec%nical means and tec%nolo!ies appropriate to small island developin! States0
especiall$ 2it% re,erence to t%e mana!ement o, t%e coastal 5one0 t%e e3clsive economic
5one and marine resorces0 s%old be establis%ed or stren!t%ened0 as appropriate0 on a
re!ional basis.
C/ *uman resource development
1&.1#'. Since poplations o, small island developin! States cannot maintain all necessar$
speciali5ations0 trainin! ,or inte!rated coastal mana!ement and development s%old aim
to prodce cadres o, mana!ers or scientists0 en!ineers and coastal planners able to
inte!rate t%e man$ ,actors t%at need to be considered in inte!rated coastal mana!ement.
Resorce sers s%old be prepared to e3ecte bot% mana!ement and protection ,nctions
and to appl$ t%e pollter pa$s principle and spport t%e trainin! o, t%eir personnel.
/dcational s$stems s%old be modi,ied to meet t%ese needs and special trainin!
pro!rammes developed in inte!rated island mana!ement and development. 8ocal
plannin! s%old be inte!rated in edcational crricla o, all levels and pblic a2areness
campai!ns developed 2it% t%e assistance o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations and
indi!enos coastal poplations.
D/ Capacit01building
1&.1#6. T%e total capacit$ o, small island developin! States 2ill al2a$s be limited.
/3istin! capacit$ mst t%ere,ore be restrctred to meet e,,icientl$ t%e immediate needs
,or sstainable development and inte!rated mana!ement. :t t%e same time0 ade1ate and
appropriate assistance ,rom t%e international commnit$ mst be directed at
stren!t%enin! t%e ,ll ran!e o, %man resorces needed on a continos basis to
implement sstainable development plans.
1&.1#&. ;e2 tec%nolo!ies t%at can increase t%e otpt and ran!e o, capabilit$ o, t%e
limited %man resorces s%old be emplo$ed to increase t%e capacit$ o, ver$ small
poplations to meet t%eir needs. T%e development and application o, traditional
*no2led!e to improve t%e capacit$ o, contries to implement sstainable development
s%old be ,ostered.
Notes
1= Re,erences to t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea in t%is c%apter o,
:!enda 21 do not pre?dice t%e position o, an$ State 2it% respect to si!natre0
rati,ication o, or accession to t%e Convention.
2= Re,erences to t%e >nited ;ations Convention on t%e 8a2 o, t%e Sea in t%is c%apter o,
:!enda 21 do not pre?dice t%e position o, States 2%ic% vie2 t%e Convention as %avin! a
ni,ied c%aracter.
#= ;ot%in! in t%e pro!ramme areas o, t%is c%apter s%old be interpreted as pre?dicin! t%e
ri!%ts o, t%e States involved in a dispte o, soverei!nt$ or in t%e delimitation o, t%e
maritime areas concerned.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 1?
Protection of te Gualit0 , Suppl0 of )res4ater &esources< Application
of "ntegrated Approaces to te Development5 %anagement , Use
of Dater &esources
"ntroduction
1(.1. Fres%2ater resorces are an essential component o, t%e /art%9s %$drosp%ere and an
indispensable part o, all terrestrial ecos$stems. T%e ,res%2ater environment is
c%aracteri5ed b$ t%e %$drolo!ical c$cle0 incldin! ,loods and dro!%ts0 2%ic% in some
re!ions %ave become more e3treme and dramatic in t%eir conse1ences. 7lobal climate
c%an!e and atmosp%eric polltion cold also %ave an impact on ,res%2ater resorces and
t%eir availabilit$ and0 t%ro!% sea-level rise0 t%reaten lo2-l$in! coastal areas and small
island ecos$stems.
1(.2. 6ater is needed in all aspects o, li,e. T%e !eneral ob?ective is to ma*e certain t%at
ade1ate spplies o, 2ater o, !ood 1alit$ are maintained ,or t%e entire poplation o, t%is
planet0 2%ile preservin! t%e %$drolo!ical0 biolo!ical and c%emical ,nctions o,
ecos$stems0 adaptin! %man activities 2it%in t%e capacit$ limits o, natre and combatin!
vectors o, 2ater-related diseases. Innovative tec%nolo!ies0 incldin! t%e improvement o,
indi!enos tec%nolo!ies0 are needed to ,ll$ tili5e limited 2ater resorces and to
sa,e!ard t%ose resorces a!ainst polltion.
1(.#. T%e 2idespread scarcit$0 !radal destrction and a!!ravated polltion o, ,res%2ater
resorces in man$ 2orld re!ions0 alon! 2it% t%e pro!ressive encroac%ment o,
incompatible activities0 demand inte!rated 2ater resorces plannin! and mana!ement.
Sc% inte!ration mst cover all t$pes o, interrelated ,res%2ater bodies0 incldin! bot%
sr,ace 2ater and !rond2ater0 and dl$ consider 2ater 1antit$ and 1alit$ aspects. T%e
mltisectoral natre o, 2ater resorces development in t%e conte3t o, socio-economic
development mst be reco!ni5ed0 as 2ell as t%e mlti-interest tili5ation o, 2ater
resorces ,or 2ater sppl$ and sanitation0 a!ricltre0 indstr$0 rban development0
%$dropo2er !eneration0 inland ,is%eries0 transportation0 recreation0 lo2 and ,lat lands
mana!ement and ot%er activities. Rational 2ater tili5ation sc%emes ,or t%e development
o, sr,ace and nder!rond 2ater-sppl$ sorces and ot%er potential sorces %ave to be
spported b$ concrrent 2ater conservation and 2asta!e minimi5ation measres.
Priorit$0 %o2ever0 mst be accorded to ,lood prevention and control measres0 as 2ell as
sedimentation control0 2%ere re1ired.
1(.". Transbondar$ 2ater resorces and t%eir se are o, !reat importance to riparian
States. In t%is connection0 cooperation amon! t%ose States ma$ be desirable in con,ormit$
2it% e3istin! a!reements and=or ot%er relevant arran!ements0 ta*in! into accont t%e
interests o, all riparian States concerned.
1(.'. T%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas are proposed ,or t%e ,res%2ater sector.
BaC Inte!rated 2ater resorces development and mana!ement<
BbC 6ater resorces assessment<
BcC Protection o, 2ater resorces0 2ater 1alit$ and a1atic ecos$stems<
BdC Drin*in!-2ater sppl$ and sanitation<
BeC 6ater and sstainable rban development<
B,C 6ater ,or sstainable ,ood prodction and rral development<
B!C Impacts o, climate c%an!e on 2ater resorces.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ "ntegrated 4ater resources development and management
-asis for action
1(.6. T%e e3tent to 2%ic% 2ater resorces development contribtes to economic
prodctivit$ and social 2ell-bein! is not sall$ appreciated0 alt%o!% all social and
economic activities rel$ %eavil$ on t%e sppl$ and 1alit$ o, ,res%2ater. :s poplations
and economic activities !ro20 man$ contries are rapidl$ reac%in! conditions o, 2ater
scarcit$ or ,acin! limits to economic development. 6ater demands are increasin! rapidl$0
2it% &)-() per cent re1ired ,or irri!ation0 less t%an 2) per cent ,or indstr$ and a mere 6
per cent ,or domestic consmption. T%e %olistic mana!ement o, ,res%2ater as a ,inite and
vlnerable resorce0 and t%e inte!ration o, sectoral 2ater plans and pro!rammes 2it%in
t%e ,rame2or* o, national economic and social polic$0 are o, paramont importance ,or
action in t%e 1++)s and be$ond. T%e ,ra!mentation o, responsibilities ,or 2ater resorces
development amon! sectoral a!encies is provin!0 %o2ever0 to be an even !reater
impediment to promotin! inte!rated 2ater mana!ement t%an %ad been anticipated.
/,,ective implementation and coordination mec%anisms are re1ired.
#b.ectives
1(.&. T%e overall ob?ective is to satis,$ t%e ,res%2ater needs o, all contries ,or t%eir
sstainable development.
1(.(. Inte!rated 2ater resorces mana!ement is based on t%e perception o, 2ater as an
inte!ral part o, t%e ecos$stem0 a natral resorce and a social and economic !ood0 2%ose
1antit$ and 1alit$ determine t%e natre o, its tili5ation. To t%is end0 2ater resorces
%ave to be protected0 ta*in! into accont t%e ,nctionin! o, a1atic ecos$stems and t%e
perennialit$ o, t%e resorce0 in order to satis,$ and reconcile needs ,or 2ater in %man
activities. In developin! and sin! 2ater resorces0 priorit$ %as to be !iven to t%e
satis,action o, basic needs and t%e sa,e!ardin! o, ecos$stems. Ee$ond t%ese
re1irements0 %o2ever0 2ater sers s%old be c%ar!ed appropriatel$.
1(.+. Inte!rated 2ater resorces mana!ement0 incldin! t%e inte!ration o, land- and
2ater-related aspects0 s%old be carried ot at t%e level o, t%e catc%ment basin or sb-
basin. For principal ob?ectives s%old be prsed0 as ,ollo2s.
BaC To promote a d$namic0 interactive0 iterative and mltisectoral approac% to 2ater
resorces mana!ement0 incldin! t%e identi,ication and protection o, potential sorces o,
,res%2ater sppl$0 t%at inte!rates tec%nolo!ical0 socio-economic0 environmental and
%man %ealt% considerations<
BbC To plan ,or t%e sstainable and rational tili5ation0 protection0 conservation and
mana!ement o, 2ater resorces based on commnit$ needs and priorities 2it%in t%e
,rame2or* o, national economic development polic$<
BcC To desi!n0 implement and evalate pro?ects and pro!rammes t%at are bot%
economicall$ e,,icient and sociall$ appropriate 2it%in clearl$ de,ined strate!ies0 based on
an approac% o, ,ll pblic participation0 incldin! t%at o, 2omen0 $ot%0 indi!enos
people and local commnities in 2ater mana!ement polic$-ma*in! and decision-ma*in!<
BdC To identi,$ and stren!t%en or develop0 as re1ired0 in particlar in developin!
contries0 t%e appropriate instittional0 le!al and ,inancial mec%anisms to ensre t%at
2ater polic$ and its implementation are a catal$st ,or sstainable social pro!ress and
economic !ro2t%.
1(.1). In t%e case o, transbondar$ 2ater resorces0 t%ere is a need ,or riparian States to
,ormlate 2ater resorces strate!ies0 prepare 2ater resorces action pro!rammes and
consider0 2%ere appropriate0 t%e %armoni5ation o, t%ose strate!ies and action
pro!rammes.
1(.11. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold set t%e ,ollo2in! tar!ets.
A/ -0 te 0ear 2BBB<
1. To %ave desi!ned and initiated costed and tar!eted national action pro!rammes0
and to %ave pt in place appropriate instittional strctres and le!al instrments<
2. To %ave establis%ed e,,icient 2ater-se pro!rammes to attain sstainable resorce
tili5ation patterns<
-/ -0 te 0ear 2B29<
1. To %ave ac%ieved sbsectoral tar!ets o, all ,res%2ater pro!ramme areas.
It is nderstood t%at t%e ,l,ilment o, t%e tar!ets 1anti,ied in BiC and BiiC above 2ill
depend pon ne2 and additional ,inancial resorces t%at 2ill be made available to
developin! contries in accordance 2it% t%e relevant provisions o, 7eneral :ssembl$
resoltion ""=22(.
Activities
1(.12. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold implement t%e ,ollo2in! activities to improve
inte!rated 2ater resorces mana!ement.
BaC Formlation o, costed and tar!eted national action plans and investment pro!rammes<
BbC Inte!ration o, measres ,or t%e protection and conservation o, potential sorces o,
,res%2ater sppl$0 incldin! t%e inventor$in! o, 2ater resorces0 2it% land-se plannin!0
,orest resorce tili5ation0 protection o, montain slopes and riverban*s and ot%er
relevant development and conservation activities<
BcC Development o, interactive databases0 ,orecastin! models0 economic plannin! models
and met%ods ,or 2ater mana!ement and plannin!0 incldin! environmental impact
assessment met%ods<
BdC Optimi5ation o, 2ater resorces allocation nder p%$sical and socio-economic
constraints<
BeC Implementation o, allocation decisions t%ro!% demand mana!ement0 pricin!
mec%anisms and re!lator$ measres<
B,C Flood and dro!%t mana!ement0 incldin! ris* anal$sis and environmental and social
impact assessment<
B!C Promotion o, sc%emes ,or rational 2ater se t%ro!% pblic a2areness-raisin!0
edcational pro!rammes and lev$in! o, 2ater tari,,s and ot%er economic instrments<
B%C -obili5ation o, 2ater resorces0 particlarl$ in arid and semi-arid areas<
BiC Promotion o, international scienti,ic researc% cooperation on ,res%2ater resorces<
B?C Development o, ne2 and alternative sorces o, 2ater-sppl$ sc% as sea-2ater
desalination0 arti,icial !rond2ater rec%ar!e0 se o, mar!inal-1alit$ 2ater0 2aste-2ater
rese and 2ater rec$clin!<
B*C Inte!ration o, 2ater Bincldin! sr,ace and nder!rond 2ater resorcesC 1antit$ and
1alit$ mana!ement<
BlC Promotion o, 2ater conservation t%ro!% improved 2ater-se e,,icienc$ and 2asta!e
minimi5ation sc%emes ,or all sers0 incldin! t%e development o, 2ater-savin! devices<
BmC Spport to 2ater-sers !rops to optimi5e local 2ater resorces mana!ement<
BnC Development o, pblic participator$ tec%ni1es and t%eir implementation in decision-
ma*in!0 particlarl$ t%e en%ancement o, t%e role o, 2omen in 2ater resorces plannin!
and mana!ement<
BoC Development and stren!t%enin!0 as appropriate0 o, cooperation0 incldin!
mec%anisms 2%ere appropriate0 at all levels concerned0 namel$.
iC :t t%e lo2est appropriate level0 dele!ation o, 2ater resorces mana!ement0 !enerall$0
to sc% a level0 in accordance 2it% national le!islation0 incldin! decentrali5ation o,
!overnment services to local at%orities0 private enterprises and commnities<
iiC :t t%e national level0 inte!rated 2ater resorces plannin! and mana!ement in t%e
,rame2or* o, t%e national plannin! process and0 2%ere appropriate0 establis%ment o,
independent re!lation and monitorin! o, ,res%2ater0 based on national le!islation and
economic measres<
iiiC :t t%e re!ional level0 consideration0 2%ere appropriate0 o, t%e %armoni5ation o,
national strate!ies and action pro!rammes<
ivC :t t%e !lobal level0 improved delineation o, responsibilities0 division o, labor and
coordination o, international or!ani5ations and pro!rammes0 incldin! ,acilitatin!
discssions and s%arin! o, e3periences in areas related to 2ater resorces mana!ement<
pC Dissemination o, in,ormation0 incldin! operational !idelines0 and promotion o,
edcation ,or 2ater sers0 incldin! t%e consideration b$ t%e >nited ;ations o, a 6orld
6ater Da$.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(.1#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D11' million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(.1". T%e development o, interactive databases0 ,orecastin! met%ods and economic
plannin! models appropriate to t%e tas* o, mana!in! 2ater resorces in an e,,icient and
sstainable manner 2ill re1ire t%e application o, ne2 tec%ni1es sc% as !eo!rap%ical
in,ormation s$stems and e3pert s$stems to !at%er0 assimilate0 anal$se and displa$
mltisectoral in,ormation and to optimi5e decision-ma*in!. In addition0 t%e development
o, ne2 and alternative sorces o, 2ater-sppl$ and lo2-cost 2ater tec%nolo!ies 2ill
re1ire innovative applied researc%. T%is 2ill involve t%e trans,er0 adaptation and
di,,sion o, ne2 tec%ni1es and tec%nolo!$ amon! developin! contries0 as 2ell as t%e
development o, endo!enos capacit$0 ,or t%e prpose o, bein! able to deal 2it% t%e added
dimension o, inte!ratin! en!ineerin!0 economic0 environmental and social aspects o,
2ater resorces mana!ement and predictin! t%e e,,ects in terms o, %man impact.
1(.1'. Prsant to t%e reco!nition o, 2ater as a social and economic !ood0 t%e varios
available options ,or c%ar!in! 2ater sers Bincldin! domestic0 rban0 indstrial and
a!ricltral 2ater-ser !ropsC %ave to be ,rt%er evalated and ,ield-tested. Frt%er
development is re1ired ,or economic instrments t%at ta*e into accont opportnit$
costs and environmental e3ternalities. Field stdies on t%e 2illin!ness to pa$ s%old be
condcted in rral and rban sitations.
1(.16. 6ater resorces development and mana!ement s%old be planned in an inte!rated
manner0 ta*in! into accont lon!-term plannin! needs as 2ell as t%ose 2it% narro2er
%ori5ons0 t%at is to sa$0 t%e$ s%old incorporate environmental0 economic and social
considerations based on t%e principle o, sstainabilit$< inclde t%e re1irements o, all
sers as 2ell as t%ose relatin! to t%e prevention and miti!ation o, 2ater-related %a5ards<
and constitte an inte!ral part o, t%e socio-economic development plannin! process. :
prere1isite ,or t%e sstainable mana!ement o, 2ater as a scarce vlnerable resorce is
t%e obli!ation to ac*no2led!e in all plannin! and development its ,ll costs. Plannin!
considerations s%old re,lect bene,its investment0 environmental protection and operation
costs0 as 2ell as t%e opportnit$ costs re,lectin! t%e most valable alternative se o,
2ater. :ctal c%ar!in! need not necessaril$ brden all bene,iciaries 2it% t%e
conse1ences o, t%ose considerations. C%ar!in! mec%anisms s%old0 %o2ever0 re,lect as
,ar as possible bot% t%e tre cost o, 2ater 2%en sed as an economic !ood and t%e abilit$
o, t%e commnities to pa$.
1(.1&. T%e role o, 2ater as a social0 economic and li,e-sstainin! !ood s%old be
re,lected in demand mana!ement mec%anisms and implemented t%ro!% 2ater
conservation and rese0 resorce assessment and ,inancial instrments.
1(.1(. T%e settin! a,res% o, priorities ,or private and pblic investment strate!ies s%old
ta*e into accont aC ma3imm tili5ation o, e3istin! pro?ects0 t%ro!% maintenance0
re%abilitation and optimal operation< BbC ne2 or alternative clean tec%nolo!ies< and BcC
environmentall$ and sociall$ beni!n %$dropo2er.
C/ *uman resources development
1(.1+. T%e dele!ation o, 2ater resorces mana!ement to t%e lo2est appropriate level
necessitates edcatin! and trainin! 2ater mana!ement sta,, at all levels and ensrin! t%at
2omen participate e1all$ in t%e edcation and trainin! pro!rammes. Particlar emp%asis
%as to be placed on t%e introdction o, pblic participator$ tec%ni1es0 incldin!
en%ancement o, t%e role o, 2omen0 $ot%0 indi!enos people and local commnities.
S*ills related to varios 2ater mana!ement ,nctions %ave to be developed b$ mnicipal
!overnment and 2ater at%orities0 as 2ell as in t%e private sector0 local=national non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations0 cooperatives0 corporations and ot%er 2ater-ser !rops.
/dcation o, t%e pblic re!ardin! t%e importance o, 2ater and its proper mana!ement is
also needed.
1(.2). To implement t%ese principles0 commnities need to %ave ade1ate capacities.
T%ose 2%o establis% t%e ,rame2or* ,or 2ater development and mana!ement at an$ level0
2%et%er international0 national or local0 need to ensre t%at t%e means e3ist to bild t%ose
capacities. T%e means 2ill var$ ,rom case to case. T%e$ sall$ inclde.
BaC :2areness-creation pro!rammes0 incldin! mobili5in! commitment and spport at all
levels and initiatin! !lobal and local action to promote sc% pro!rammes<
BbC Trainin! o, 2ater mana!ers at all levels so t%at t%e$ %ave an appropriate
nderstandin! o, all t%e elements necessar$ ,or t%eir decision-ma*in!<
BcC Stren!t%enin! o, trainin! capacities in developin! contries<
BdC :ppropriate trainin! o, t%e necessar$ pro,essionals0 incldin! e3tension 2or*ers<
BeC Improvement o, career strctres<
B,C S%arin! o, appropriate *no2led!e and tec%nolo!$0 bot% ,or t%e collection o, data and
,or t%e implementation o, planned development incldin! non-polltin! tec%nolo!ies and
t%e *no2led!e needed to e3tract t%e best per,ormance ,rom t%e e3istin! investment
s$stem.
D/ Capacit01building
1(.21. Instittional capacit$ ,or implementin! inte!rated 2ater mana!ement s%old be
revie2ed and developed 2%en t%ere is a clear demand. /3istin! administrative strctres
2ill o,ten be 1ite capable o, ac%ievin! local 2ater resorces mana!ement0 bt t%e need
ma$ arise ,or ne2 instittions based pon t%e perspective0 ,or e3ample0 o, river
catc%ment areas0 district development concils and local commnit$ committees.
:lt%o!% 2ater is mana!ed at varios levels in t%e socio-political s$stem0 demand-driven
mana!ement re1ires t%e development o, 2ater-related instittions at appropriate levels0
ta*in! into accont t%e need ,or inte!ration 2it% land-se mana!ement.
1(.22. In creatin! t%e enablin! environment ,or lo2est-appropriate-level mana!ement0
t%e role o, 7overnment incldes mobili5ation o, ,inancial and %man resorces0
le!islation0 standard-settin! and ot%er re!lator$ ,nctions0 monitorin! and assessment o,
t%e se o, 2ater and land resorces0 and creatin! o, opportnities ,or pblic participation.
International a!encies and donors %ave an important role to pla$ in providin! spport to
developin! contries in creatin! t%e re1ired enablin! environment ,or inte!rated 2ater
resorces mana!ement. T%is s%old inclde0 as appropriate0 donor spport to local levels
in developin! contries0 incldin! commnit$-based instittions0 non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations and 2omen9s !rops.
-$ Dater resources assessment
-asis for action
1(.2#. 6ater resorces assessment0 incldin! t%e identi,ication o, potential sorces o,
,res%2ater sppl$0 comprises t%e continin! determination o, sorces0 e3tent0
dependabilit$ and 1alit$ o, 2ater resorces and o, t%e %man activities t%at a,,ect t%ose
resorces. Sc% assessment constittes t%e practical basis ,or t%eir sstainable
mana!ement and a prere1isite ,or evalation o, t%e possibilities ,or t%eir development.
T%ere is0 %o2ever0 !ro2in! concern t%at at a time 2%en more precise and reliable
in,ormation is needed abot 2ater resorces0 %$drolo!ic services and related bodies are
less able t%an be,ore to provide t%is in,ormation0 especiall$ in,ormation on !rond2ater
and 2ater 1alit$. -a?or impediments are t%e lac* o, ,inancial resorces ,or 2ater
resorces assessment0 t%e ,ra!mented natre o, %$drolo!ic services and t%e ins,,icient
nmbers o, 1ali,ied sta,,. :t t%e same time0 t%e advancin! tec%nolo!$ ,or data captre
and mana!ement is increasin!l$ di,,iclt to access ,or developin! contries.
/stablis%ment o, national databases is0 %o2ever0 vital to 2ater resorces assessment and
to miti!ation o, t%e e,,ects o, ,loods0 dro!%ts0 deserti,ication and polltion.
#b.ectives
1(.2". Eased pon t%e -ar del Plata :ction Plan0 t%is pro!ramme area %as been e3tended
into t%e 1++)s and be$ond 2it% t%e overall ob?ective o, ensrin! t%e assessment and
,orecastin! o, t%e 1antit$ and 1alit$ o, 2ater resorces0 in order to estimate t%e total
1antit$ o, 2ater resorces available and t%eir ,tre sppl$ potential0 to determine t%eir
crrent 1alit$ stats0 to predict possible con,licts bet2een sppl$ and demand and to
provide a scienti,ic database ,or rational 2ater resorces tili5ation.
1(.2'. Five speci,ic ob?ectives %ave been set accordin!l$0 as ,ollo2s.
BaC To ma*e available to all contries 2ater resorces assessment tec%nolo!$ t%at is
appropriate to t%eir needs0 irrespective o, t%eir level o, development0 incldin! met%ods
,or t%e impact assessment o, climate c%an!e on ,res%2aters<
BbC To %ave all contries0 accordin! to t%eir ,inancial means0 allocate to 2ater resorces
assessment ,inancial resorces in line 2it% t%e economic and social needs ,or 2ater
resorces data<
BcC To ensre t%at t%e assessment in,ormation is ,ll$ tili5ed in t%e development o, 2ater
mana!ement policies<
BdC To %ave all contries establis% t%e instittional arran!ements needed to ensre t%e
e,,icient collection0 processin!0 stora!e0 retrieval and dissemination to sers o,
in,ormation abot t%e 1alit$ and 1antit$ o, available 2ater resorces at t%e level o,
catc%ments and !rond2ater a1i,ers in an inte!rated manner<
BdC To %ave s,,icient nmbers o, appropriatel$ 1ali,ied and capable sta,, recrited and
retained b$ 2ater resorces assessment a!encies and provided 2it% t%e trainin! and
retrainin! t%e$ 2ill need to carr$ ot t%eir responsibilities sccess,ll$.
1(.26. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! cooperation 2it% t%e >nited ;ations and
ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 cold set t%e ,ollo2in! tar!ets.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to %ave stdied in detail t%e ,easibilit$ o, installin! 2ater resorces
assessment services<
BbC :s a lon!-term tar!et0 to %ave ,ll$ operational services available based pon %i!%-
densit$ %$drometric net2or*s.
Activities
1(.2&. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold nderta*e t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
A/"nstitutional frame4ork<
iC /stablis% appropriate polic$ ,rame2or*s and national priorities<
iiC /stablis% and stren!t%en t%e instittional capabilities o, contries0 incldin! le!islative
and re!lator$ arran!ements0 t%at are re1ired to ensre t%e ade1ate assessment o, t%eir
2ater resorces and t%e provision o, ,lood and dro!%t ,orecastin! services<
iiiC /stablis% and maintain e,,ective cooperation at t%e national level bet2een t%e varios
a!encies responsible ,or t%e collection0 stora!e and anal$sis o, %$drolo!ic data<
ivC Cooperate in t%e assessment o, transbondar$ 2ater resorces0 sb?ect to t%e prior
a!reement o, eac% riparian State concerned<
-/ Data s0stems<
iC Revie2 e3istin! data-collection net2or*s and assess t%eir ade1ac$0 incldin! t%ose
t%at provide real-time data ,or ,lood and dro!%t ,orecastin!<
iiC Improve net2or*s to meet accepted !idelines ,or t%e provision o, data on 2ater
1antit$ and 1alit$ ,or sr,ace and !rond2ater0 as 2ell as relevant land-se data<
iiiC :ppl$ standards and ot%er means to ensre data compatibilit$<
ivC >p!rade ,acilities and procedres sed to store0 process and anal$se %$drolo!ic data
and ma*e sc% data and t%e ,orecasts derived ,rom t%em available to potential sers<
vC /stablis% databases on t%e availabilit$ o, all t$pes o, %$drolo!ic data at t%e national
level<
viC Implement Adata resceA operations0 ,or e3ample0 establis%ment o, national arc%ives
o, 2ater resorces<
viiC Implement appropriate 2ell-tried tec%ni1es ,or t%e processin! o, %$drolo!ic data<
viiiC Derive area-related estimates ,rom point %$drolo!ic data<
i3C :ssimilate remotel$ sensed data and t%e se0 2%ere appropriate0 o, !eo!rap%ical
in,ormation s$stems<
C/ Data dissemination<
iC Identi,$ t%e need ,or 2ater resorces data ,or varios plannin! prposes<
iiC :nal$se and present data and in,ormation on 2ater resorces in t%e ,orms re1ired ,or
plannin! and mana!ement o, contries9 socio-economic development and ,or se in
environmental protection strate!ies and in t%e desi!n and operation o, speci,ic 2ater-
related pro?ects<
iiiC Provide ,orecasts and 2arnin!s o, ,lood and dro!%t to t%e !eneral pblic and civil
de,ence<
D/ &esearc and development<
iC /stablis% or stren!t%en researc% and development pro!rammes at t%e national0
sbre!ional0 re!ional and international levels in spport o, 2ater resorces assessment
activities<
iiC-onitor researc% and development activities to ensre t%at t%e$ ma*e ,ll se o, local
e3pertise and ot%er local resorces and t%at t%e$ are appropriate ,or t%e needs o, t%e
contr$ or contries concerned.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(.2(. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e evera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D#'' million0
incldin! abot D1"' million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(.2+. Important researc% needs inclde BaC development o, !lobal %$drolo!ic models in
spport o, anal$sis o, climate c%an!e impact and o, macroscale 2ater resorces
assessment< BbC closin! o, t%e !ap bet2een terrestrial %$drolo!$ and ecolo!$ at di,,erent
scales0 incldin! t%e critical 2ater-related processes be%ind loss o, ve!etation and land
de!radation and its restoration< and BcC std$ o, t%e *e$ processes in 2ater-1alit$
!enesis0 closin! t%e !ap bet2een %$drolo!ic ,lo2s and bio!eoc%emical processes. T%e
researc% models s%old bild pon %$drolo!ic balance stdies and also inclde t%e
consmptive se o, 2ater. T%is approac% s%old also0 2%en appropriate0 be applied at t%e
catc%ment level.
1(.#). 6ater resorces assessment necessitates t%e stren!t%enin! o, e3istin! s$stems ,or
tec%nolo!$ trans,er0 adaptation and di,,sion0 and t%e development o, ne2 tec%nolo!$ ,or
se nder ,ield conditions0 as 2ell as t%e development o, endo!enos capacit$. Prior to
ina!ratin! t%e above activities0 it is necessar$ to prepare catalo!es o, t%e 2ater
resorces in,ormation %eld b$ !overnment services0 t%e private sector0 edcational
instittes0 consltants0 local 2ater-se or!ani5ations and ot%ers.
C/ *uman resource development
1(.#1. 6ater resorces assessment re1ires t%e establis%ment and maintenance o, a bod$
o, 2ell-trained and motivated sta,, s,,icient in nmber to nderta*e t%e above activities.
/dcation and trainin! pro!rammes desi!ned to ensre an ade1ate sppl$ o, t%ese
trained personnel s%old be establis%ed or stren!t%ened at t%e local0 national0 sbre!ional
or re!ional level. In addition0 t%e provision o, attractive terms o, emplo$ment and career
pat%s ,or pro,essional and tec%nical sta,, s%old be encora!ed. 4man resorce needs
s%old be monitored periodicall$0 incldin! all levels o, emplo$ment. Plans %ave to be
establis%ed to meet t%ose needs t%ro!% edcation and trainin! opportnities and
international pro!rammes o, corses and con,erences.
1(.#2. Eecase 2ell-trained people are particlarl$ important to 2ater resorces
assessment and %$drolo!ic ,orecastin!0 personnel matters s%old receive special attention
in t%is area. T%e aim s%old be to attract and retain personnel to 2or* on 2ater resorces
assessment 2%o are s,,icient in nmber and ade1ate in t%eir level o, edcation to
ensre t%e e,,ective implementation o, t%e activities t%at are planned. /dcation ma$ be
called ,or at bot% t%e national and t%e international level0 2it% ade1ate terms o,
emplo$ment bein! a national responsibilit$.
1(.##. Recommended actions inclde.
BaC Identi,$in! edcation and trainin! needs !eared to t%e speci,ic re1irements o,
contries<
BbC /stablis%in! and stren!t%enin! edcation and trainin! pro!rammes on 2ater-related
topics0 2it%in an environmental and developmental conte3t0 ,or all cate!ories o, sta,,
involved in 2ater resorces assessment activities0 sin! advanced edcational
tec%nolo!$0 2%ere appropriate0 and involvin! bot% men and 2omen<
BcC Developin! sond recritment0 personnel and pa$ policies ,or sta,, o, national and
local 2ater a!encies.
D/ Capacit01building
1(.#". T%e condct o, 2ater resorces assessment on t%e basis o, operational national
%$drometric net2or*s re1ires an enablin! environment at all levels. T%e ,ollo2in!
national spport action is necessar$ ,or en%anced national capacities.
BaC Revie2 o, t%e le!islative and re!lator$ basis o, 2ater resorces assessment<
BbC Facilitation o, close collaboration amon! 2ater sector a!encies0 particlarl$ bet2een
in,ormation prodcers and sers<
BcC Implementation o, 2ater mana!ement policies based pon realistic appraisals o, 2ater
resorces conditions and trends<
BdC Stren!t%enin! o, t%e mana!erial capabilities o, 2ater-ser !rops0 incldin! 2omen0
$ot%0 indi!enos people and local commnities0 to improve 2ater-se e,,icienc$ at t%e
local level.
C$ Protection of 4ater resources5 4ater 2ualit0 and a2uatic ecos0stems
-asis for action
1(.#'. Fres%2ater is a nitar$ resorce. 8on!-term development o, !lobal ,res%2ater
re1ires %olistic mana!ement o, resorces and a reco!nition o, t%e interconnectedness o,
t%e elements related to ,res%2ater and ,res%2ater 1alit$. T%ere are ,e2 re!ions o, t%e
2orld t%at are still e3empt ,rom problems o, loss o, potential sorces o, ,res%2ater
sppl$0 de!raded 2ater 1alit$ and polltion o, sr,ace and !rond2ater sorces. -a?or
problems a,,ectin! t%e 2ater 1alit$ o, rivers and la*es arise0 in variable order o,
importance accordin! to di,,erent sitations0 ,rom inade1atel$ treated domestic se2a!e0
inade1ate controls on t%e disc%ar!es o, indstrial 2aste 2aters0 loss and destrction o,
catc%ment areas0 ill-considered sitin! o, indstrial plants0 de,orestation0 ncontrolled
s%i,tin! cltivation and poor a!ricltral practices. T%is !ives rise to t%e leac%in! o,
ntrients and pesticides. :1atic ecos$stems are distrbed and livin! ,res%2ater
resorces are t%reatened. >nder certain circmstances0 a1atic ecos$stems are also
a,,ected b$ a!ricltral 2ater resorce development pro?ects sc% as dams0 river
diversions0 2ater installations and irri!ation sc%emes. /rosion0 sedimentation0
de,orestation and deserti,ication %ave led to increased land de!radation0 and t%e creation
o, reservoirs %as0 in some cases0 reslted in adverse e,,ects on ecos$stems. -an$ o, t%ese
problems %ave arisen ,rom a development model t%at is environmentall$ destrctive and
,rom a lac* o, pblic a2areness and edcation abot sr,ace and !rond2ater resorce
protection. /colo!ical and %man %ealt% e,,ects are t%e measrable conse1ences0
alt%o!% t%e means to monitor t%em are inade1ate or non-e3istent in man$ contries.
T%ere is a 2idespread lac* o, perception o, t%e lin*a!es bet2een t%e development0
mana!ement0 se and treatment o, 2ater resorces and a1atic ecos$stems. : preventive
approac%0 2%ere appropriate0 is crcial to t%e avoidin! o, costl$ sbse1ent measres to
re%abilitate0 treat and develop ne2 2ater spplies.
#b.ectives
1(.#6. T%e comple3 interconnectedness o, ,res%2ater s$stems demands t%at ,res%2ater
mana!ement be %olistic Bta*in! a catc%ment mana!ement approac%C and based on a
balanced consideration o, t%e needs o, people and t%e environment. T%e -ar del Plata
:ction Plan %as alread$ reco!ni5ed t%e intrinsic lin*a!e bet2een 2ater resorce
development pro?ects and t%eir si!ni,icant p%$sical0 c%emical0 biolo!ical0 %ealt% and
socio-economic repercssions. T%e overall environmental %ealt% ob?ective 2as set as
,ollo2s. Ato evalate t%e conse1ences 2%ic% t%e varios sers o, 2ater %ave on t%e
environment0 to spport measres aimed at controllin! 2ater-related diseases0 and to
protect ecos$stemsA. 1=
1(.#&. T%e e3tent and severit$ o, contamination o, nsatrated 5ones and a1i,ers %ave
lon! been nderestimated o2in! to t%e relative inaccessibilit$ o, a1i,ers and t%e lac* o,
reliable in,ormation on a1i,er s$stems. T%e protection o, !rond2ater is t%ere,ore an
essential element o, 2ater resorce mana!ement.
1(.#(. T%ree ob?ectives 2ill %ave to be prsed concrrentl$ to inte!rate 2ater-1alit$
elements into 2ater resorce mana!ement.
BaC -aintenance o, ecos$stem inte!rit$0 accordin! to a mana!ement principle o,
preservin! a1atic ecos$stems0 incldin! livin! resorces0 and o, e,,ectivel$ protectin!
t%em ,rom an$ ,orm o, de!radation on a draina!e basin basis<
BbC Pblic %ealt% protection0 a tas* re1irin! not onl$ t%e provision o, sa,e drin*in!-2ater
bt also t%e control o, disease vectors in t%e a1atic environment<
BcC 4man resorces development0 a *e$ to capacit$-bildin! and a prere1isite ,or
implementin! 2ater-1alit$ mana!ement.
1(.#+. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 t%ro!% bilateral or
mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations as
appropriate0 cold set t%e ,ollo2in! tar!ets.
BaC To identi,$ t%e sr,ace and !rond2ater resorces t%at cold be developed ,or se on
a sstainable basis and ot%er ma?or developable 2ater-dependent resorces and0
simltaneosl$0 to initiate pro!rammes ,or t%e protection0 conservation and rational se
o, t%ese resorces on a sstainable basis<
BbC To identi,$ all potential sorces o, 2ater-sppl$ and prepared otlines ,or t%eir
protection0 conservation and rational se<
BcC To initiate e,,ective 2ater polltion prevention and control pro!rammes0 based on an
appropriate mi3tre o, polltion redction-at-sorce strate!ies0 environmental impact
assessments and en,orceable standards ,or ma?or point-sorce disc%ar!es and %i!%-ris*
non-point sorces0 commensrate 2it% t%eir socio-economic development<
BdC To participate0 as ,ar as appropriate0 in international 2ater-1alit$ monitorin! and
mana!ement pro!rammes sc% as t%e 7lobal 6ater Jalit$ -onitorin! Pro!ramme
B7/-S=6:T/RC0 t%e >;/P /nvironmentall$ Sond -ana!ement o, Inland 6aters
B/-I;6:C0 t%e F:O re!ional inland ,is%er$ bodies0 and t%e Convention on 6etlands o,
International Importance /speciall$ as 6ater,o2l 4abitat BRamsar ConventionC<
BeC To redce t%e prevalence o, 2ater-associated diseases0 startin! 2it% t%e eradication o,
dracncliasis B!inea 2orm diseaseC and onc%ocerciasis Briver blindnessC b$ t%e $ear
2)))<
B,C To establis%0 accordin! to capacities and needs0 biolo!ical0 %ealt%0 p%$sical and
c%emical 1alit$ criteria ,or all 2ater bodies Bsr,ace and !rond2aterC0 2it% a vie2 to an
on!oin! improvement o, 2ater 1alit$<
B!C To adopt an inte!rated approac% to environmentall$ sstainable mana!ement o, 2ater
resorces0 incldin! t%e protection o, a1atic ecos$stems and ,res%2ater livin! resorces<
B%C To pt in place strate!ies ,or t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, ,res%2aters
and related coastal ecos$stems0 incldin! consideration o, ,is%eries0 a1acltre0 animal
!ra5in!0 a!ricltral activities and biodiversit$.
Activities
1(."). :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold implement t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
A/ Dater resources protection and conservation<
1. /stablis%ment and stren!t%enin! o, tec%nical and instittional capacities to
identi,$ and protect potential sorces o, 2ater-sppl$ 2it%in all sectors o, societ$<
2. Identi,ication o, potential sorces o, 2ater-sppl$ and preparation o, national
pro,iles<
#. Preparation o, national plans ,or 2ater resorces protection and conservation<
". Re%abilitation o, important0 bt de!raded0 catc%ment areas0 particlarl$ on small
islands<
'. Stren!t%enin! o, administrative and le!islative measres to prevent encroac%ment
on e3istin! and potentiall$ sable catc%ment areas<
-/ Dater pollution prevention and control<
1. :pplication o, t%e Apollter pa$sA principle0 2%ere appropriate0 to all *inds o,
sorces0 incldin! on-site and o,,-site sanitation<
2. Promotion o, t%e constrction o, treatment ,acilities ,or domestic se2a!e and
indstrial e,,lents and t%e development o, appropriate tec%nolo!ies0 ta*in! into
accont sond traditional and indi!enos practices<
#. /stablis%ment o, standards ,or t%e disc%ar!e o, e,,lents and ,or t%e receivin!
2aters<
". Introdction o, t%e precationar$ approac% in 2ater-1alit$ mana!ement0 2%ere
appropriate0 2it% a ,ocs on polltion minimi5ation and prevention t%ro!% se o,
ne2 tec%nolo!ies0 prodct and process c%an!e0 polltion redction at sorce and
e,,lent rese0 rec$clin! and recover$0 treatment and environmentall$ sa,e
disposal<
'. -andator$ environmental impact assessment o, all ma?or 2ater resorce
development pro?ects potentiall$ impairin! 2ater 1alit$ and a1atic ecos$stems0
combined 2it% t%e delineation o, appropriate remedial measres and a
stren!t%ened control o, ne2 indstrial installations0 solid 2aste land,ills and
in,rastrctre development pro?ects<
6. >se o, ris* assessment and ris* mana!ement in reac%in! decisions in t%is area and
ensrin! compliance 2it% t%ose decisions<
&. Identi,ication and application o, best environmental practices at reasonable cost to
avoid di,,se polltion0 namel$0 t%ro!% a limited0 rational and planned se o,
nitro!enos ,ertili5ers and ot%er a!roc%emicals Bpesticides0 %erbicidesC in
a!ricltral practices<
(. /ncora!ement and promotion o, t%e se o, ade1atel$ treated and pri,ied 2aste
2aters in a!ricltre0 a1acltre0 indstr$ and ot%er sectors<
C/ Development and application of clean tecnolog0<
1. Control o, indstrial 2aste disc%ar!es0 incldin! lo2-2aste prodction
tec%nolo!ies and 2ater recirclation0 in an inte!rated manner and t%ro!%
application o, precationar$ measres derived ,rom a broad-based li,e-c$cle
anal$sis<
2. Treatment o, mnicipal 2aste 2ater ,or sa,e rese in a!ricltre and a1acltre<
#. Development o, biotec%nolo!$0 inter alia0 ,or 2aste treatment0 prodction o,
bio,ertili5ers and ot%er activities<
". Development o, appropriate met%ods ,or 2ater polltion control0 ta*in! into
accont sond traditional and indi!enos practices<
D/ (round4ater protection<
1. Development o, a!ricltral practices t%at do not de!rade !rond2aters<
2. :pplication o, t%e necessar$ measres to miti!ate saline intrsion into a1i,ers o,
small islands and coastal plains as a conse1ence o, sealevel rise or
overe3ploitation o, coastal a1i,ers<
#. Prevention o, a1i,er polltion t%ro!% t%e re!lation o, to3ic sbstances t%at
permeate t%e !rond and t%e establis%ment o, protection 5ones in !rond2ater
rec%ar!e and abstraction areas<
". Desi!n and mana!ement o, land,ills based pon sond %$dro!eolo!ic in,ormation
and impact assessment0 sin! t%e best practicable and best available tec%nolo!$<
'. Promotion o, measres to improve t%e sa,et$ and inte!rit$ o, 2ells and 2ell-%ead
areas to redce intrsion o, biolo!ical pat%o!ens and %a5ardos c%emicals into
a1i,ers at 2ell sites<
6. 6ater-1alit$ monitorin!0 as needed0 o, sr,ace and !rond2aters potentiall$
a,,ected b$ sites storin! to3ic and %a5ardos materials<
E/ Protection of a2uatic ecos0stems<
1. Re%abilitation o, pollted and de!raded 2ater bodies to restore a1atic %abitats
and ecos$stems<
2. Re%abilitation pro!rammes ,or a!ricltral lands and ,or ot%er sers0 ta*in! into
accont e1ivalent action ,or t%e protection and se o, !rond2ater resorces
important ,or a!ricltral prodctivit$ and ,or t%e biodiversit$ o, t%e tropics<
#. Conservation and protection o, 2etlands Bo2in! to t%eir ecolo!ical and %abitat
importance ,or man$ speciesC0 ta*in! into accont social and economic ,actors<
". Control o, no3ios a1atic species t%at ma$ destro$ some ot%er 2ater species<
)/ Protection of fres4ater living resources<
1. Control and monitorin! o, 2ater 1alit$ to allo2 ,or t%e sstainable development
o, inland ,is%eries<
2. Protection o, ecos$stems ,rom polltion and de!radation ,or t%e development o,
,res%2ater a1acltre pro?ects<
(/ %onitoring and surveillance of 4ater resources and 4aters receiving 4astes<
1. /stablis%ment o, net2or*s ,or t%e monitorin! and continos srveillance o,
2aters receivin! 2astes and o, point and di,,se sorces o, polltion<
2. Promotion and e3tension o, t%e application o, environmental impact assessments
o, !eo!rap%ical in,ormation s$stems<
#. Srveillance o, polltion sorces to improve compliance 2it% standards and
re!lations and to re!late t%e isse o, disc%ar!e permits<
". -onitorin! o, t%e tili5ation o, c%emicals in a!ricltre t%at ma$ %ave an adverse
environmental e,,ect<
'. Rational land se to prevent land de!radation0 erosion and siltation o, la*es and
ot%er 2ater bodies<
*/ Development of national and international legal instruments tat ma0 be
re2uired to protect te 2ualit0 of 4ater resources5 as appropriate5
particularl0 for<
1. -onitorin! and control o, polltion and its e,,ects in national and transbondar$
2aters<
2. Control o, lon!-ran!e atmosp%eric transport o, polltants<
#. Control o, accidental and=or deliberate spills in national and=or transbondar$
2ater bodies<
". /nvironmental impact assessment.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(."1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total cost B1++#-2)))C o,
implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1 billion0 incldin! abot
D#") million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(."2. States s%old nderta*e cooperative researc% pro?ects to develop soltions to
tec%nical problems t%at are appropriate ,or t%e conditions in eac% 2aters%ed or contr$.
States s%old consider stren!t%enin! and developin! national researc% centres lin*ed
t%ro!% net2or*s and spported b$ re!ional 2ater researc% instittes. T%e ;ort%-Sot%
t2innin! o, researc% centres and ,ield stdies b$ international 2ater researc% instittions
s%old be activel$ promoted. It is important t%at a minimm percenta!e o, ,nds ,or
2ater resorce development pro?ects is allocated to researc% and development0
particlarl$ in e3ternall$ ,nded pro?ects.
1(."#. -onitorin! and assessment o, comple3 a1atic s$stems o,ten re1ire
mltidisciplinar$ stdies involvin! several instittions and scientists in a ?oint
pro!ramme. International 2ater-1alit$ pro!rammes0 sc% as 7/-S=6:T/R0 s%old be
oriented to2ards t%e 2ater-1alit$ o, developin! contries. >ser-,riendl$ so,t2are and
7eo!rap%ical In,ormation S$stems B7ISC and 7lobal Resorce In,ormation Database
B7RIDC met%ods s%old be developed ,or t%e %andlin!0 anal$sis and interpretation o,
monitorin! data and ,or t%e preparation o, mana!ement strate!ies.
D/ *uman resource development
1(."". Innovative approac%es s%old be adopted ,or pro,essional and mana!erial sta,,
trainin! in order to cope 2it% c%an!in! needs and c%allen!es. Fle3ibilit$ and adaptabilit$
re!ardin! emer!in! 2ater polltion isses s%old be developed. Trainin! activities s%old
be nderta*en periodicall$ at all levels 2it%in t%e or!ani5ations responsible ,or 2ater-
1alit$ mana!ement and innovative teac%in! tec%ni1es adopted ,or speci,ic aspects o,
2ater-1alit$ monitorin! and control0 incldin! development o, trainin! s*ills0 in-service
trainin!0 problem-solvin! 2or*s%ops and re,res%er trainin! corses.
1(."'. Sitable approac%es inclde t%e stren!t%enin! and improvement o, t%e %man
resorce capabilities o, local 7overnments in mana!in! 2ater protection0 treatment and
se0 particlarl$ in rban areas0 and t%e establis%ment o, national and re!ional tec%nical
and en!ineerin! corses on t%e sb?ects o, 2ater-1alit$ protection and control at e3istin!
sc%ools and edcation=trainin! corses on 2ater resorces protection and conservation ,or
laborator$ and ,ield tec%nicians0 2omen and ot%er 2ater-ser !rops.
D/ Capacit01building
1(."6. T%e e,,ective protection o, 2ater resorces and ecos$stems ,rom polltion re1ires
considerable p!radin! o, most contries9 present capacities. 6ater-1alit$ mana!ement
pro!rammes re1ire a certain minimm in,rastrctre and sta,, to identi,$ and implement
tec%nical soltions and to en,orce re!lator$ action. One o, t%e *e$ problems toda$ and
,or t%e ,tre is t%e sstained operation and maintenance o, t%ese ,acilities. In order not to
allo2 resorces !ained ,rom previos investments to deteriorate ,rt%er0 immediate action
is re1ired in a nmber o, areas.
D$ Drinking14ater suppl0 and sanitation
-asis for action
1(."&. Sa,e 2ater-spplies and environmental sanitation are vital ,or protectin! t%e
environment0 improvin! %ealt% and alleviatin! povert$. Sa,e 2ater is also crcial to man$
traditional and cltral activities. :n estimated () per cent o, all diseases and over one
t%ird o, deat%s in developin! contries are cased b$ t%e consmption o, contaminated
2ater0 and on avera!e as mc% as one tent% o, eac% person9s prodctive time is sacri,iced
to 2ater-related diseases. Concerted e,,orts drin! t%e 1+()s bro!%t 2ater and sanitation
services to %ndreds o, millions o, t%e 2orld9s poorest people. T%e most otstandin! o,
t%ese e,,orts 2as t%e lanc%in! in 1+(1 o, t%e International Drin*in! 6ater Sppl$ and
Sanitation Decade0 2%ic% reslted ,rom t%e -ar del Plata :ction Plan adopted b$ t%e
>nited ;ations 6ater Con,erence in 1+&&. T%e commonl$ a!reed premise 2as t%at Aall
peoples0 2%atever t%eir sta!e o, development and t%eir social and economic conditions0
%ave t%e ri!%t to %ave access to drin*in! 2ater in 1antities and o, a 1alit$ e1al to t%eir
basic needsA. 2= T%e tar!et o, t%e Decade 2as to provide sa,e drin*in!-2ater and
sanitation to nderserved rban and rral areas b$ 1++)0 bt even t%e nprecedented
pro!ress ac%ieved drin! t%e Decade 2as not eno!%. One in t%ree people in t%e
developin! 2orld still lac*s t%ese t2o most basic re1irements ,or %ealt% and di!nit$. It is
also reco!ni5ed t%at %man e3creta and se2a!e are important cases o, t%e deterioration
o, 2ater-1alit$ in developin! contries0 and t%e introdction o, available tec%nolo!ies0
incldin! appropriate tec%nolo!ies0 and t%e constrction o, se2a!e treatment ,acilities
cold brin! si!ni,icant improvement.
#b.ectives
1(."(. T%e ;e2 Del%i Statement Badopted at t%e 7lobal Consltation on Sa,e 6ater and
Sanitation ,or t%e 1++)s0 2%ic% 2as %eld in ;e2 Del%i ,rom 1) to 1" September 1++)C
,ormali5ed t%e need to provide0 on a sstainable basis0 access to sa,e 2ater in s,,icient
1antities and proper sanitation ,or all0 emp%asi5in! t%e Asome ,or all rat%er t%an more ,or
someA approac%. For !idin! principles provide ,or t%e pro!ramme ob?ectives.
BaC Protection o, t%e environment and sa,e!ardin! o, %ealt% t%ro!% t%e inte!rated
mana!ement o, 2ater resorces and li1id and solid 2astes<
BbC Instittional re,orms promotin! an inte!rated approac% and incldin! c%an!es in
procedres0 attitdes and be%avior0 and t%e ,ll participation o, 2omen at all levels in
sector instittions<
BcC Commnit$ mana!ement o, services0 bac*ed b$ measres to stren!t%en local
instittions in implementin! and sstainin! 2ater and sanitation pro!rammes<
BdC Sond ,inancial practices0 ac%ieved t%ro!% better mana!ement o, e3istin! assets0 and
2idespread se o, appropriate tec%nolo!ies.
1(."+. Past e3perience %as s%o2n t%at speci,ic tar!ets s%old be set b$ eac% individal
contr$. :t t%e 6orld Smmit ,or C%ildren0 in September 1++)0 %eads o, State or
7overnment called ,or bot% niversal access to 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation and t%e
eradication o, !inea 2orm disease b$ 1++'. /ven ,or t%e more realistic tar!et o,
ac%ievin! ,ll covera!e in 2ater-sppl$ b$ 2)2'0 it is estimated t%at annal investments
mst reac% doble t%e crrent levels. One realistic strate!$ to meet present and ,tre
needs0 t%ere,ore0 is to develop lo2er-cost bt ade1ate services t%at can be implemented
and sstained at t%e commnit$ level.
Activities
1(.'). :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold implement t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
A/ Environment and ealt<
1. /stablis%ment o, protected areas ,or sorces o, drin*in!-2ater sppl$<
2. Sanitar$ disposal o, e3creta and se2a!e0 sin! appropriate s$stems to treat 2aste
2aters in rban and rral areas<
#. /3pansion o, rban and rral 2ater-sppl$ and development and e3pansion o,
rain2ater catc%ment s$stems0 particlarl$ on small islands0 in addition to t%e
reticlated 2ater-sppl$ s$stem<
". Eildin! and e3pansion0 2%ere appropriate0 o, se2a!e treatment ,acilities and
draina!e s$stems<
'. Treatment and sa,e rese o, domestic and indstrial 2aste 2aters in rban and
rral areas<
6. Control o, 2ater-associated diseases<
-/ People and institutions<
1. Stren!t%enin! o, t%e ,nctionin! o, 7overnments in 2ater resorces mana!ement
and0 at t%e same time0 !ivin! o, ,ll reco!nition to t%e role o, local at%orities<
2. /ncora!ement o, 2ater development and mana!ement based on a participator$
approac%0 involvin! sers0 planners and polic$ ma*ers at all levels<
#. :pplication o, t%e principle t%at decisions are to be ta*en at t%e lo2est
appropriate level0 2it% pblic consltation and involvement o, sers in t%e
plannin! and implementation o, 2ater pro?ects<
". 4man resorce development at all levels0 incldin! special pro!rammes ,or
2omen<
'. Eroad-based edcation pro!rammes0 2it% particlar emp%asis on %$!iene0 local
mana!ement and ris* redction<
6. International spport mec%anisms ,or pro!ramme ,ndin!0 implementation and
,ollo2-p<
C/ National and communit0 management<
1. Spport and assistance to commnities in mana!in! t%eir o2n s$stems on a
sstainable basis<
2. /ncora!ement o, t%e local poplation0 especiall$ 2omen0 $ot%0 indi!enos
people and local commnities0 in 2ater mana!ement<
#. 8in*a!es bet2een national 2ater plans and commnit$ mana!ement o, local
2aters<
". Inte!ration o, commnit$ mana!ement o, 2ater 2it%in t%e conte3t o, overall
plannin!<
'. Promotion o, primar$ %ealt% and environmental care at t%e local level0 incldin!
trainin! ,or local commnities in appropriate 2ater mana!ement tec%ni1es and
primar$ %ealt% care<
6. :ssistance to service a!encies in becomin! more cost-e,,ective and responsive to
consmer needs<
&. Providin! o, more attention to nderserved rral and lo2-income perirban areas<
(. Re%abilitation o, de,ective s$stems0 redction o, 2asta!e and sa,e rese o, 2ater
and 2aste 2ater<
+. Pro!rammes ,or rational 2ater se and ensred operation and maintenance<
1). Researc% and development o, appropriate tec%nical soltions<
11. Sbstantiall$ increase rban treatment capacit$ commensrate 2it% increasin!
loads<
D/ A4areness creation and public information:participation<
1. Stren!t%enin! o, sector monitorin! and in,ormation mana!ement at sbnational
and national levels<
2. :nnal processin!0 anal$sis and pblication o, monitorin! reslts at national and
local levels as a sector mana!ement and advocac$=a2areness creation tool<
#. >se o, limited sector indicators at re!ional and !lobal levels to promote t%e sector
and raise ,nds<
". Improvement o, sector coordination0 plannin! and implementation0 2it% t%e
assistance o, improved monitorin! and in,ormation mana!ement0 to increase t%e
sector9s absorptive capacit$0 particlarl$ in commnit$-based sel,-%elp pro?ects.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(.'1. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D2) billion0 incldin!
abot D&." billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(.'2. To ensre t%e ,easibilit$0 acceptabilit$ and sstainabilit$ o, planned 2ater-sppl$
services0 adopted tec%nolo!ies s%old be responsive to t%e needs and constraints imposed
b$ t%e conditions o, t%e commnit$ concerned. T%s0 desi!n criteria 2ill involve
tec%nical0 %ealt%0 social0 economic0 provincial0 instittional and environmental ,actors
t%at determine t%e c%aracteristics0 ma!nitde and cost o, t%e planned s$stem. Relevant
international spport pro!rammes s%old address t%e developin! contries concernin!0
inter alia.
BaC Prsit o, lo2-cost scienti,ic and tec%nolo!ical means0 as ,ar as practicable<
BbC >tili5ation o, traditional and indi!enos practices0 as ,ar as practicable0 to ma3imi5e
and sstain local involvement<
BcC :ssistance to contr$-level tec%nical=scienti,ic instittes to ,acilitate crricla
development to spport ,ields critical to t%e 2ater and sanitation sector.
C/ *uman resource development
1(.'#. To e,,ectivel$ plan and mana!e 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation at t%e national0
provincial0 district and commnit$ level0 and to tili5e ,nds most e,,ectivel$0 trained
pro,essional and tec%nical sta,, mst be developed 2it%in eac% contr$ in s,,icient
nmbers. To do t%is0 contries mst establis% manpo2er development plans0 ta*in! into
consideration present re1irements and planned developments. Sbse1entl$0 t%e
development and per,ormance o, contr$-level trainin! instittions s%old be en%anced
so t%at t%e$ can pla$ a pivotal role in capacit$-bildin!. It is also important t%at contries
provide ade1ate trainin! ,or 2omen in t%e sstainable maintenance o, e1ipment0 2ater
resorces mana!ement and environmental sanitation.
D/ Capacit01building
1(.'". T%e implementation o, 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation pro!rammes is a national
responsibilit$. To var$in! de!rees0 responsibilit$ ,or t%e implementation o, pro?ects and
t%e operatin! o, s$stems s%old be dele!ated to all administrative levels do2n to t%e
commnit$ and individal served. T%is also means t%at national at%orities0 to!et%er 2it%
t%e a!encies and bodies o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem and ot%er e3ternal spport a!encies
providin! spport to national pro!rammes0 s%old develop mec%anisms and procedres
to collaborate at all levels. T%is is particlarl$ important i, ,ll advanta!e is to be ta*en o,
commnit$-based approac%es and sel,-reliance as tools ,or sstainabilit$. T%is 2ill entail
a %i!% de!ree o, commnit$ participation0 involvin! 2omen0 in t%e conception0 plannin!0
decision-ma*in!0 implementation and evalation connected 2it% pro?ects ,or domestic
2ater-sppl$ and sanitation.
1(.''. Overall national capacit$-bildin! at all administrative levels0 involvin!
instittional development0 coordination0 %man resorces0 commnit$ participation0
%ealt% and %$!iene edcation and literac$0 %as to be developed accordin! to its
,ndamental connection bot% 2it% an$ e,,orts to improve %ealt% and socio-economic
development t%ro!% 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation and 2it% t%eir impact on t%e %man
environment. Capacit$-bildin! s%old t%ere,ore be one o, t%e nderl$in! *e$s in
implementation strate!ies. Instittional capacit$-bildin! s%old be considered to %ave an
importance e1al to t%at o, t%e sector spplies and e1ipment component so t%at ,nds
can be directed to bot%. T%is can be nderta*en at t%e plannin! or pro!ramme=pro?ect
,ormlation sta!e0 accompanied b$ a clear de,inition o, ob?ectives and tar!ets. In t%is
re!ard0 tec%nical cooperation amon! developin! contries o2in! to t%eir available 2ealt%
o, in,ormation and e3perience and t%e need to avoid Areinventin! t%e 2%eelA0 is crcial.
Sc% a corse %as proved cost-e,,ective in man$ contr$ pro?ects alread$.
E$ Dater and sustainable urban development
-asis for action
1(.'6. /arl$ in t%e ne3t centr$0 more t%an %al, o, t%e 2orld9s poplation 2ill be livin! in
rban areas. E$ t%e $ear 2)2'0 t%at proportion 2ill %ave risen to 6) per cent0 comprisin!
some ' billion people. Rapid rban poplation !ro2t% and indstriali5ation are pttin!
severe strains on t%e 2ater resorces and environmental protection capabilities o, man$
cities. Special attention needs to be !iven to t%e !ro2in! e,,ects o, rbani5ation on 2ater
demands and sa!e and to t%e critical role pla$ed b$ local and mnicipal at%orities in
mana!in! t%e sppl$0 se and overall treatment o, 2ater0 particlarl$ in developin!
contries ,or 2%ic% special spport is needed. Scarcit$ o, ,res%2ater resorces and t%e
escalatin! costs o, developin! ne2 resorces %ave a considerable impact on national
indstrial0 a!ricltral and %man settlement development and economic !ro2t%. Eetter
mana!ement o, rban 2ater resorces0 incldin! t%e elimination o, nsstainable
consmption patterns0 can ma*e a sbstantial contribtion to t%e alleviation o, povert$
and improvement o, t%e %ealt% and 1alit$ o, li,e o, t%e rban and rral poor. : %i!%
proportion o, lar!e rban a!!lomerations are located arond estaries and in coastal
5ones. Sc% an arran!ement leads to polltion ,rom mnicipal and indstrial disc%ar!es
combined 2it% overe3ploitation o, available 2ater resorces and t%reatens t%e marine
environment and t%e sppl$ o, ,res%2ater resorces.
#b.ectives
1(.'&. T%e development ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme is to spport local and central
7overnments9 e,,orts and capacities to sstain national development and prodctivit$
t%ro!% environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, 2ater resorces ,or rban se. Spportin!
t%is ob?ective is t%e identi,ication and implementation o, strate!ies and actions to ensre
t%e contined sppl$ o, a,,ordable 2ater ,or present and ,tre needs and to reverse
crrent trends o, resorce de!radation and depletion.
1(.'(. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold set t%e ,ollo2in! tar!ets.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to %ave ensred t%at all rban residents %ave access to at least ")
litres per capita per da$ o, sa,e 2ater and t%at &' per cent o, t%e rban poplation are
provided 2it% on-site or commnit$ ,acilities ,or sanitation<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to %ave establis%ed and applied 1antitative and 1alitative
disc%ar!e standards ,or mnicipal and indstrial e,,lents<
BcC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 to %ave ensred t%at &' per cent o, solid 2aste !enerated in rban
areas are collected and rec$cled or disposed o, in an environmentall$ sa,e 2a$.
Activities
1(.'+. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold implement t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
A/ Protection of 4ater resources from depletion5 pollution and degradation<
1. Introdction o, sanitar$ 2aste disposal ,acilities based on environmentall$ sond
lo2-cost and p!radable tec%nolo!ies<
2. Implementation o, rban storm-2ater rn-o,, and draina!e pro!rammes<
#. Promotion o, rec$clin! and rese o, 2aste 2ater and solid 2astes<
". Control o, indstrial polltion sorces to protect 2ater resorces<
'. Protection o, 2aters%eds 2it% respect to depletion and de!radation o, t%eir ,orest
cover and ,rom %arm,l pstream activities<
6. Promotion o, researc% into t%e contribtion o, ,orests to sstainable 2ater
resorces development<
&. /ncora!ement o, t%e best mana!ement practices ,or t%e se o, a!roc%emicals
2it% a vie2 to minimi5in! t%eir impact on 2ater resorces<
-/ Efficient and e2uitable allocation of 4ater resources<
1. Reconciliation o, cit$ development plannin! 2it% t%e availabilit$ and
sstainabilit$ o, 2ater resorces<
2. Satis,action o, t%e basic 2ater needs o, t%e rban poplation<
#. Introdction o, 2ater tari,,s0 ta*in! into accont t%e circmstances in eac%
contr$ and 2%ere a,,ordable0 t%at re,lect t%e mar!inal and opportnit$ cost o,
2ater0 especiall$ ,or prodctive activities<
C/ "nstitutional:legal:management reforms<
1. :doption o, a cit$-2ide approac% to t%e mana!ement o, 2ater resorces<
2. Promotion at t%e national and local level o, t%e elaboration o, land-se plans t%at
!ive de consideration to 2ater resorces development<
#. >tili5ation o, t%e s*ills and potential o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 t%e
private sector and local people0 ta*in! into accont t%e pblic9s and strate!ic
interests in 2ater resorces<
D/ Promotion of public participation<
1. Initiation o, pblic-a2areness campai!ns to encora!e t%e pblic9s move to2ards
rational 2ater tili5ation<
2. Sensiti5ation o, t%e pblic to t%e isse o, protectin! 2ater 1alit$ 2it%in t%e rban
environment<
#. Promotion o, pblic participation in t%e collection0 rec$clin! and elimination o,
2astes<
E/ Support to local capacit01building<
1. Development o, le!islation and policies to promote investments in rban 2ater
and 2aste mana!ement0 re,lectin! t%e ma?or contribtion o, cities to national
economic development<
2. Provision o, seed mone$ and tec%nical spport to t%e local %andlin! o, materials
sppl$ and services<
#. /ncora!ement0 to t%e e3tent possible0 o, atonom$ and ,inancial viabilit$ o, cit$
2ater0 solid 2aste and se2era!e tilities<
". Creation and maintenance o, a cadre o, pro,essionals and semi-pro,essionals0 ,or
2ater0 2aste-2ater and solid 2aste mana!ement<
)/ Provision of enanced access to sanitar0 services<
1. Implementation o, 2ater0 sanitation and 2aste mana!ement pro!rammes ,ocsed
on t%e rban poor<
2. -a*in! available o, lo2-cost 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation tec%nolo!$ c%oices<
#. Easin! o, c%oice o, tec%nolo!$ and service levels on ser pre,erences and
2illin!ness to pa$<
". -obili5ation and ,acilitation o, t%e active involvement o, 2omen in 2ater
mana!ement teams<
'. /ncora!ement and e1ipment o, local 2ater associations and 2ater committees
to mana!e commnit$ 2ater-sppl$ s$stems and commnal latrines0 2it%
tec%nical bac*-p available 2%en re1ired<
6. Consideration o, t%e merits and practicalit$ o, re%abilitatin! e3istin!
mal,nctionin! s$stems and o, correctin! operation and maintenance
inade1acies.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(.6). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D2) billion0 incldin!
abot D".' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms.
T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed
b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(.61. T%e 1+()s sa2 considerable pro!ress in t%e development and application o, lo2-
cost 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation tec%nolo!ies. T%e pro!ramme envisa!es contination o,
t%is 2or*0 2it% particlar emp%asis on development o, appropriate sanitation and 2aste
disposal tec%nolo!ies ,or lo2-income %i!%-densit$ rban settlements. T%ere s%old also
be international in,ormation e3c%an!e0 to ensre a 2idespread reco!nition amon! sector
pro,essionals o, t%e availabilit$ and bene,its o, appropriate lo2-cost tec%nolo!ies. T%e
pblic-a2areness campai!ns 2ill also inclde components to overcome ser resistance to
second-class services b$ emp%asi5in! t%e bene,its o, reliabilit$ and sstainabilit$.
C/ *uman resource development
1(.62. Implicit in virtall$ all elements o, t%is pro!ramme is t%e need ,or pro!ressive
en%ancement o, t%e trainin! and career development o, personnel at all levels in sector
instittions. Speci,ic pro!ramme activities 2ill involve t%e trainin! and retention o, sta,,
2it% s*ills in commnit$ involvement0 lo2-cost tec%nolo!$0 ,inancial mana!ement0 and
inte!rated plannin! o, rban 2ater resorces mana!ement. Special provision s%old be
made ,or mobili5in! and ,acilitatin! t%e active participation o, 2omen0 $ot%0 indi!enos
people and local commnities in 2ater mana!ement teams and ,or spportin! t%e
development o, 2ater associations and 2ater committees0 2it% appropriate trainin! o,
sc% personnel as treasrers0 secretaries and careta*ers. Special edcation and trainin!
pro!rammes ,or 2omen s%old be lanc%ed 2it% re!ard to t%e protection o, 2ater
resorces and 2ater-1alit$ 2it%in rban areas.
D/ Capacit01building
1(.6#. In combination 2it% %man resorce development0 stren!t%enin! o, instittional0
le!islative and mana!ement strctres are *e$ elements o, t%e pro!ramme. : prere1isite
,or pro!ress in en%ancin! access to 2ater and sanitation services is t%e establis%ment o,
an instittional ,rame2or* t%at ensres t%at t%e real needs and potential contribtions o,
crrentl$ nserved poplations are re,lected in rban development plannin!. T%e
mltisectoral approac%0 2%ic% is a vital part o, rban 2ater resorces mana!ement0
re1ires instittional lin*a!es at t%e national and cit$ levels0 and t%e pro!ramme incldes
proposals ,or establis%in! intersectoral plannin! !rops. Proposals ,or !reater polltion
control and prevention depend ,or t%eir sccess on t%e ri!%t combination o, economic and
re!lator$ mec%anisms0 bac*ed b$ ade1ate monitorin! and srveillance and spported
b$ en%anced capacit$ to address environmental isses on t%e part o, local 7overnments.
1(.6". /stablis%ment o, appropriate desi!n standards0 2ater-1alit$ ob?ectives and
disc%ar!e consents is t%ere,ore amon! t%e proposed activities. T%e pro!ramme also
incldes spport ,or stren!t%enin! t%e capabilit$ o, 2ater and se2era!e a!encies and ,or
developin! t%eir atonom$ and ,inancial viabilit$. Operation and maintenance o, e3istin!
2ater and sanitation ,acilities %ave been reco!ni5ed as entailin! a serios s%ortcomin! in
man$ contries. Tec%nical and ,inancial spport are needed to %elp contries correct
present inade1acies and bild p t%e capacit$ to operate and maintain re%abilitated and
ne2 s$stems.
)$ Dater for sustainable food production and rural development
-asis for action
1(.6'. Sstainabilit$ o, ,ood prodction increasin!l$ depends on sond and e,,icient
2ater se and conservation practices consistin! primaril$ o, irri!ation development and
mana!ement0 incldin! 2ater mana!ement 2it% respect to rain-,ed areas0 livestoc* 2ater-
sppl$0 inland ,is%eries and a!ro-,orestr$. :c%ievin! ,ood secrit$ is a %i!% priorit$ in
man$ contries0 and a!ricltre mst not onl$ provide ,ood ,or risin! poplations0 bt
also save 2ater ,or ot%er ses. T%e c%allen!e is to develop and appl$ 2ater-savin!
tec%nolo!$ and mana!ement met%ods and0 t%ro!% capacit$-bildin!0 enable
commnities to introdce instittions and incentives ,or t%e rral poplation to adopt ne2
approac%es0 ,or bot% rain-,ed and irri!ated a!ricltre. T%e rral poplation mst also
%ave better access to a potable 2ater-sppl$ and to sanitation services. It is an immense
tas* bt not an impossible one0 provided appropriate policies and pro!rammes are
adopted at all levels - local0 national and international. 6%ile si!ni,icant e3pansion o, t%e
area nder rain-,ed a!ricltre %as been ac%ieved drin! t%e past decade0 t%e prodctivit$
response and sstainabilit$ o, irri!ation s$stems %ave been constrained b$ problems o,
2aterlo!!in! and salini5ation. Financial and mar*et constraints are also a common
problem. Soil erosion0 mismana!ement and overe3ploitation o, natral resorces and
acte competition ,or 2ater %ave all in,lenced t%e e3tent o, povert$0 %n!er and ,amine
in t%e developin! contries. Soil erosion cased b$ over!ra5in! o, livestoc* is also o,ten
responsible ,or t%e siltation o, la*es. -ost o,ten0 t%e development o, irri!ation sc%emes is
spported neit%er b$ environmental impact assessments identi,$in! %$drolo!ic
conse1ences 2it%in 2aters%eds o, interbasin trans,ers0 nor b$ t%e assessment o, social
impacts on peoples in river valle$s.
1(.66. T%e non-availabilit$ o, 2ater-spplies o, sitable 1alit$ is a si!ni,icant limitin!
,actor to livestoc* prodction in man$ contries0 and improper disposal o, animal 2astes
can in certain circmstances reslt in polltion o, 2ater-spplies ,or bot% %mans and
animals. T%e drin*in!-2ater re1irements o, livestoc* var$ accordin! to species and t%e
environment in 2%ic% t%e$ are *ept. It is estimated t%at t%e crrent !lobal livestoc*
drin*in!-2ater re1irement is abot 6) billion litres per da$ and based on livestoc*
poplation !ro2t% estimates0 t%is dail$ re1irement is predicted to increase b$ )." billion
litres per annm in t%e ,oreseeable ,tre.
1(.6&. Fres%2ater ,is%eries in la*es and streams are an important sorce o, ,ood and
protein. Fis%eries o, inland 2aters s%old be so mana!ed as to ma3imi5e t%e $ield o,
a1atic ,ood or!anisms in an environmentall$ sond manner. T%is re1ires t%e
conservation o, 2ater-1alit$ and 1antit$0 as 2ell as o, t%e ,nctional morp%olo!$ o, t%e
a1atic environment. On t%e ot%er %and0 ,is%in! and a1acltre ma$ t%emselves dama!e
t%e a1atic ecos$stem< %ence t%eir development s%old con,orm to !idelines ,or impact
limitation. Present levels o, prodction ,rom inland ,is%eries0 ,rom bot% ,res% and
brac*is% 2ater0 are abot & million tons per $ear and cold increase to 16 million tons per
$ear b$ t%e $ear 2)))< %o2ever0 an$ increase in environmental stress cold ?eopardi5e
t%is rise.
#b.ectives
1(.6(. T%e *e$ strate!ic principles ,or %olistic and inte!rated environmentall$ sond
mana!ement o, 2ater resorces in t%e rral conte3t ma$ be set ,ort% as ,ollo2s.
BaC 6ater s%old be re!arded as a ,inite resorce %avin! an economic vale 2it%
si!ni,icant social and economic implications re,lectin! t%e importance o, meetin! basic
needs<
BbC 8ocal commnities mst participate in all p%ases o, 2ater mana!ement0 ensrin! t%e
,ll involvement o, 2omen in vie2 o, t%eir crcial role in t%e practical da$-to-da$ sppl$0
mana!ement and se o, 2ater<
BcC 6ater resorce mana!ement mst be developed 2it%in a compre%ensive set o,
policies ,or BiC %man %ealt%< BiiC ,ood prodction0 preservation and distribtion< BiiiC
disaster miti!ation plans< BivC environmental protection and conservation o, t%e natral
resorce base<
BdC It is necessar$ to reco!ni5e and activel$ spport t%e role o, rral poplations0 2it%
particlar emp%asis on 2omen.
1(.6+. :n International :ction Pro!ramme on 6ater and Sstainable :!ricltral
Development BI:P-6:S:DC %as been initiated b$ F:O in cooperation 2it% ot%er
international or!ani5ations. T%e main ob?ective o, t%e :ction Pro!ramme is to assist
developin! contries in plannin!0 developin! and mana!in! 2ater resorces on an
inte!rated basis to meet present and ,tre needs ,or a!ricltral prodction0 ta*in! into
accont environmental considerations.
1(.&). T%e :ction Pro!ramme %as developed a ,rame2or* ,or sstainable 2ater se in
t%e a!ricltral sector and identi,ied priorit$ areas ,or action at national0 re!ional and
!lobal levels. Jantitative tar!ets ,or ne2 irri!ation development0 improvement o,
e3istin! irri!ation sc%emes and reclamation o, 2aterlo!!ed and salini5ed lands t%ro!%
draina!e ,or 1#) developin! contries are estimated on t%e basis o, ,ood re1irements0
a!ro-climatic 5ones and availabilit$ o, 2ater and land.
1(.&1. F:O !lobal pro?ections ,or irri!ation0 draina!e and small-scale 2ater pro!rammes
b$ t%e $ear 2))) ,or 1#) developin! contries are as ,ollo2s. BaC 1'.2 million %ectares o,
ne2 irri!ation development< BbC 12 million %ectares o, improvement=moderni5ation o,
e3istin! sc%emes< BcC & million %ectares installed 2it% draina!e and 2ater control
,acilities< and BdC 1) million %ectares o, small-scale 2ater pro!rammes and conservation.
1(.&2. T%e development o, ne2 irri!ation areas at t%e above-mentioned level ma$ !ive
rise to environmental concerns in so ,ar as it implies t%e destrction o, 2etlands0 2ater
polltion0 increased sedimentation and a redction in biodiversit$. T%ere,ore0 ne2
irri!ation sc%emes s%old be accompanied b$ an environmental impact assessment0
dependin! pon t%e scale o, t%e sc%eme0 in case si!ni,icant ne!ative environmental
impacts are e3pected. 6%en considerin! proposals ,or ne2 irri!ation sc%emes0
consideration s%old also be !iven to a more rational e3ploitation0 and an increase in t%e
e,,icienc$ or prodctivit$0 o, an$ e3istin! sc%emes capable o, servin! t%e same localities.
Tec%nolo!ies ,or ne2 irri!ation sc%emes s%old be t%oro!%l$ evalated0 incldin! t%eir
potential con,licts 2it% ot%er land ses. T%e active involvement o, 2ater-sers !rops is a
spportin! ob?ective.
1(.&#. It s%old be ensred t%at rral commnities o, all contries0 accordin! to t%eir
capacities and available resorces and ta*in! advanta!e o, international cooperation as
appropriate0 2ill %ave access to sa,e 2ater in s,,icient 1antities and ade1ate sanitation
to meet t%eir %ealt% needs and maintain t%e essential 1alities o, t%eir local environments.
1(.&". T%e ob?ectives 2it% re!ard to 2ater mana!ement ,or inland ,is%eries and
a1acltre inclde conservation o, 2ater-1alit$ and 2ater-1antit$ re1irements ,or
optimm prodction and prevention o, 2ater polltion b$ a1acltral activities. T%e
:ction Pro!ramme see*s to assist member contries in mana!in! t%e ,is%eries o, inland
2aters t%ro!% t%e promotion o, sstainable mana!ement o, captre ,is%eries as 2ell as
t%e development o, environmentall$ sond approac%es to intensi,ication o, a1acltre.
1(.&'. T%e ob?ectives 2it% re!ard to 2ater mana!ement ,or livestoc* sppl$ are t2o,old.
provision o, ade1ate amonts o, drin*in!-2ater and sa,e!ardin! o, drin*in!-2ater
1alit$ in accordance 2it% t%e speci,ic needs o, di,,erent animal species. T%is entails
ma3imm salinit$ tolerance levels and t%e absence o, pat%o!enic or!anisms. ;o !lobal
tar!ets can be set o2in! to lar!e re!ional and intra-contr$ variations.
Activities
1(.&6. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold implement t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
A/ Dater1suppl0 and sanitation for te unserved rural poor<
1. /stablis% national policies and bd!et priorities 2it% re!ard to increasin! service
covera!e<
2. Promote appropriate tec%nolo!ies<
#. Introdce sitable cost-recover$ mec%anisms0 ta*in! into accont e,,icienc$ and
e1it$ t%ro!% demand mana!ement mec%anisms<
". Promote commnit$ o2ners%ip and ri!%ts to 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation
,acilities<
'. /stablis% monitorin! and evalation s$stems<
6. Stren!t%en t%e rral 2ater-sppl$ and sanitation sector 2it% emp%asis on
instittional development0 e,,icient mana!ement and an appropriate ,rame2or*
,or ,inancin! o, services<
&. Increase %$!iene edcation and eliminate disease transmission ,oci<
(. :dopt appropriate tec%nolo!ies ,or 2ater treatment<
+. :dopt 2ide-scale environmental mana!ement measres to control disease
vectors<
-/ Dater1use efficienc0<
1. Increase o, e,,icienc$ and prodctivit$ in a!ricltral 2ater se ,or better
tili5ation o, limited 2ater resorces<
2. Stren!t%en 2ater and soil mana!ement researc% nder irri!ation and rain-,ed
conditions<
#. -onitor and evalate irri!ation pro?ect per,ormance to ensre0 inter alia0 t%e
optimal tili5ation and proper maintenance o, t%e pro?ect<
". Spport 2ater-sers !rops 2it% a vie2 to improvin! mana!ement per,ormance at
t%e local level<
'. Spport t%e appropriate se o, relativel$ brac*is% 2ater ,or irri!ation<
C/ Daterlogging5 salinit0 control and drainage<
1. Introdce sr,ace draina!e in rain-,ed a!ricltre to prevent temporar$
2aterlo!!in! and ,loodin! o, lo2lands<
2. Introdce arti,icial draina!e in irri!ated and rain-,ed a!ricltre<
#. /ncora!e con?nctive se o, sr,ace and !rond2aters0 incldin! monitorin!
and 2ater-balance stdies<
". Practise draina!e in irri!ated areas o, arid and semi-arid re!ions<
D/ Dater12ualit0 management<
1. /stablis% and operate cost-e,,ective 2ater-1alit$ monitorin! s$stems ,or
a!ricltral 2ater ses<
2. Prevent adverse e,,ects o, a!ricltral activities on 2ater-1alit$ ,or ot%er social
and economic activities and on 2etlands0 inter alia0 t%ro!% optimal se o, on-
,arm inpt and t%e minimi5ation o, t%e se o, e3ternal inpt in a!ricltral
activities<
#. /stablis% biolo!ical0 p%$sical and c%emical 2ater-1alit$ criteria ,or a!ricltral
2ater-sers and ,or marine and riverine ecos$stems<
". -inimi5e soil rn-o,, and sedimentation<
'. Dispose properl$ o, se2a!e ,rom %man settlements and o, manre prodced b$
intensive livestoc* breedin!<
6. -inimi5e adverse e,,ects ,rom a!ricltral c%emicals b$ se o, inte!rated pest
mana!ement<
&. /dcate commnities abot t%e polltion-related impacts o, t%e se o, ,ertili5ers
and c%emicals on 2ater-1alit$0 ,ood sa,et$ and %man %ealt%<
E/ Dater resources development programmes<
1. Develop small-scale irri!ation and 2ater-sppl$ ,or %mans and livestoc* and ,or
2ater and soil conservation<
2. Formlate lar!e-scale and lon!-term irri!ation development pro!rammes0 ta*in!
into accont t%eir e,,ects on t%e local level0 t%e econom$ and t%e environment<
#. Promote local initiatives ,or t%e inte!rated development and mana!ement o, 2ater
resorces<
". Provide ade1ate tec%nical advice and spport and en%ancement o, instittional
collaboration at t%e local commnit$ level<
'. Promote a ,armin! approac% ,or land and 2ater mana!ement t%at ta*es accont o,
t%e level o, edcation0 t%e capacit$ to mobili5e local commnities and t%e
ecos$stem re1irements o, arid and semi-arid re!ions<
6. Plan and develop mlti-prpose %$droelectric po2er sc%emes0 ma*in! sre t%at
environmental concerns are dl$ ta*en into accont<
)/ Scarce 4ater resources management<
1. Develop lon!-term strate!ies and practical implementation pro!rammes ,or
a!ricltral 2ater se nder scarcit$ conditions 2it% competin! demands ,or
2ater<
2. Reco!ni5e 2ater as a social0 economic and strate!ic !ood in irri!ation plannin!
and mana!ement<
#. Formlate speciali5ed pro!rammes ,ocsed on dro!%t preparedness0 2it%
emp%asis on ,ood scarcit$ and environmental sa,e!ards<
". Promote and en%ance 2aste-2ater rese in a!ricltre<
(/ Dater1suppl0 for livestock<
1. Improve 1alit$ o, 2ater available to livestoc*0 ta*in! into accont t%eir tolerance
limits<
2. Increase t%e 1antit$ o, 2ater sorces available to livestoc*0 in particlar t%ose in
e3tensive !ra5in! s$stems0 in order to bot% redce t%e distance needed to travel
,or 2ater and to prevent over!ra5in! arond 2ater sorces<
#. Prevent contamination o, 2ater sorces 2it% animal e3crement in order to prevent
t%e spread o, diseases0 in particlar 5oonosis<
". /ncora!e mltiple se o, 2ater-spplies t%ro!% promotion o, inte!rated a!ro-
livestoc*-,is%er$ s$stems<
'. /ncora!e 2ater spreadin! sc%emes ,or increasin! 2ater retention o, e3tensive
!rasslands to stimlate ,ora!e prodction and prevent rn-o,,<
*/ "nland fiseries<
1. Develop t%e sstainable mana!ement o, ,is%eries as part o, national 2ater
resorces plannin!<
2. Std$ speci,ic aspects o, t%e %$drobiolo!$ and environmental re1irements o, *e$
inland ,is% species in relation to var$in! 2ater re!imes<
#. Prevent or miti!ate modi,ication o, a1atic environments b$ ot%er sers or
re%abilitate environments sb?ected to sc% modi,ication on be%al, o, t%e
sstainable se and conservation o, biolo!ical diversit$ o, livin! a1atic
resorces<
". Develop and disseminate environmentall$ sond 2ater resorces development
and mana!ement met%odolo!ies ,or t%e intensi,ication o, ,is% $ield ,rom inland
2aters<
'. /stablis% and maintain ade1ate s$stems ,or t%e collection and interpretation o,
data on 2ater 1alit$ and 1antit$ and c%annel morp%olo!$ related to t%e state
and mana!ement o, livin! a1atic resorces0 incldin! ,is%eries<
"/ A2uaculture development<
1. Develop environmentall$ sond a1acltre tec%nolo!ies t%at are compatible 2it%
local0 re!ional and national 2ater resorces mana!ement plans and ta*e into
consideration social ,actors<
2. Introdce appropriate a1acltre tec%ni1es and related 2ater development and
mana!ement practices in contries not $et e3perienced in a1acltre<
#. :ssess environmental impacts o, a1acltre 2it% speci,ic re,erence to
commerciali5ed cltre nits and potential 2ater polltion ,rom processin!
centres<
". /valate economic ,easibilit$ o, a1acltre in relation to alternative se o,
2ater0 ta*in! into consideration t%e se o, mar!inal-1alit$ 2ater and investment
and operational re1irements.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(.&&. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1#.2 billion0
incldin! abot D".' billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(.&(. T%ere is an r!ent need ,or contries to monitor 2ater resorces and 2ater-1alit$0
2ater and land se and crop prodction< compile inventories o, t$pe and e3tent o,
a!ricltral 2ater development and o, present and ,tre contribtions to sstainable
a!ricltral development< evalate t%e potential ,or ,is%eries and a1acltre
development< and improve t%e availabilit$ and dissemination o, data to planners0
tec%nicians0 ,armers and ,is%ermen. Priorit$ re1irements ,or researc% are as ,ollo2s.
BaC Identi,ication o, critical areas ,or 2ater-related adaptive researc%<
BbC Stren!t%enin! o, t%e adaptive researc% capacities o, instittions in developin!
contries<
BcC /n%ancement o, translation o, 2ater-related ,armin! and ,is%in! s$stems researc%
reslts into practical and accessible tec%nolo!ies and provision o, t%e spport needed ,or
t%eir rapid adoption at t%e ,ield level.
1(.&+. Trans,er o, tec%nolo!$0 bot% %ori5ontal and vertical0 needs to be stren!t%ened.
-ec%anisms to provide credit0 inpt spplies0 mar*ets0 appropriate pricin! and
transportation mst be developed ?ointl$ b$ contries and e3ternal spport a!encies.
Inte!rated rral 2ater-sppl$ in,rastrctre0 incldin! ,acilities ,or 2ater-related
edcation and trainin! and spport services ,or a!ricltre0 s%old be e3panded ,or
mltiple ses and s%old assist in developin! t%e rral econom$.
C/ *uman resource development
1(.(). /dcation and trainin! o, %man resorces s%old be activel$ prsed at t%e
national level t%ro!%. BaC assessment o, crrent and lon!-term %man resorces
mana!ement and trainin! needs< BbC establis%ment o, a national polic$ ,or %man
resorces development< and BcC initiation and implementation o, trainin! pro!rammes ,or
sta,, at all levels as 2ell as ,or ,armers. T%e necessar$ actions are as ,ollo2s.
BaC :ssess trainin! needs ,or a!ricltral 2ater mana!ement<
BbC Increase ,ormal and in,ormal trainin! activities<
BcC Develop practical trainin! corses ,or improvin! t%e abilit$ o, e3tension services to
disseminate tec%nolo!ies and stren!t%en ,armers9 capabilities0 2it% special re,erence to
small-scale prodcers<
BdC Train sta,, at all levels0 incldin! ,armers0 ,is%ermen and members o, local
commnities0 2it% particlar re,erence to 2omen<
BeC Increase t%e opportnities ,or career development to en%ance t%e capabilities o,
administrators and o,,icers at all levels involved in land- and 2ater-mana!ement
pro!rammes.
D/ Capacit01building
1(.(1. T%e importance o, a ,nctional and co%erent instittional ,rame2or* at t%e
national level to promote 2ater and sstainable a!ricltral development %as !enerall$
been ,ll$ reco!ni5ed at present. In addition0 an ade1ate le!al ,rame2or* o, rles and
re!lations s%old be in place to ,acilitate actions on a!ricltral 2ater-se0 draina!e0
2ater-1alit$ mana!ement0 small-scale 2ater pro!rammes and t%e ,nctionin! o, 2ater-
sers9 and ,is%ermen9s associations. 8e!islation speci,ic to t%e needs o, t%e a!ricltral
2ater sector s%old be consistent 2it%0 and stem ,rom0 !eneral le!islation ,or t%e
mana!ement o, 2ater resorces. :ctions s%old be prsed in t%e ,ollo2in! areas.
BaC Improvement o, 2ater-se policies related to a!ricltre0 ,is%eries and rral
development and o, le!al ,rame2or*s ,or implementin! sc% policies<
BbC Revie20 stren!t%enin! and restrctrin!0 i, re1ired0 o, e3istin! instittions in order to
en%ance t%eir capacities in 2ater-related activities0 2%ile reco!ni5in! t%e need to mana!e
2ater resorces at t%e lo2est appropriate level<
BcC Revie2 and stren!t%enin!0 2%ere necessar$0 o, or!ani5ational strctre0 ,nctional
relations%ips and lin*a!es amon! ministries and departments 2it%in a !iven ministr$<
BdC Provision o, speci,ic measres t%at re1ire spport ,or instittional stren!t%enin!0
inter alia0 t%ro!% lon!-term pro!ramme bd!etin!0 sta,, trainin!0 incentives0 mobilit$0
e1ipment and coordination mec%anisms<
BeC /n%ancement o, involvement o, t%e private sector0 2%ere appropriate0 in %man
resorce development and provision o, in,rastrctre<
B,C Trans,er o, e3istin! and ne2 2ater-se tec%nolo!ies b$ creatin! mec%anisms ,or
cooperation and in,ormation e3c%an!e amon! national and re!ional instittions.
($ "mpacts of climate cange on 4ater resources
-asis for action
1(.(2. T%ere is ncertaint$ 2it% respect to t%e prediction o, climate c%an!e at t%e !lobal
level. :lt%o!% t%e ncertainties increase !reatl$ at t%e re!ional0 national and local levels0
it is at t%e national level t%at t%e most important decisions 2old need to be made. 4i!%er
temperatres and decreased precipitation 2old lead to decreased 2ater-spplies and
increased 2ater demands< t%e$ mi!%t case deterioration in t%e 1alit$ o, ,res%2ater
bodies0 pttin! strains on t%e alread$ ,ra!ile balance bet2een sppl$ and demand in man$
contries. /ven 2%ere precipitation mi!%t increase0 t%ere is no !arantee t%at it 2old
occr at t%e time o, $ear 2%en it cold be sed< in addition0 t%ere mi!%t be a li*eli%ood o,
increased ,loodin!. :n$ rise in sealevel 2ill o,ten case t%e intrsion o, salt 2ater into
estaries0 small islands and coastal a1i,ers and t%e ,loodin! o, lo2-l$in! coastal areas<
t%is pts lo2-l$in! contries at !reat ris*.
1(.(#. T%e -inisterial Declaration o, t%e Second 6orld Climate Con,erence states t%at
At%e potential impact o, sc% climate c%an!e cold pose an environmental t%reat o, an p
to no2 n*no2n ma!nitde ... and cold even t%reaten srvival in some small island
States and in lo2-l$in! coastal0 arid and semi-arid areasA. #= T%e Con,erence reco!ni5ed
t%at amon! t%e most important impacts o, climate c%an!e 2ere its e,,ects on t%e
%$drolo!ic c$cle and on 2ater mana!ement s$stems and0 t%ro!% t%ese0 on socio-
economic s$stems. Increase in incidence o, e3tremes0 sc% as ,loods and dro!%ts0 2old
case increased ,re1enc$ and severit$ o, disasters. T%e Con,erence t%ere,ore called ,or a
stren!t%enin! o, t%e necessar$ researc% and monitorin! pro!rammes and t%e e3c%an!e o,
relevant data and in,ormation0 t%ese actions to be nderta*en at t%e national0 re!ional and
international levels.
#b.ectives
1(.(". T%e ver$ natre o, t%is topic calls ,irst and ,oremost ,or more in,ormation abot
and !reater nderstandin! o, t%e t%reat bein! ,aced. T%is topic ma$ be translated into t%e
,ollo2in! ob?ectives0 consistent 2it% t%e >nited ;ations Frame2or* Convention on
Climate C%an!e.
BaC To nderstand and 1anti,$ t%e t%reat o, t%e impact o, climate c%an!e on ,res%2ater
resorces<
BbC To ,acilitate t%e implementation o, e,,ective national contermeasres0 as and 2%en
t%e t%reatenin! impact is seen as s,,icientl$ con,irmed to ?sti,$ sc% action<
BcC To std$ t%e potential impacts o, climate c%an!e on areas prone to dro!%ts and
,loods.
Activities
1(.('. :ll States0 accordin! to t%eir capacit$ and available resorces0 and t%ro!%
bilateral or mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant
or!ani5ations as appropriate0 cold implement t%e ,ollo2in! activities.
BaC -onitor t%e %$drolo!ic re!ime0 incldin! soil moistre0 !rond2ater balance0
penetration and transpiration o, 2ater-1alit$0 and related climate ,actors0 especiall$ in
t%e re!ions and contries most li*el$ to s,,er ,rom t%e adverse e,,ects o, climate c%an!e
and 2%ere t%e localities vlnerable to t%ese e,,ects s%old t%ere,ore be de,ined<
BbC Develop and appl$ tec%ni1es and met%odolo!ies ,or assessin! t%e potential adverse
e,,ects o, climate c%an!e0 t%ro!% c%an!es in temperatre0 precipitation and sealevel rise0
on ,res%2ater resorces and t%e ,lood ris*<
BcC Initiate case-stdies to establis% 2%et%er t%ere are lin*a!es bet2een climate c%an!es
and t%e crrent occrrences o, dro!%ts and ,loods in certain re!ions<
BdC :ssess t%e resltin! social0 economic and environmental impacts<
BeC Develop and initiate response strate!ies to conter t%e adverse e,,ects t%at are
identi,ied0 incldin! c%an!in! !rond2ater levels and to miti!ate saline intrsion into
a1i,ers<
B,C Develop a!ricltral activities based on brac*is%-2ater se<
B!C Contribte to t%e researc% activities nder 2a$ 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, crrent
international pro!rammes.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1(.(6. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1)) million0
incldin! abot D") million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1(.(&. -onitorin! o, climate c%an!e and its impact on ,res%2ater bodies mst be closel$
inte!rated 2it% national and international pro!rammes ,or monitorin! t%e environment0 in
particlar t%ose concerned 2it% t%e atmosp%ere0 as discssed nder ot%er sections o,
:!enda 210 and t%e %$drosp%ere0 as discssed nder pro!ramme area E above. T%e
anal$sis o, data ,or indication o, climate c%an!e as a basis ,or developin! remedial
measres is a comple3 tas*. /3tensive researc% is necessar$ in t%is area and de accont
%as to be ta*en o, t%e 2or* o, t%e Inter!overnmental Panel on Climate C%an!e BIPCCC0
t%e 6orld Climate Pro!ramme0 t%e International 7eosp%ere-Eiosp%ere Pro!ramme
BI7EPC and ot%er relevant international pro!rammes.
1(.((. T%e development and implementation o, response strate!ies re1ires innovative
se o, tec%nolo!ical means and en!ineerin! soltions0 incldin! t%e installation o, ,lood
and dro!%t 2arnin! s$stems and t%e constrction o, ne2 2ater resorce development
pro?ects sc% as dams0 a1edcts0 2ell ,ields0 2aste-2ater treatment plants0 desalination
2or*s0 levees0 ban*s and draina!e c%annels. T%ere is also a need ,or coordinated researc%
net2or*s sc% as t%e International 7eosp%ere-Eiosp%ere Pro!ramme=7lobal C%an!e
S$stem ,or :nal$sis0 Researc% and Trainin! BI7EP=ST:RTC net2or*.
C/ *uman resource development
1(.(+. T%e developmental 2or* and innovation depend ,or t%eir sccess on !ood
academic trainin! and sta,, motivation. International pro?ects can %elp b$ enmeratin!
alternatives0 bt eac% contr$ needs to establis% and implement t%e necessar$ policies and
to develop its o2n e3pertise in t%e scienti,ic and en!ineerin! c%allen!es to be ,aced0 as
2ell as a bod$ o, dedicated individals 2%o are able to interpret t%e comple3 isses
concerned ,or t%ose re1ired to ma*e polic$ decisions. Sc% speciali5ed personnel need
to be trained0 %ired and retained in service0 so t%at t%e$ ma$ serve t%eir contries in t%ese
tas*s.
D/ Capacit01building
1(.+). T%ere is a need0 %o2ever0 to bild a capacit$ at t%e national level to develop0
revie2 and implement response strate!ies. Constrction o, ma?or en!ineerin! 2or*s and
installation o, ,orecastin! s$stems 2ill re1ire si!ni,icant stren!t%enin! o, t%e a!encies
responsible0 2%et%er in t%e pblic or t%e private sector. -ost critical is t%e re1irement
,or a socio-economic mec%anism t%at can revie2 predictions o, t%e impact o, climate
c%an!e and possible response strate!ies and ma*e t%e necessar$ ?d!ements and
decisions.
Notes
1= Report o, t%e >nited ;ations 6ater Con,erence0 -ar del Plata0 1"-2' -arc% 1+&&
B>nited ;ations pblication0 Sales ;o. /.&&.II.:.12C0 part one0 c%ap. I0 sect. C0 para. #'.
2= Ibid.0 part one0 c%ap. I0 resoltion II.
#= :="'=6+6=:dd.10 anne3 III0 preamble0 para. 2.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 1@
Environmentall0 Sound %anagement of !o8ic Cemicals5 "ncluding
Prevention of "llegal "nternational !raffic in !o8ic , Dangerous
Products
"ntroduction
1+.1. : sbstantial se o, c%emicals is essential to meet t%e social and economic !oals o,
t%e 2orld commnit$ and toda$9s best practice demonstrates t%at t%e$ can be sed 2idel$
in a cost-e,,ective manner and 2it% a %i!% de!ree o, sa,et$. 4o2ever0 a !reat deal
remains to be done to ensre t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, to3ic c%emicals0
2it%in t%e principles o, sstainable development and improved 1alit$ o, li,e ,or
%man*ind. T2o o, t%e ma?or problems0 particlarl$ in developin! contries0 are BaC lac*
o, s,,icient scienti,ic in,ormation ,or t%e assessment o, ris*s entailed b$ t%e se o, a
!reat nmber o, c%emicals0 and BbC lac* o, resorces ,or assessment o, c%emicals ,or
2%ic% data are at %and.
1+.2. 7ross c%emical contamination0 2it% !rave dama!e to %man %ealt%0 !enetic
strctres and reprodctive otcomes0 and t%e environment0 %as in recent times been
continin! 2it%in some o, t%e 2orld9s most important indstrial areas. Restoration 2ill
re1ire ma?or investment and development o, ne2 tec%ni1es. T%e lon!-ran!e e,,ects o,
polltion0 e3tendin! even to t%e ,ndamental c%emical and p%$sical processes o, t%e
/art%9s atmosp%ere and climate0 are becomin! nderstood onl$ recentl$ and t%e
importance o, t%ose e,,ects is becomin! reco!ni5ed onl$ recentl$ as 2ell.
1+.#. : considerable nmber o, international bodies are involved in 2or* on c%emical
sa,et$. In man$ contries 2or* pro!rammes ,or t%e promotion o, c%emical sa,et$ are in
place. Sc% 2or* %as international implications0 as c%emical ris*s do not respect national
bondaries. 4o2ever0 a si!ni,icant stren!t%enin! o, bot% national and international
e,,orts is needed to ac%ieve an environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, c%emicals.
1+.". Si3 pro!ramme areas are proposed.
BaC /3pandin! and acceleratin! international assessment o, c%emical ris*s<
BbC 4armoni5ation o, classi,ication and labellin! o, c%emicals<
BcC In,ormation e3c%an!e on to3ic c%emicals and c%emical ris*s<
BdC /stablis%ment o, ris* redction pro!rammes<
BeC Stren!t%enin! o, national capabilities and capacities ,or mana!ement o, c%emicals<
B,C Prevention o, ille!al international tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts.
In addition0 t%e s%ort ,inal sbsection 7 deals 2it% t%e en%ancement o, cooperation
related to several pro!ramme areas.
1+.'. T%e si3 pro!ramme areas are to!et%er dependent ,or t%eir sccess,l
implementation on intensive international 2or* and improved coordination o, crrent
international activities0 as 2ell as on t%e identi,ication and application o, tec%nical0
scienti,ic0 edcational and ,inancial means0 in particlar ,or developin! contries. To
var$in! de!rees0 t%e pro!ramme areas involve %a5ard assessment Bbased on t%e intrinsic
properties o, c%emicalsC0 ris* assessment Bincldin! assessment o, e3posreC0 ris*
acceptabilit$ and ris* mana!ement.
1+.6. Collaboration on c%emical sa,et$ bet2een t%e >nited ;ations /nvironment
Pro!ramme B>;/PC0 t%e International 8abor Or!anisation BI8OC and t%e 6orld 4ealt%
Or!ani5ation B64OC in t%e International Pro!ramme on C%emical Sa,et$ BIPCSC s%old
be t%e ncles ,or international cooperation on environmentall$ sond mana!ement o,
to3ic c%emicals. :ll e,,orts s%old be made to stren!t%en t%is pro!ramme. Cooperation
2it% ot%er pro!rammes0 sc% as t%ose o, t%e Or!anisation ,or /conomic Cooperation and
Development BO/CDC and t%e /ropean Commnities B/CC and ot%er re!ional and
!overnmental c%emical pro!rammes0 s%old be promoted.
1+.&. Increased coordination o, >nited ;ations bodies and ot%er international
or!ani5ations involved in c%emicals assessment and mana!ement s%old be ,rt%er
promoted. 6it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, IPCS0 an inter!overnmental meetin!0 convened b$
t%e /3ective Director o, >;/P0 2as %eld in 8ondon in December 1++1 to ,rt%er
e3plore t%is matter Bsee paras. 1+.&' and 1+.&6C.
1+.(. T%e broadest possible a2areness o, c%emical ris*s is a prere1isite ,or ac%ievin!
c%emical sa,et$. T%e principle o, t%e ri!%t o, t%e commnit$ and o, 2or*ers to *no2
t%ose ris*s s%old be reco!ni5ed. 4o2ever0 t%e ri!%t to *no2 t%e identit$ o, %a5ardos
in!redients s%old be balanced 2it% indstr$9s ri!%t to protect con,idential bsiness
in,ormation. BIndstr$0 as re,erred to in t%is c%apter0 s%all be ta*en to inclde lar!e
indstrial enterprises and transnational corporations as 2ell as domestic indstries.C T%e
indstr$ initiative on responsible care and prodct ste2ards%ip s%old be developed and
promoted. Indstr$ s%old appl$ ade1ate standards o, operation in all contries in order
not to dama!e %man %ealt% and t%e environment.
1+.+. T%ere is international concern t%at part o, t%e international movement o, to3ic and
dan!eros prodcts is bein! carried ot in contravention o, e3istin! national le!islation
and international instrments0 to t%e detriment o, t%e environment and pblic %ealt% o, all
contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries.
1+.1). In resoltion ""=226 o, 22 December 1+(+0 t%e 7eneral :ssembl$ re1ested eac%
re!ional commission0 2it%in e3istin! resorces0 to contribte to t%e prevention o, t%e
ille!al tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts and 2astes b$ monitorin! and ma*in!
re!ional assessments o, t%at ille!al tra,,ic and its environmental and %ealt% implications.
T%e :ssembl$ also re1ested t%e re!ional commissions to interact amon! t%emselves and
to cooperate 2it% t%e >nited ;ations /nvironment Pro!ramme0 2it% a vie2 to
maintainin! e,,icient and coordinated monitorin! and assessment o, t%e ille!al tra,,ic in
to3ic and dan!eros prodcts and 2astes.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ E8panding and accelerating international assessment of cemical risks
1+.11. :ssessin! t%e ris*s to %man %ealt% and t%e environment %a5ards t%at a c%emical
ma$ case is a prere1isite to plannin! ,or its sa,e and bene,icial se. :mon! t%e
appro3imatel$ 1))0))) c%emical sbstances in commerce and t%e t%osands o,
sbstances o, natral ori!in 2it% 2%ic% %man bein!s come into contact0 man$ appear as
polltants and contaminants in ,ood0 commercial prodcts and t%e varios environmental
media. Fortnatel$0 e3posre to most c%emicals Bsome 10')) cover over +' per cent o,
total 2orld prodctionC is rat%er limited0 as most are sed in ver$ small amonts.
4o2ever0 a serios problem is t%at even ,or a !reat nmber o, c%emicals c%aracteri5ed b$
%i!%-volme prodction0 crcial data ,or ris* assessment are o,ten lac*in!. 6it%in t%e
,rame2or* o, t%e O/CD c%emicals pro!ramme sc% data are no2 bein! !enerated ,or a
nmber o, c%emicals.
1+.12. Ris* assessment is resorce-intensive. It cold be made cost-e,,ective b$
stren!t%enin! international cooperation and better coordination0 t%ereb$ ma*in! t%e best
se o, available resorces and avoidin! nnecessar$ dplication o, e,,ort. 4o2ever0 eac%
nation s%old %ave a critical mass o, tec%nical sta,, 2it% e3perience in to3icit$ testin!
and e3posre anal$sis0 2%ic% are t2o important components o, ris* assessment.
#b.ectives
1+.1#. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To stren!t%en international ris* assessment. Several %ndred priorit$ c%emicals or
!rops o, c%emicals0 incldin! ma?or polltants and contaminants o, !lobal si!ni,icance0
s%old be assessed b$ t%e $ear 2)))0 sin! crrent selection and assessment criteria<
BbC To prodce !idelines ,or acceptable e3posre ,or a !reater nmber o, to3ic
c%emicals0 based on peer revie2 and scienti,ic consenss distin!is%in! bet2een %ealt%-
or environment-based e3posre limits and t%ose relatin! to socio-economic ,actors.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1+.1". 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en and e3pand pro!rammes on c%emical ris* assessment 2it%in t%e >nited
;ations s$stem IPCS B>;/P0 I8O0 64OC and t%e Food and :!ricltre Or!ani5ation o,
t%e >nited ;ations BF:OC0 to!et%er 2it% ot%er or!ani5ations0 incldin! t%e Or!anisation
,or /conomic Cooperation and Development BO/CDC0 based on an a!reed approac% to
data-1alit$ assrance0 application o, assessment criteria0 peer revie2 and lin*a!es to ris*
mana!ement activities0 ta*in! into accont t%e precationar$ approac%<
BbC Promote mec%anisms to increase collaboration amon! 7overnments0 indstr$0
academia and relevant non-!overnmental or!ani5ations involved in t%e varios aspects o,
ris* assessment o, c%emicals and related processes0 in particlar t%e promotin! and
coordinatin! o, researc% activities to improve nderstandin! o, t%e mec%anisms o, action
o, to3ic c%emicals<
BcC /ncora!e t%e development o, procedres ,or t%e e3c%an!e b$ contries o, t%eir
assessment reports on c%emicals 2it% ot%er contries ,or se in national c%emical
assessment pro!rammes.
-/ Data and information
1+.1'. 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC 7ive %i!% priorit$ to %a5ard assessment o, c%emicals0 t%at is0 o, t%eir intrinsic
properties as t%e appropriate basis ,or ris* assessment<
BbC 7enerate data necessar$ ,or assessment0 bildin!0 inter alia0 on pro!rammes o, IPCS
B>;/P0 64O0 I8OC0 F:O0 O/CD and /C and on establis%ed pro!rammes ot%er re!ions
and 7overnments. Indstr$ s%old participate activel$.
1+.16. Indstr$ s%old provide data ,or sbstances prodced t%at are needed speci,icall$
,or t%e assessment o, potential ris*s to %man %ealt% and t%e environment. Sc% data
s%old be made available to relevant national competent at%orities and international
bodies and ot%er interested parties involved in %a5ard and ris* assessment0 and to t%e
!reatest possible e3tent to t%e pblic also0 ta*in! into accont le!itimate claims o,
con,identialit$.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1+.1&. 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Develop criteria ,or priorit$-settin! ,or c%emicals o, !lobal concern 2it% respect to
assessment<
BbC Revie2 strate!ies ,or e3posre assessment and environmental monitorin! to allo2 ,or
t%e best se o, available resorces0 to ensre compatibilit$ o, data and to encora!e
co%erent national and international strate!ies ,or t%at assessment.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
1+.1(. -ost o, t%e data and met%ods ,or c%emical ris* assessment are !enerated in t%e
developed contries and an e3pansion and acceleration o, t%e assessment 2or* 2ill call
,or a considerable increase in researc% and sa,et$ testin! b$ indstr$ and researc%
instittions. T%e cost pro?ections address t%e needs to stren!t%en t%e capacities o, relevant
>nited ;ations bodies and are based on crrent e3perience in IPCS. It s%old be noted
t%at t%ere are considerable costs0 o,ten not possible to 1anti,$0 t%at are not inclded.
T%ese comprise costs to indstr$ and 7overnments o, !eneratin! t%e sa,et$ data
nderl$in! t%e assessments and costs to 7overnments o, providin! bac*!rond
docments and dra,t assessment statements to IPCS0 t%e International Re!ister o,
Potentiall$ To3ic C%emicals BIRPTCC and O/CD. T%e$ also inclde t%e cost o,
accelerated 2or* in non->nited ;ations bodies sc% as O/CD and /C.
1+.1+. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D#) million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1+.2). -a?or researc% e,,orts s%old be lanc%ed in order to improve met%ods ,or
assessment o, c%emicals as 2or* to2ards a common ,rame2or* ,or ris* assessment and
to improve procedres ,or sin! to3icolo!ical and epidemiolo!ical data to predict t%e
e,,ects o, c%emicals on %man %ealt% and t%e environment0 so as to enable decision
ma*ers to adopt ade1ate policies and measres to redce ris*s posed b$ c%emicals.
1+.21. :ctivities inclde.
BaC Stren!t%enin! researc% on sa,e=sa,er alternatives to to3ic c%emicals t%at pose an
nreasonable and ot%er2ise nmana!eable ris* to t%e environment or %man %ealt% and
to t%ose t%at are to3ic0 persistent and bio-accmlative and t%at cannot be ade1atel$
controlled<
BbC Promotion o, researc% on0 and validation o,0 met%ods constittin! a replacement ,or
t%ose sin! test animals Bt%s redcin! t%e se o, animals ,or testin! prposesC<
BcC Promotion o, relevant epidemiolo!ical stdies 2it% a vie2 to establis%in! a case-
and-e,,ect relations%ip bet2een e3posre to c%emicals and t%e occrrence o, certain
diseases<
BdC Promotion o, ecoto3icolo!ical stdies 2it% t%e aim o, assessin! t%e ris*s o, c%emicals
to t%e environment.
C/ *uman resource development
1+.22. International or!ani5ations0 2it% t%e participation o, 7overnments and non-
!overnmental or!ani5ations0 s%old lanc% trainin! and edcation pro?ects involvin!
2omen and c%ildren0 2%o are at !reatest ris*0 in order to enable contries0 and
particlarl$ developin! contries0 to ma*e ma3imm national se o, international
assessments o, c%emical ris*s.
D/ Capacit01building
1+.2#. International or!ani5ations0 bildin! on past0 present and ,tre assessment 2or*0
s%old spport contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in developin! and
stren!t%enin! ris* assessment capabilities at national and re!ional levels to minimi5e0 and
as ,ar as possible control and prevent0 ris* in t%e man,actrin! and se o, to3ic and
%a5ardos c%emicals. Tec%nical cooperation and ,inancial spport or ot%er contribtions
s%old be !iven to activities aimed at e3pandin! and acceleratin! t%e national and
international assessment and control o, c%emical ris*s to enable t%e best c%oice o,
c%emicals.
-$ *armoni7ation of classification and labelling of cemicals
-asis for action
1+.2". :de1ate labellin! o, c%emicals and t%e dissemination o, sa,et$ data s%eets sc%
as ICSCs BInternational C%emical Sa,et$ CardsC and similarl$ 2ritten materials0 based on
assessed %a5ards to %ealt% and environment0 are t%e simplest and most e,,icient 2a$ o,
indicatin! %o2 to %andle and se c%emicals sa,el$.
1+.2'. For t%e sa,e transport o, dan!eros !oods0 incldin! c%emicals0 a compre%ensive
sc%eme elaborated 2it%in t%e >nited ;ations s$stem is in crrent se. T%is sc%eme
mainl$ ta*es into accont t%e acte %a5ards o, c%emicals.
1+.26. 7loball$ %armoni5ed %a5ard classi,ication and labellin! s$stems are not $et
available to promote t%e sa,e se o, c%emicals0 inter alia0 at t%e 2or*place or in t%e %ome.
Classi,ication o, c%emicals can be made ,or di,,erent prposes and is a particlarl$
important tool in establis%in! labellin! s$stems. T%ere is a need to develop %armoni5ed
%a5ard classi,ication and labellin! s$stems0 bildin! on on!oin! 2or*.
#b.ectives
1+.2&. : !loball$ %armoni5ed %a5ard classi,ication and compatible labellin! s$stem0
incldin! material sa,et$ data s%eets and easil$ nderstandable s$mbols0 s%old be
available0 i, ,easible0 b$ t%e $ear 2))).
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1+.2(. 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old lanc% a pro?ect 2it% a vie2 to establis%in! and
elaboratin! a %armoni5ed classi,ication and compatible labellin! s$stem ,or c%emicals ,or
se in all >nited ;ations o,,icial lan!a!es incldin! ade1ate picto!rams. Sc% a
labellin! s$stem s%old not lead to t%e imposition o, n?sti,ied trade barriers. T%e ne2
s$stem s%old dra2 on crrent s$stems to t%e !reatest e3tent possible< it s%old be
developed in steps and s%old address t%e sb?ect o, compatibilit$ 2it% labels o, varios
applications.
-/ Data and information
1+.2+. International bodies incldin!0 inter alia0 IPCS B>;/P0 I8O0 64OC0 F:O0 t%e
International -aritime Or!ani5ation BI-OC0 t%e >nited ;ations Committee o, /3perts on
t%e Transport o, Dan!eros 7oods and O/CD0 in cooperation 2it% re!ional and national
at%orities %avin! e3istin! classi,ication and labellin! and ot%er in,ormation-
dissemination s$stems0 s%old establis% a coordinatin! !rop to.
BaC /valate and0 i, appropriate0 nderta*e stdies o, e3istin! %a5ard classi,ication and
in,ormation s$stems to establis% !eneral principles ,or a !loball$ %armoni5ed s$stem<
BbC Develop and implement a 2or* plan ,or t%e establis%ment o, a !loball$ %armoni5ed
%a5ard classi,ication s$stem. T%e plan s%old inclde a description o, t%e tas*s to be
completed0 deadline ,or completion and assi!nment o, tas*s to t%e participants in t%e
coordinatin! !rop<
BcC /laborate a %armoni5ed %a5ard classi,ication s$stem<
BdC Dra,t proposals ,or standardi5ation o, %a5ard commnication terminolo!$ and
s$mbols in order to en%ance ris* mana!ement o, c%emicals and ,acilitate bot%
international trade and translation o, in,ormation into t%e end-ser9s lan!a!e<
BeC /laborate a %armoni5ed labellin! s$stem.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
1+.#). T%e Con,erence secretariat %as inclded t%e tec%nical assistance costs related to
t%is pro!ramme in estimates provided in pro!ramme area /. T%e$ estimate t%e avera!e
total annal cost B1++#-2)))C ,or stren!t%enin! international or!ani5ations to be abot D#
million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ *uman resource development
1+.#1. 7overnments and instittions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 2it% t%e
collaboration o, appropriate or!ani5ations and pro!rammes o, t%e >nited ;ations0 s%old
lanc% trainin! corses and in,ormation campai!ns to ,acilitate t%e nderstandin! and se
o, a ne2 %armoni5ed classi,ication and compatible labellin! s$stem ,or c%emicals.
C/ Capacit01building
1+.#2. In stren!t%enin! national capacities ,or mana!ement o, c%emicals0 incldin!
development and implementation o,0 and adaptation to0 ne2 classi,ication and labellin!
s$stems0 t%e creation o, trade barriers s%old be avoided and t%e limited capacities and
resorces o, a lar!e nmber o, contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 ,or
implementin! sc% s$stems0 s%old be ta*en into ,ll accont.
C$ "nformation e8cange on to8ic cemicals and cemical risks
-asis for action
1+.##. T%e ,ollo2in! activities0 related to in,ormation e3c%an!e on t%e bene,its as 2ell as
t%e ris*s associated 2it% t%e se o, c%emicals0 are aimed at en%ancin! t%e sond
mana!ement o, to3ic c%emicals t%ro!% t%e e3c%an!e o, scienti,ic0 tec%nical0 economic
and le!al in,ormation.
1+.#". T%e 8ondon 7idelines ,or t%e /3c%an!e o, In,ormation on C%emicals in
International Trade are a set o, !idelines adopted b$ 7overnments 2it% a vie2 to
increasin! c%emical sa,et$ t%ro!% t%e e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on c%emicals. Special
provisions %ave been inclded in t%e !idelines 2it% re!ard to t%e e3c%an!e o,
in,ormation on banned and severel$ restricted c%emicals.
1+.#'. T%e e3port to developin! contries o, c%emicals t%at %ave been banned in
prodcin! contries or 2%ose se %as been severel$ restricted in some indstriali5ed
contries %as been t%e sb?ect o, concern0 as some importin! contries lac* t%e abilit$ to
ensre sa,e se0 o2in! to inade1ate in,rastrctre ,or controllin! t%e importation0
distribtion0 stora!e0 ,ormlation and disposal o, c%emicals.
1+.#6. In order to address t%is isse0 provisions ,or Prior In,ormed Consent BPICC
procedres 2ere introdced in 1+(+ in t%e 8ondon 7idelines B>;/PC and in t%e
International Code o, Condct on t%e Distribtion and >se o, Pesticides BF:OC. In
addition a ?oint F:O=>;/P pro!ramme %as been lanc%ed ,or t%e operation o, t%e PIC
procedres ,or c%emicals0 incldin! t%e selection o, c%emicals to be inclded in t%e PIC
procedre and preparation o, PIC decision !idance docments. T%e I8O c%emicals
convention calls ,or commnication bet2een e3portin! and importin! contries 2%en
%a5ardos c%emicals %ave been pro%ibited ,or reasons o, sa,et$ and %ealt% at 2or*.
6it%in t%e 7eneral :!reement on Tari,,s and Trade B7:TTC ,rame2or*0 ne!otiations
%ave been prsed 2it% a vie2 to creatin! a bindin! instrment on prodcts banned or
severel$ restricted in t%e domestic mar*et. Frt%er0 t%e 7:TT Concil %as a!reed0 as
stated in its decision contained in C=-=2'10 to e3tend t%e mandate o, t%e 2or*in! !rop
,or a period o, t%ree mont%s0 to be!in ,rom t%e date o, t%e !rop9s ne3t meetin!0 and %as
at%ori5ed t%e C%airman to %old consltations on timin! 2it% respect to convenin! t%is
meetin!.
1+.#&. ;ot2it%standin! t%e importance o, t%e PIC procedre0 in,ormation e3c%an!e on all
c%emicals is necessar$.
#b.ectives
1+.#(. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To promote intensi,ied e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on c%emical sa,et$0 se and emissions
amon! all involved parties<
BbC To ac%ieve b$ t%e $ear 2)))0 as ,easible0 ,ll participation in and implementation o,
t%e PIC procedre0 incldin! possible mandator$ applications t%ro!% le!all$ bindin!
instrments contained in t%e :mended 8ondon 7idelines and in t%e F:O International
Code o, Condct0 ta*in! into accont t%e e3perience !ained 2it%in t%e PIC procedre.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1+.#+. 7overnments and relevant international or!ani5ations 2it% t%e cooperation o,
indstr$ s%old.
BaC Stren!t%en national instittions responsible ,or in,ormation e3c%an!e on to3ic
c%emicals and promote t%e creation o, national centres 2%ere t%ese centres do not e3ist<
BbC Stren!t%en international instittions and net2or*s0 sc% as IRPTC0 responsible ,or
in,ormation e3c%an!e on to3ic c%emicals<
BcC /stablis% tec%nical cooperation 2it%0 and provide in,ormation to0 ot%er contries0
especiall$ t%ose 2it% s%orta!es o, tec%nical e3pertise0 incldin! trainin! in t%e
interpretation o, relevant tec%nical data0 sc% as /nvironmental 4ealt% Criteria
Docments0 4ealt% and Sa,et$ 7ides and International C%emical Sa,et$ Cards
Bpblis%ed b$ IPCSC< mono!rap%s on t%e /valation o, Carcino!enic Ris*s o, C%emicals
to 4mans Bpblis%ed b$ t%e International :!enc$ ,or Researc% on Cancer BI:RCCC< and
decision !idance docments Bprovided t%ro!% t%e F:O=>;/P ?oint pro!ramme on
PICC0 as 2ell as t%ose sbmitted b$ indstr$ and ot%er sorces<
BdC Implement t%e PIC procedres as soon as possible and0 in t%e li!%t o, e3perience
!ained0 invite relevant international or!ani5ations0 sc% as >;/P0 7:TT0 F:O0 64O and
ot%ers0 in t%eir respective area o, competence to consider 2or*in! e3peditiosl$ to2ards
t%e conclsion o, le!all$ bindin! instrments.
-/ Data and information
1+."). 7overnments and relevant international or!ani5ations 2it% t%e cooperation o,
indstr$ s%old.
BaC :ssist in t%e creation o, national c%emical in,ormation s$stems in developin!
contries and improve access to e3istin! international s$stems<
BbC Improve databases and in,ormation s$stems on to3ic c%emicals0 sc% as emission
inventor$ pro!rammes0 t%ro!% provision o, trainin! in t%e se o, t%ose s$stems as 2ell
as so,t2are0 %ard2are and ot%er ,acilities<
BcC Provide *no2led!e and in,ormation on severel$ restricted or banned c%emicals to
importin! contries to enable t%em to ?d!e and ta*e decisions on 2%et%er to import0 and
%o2 to %andle0 t%ose c%emicals and establis% ?oint responsibilities in trade o, c%emicals
bet2een importin! and e3portin! contries<
BdC Provide data necessar$ to assess ris*s to %man %ealt% and t%e environment o,
possible alternatives to banned or severel$ restricted c%emicals.
1+."1. >nited ;ations or!ani5ations s%old provide0 as ,ar as possible0 all international
in,ormation material on to3ic c%emicals in all >nited ;ations o,,icial lan!a!es.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1+."2. 7overnments and relevant international or!ani5ations 2it% t%e cooperation o,
indstr$ s%old cooperate in establis%in!0 stren!t%enin! and e3pandin!0 as appropriate0
t%e net2or* o, desi!nated national at%orities ,or e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on c%emicals
and establis% a tec%nical e3c%an!e pro!ramme to prodce a core o, trained personnel
2it%in eac% participatin! contr$.
%eans of implementation
)inancing and cost evaluation
1+."#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1) million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
D$ Establisment of risk reduction programmes
-asis for action
1+."". T%ere are o,ten alternatives to to3ic c%emicals crrentl$ in se. T%s0 ris*
redction can sometimes be ac%ieved b$ sin! ot%er c%emicals or even non-c%emical
tec%nolo!ies. T%e classic e3ample o, ris* redction is t%e sbstittion o, %armless or less
%arm,l sbstances ,or %arm,l ones. /stablis%ment o, polltion prevention procedres
and settin! standards ,or c%emicals in eac% environmental medim0 incldin! ,ood and
2ater0 and in consmer !oods0 constitte anot%er e3ample o, ris* redction. In a 2ider
conte3t0 ris* redction involves broad-based approac%es to redcin! t%e ris*s o, to3ic
c%emicals0 ta*in! into accont t%e entire li,e c$cle o, t%e c%emicals. Sc% approac%es
cold encompass bot% re!lator$ and non-re!lator$ measres0 sc% as promotion o, t%e
se o, cleaner prodcts and tec%nolo!ies0 polltion prevention procedres and
pro!rammes0 emission inventories0 prodct labellin!0 se limitations0 economic
incentives0 procedres ,or sa,e %andlin! and e3posre re!lations0 and t%e p%asin! ot or
bannin! o, c%emicals t%at pose nreasonable and ot%er2ise nmana!eable ris*s to %man
%ealt% and t%e environment and o, t%ose t%at are to3ic0 persistent and bio-accmlative
and 2%ose se cannot be ade1atel$ controlled.
1+."'. In t%e a!ricltral area0 inte!rated pest mana!ement0 incldin! t%e se o,
biolo!ical control a!ents as alternatives to to3ic pesticides0 is one approac% to ris*
redction.
1+."6. Ot%er areas o, ris* redction encompass t%e prevention o, c%emical accidents0
prevention o, poisonin! b$ c%emicals and t%e nderta*in! o, to3icovi!ilance and
coordination o, clean-p and re%abilitation o, areas dama!ed b$ to3ic c%emicals.
1+."&. T%e O/CD Concil %as decided t%at O/CD member contries s%old establis% or
stren!t%en national ris* redction pro!rammes. T%e International Concil o, C%emical
:ssociations BICC:C %as introdced initiatives re!ardin! responsible care and prodct
ste2ards%ip aimed at redction o, c%emical ris*s. T%e :2areness and Preparedness ,or
/mer!encies at 8ocal 8evel B:P/88C pro!ramme o, >;/P is desi!ned to assist decision
ma*ers and tec%nical personnel in improvin! commnit$ a2areness o, %a5ardos
installations and in preparin! response plans. I8O %as pblis%ed a Code o, Practice on t%e
prevention o, ma?or indstrial accidents and is preparin! an international instrment on
t%e prevention o, indstrial disasters ,or evental adoption in 1++#.
#b.ectives
1+."(. T%e ob?ective o, t%e pro!ramme area is to eliminate nacceptable or nreasonable
ris*s and0 to t%e e3tent economicall$ ,easible0 to redce ris*s posed b$ to3ic c%emicals0
b$ emplo$in! a broad-based approac% involvin! a 2ide ran!e o, ris* redction options
and b$ ta*in! precationar$ measres derived ,rom a broad-based li,e-c$cle anal$sis.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1+."+. 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Consider adoptin! policies based on accepted prodcer liabilit$ principles0 2%ere
appropriate0 as 2ell as precationar$0 anticipator$ and li,e-c$cle approac%es to c%emical
mana!ement0 coverin! man,actrin!0 trade0 transport0 se and disposal<
BbC >nderta*e concerted activities to redce ris*s ,or to3ic c%emicals0 ta*in! into accont
t%e entire li,e c$cle o, t%e c%emicals. T%ese activities cold encompass bot% re!lator$
and non-re!lator$ measres0 sc% as promotion o, t%e se o, cleaner prodcts and
tec%nolo!ies< emission inventories< prodct labellin!< se limitations< economic
incentives< and t%e p%asin! ot or bannin! o, to3ic c%emicals t%at pose an nreasonable
and ot%er2ise nmana!eable ris* to t%e environment or %man %ealt% and t%ose t%at are
to3ic0 persistent and bio-accmlative and 2%ose se cannot be ade1atel$ controlled<
BcC :dopt policies and re!lator$ and non-re!lator$ measres to identi,$0 and minimi5e
e3posre to0 to3ic c%emicals b$ replacin! t%em 2it% less to3ic sbstittes and ltimatel$
p%asin! ot t%e c%emicals t%at pose nreasonable and ot%er2ise nmana!eable ris* to
%man %ealt% and t%e environment and t%ose t%at are to3ic0 persistent and bio-
accmlative and 2%ose se cannot be ade1atel$ controlled<
BdC Increase e,,orts to identi,$ national needs ,or standard settin! and implementation in
t%e conte3t o, t%e F:O=64O Code3 :limentaris in order to minimi5e adverse e,,ects o,
c%emicals in ,ood<
BeC Develop national policies and adopt t%e necessar$ re!lator$ ,rame2or* ,or
prevention o, accidents0 preparedness and response0 inter alia0 t%ro!% land-se plannin!0
permit s$stems and reportin! re1irements on accidents0 and 2or* 2it% t%e O/CD=>;/P
international director$ o, re!ional response centres and t%e :P/88 pro!ramme<
B,C Promote establis%ment and stren!t%enin!0 as appropriate0 o, national poison control
centres to ensre prompt and ade1ate dia!nosis and treatment o, poisonin!s<
B!C Redce overdependence on t%e se o, a!ricltral c%emicals t%ro!% alternative
,armin! practices0 inte!rated pest mana!ement and ot%er appropriate means<
B%C Re1ire man,actrers0 importers and ot%ers %andlin! to3ic c%emicals to develop0
2it% t%e cooperation o, prodcers o, sc% c%emicals0 2%ere applicable0 emer!enc$
response procedres and preparation o, on-site and o,,-site emer!enc$ response plans<
BiC Identi,$0 assess0 redce and minimi5e0 or eliminate as ,ar as ,easible b$
environmentall$ sond disposal practices0 ris*s ,rom stora!e o, otdated c%emicals.
1+.'). Indstr$ s%old be encora!ed to.
BaC Develop an internationall$ a!reed pon code o, principles ,or t%e mana!ement o,
trade in c%emicals0 reco!ni5in! in particlar t%e responsibilit$ ,or ma*in! available
in,ormation on potential ris*s and environmentall$ sond disposal practices i, t%ose
c%emicals become 2astes0 in cooperation 2it% 7overnments and relevant international
or!ani5ations and appropriate a!encies o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem<
BbC Develop application o, a Aresponsible careA approac% b$ prodcers and man,actrers
to2ards c%emical prodcts0 ta*in! into accont t%e total li,e c$cle o, sc% prodcts<
BcC :dopt0 on a volntar$ basis0 commnit$ ri!%t-to-*no2 pro!rammes based on
international !idelines0 incldin! s%arin! o, in,ormation on cases o, accidental and
potential releases and means o, preventin! t%em0 and reportin! on annal rotine
emissions o, to3ic c%emicals to t%e environment in t%e absence o, %ost contr$
re1irements.
-/ Data and information
1+.'1. 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Promote e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on national and re!ional activities to redce t%e
ris*s o, to3ic c%emicals<
BbC Cooperate in t%e development o, commnication !idelines on c%emical ris*s at t%e
national level to promote in,ormation e3c%an!e 2it% t%e pblic and t%e nderstandin! o,
ris*s.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1+.'2. 7overnments0 t%ro!% t%e cooperation o, relevant international or!ani5ations and
indstr$0 2%ere appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Collaborate to develop common criteria to determine 2%ic% c%emicals are sitable
candidates ,or concerted ris* redction activities<
BbC Coordinate concerted ris* redction activities<
BcC Develop !idelines and policies ,or t%e disclosre b$ man,actrers0 importers and
ot%ers sin! to3ic c%emicals o, to3icit$ in,ormation declarin! ris*s and emer!enc$
response arran!ements<
BdC /ncora!e lar!e indstrial enterprises incldin! transnational corporations and ot%er
enterprises 2%erever t%e$ operate to introdce policies demonstratin! t%e commitment0
2it% re,erence to t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, to3ic c%emicals0 to adopt
standards o, operation e1ivalent to or not less strin!ent t%an t%ose e3istin! in t%e contr$
o, ori!in<
BeC /ncora!e and spport t%e development and adoption b$ small- and medim-si5ed
indstries o, relevant procedres ,or ris* redction in t%eir activities<
B,C Develop re!lator$ and non-re!lator$ measres and procedres aimed at preventin!
t%e e3port o, c%emicals t%at are banned0 severel$ restricted0 2it%dra2n or not approved
,or %ealt% or environmental reasons0 e3cept 2%en sc% e3port %as received prior 2ritten
consent ,rom t%e importin! contr$ or is ot%er2ise in accordance 2it% t%e PIC procedre<
B!C /ncora!e national and re!ional 2or* to %armoni5e evalation o, pesticides<
B%C Promote and develop mec%anisms ,or t%e sa,e prodction0 mana!ement and se o,
dan!eros materials0 ,ormlatin! pro!rammes to sbstitte ,or t%em sa,er alternatives0
2%ere appropriate<
BiC Formali5e net2or*s o, emer!enc$ response centres<
B?C /ncora!e indstr$0 2it% t%e %elp o, mltilateral cooperation0 to p%ase ot as
appropriate0 and dispose o,0 an$ banned c%emicals t%at are still in stoc* or in se in an
environmentall$ sond manner0 incldin! sa,e rese0 2%ere approved and appropriate.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancial and cost evaluation
1+.'#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as inclded most costs related to t%is pro!ramme in
estimates provided ,or pro!ramme areas : and /. T%e$ estimate ot%er re1irements ,or
trainin! and stren!t%enin! t%e emer!enc$ and poison control centres to be abot D"
million annall$ ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese
are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1+.'". 7overnments0 in cooperation 2it% relevant international or!ani5ations and
pro!rammes0 s%old.
BaC Promote tec%nolo!$ t%at 2old minimi5e release o,0 and e3posre to0 to3ic c%emicals
in all contries<
BbC Carr$ ot national revie2s0 as appropriate0 o, previosl$ accepted pesticides 2%ose
acceptance 2as based on criteria no2 reco!ni5ed as ins,,icient or otdated and o, t%eir
possible replacement 2it% ot%er pest control met%ods0 particlarl$ in t%e case o,
pesticides t%at are to3ic0 persistent and=or bio-accmlative.
E$ Strengtening of national capabilities and capacities for management of
cemicals
-asis for action
1+.''. -an$ contries lac* national s$stems to cope 2it% c%emical ris*s. -ost contries
lac* scienti,ic means o, collectin! evidence o, misse and o, ?d!in! t%e impact o, to3ic
c%emicals on t%e environment0 becase o, t%e di,,iclties involved in t%e detection o,
man$ problematic c%emicals and s$stematicall$ trac*in! t%eir ,lo2. Si!ni,icant ne2 ses
are amon! t%e potential %a5ards to %man %ealt% and t%e environment in developin!
contries. In several contries 2it% s$stems in place t%ere is an r!ent need to ma*e t%ose
s$stems more e,,icient.
1+.'6. Easic elements ,or sond mana!ement o, c%emicals are. BaC ade1ate le!islation0
BbC in,ormation !at%erin! and dissemination0 BcC capacit$ ,or ris* assessment and
interpretation0 BdC establis%ment o, ris* mana!ement polic$0 BeC capacit$ ,or
implementation and en,orcement0 B,C capacit$ ,or re%abilitation o, contaminated sites and
poisoned persons0 B!C e,,ective edcation pro!rammes and B%C capacit$ to respond to
emer!encies.
1+.'&. :s mana!ement o, c%emicals ta*es place 2it%in a nmber o, sectors related to
varios national ministries0 e3perience s!!ests t%at a coordinatin! mec%anism is
essential.
#b.ective
1+.'(. E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 national s$stems ,or environmentall$ sond mana!ement o,
c%emicals0 incldin! le!islation and provisions ,or implementation and en,orcement0
s%old be in place in all contries to t%e e3tent possible.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1+.'+. 7overnments0 2%ere appropriate and 2it% t%e collaboration o, relevant
inter!overnmental or!ani5ations0 a!encies and pro!rammes o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0
s%old.
BaC Promote and spport mltidisciplinar$ approac%es to c%emical sa,et$ problems<
BbC Consider t%e need to establis% and stren!t%en0 2%ere appropriate0 a national
coordinatin! mec%anism to provide a liaison ,or all parties involved in c%emical sa,et$
activities B,or e3ample0 a!ricltre0 environment0 edcation0 indstr$0 labor0 %ealt%0
transportation0 police0 civil de,ence0 economic a,,airs0 researc% instittions0 and poison
control centresC<
BcC Develop instittional mec%anisms ,or t%e mana!ement o, c%emicals0 incldin!
e,,ective means o, en,orcement<
BdC /stablis% and develop or stren!t%en0 2%ere appropriate0 net2or*s o, emer!enc$
response centres0 incldin! poison control centres<
BeC Develop national and local capabilities to prepare ,or and respond to accidents b$
ta*in! into accont t%e >;/P :P/88 pro!ramme and similar pro!rammes on accident
prevention0 preparedness and response0 2%ere appropriate0 incldin! re!larl$ tested and
pdated emer!enc$ plans<
B,C Develop0 in cooperation 2it% indstr$0 emer!enc$ response procedres0 identi,$in!
means and e1ipment in indstries and plants necessar$ to redce impacts o, accidents.
-/ Data and information
1+.6). 7overnments s%old.
BaC Direct in,ormation campai!ns sc% as pro!rammes providin! in,ormation abot
c%emical stoc*piles0 environmentall$ sa,er alternatives and emission inventories t%at
cold also be a tool ,or ris* redction to t%e !eneral pblic to increase t%e a2areness o,
problems o, c%emical sa,et$<
BbC /stablis%0 in con?nction 2it% IRPTC0 national re!isters and databases0 incldin!
sa,et$ in,ormation0 ,or c%emicals<
BcC 7enerate ,ield monitorin! data ,or to3ic c%emicals o, %i!% environmental importance<
BdC Cooperate 2it% international or!ani5ations0 2%ere appropriate0 to e,,ectivel$ monitor
and control t%e !eneration0 man,actrin!0 distribtion0 transportation and disposal
activities relatin! to to3ic c%emicals0 to ,oster preventive and precationar$ approac%es
and ensre compliance 2it% sa,et$ mana!ement rles0 and provide accrate reportin! o,
relevant data.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1+.61. 7overnments0 2it% t%e cooperation o, international or!ani5ations0 2%ere
appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Prepare !idelines0 2%ere not alread$ available0 2it% advice and c%ec*-lists ,or
enactin! le!islation in t%e c%emical sa,et$ ,ield<
BbC Spport contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in developin! and ,rt%er
stren!t%enin! national le!islation and its implementation<
BcC Consider adoption o, commnit$ ri!%t-to-*no2 or ot%er pblic in,ormation-
dissemination pro!rammes0 2%en appropriate0 as possible ris* redction tools.
:ppropriate international or!ani5ations0 in particlar >;/P0 O/CD0 t%e /conomic
Commission ,or /rope B/C/C and ot%er interested parties0 s%old consider t%e
possibilit$ o, developin! a !idance docment on t%e establis%ment o, sc% pro!rammes
,or se b$ interested 7overnments. T%e docment s%old bild on e3istin! 2or* on
accidents and inclde ne2 !idance on to3ic emission inventories and ris*
commnication. Sc% !idance s%old inclde %armoni5ation o, re1irements0
de,initions and data elements to promote ni,ormit$ and allo2 s%arin! o, data
internationall$<
BdC Eild on past0 present and ,tre ris* assessment 2or* at an international level0 to
spport contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in developin! and stren!t%enin! ris*
assessment capabilities at national and re!ional levels to minimi5e ris* in t%e
man,actrin! and se o, to3ic c%emicals<
BeC Promote implementation o, >;/P9s :P/88 pro!ramme and0 in particlar0 se o, an
O/CD=>;/P international director$ o, emer!enc$ response centres<
B,C Cooperate 2it% all contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in t%e settin! p o, an
instittional mec%anism at t%e national level and t%e development o, appropriate tools ,or
mana!ement o, c%emicals<
B!C :rran!e in,ormation corses at all levels o, prodction and se0 aimed at sta,,
2or*in! on c%emical sa,et$ isses<
B%C Develop mec%anisms to ma*e ma3imm se in contries o, internationall$ available
in,ormation<
BiC Invite >;/P to promote principles ,or accident prevention0 preparedness and response
,or 7overnments0 indstr$ and t%e pblic0 bildin! on I8O0 O/CD and /C/ 2or* in t%is
area.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
1+.62. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme in developin! contries to be
abot D6)) million0 incldin! D1') million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or
concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave
not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at
are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
1+.6#. International or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC Promote t%e establis%ment and stren!t%enin! o, national laboratories to ensre t%e
availabilit$ o, ade1ate national control in all contries re!ardin! t%e importation0
man,actre and se o, c%emicals<
BbC Promote translation0 2%ere ,easible0 o, internationall$ prepared docments on
c%emical sa,et$ into local lan!a!es and spport varios levels o, re!ional activities
related to tec%nolo!$ trans,er and in,ormation e3c%an!e.
C/ *uman resource development
1+.6". International or!ani5ations s%old.
BaC /n%ance tec%nical trainin! ,or developin! contries in relation to ris* mana!ement o,
c%emicals<
BbC Promote and increase spport ,or researc% activities at t%e local level b$ providin!
!rants and ,ello2s%ips ,or stdies at reco!ni5ed researc% instittions active in disciplines
o, importance ,or c%emical sa,et$ pro!rammes.
1+.6'. 7overnments s%old or!ani5e0 in collaboration 2it% indstr$ and trade nions0
trainin! pro!rammes in t%e mana!ement o, c%emicals0 incldin! emer!enc$ response0
tar!eted at all levels. In all contries basic elements o, c%emical sa,et$ principles s%old
be inclded in t%e primar$ edcation crricla.
)$ Prevention of illegal international traffic in to8ic and dangerous
products
1+.66. T%ere is crrentl$ no !lobal international a!reement on tra,,ic in to3ic and
dan!eros prodcts Bto3ic and dan!eros prodcts are t%ose t%at are banned0 severel$
restricted0 2it%dra2n or not approved ,or se or sale b$ 7overnments in order to protect
pblic %ealt% and t%e environmentC. 4o2ever0 t%ere is international concern t%at ille!al
international tra,,ic in t%ese prodcts is detrimental to pblic %ealt% and t%e environment0
particlarl$ in developin! contries0 as ac*no2led!ed b$ t%e 7eneral :ssembl$ in
resoltions "2=1(# and ""=226. Ille!al tra,,ic re,ers to tra,,ic t%at is carried ot in
contravention o, a contr$9s la2s or relevant international le!al instrments. T%e concern
also relates to transbondar$ movements o, t%ose prodcts t%at are not carried ot in
accordance 2it% applicable internationall$ adopted !idelines and principles. :ctivities
nder t%is pro!ramme area are intended to improve detection and prevention o, t%e tra,,ic
concerned.
1+.6&. Frt%er stren!t%enin! o, international and re!ional cooperation is needed to
prevent ille!al transbondar$ movement o, to3ic and dan!eros prodcts. Frt%ermore0
capacit$-bildin! at t%e national level is needed to improve monitorin! and en,orcement
capabilities involvin! reco!nition o, t%e ,act t%at appropriate penalties ma$ need to be
imposed nder an e,,ective en,orcement pro!ramme. Ot%er activities envisa!ed in t%e
present c%apter B,or e3ample0 nder para!rap% 1+.#+ BdCC 2ill also contribte to ac%ievin!
t%ese ob?ectives.
#b.ectives
1+.6(. T%e ob?ectives o, t%e pro!ramme are.
BaC To rein,orce national capacities to detect and %alt an$ ille!al attempt to introdce
to3ic and dan!eros prodcts into t%e territor$ o, an$ State0 in contravention o, national
le!islation and relevant international le!al instrments<
BbC To assist all contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in obtainin! all appropriate
in,ormation concernin! ille!al tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
1+.6+. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC :dopt0 2%ere necessar$0 and implement le!islation to prevent t%e ille!al import and
e3port o, to3ic and dan!eros prodcts<
BbC Develop appropriate national en,orcement pro!rammes to monitor compliance 2it%
sc% le!islation0 and detect and deter violations t%ro!% appropriate penalties.
-/ Data and information
1+.&). 7overnments s%old develop0 as appropriate0 national alert s$stems to assist in
detectin! ille!al tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts< local commnities0 and ot%ers
cold be involved in t%e operation o, sc% a s$stem.
1+.&1. 7overnments s%old cooperate in t%e e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on ille!al
transbondar$ movements o, to3ic and dan!eros prodcts and s%old ma*e sc%
in,ormation available to appropriate >nited ;ations bodies0 sc% as >;/P and t%e
re!ional commissions.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
1+.&2. Frt%er stren!t%enin! o, international and re!ional cooperation is needed to
prevent ille!al transbondar$ movement o, to3ic and dan!eros prodcts.
1+.&#. T%e re!ional commissions0 in cooperation 2it% and rel$in! pon e3pert spport
and advice ,rom >;/P and ot%er relevant bodies o, t%e >nited ;ations0 s%old monitor0
on t%e basis o, data and in,ormation provided b$ 7overnments0 and on a continos basis
ma*e re!ional assessments o,0 t%e ille!al tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts and its
environmental0 economic and %ealt% implications0 in eac% re!ion0 dra2in! pon t%e
reslts and e3perience !ained in t%e ?oint >;/P=/SC:P preliminar$ assessment o,
ille!al tra,,ic0 e3pected to be completed in :!st 1++2.
1+.&". 7overnments and international or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old cooperate
2it% developin! contries in stren!t%enin! t%eir instittional and re!lator$ capacities in
order to prevent ille!al import and e3port o, to3ic and dan!eros prodcts.
($ Enancement of international cooperation relating to several of te
programme areas
1+.&'. : meetin! o, !overnment-desi!nated e3perts0 %eld in 8ondon in December 1++10
made recommendations ,or increased coordination amon! >nited ;ations bodies and
ot%er international or!ani5ations involved in c%emical ris* assessment and mana!ement.
T%at meetin! called ,or t%e ta*in! o, appropriate measres to en%ance t%e role o, IPCS
and establis% an inter!overnmental ,orm on c%emical ris* assessment and mana!ement.
1+.&6. To ,rt%er consider t%e recommendations o, t%e 8ondon meetin! and initiate
action on t%em0 as appropriate0 t%e /3ective 4eads o, 64O0 I8O and >;/P are invited
to convene an inter!overnmental meetin! 2it%in one $ear0 2%ic% cold constitte t%e ,irst
meetin! o, t%e inter!overnmental ,orm.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 2B
Environmentall0 Sound %anagement of *a7ardous Dastes5 "ncluding
Prevention of "llegal "nternational !raffic in *a7ardous Dastes
"ntroduction
2).1. /,,ective control o, t%e !eneration0 stora!e0 treatment0 rec$clin! and rese0
transport0 recover$ and disposal o, %a5ardos 2astes is o, paramont importance ,or
proper %ealt%0 environmental protection and natral resorce mana!ement0 and
sstainable development. T%is 2ill re1ire t%e active cooperation and participation o, t%e
international commnit$0 7overnments and indstr$. Indstr$0 as re,erred to in t%is paper0
s%all inclde lar!e indstrial enterprises0 incldin! transnational corporations and
domestic indstr$.
2).2. Prevention o, t%e !eneration o, %a5ardos 2astes and t%e re%abilitation o,
contaminated sites are t%e *e$ elements0 and bot% re1ire *no2led!e0 e3perienced
people0 ,acilities0 ,inancial resorces and tec%nical and scienti,ic capacities.
2).#. T%e activities otlined in t%e present c%apter are ver$ closel$ related to0 and %ave
implications ,or0 man$ o, t%e pro!ramme areas described in ot%er c%apters0 so t%at an
overall inte!rated approac% to %a5ardos 2aste mana!ement is necessar$.
2).". T%ere is international concern t%at part o, t%e international movement o, %a5ardos
2astes is bein! carried ot in contravention o, e3istin! national le!islation and
international instrments to t%e detriment o, t%e environment and pblic %ealt% o, all
contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries.
2).'. In section I o, resoltion ""=226 o, 22 December 1+(+0 t%e 7eneral :ssembl$
re1ested eac% re!ional commission0 2it%in e3istin! resorces0 to contribte to t%e
prevention o, t%e ille!al tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts and 2astes b$ monitorin!
and ma*in! re!ional assessments o, t%at ille!al tra,,ic and its environmental and %ealt%
implications. T%e :ssembl$ also re1ested t%e re!ional commissions to interact amon!
t%emselves and cooperate 2it% t%e >nited ;ations /nvironment Pro!ramme B>;/PC0
2it% a vie2 to maintainin! e,,icient and coordinated monitorin! and assessment o, t%e
ille!al tra,,ic in to3ic and dan!eros prodcts and 2astes.
#verall ob.ective
2).6. 6it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, inte!rated li,e-c$cle mana!ement0 t%e overall ob?ective is
to prevent to t%e e3tent possible0 and minimi5e0 t%e !eneration o, %a5ardos 2astes0 as
2ell as to mana!e t%ose 2astes in sc% a 2a$ t%at t%e$ do not case %arm to %ealt% and
t%e environment.
#verall targets
2).&. T%e overall tar!ets are.
BaC Preventin! or minimi5in! t%e !eneration o, %a5ardos 2astes as part o, an overall
inte!rated cleaner prodction approac%< eliminatin! or redcin! to a minimm
transbondar$ movements o, %a5ardos 2astes0 consistent 2it% t%e environmentall$
sond and e,,icient mana!ement o, t%ose 2astes< and ensrin! t%at environmentall$
sond %a5ardos 2aste mana!ement options are prsed to t%e ma3imm e3tent possible
2it%in t%e contr$ o, ori!in Bt%e sel,-s,,icienc$ principleC. T%e transbondar$
movements t%at ta*e place s%old be on environmental and economic !ronds and based
pon a!reements bet2een t%e States concerned<
BbC Rati,ication o, t%e Easel Convention on t%e Control o, Transbondar$ -ovements o,
4a5ardos 6astes and t%eir Disposal and t%e e3peditios elaboration o, related protocols0
sc% as t%e protocol on liabilit$ and compensation0 mec%anisms and !idelines to
,acilitate t%e implementation o, t%e Easel Convention<
BcC Rati,ication and ,ll implementation b$ t%e contries concerned o, t%e Eama*o
Convention on t%e Ean on t%e Import into :,rica and t%e Control o, Transbondar$
-ovement o, 4a5ardos 6astes 2it%in :,rica and t%e e3peditios elaboration o, a
protocol on liabilit$ and compensation<
BdC /limination o, t%e e3port o, %a5ardos 2astes to contries t%at0 individall$ or
t%ro!% international a!reements0 pro%ibits t%e import o, sc% 2astes0 sc% as0 t%e
contractin! parties to t%e Eama*o Convention0 t%e ,ort% 8om Convention or ot%er
relevant conventions0 2%ere sc% pro%ibition is provided ,or.
2).(. T%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas are inclded in t%is c%apter.
BaC Promotin! t%e prevention and minimi5ation o, %a5ardos 2aste<
BbC Promotin! and stren!t%enin! instittional capacities in %a5ardos 2aste mana!ement<
BcC Promotin! and stren!t%enin! international cooperation in t%e mana!ement o,
transbondar$ movements o, %a5ardos 2astes<
BdC Preventin! ille!al international tra,,ic in %a5ardos 2astes.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ Promoting te prevention and minimi7ation of a7ardous 4aste
-asis for action
2).+. 4man %ealt% and environmental 1alit$ are nder!oin! continos de!radation b$
t%e increasin! amont o, %a5ardos 2astes bein! prodced. T%ere are increasin! direct
and indirect costs to societ$ and to individal citi5ens in connection 2it% t%e !eneration0
%andlin! and disposal o, sc% 2astes. It is t%ere,ore crcial to en%ance *no2led!e and
in,ormation on t%e economics o, prevention and mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes0
incldin! t%e impact in relation to t%e emplo$ment and environmental bene,its0 in order
to ensre t%at t%e necessar$ capital investment is made available in development
pro!rammes t%ro!% economic incentives. One o, t%e ,irst priorities in %a5ardos 2aste
mana!ement is minimi5ation0 as part o, a broader approac% to c%an!in! indstrial
processes and consmer patterns t%ro!% polltion prevention and cleaner prodction
strate!ies.
2).1). :mon! t%e most important ,actors in t%ese strate!ies is t%e recover$ o, %a5ardos
2astes and t%eir tran,ormation into se,l material. Tec%nolo!$ application0 modi,ication
and development o, ne2 lo2-2aste tec%nolo!ies are t%ere,ore crrentl$ a central ,ocs o,
%a5ardos 2aste minimi5ation.
#b.ectives
2).11. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To redce t%e !eneration o, %a5ardos 2astes0 to t%e e3tent ,easible0 as part o, an
inte!rated cleaner prodction approac%<
BbC To optimi5e t%e se o, materials b$ tili5in!0 2%ere practicable and environmentall$
sond0 t%e resides ,rom prodction processes<
BcC To en%ance *no2led!e and in,ormation on t%e economics o, prevention and
mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes.
2).12. To ac%ieve t%ose ob?ectives0 and t%ereb$ redce t%e impact and cost o, indstrial
development0 contries t%at can a,,ord to adopt t%e re1isite tec%nolo!ies 2it%ot
detriment to t%eir development s%old establis% policies t%at inclde.
BaC Inte!ration o, cleaner prodction approac%es and %a5ardos 2aste minimi5ation in all
plannin!0 and t%e adoption o, speci,ic !oals<
BbC Promotion o, t%e se o, re!lator$ and mar*et mec%anisms<
BcC /stablis%ment o, an intermediate !oal ,or t%e stabili5ation o, t%e 1antit$ o,
%a5ardos 2aste !enerated<
BdC /stablis%ment o, lon!-term pro!rammes and policies incldin! tar!ets 2%ere
appropriate ,or redcin! t%e amont o, %a5ardos 2aste prodced per nit o,
man,actre<
BeC :c%ievement o, a 1alitative improvement o, 2aste streams0 mainl$ t%ro!% activities
aimed at redcin! t%eir %a5ardos c%aracteristics<
B,C Facilitation o, t%e establis%ment o, cost-e,,ective policies and approac%es to %a5ardos
2aste prevention and mana!ement0 ta*in! into consideration t%e state o, development o,
eac% contr$.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
2).1#. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments s%old establis% or modi,$ standards or prc%asin! speci,ications to
avoid discrimination a!ainst rec$cled materials0 provided t%at t%ose materials are
environmentall$ sond<
BbC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir possibilities and 2it% t%e %elp o, mltilateral
cooperation0 s%old provide economic or re!lator$ incentives0 2%ere appropriate0 to
stimlate indstrial innovation to2ards cleaner prodction met%ods0 to encora!e
indstr$ to invest in preventive and=or rec$clin! tec%nolo!ies so as to ensre
environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, all %a5ardos 2astes0 incldin! rec$clable 2astes0
and to encora!e 2aste minimi5ation investments<
BcC 7overnments s%old intensi,$ researc% and development activities on cost-e,,ective
alternatives ,or processes and sbstances t%at crrentl$ reslt in t%e !eneration o,
%a5ardos 2astes t%at pose particlar problems ,or environmentall$ sond disposal or
treatment0 t%e possibilit$ o, ltimate p%ase-ot o, t%ose sbstances t%at present an
nreasonable or ot%er2ise nmana!eable ris* and are to3ic0 persistent and bio-
accmlative to be considered as soon as practicable. /mp%asis s%old be !iven to
alternatives t%at cold be economicall$ accessible to developin! contries<
BdC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations and indstries0 as
appropriate0 s%old spport t%e establis%ment o, domestic ,acilities to %andle %a5ardos
2astes o, domestic ori!in<
BeC 7overnments o, developed contries s%old promote t%e trans,er o, environmentall$
sond tec%nolo!ies and *no2-%o2 on clean tec%nolo!ies and lo2-2aste prodction to
developin! contries in con,ormit$ 2it% c%apter #"0 2%ic% 2ill brin! abot c%an!es to
sstain innovation. 7overnments s%old cooperate 2it% indstr$ to develop !idelines
and codes o, condct0 2%ere appropriate0 leadin! to cleaner prodction t%ro!% sectoral
trade indstr$ associations<
B,C 7overnments s%old encora!e indstr$ to treat0 rec$cle0 rese and dispose o, 2astes
at t%e sorce o, !eneration0 or as close as possible t%ereto0 2%enever %a5ardos 2aste
!eneration is navoidable and 2%en it is bot% economicall$ and environmentall$ e,,icient
,or indstr$ to do so<
B!C 7overnments s%old encora!e tec%nolo!$ assessments0 ,or e3ample t%ro!% t%e se
o, tec%nolo!$ assessment centres<
B%C 7overnments s%old promote cleaner prodction t%ro!% t%e establis%ment o, centres
providin! trainin! and in,ormation on environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!ies<
BiC Indstr$ s%old establis% environmental mana!ement s$stems0 incldin!
environmental aditin! o, its prodction or distribtion sites0 in order to identi,$ 2%ere
t%e installation o, cleaner prodction met%ods is needed<
B?C : relevant and competent >nited ;ations or!ani5ation s%old ta*e t%e lead0 in
cooperation 2it% ot%er or!ani5ations0 to develop !idelines ,or estimatin! t%e costs and
bene,its o, varios approac%es to t%e adoption o, cleaner prodction and 2aste
minimi5ation and environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes0 incldin!
re%abilitation o, contaminated sites0 ta*in! into accont0 2%ere appropriate0 t%e report o,
t%e 1++1 ;airobi meetin! o, !overnment-desi!nated e3perts on an international strate!$
and an action pro!ramme0 incldin! tec%nical !idelines ,or t%e environmentall$ sond
mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes< in particlar in t%e conte3t o, t%e 2or* o, t%e Easel
Convention0 bein! developed nder t%e >;/P secretariat<
B*C 7overnments s%old establis% re!lations t%at la$ do2n t%e ltimate responsibilit$ o,
indstries ,or environmentall$ sond disposal o, t%e %a5ardos 2astes t%eir activities
!enerate.
-/ Data and information
2).1". T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments0 assisted b$ international or!ani5ations0 s%old establis% mec%anisms
,or assessin! t%e vale o, e3istin! in,ormation s$stems<
BbC 7overnments s%old establis% nation2ide and re!ional in,ormation collection and
dissemination clearin!-%oses and net2or*s t%at are eas$ ,or 7overnment instittions and
indstr$ and ot%er non-!overnmental or!ani5ations to access and se<
BcC International or!ani5ations0 t%ro!% t%e >;/P Cleaner Prodction pro!ramme and
ICPIC0 s%old e3tend and stren!t%en e3istin! s$stems ,or collection o, cleaner prodction
in,ormation<
BdC :ll >nited ;ations or!ans and or!ani5ations s%old promote t%e se and
dissemination o, in,ormation collected t%ro!% t%e Cleaner Prodction net2or*<
BeC O/CD s%old0 in cooperation 2it% ot%er or!ani5ations0 nderta*e a compre%ensive
srve$ o,0 and disseminate in,ormation on0 e3periences o, member contries in adoptin!
economic re!lator$ sc%emes and incentive mec%anisms ,or %a5ardos 2aste
mana!ement and ,or t%e se o, clean tec%nolo!ies t%at prevent sc% 2aste ,rom bein!
!enerated<
B,C 7overnments s%old encora!e indstries to be transparent in t%eir operations and
provide relevant in,ormation to t%e commnities t%at mi!%t be a,,ected b$ t%e !eneration0
mana!ement and disposal o, %a5ardos 2astes.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
2).1'. International=re!ional cooperation s%old encora!e t%e rati,ication b$ States o,
t%e Easel and Eama*o Conventions and promote t%e implementation o, t%ose
Conventions. Re!ional cooperation 2ill be necessar$ ,or t%e development o, similar
conventions in re!ions ot%er t%an :,rica0 i, so re1ired. In addition t%ere is a need ,or
e,,ective coordination o, international re!ional and national policies and instrments.
:not%er activit$ proposed is cooperatin! in monitorin! t%e e,,ects o, t%e mana!ement o,
%a5ardos 2astes.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
2).16. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D&') million ,rom t%e
international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-
o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs
and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0
t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
>b/ Scientific and tecnological means
2).1&. T%e ,ollo2in! activities related to tec%nolo!$ development and researc% s%old be
nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 and indstries0 as
appropriate0 s%old si!ni,icantl$ increase ,inancial spport ,or cleaner tec%nolo!$
researc% and development pro!rammes0 incldin! t%e se o, biotec%nolo!ies<
BbC States0 2it% t%e cooperation o, international or!ani5ations 2%ere appropriate0 s%old
encora!e indstr$ to promote and nderta*e researc% into t%e p%ase-ot o, t%e processes
t%at pose t%e !reatest environmental ris* based on %a5ardos 2astes !enerated<
BcC States s%old encora!e indstr$ to develop sc%emes to inte!rate t%e cleaner
prodction approac% into desi!n o, prodcts and mana!ement practices<
BdC States s%old encora!e indstr$ to e3ercise environmentall$ responsible care
t%ro!% %a5ardos 2aste redction and b$ ensrin! t%e environmentall$ sond rese0
rec$clin! and recover$ o, %a5ardos 2astes0 as 2ell as t%eir ,inal disposal.
C/ *uman resource development
2).1(. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments0 international or!ani5ations and indstr$ s%old encora!e indstrial
trainin! pro!rammes0 incorporatin! %a5ardos 2aste prevention and minimi5ation
tec%ni1es and lanc%in! demonstration pro?ects at t%e local level to develop Asccess
storiesA in cleaner prodction<
BbC Indstr$ s%old inte!rate cleaner prodction principles and case e3amples into
trainin! pro!rammes and establis% demonstration pro?ects=net2or*s b$ sector=contr$<
BcC :ll sectors o, societ$ s%old develop cleaner prodction a2areness campai!ns and
promote dialo!e and partners%ip 2it% indstr$ and ot%er actors.
D/ Capacit01building
2).1+. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments o, developin! contries0 in cooperation 2it% indstr$ and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, appropriate international or!ani5ations0 s%old develop inventories o,
%a5ardos 2aste prodction0 in order to identi,$ t%eir needs 2it% respect to tec%nolo!$
trans,er and implementation o, measres ,or t%e sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes
and t%eir disposal<
BbC 7overnments s%old inclde in national plannin! and le!islation an inte!rated
approac% to environmental protection0 driven b$ prevention and sorce redction criteria0
ta*in! into accont t%e Apollter pa$sA principle0 and adopt pro!rammes ,or %a5ardos
2aste redction0 incldin! tar!ets and ade1ate environmental control<
BcC 7overnments s%old 2or* 2it% indstr$ on sector-b$-sector cleaner prodction and
%a5ardos 2aste minimi5ation campai!ns0 as 2ell as on t%e redction o, sc% 2astes and
ot%er emissions<
BdC 7overnments s%old ta*e t%e lead in establis%in! and stren!t%enin!0 as appropriate0
national procedres ,or environmental impact assessment0 ta*in! into acont t%e cradle-
to-!rave approac% to t%e mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes0 in order to identi,$ options
,or minimi5in! t%e !eneration o, %a5ardos 2astes0 t%ro!% sa,er %andlin!0 stora!e0
disposal and destrction<
BeC 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% indstr$ and appropriate international
or!ani5ations0 s%old develop procedres ,or monitorin! t%e application o, t%e cradle to
!rave approac%0 incldin! environmental adits<
B,C Eilateral and mltilateral development assistance a!encies s%old sbstantiall$
increase ,ndin! ,or cleaner tec%nolo!$ trans,er to developin! contries0 incldin! small-
and medim-si5ed enterprises.
-$ Promoting and strengtening institutional capacities in a7ardous 4aste
management
-asis for action
2).2). -an$ contries lac* t%e national capacit$ to %andle and mana!e %a5ardos 2astes.
T%is is primaril$ de to inade1ate in,rastrctre0 de,iciencies in re!lator$ ,rame2or*s0
ins,,icient edcation and trainin! pro!rammes and lac* o, coordination bet2een t%e
di,,erent ministries and instittions involved in varios aspects o, 2aste mana!ement. In
addition0 t%ere is a lac* o, *no2led!e abot environmental contamination and polltion
and t%e associated %ealt% ris* ,rom t%e e3posre o, poplations0 especiall$ 2omen and
c%ildren0 and ecos$stems to %a5ardos 2astes< assessment o, ris*s< and t%e c%aracteristics
o, 2astes. Steps need to be ta*en immediatel$ to identi,$ poplations at %i!% ris* and to
ta*e remedial measres0 2%ere necessar$. One o, t%e main priorities in ensrin!
environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes is to provide a2areness0
edcation and trainin! pro!rammes coverin! all levels o, societ$. T%ere is also a need to
nderta*e researc% pro!rammes to nderstand t%e natre o, %a5ardos 2astes0 to identi,$
t%eir potential environmental e,,ects and to develop tec%nolo!ies to sa,el$ %andle t%ose
2astes. Finall$0 t%ere is a need to stren!t%en t%e capacities o, instittions t%at are
responsible ,or t%e mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes.
#b.ectives
2).21. T%e ob?ectives in t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To adopt appropriate coordinatin!0 le!islative and re!lator$ measres at t%e national
level ,or t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes0 incldin! t%e
implementation o, international and re!ional conventions<
BbC To establis% pblic a2areness and in,ormation pro!rammes on %a5ardos 2aste isses
and to ensre t%at basic edcation and trainin! pro!rammes are provided ,or indstr$ and
!overnment 2or*ers in all contries<
BcC To establis% compre%ensive researc% pro!rammes on %a5ardos 2astes in contries<
BdC To stren!t%en service indstries to enable t%em to %andle %a5ardos 2astes0 and to
bild p international net2or*in!<
BeC To develop endo!enos capacities in all developin! contries to edcate and train
sta,, at all levels in environmentall$ sond %a5ardos 2aste %andlin! and monitorin! and
in environmentall$ sond mana!ement<
B,C To promote %man e3posre assessment 2it% respect to %a5ardos 2aste sites and
identi,$ t%e remedial measres re1ired<
B!C To ,acilitate t%e assessment o, impacts and ris*s o, %a5ardos 2astes on %man %ealt%
and t%e environment b$ establis%in! appropriate procedres0 met%odolo!ies0 criteria
and=or e,,lent-related !idelines and standards<
B%C To improve *no2led!e re!ardin! t%e e,,ects o, %a5ardos 2astes on %man %ealt%
and t%e environment<
BiC To ma*e in,ormation available to 7overnments and to t%e !eneral pblic on t%e e,,ects
o, %a5ardos 2astes0 incldin! in,ectios 2astes0 on %man %ealt% and t%e environment.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
2).22. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments s%old establis% and maintain inventories0 incldin! compteri5ed
inventories0 o, %a5ardos 2astes and t%eir treatment=disposal sites0 as 2ell as o,
contaminated sites t%at re1ire re%abilitation0 and assess e3posre and ris* to %man
%ealt% and t%e environment< t%e$ s%old also identi,$ t%e measres re1ired to clean p
t%e disposal sites. Indstr$ s%old ma*e t%e necessar$ in,ormation available<
BbC 7overnments0 indstr$ and international or!ani5ations s%old collaborate in
developin! !idelines and eas$-to-implement met%ods ,or t%e c%aracteri5ation and
classi,ication o, %a5ardos 2astes<
BcC 7overnments s%old carr$ ot e3posre and %ealt% assessments o, poplations
residin! near ncontrolled %a5ardos 2aste sites and initiate remedial measres<
BdC International or!ani5ations s%old develop improved %ealt%-based criteria0 ta*in! into
accont national decision-ma*in! processes0 and assist in t%e preparation o, practical
tec%nical !idelines ,or t%e prevention0 minimi5ation and sa,e %andlin! and disposal o,
%a5ardos 2astes<
BeC 7overnments o, developin! contries s%old encora!e interdisciplinar$ and
intersectoral !rops0 in cooperation 2it% international or!ani5ations and a!encies0 to
implement trainin! and researc% activities related to evalation0 prevention and control o,
%a5ardos 2aste %ealt% ris*s. Sc% !rops s%old serve as models to develop similar
re!ional pro!rammes<
B,C 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations as appropriate0 s%old
encora!e as ,ar as possible t%e establis%ment o, combined treatment=disposal ,acilities
,or %a5ardos 2astes in small- and medim-si5ed indstries<
B!C 7overnments s%old promote identi,ication and clean-p o, sites o, %a5ardos 2astes
in collaboration 2it% indstr$ and international or!ani5ations. Tec%nolo!ies0 e3pertise
and ,inancin! s%old be available ,or t%is prpose0 as ,ar as possible and 2%en
appropriate 2it% t%e application o, t%e Apollter pa$sA principle<
B%C 7overnments s%old ascertain t%at t%eir militar$ establis%ments con,orm to t%eir
nationall$ applicable environmental norms in t%e treatment and disposal o, %a5ardos
2astes.
-/ Data and information
2).2#. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments0 international and re!ional or!ani5ations and indstr$ s%old ,acilitate
and e3pand t%e dissemination o, tec%nical and scienti,ic in,ormation dealin! 2it% t%e
varios %ealt% aspects o, %a5ardos 2astes0 and promote its application<
BbC 7overnments s%old establis% noti,ication s$stems and re!istries o, e3posed
poplations and o, adverse %ealt% e,,ects and databases on ris* assessments o, %a5ardos
2astes<
BcC 7overnments s%old endeavor to collect in,ormation on t%ose 2%o !enerate or
dispose=rec$cle %a5ardos 2astes and provide sc% in,ormation to t%e individals and
instittions concerned.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
2).2". 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC Promote and spport t%e inte!ration and operation0 at t%e re!ional and local levels as
appropriate0 o, instittional and interdisciplinar$ !rops t%at collaborate0 accordin! to
t%eir capabilities0 in activities oriented to2ards stren!t%enin! ris* assessment0 ris*
mana!ement and ris* redction 2it% respect to %a5ardos 2astes<
BbC Spport capacit$-bildin! and tec%nolo!ical development and researc% in developin!
contries in connection 2it% %man resorce development0 2it% particlar spport to be
!iven to consolidatin! net2or*s<
BcC /ncora!e sel,-s,,icienc$ in %a5ardos 2aste disposal in t%e contr$ o, ori!in to t%e
e3tent environmentall$ sond and ,easible. T%e transbondar$ movements t%at ta*e place
s%old be on environmental and economic !ronds and based pon a!reements bet2een
all States concerned.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
2).2'. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D1(.' billion on a
!lobal basis 2it% abot D#.' billion related to developin! contries0 incldin! abot D'))
million ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional terms. T%ese are
indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been revie2ed b$
7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-concessional0
2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes 7overnments decide
pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
2).26. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations and indstr$ as
appropriate0 s%old increase spport ,or %a5ardos 2aste researc% mana!ement in
developin! contries<
BbC 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% international or!ani5ations0 s%old condct
researc% on t%e %ealt% e,,ects o, %a5ardos 2astes in developin! contries0 incldin! t%e
lon!-term e,,ects on c%ildren and 2omen<
BcC 7overnments s%old condct researc% aimed at t%e needs o, small and medim-si5ed
indstries<
BdC 7overnments and international or!ani5ations in cooperation 2it% indstr$ s%old
e3pand tec%nolo!ical researc% on environmentall$ sond %a5ardos 2aste %andlin!0
stora!e0 transport0 treatment and disposal and on %a5ardos 2aste assessment0
mana!ement and remediation<
BeC International or!ani5ations s%old identi,$ relevant and improved tec%nolo!ies ,or
%andlin!0 stora!e0 treatment and disposal o, %a5ardos 2astes.
C/ *uman resource development
2).2&. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations and indstr$ as
appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Increase pblic a2areness and in,ormation on %a5ardos 2aste isses and promote t%e
development and dissemination o, %a5ardos 2astes in,ormation t%at t%e !eneral pblic
can nderstand<
BbC Increase participation in %a5ardos 2aste mana!ement pro!rammes b$ t%e !eneral
pblic0 particlarl$ 2omen0 incldin! participation at !rass-roots levels<
BcC Develop trainin! and edcation pro!rammes ,or men and 2omen in indstr$ and
7overnment aimed at speci,ic real-li,e problems0 ,or e3ample0 plannin! and
implementin! %a5ardos 2aste minimi5ation pro!rammes0 condctin! %a5ardos
materials adits and establis%in! appropriate re!lator$ pro!rammes<
BdC Promote t%e trainin! o, labor0 indstrial mana!ement and !overnment re!lator$
sta,, in developin! contries on tec%nolo!ies to minimi5e and mana!e %a5ardos 2astes
in an environmentall$ sond manner.
2).2(. T%e ,ollo2in! activities s%old also be nderta*en.
BaC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations0 ot%er or!ani5ations and non-!overnmental
or!ani5ations0 s%old collaborate in developin! and disseminatin! edcational materials
concernin! %a5ardos 2astes and t%eir e,,ects on environment and %man %ealt%0 ,or se
in sc%ools0 b$ 2omen9s !rops and b$ t%e !eneral pblic<
BbC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er or!ani5ations0 s%old establis% or stren!t%en
pro!rammes ,or t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes in
accordance 2it%0 as appropriate0 %ealt% and environmental standards0 and e3tend
srveillance s$stems ,or t%e prpose o, identi,$in! adverse e,,ects on poplations and t%e
environment o, e3posre to %a5ardos 2astes<
BcC International or!ani5ations s%old provide assistance to member States in assessin!
t%e %ealt% and environmental ris*s resltin! ,rom e3posre to %a5ardos 2astes0 and in
identi,$in! t%eir priorities ,or controllin! t%e varios cate!ories or classes o, 2astes<
BdC 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 s%old promote
centres o, e3cellence ,or trainin! in %a5ardos 2aste mana!ement0 bildin! on
appropriate national instittions and encora!in! international cooperation0 inter alia0
t%ro!% instittional lin*s bet2een developed and developin! contries.
D/ Capacit01building
2).2+. 6%erever t%e$ operate0 transnational corporations and ot%er lar!e-scale enterprises
s%old be encora!ed to introdce policies and ma*e commitments to adopt standards o,
operation 2it% re,erence to %a5ardos 2aste !eneration and disposal t%at are e1ivalent to
or no less strin!ent t%an standards in t%e contr$ o, ori!in0 and 7overnments are invited
to ma*e e,,orts to establis% re!lations re1irin! environmentall$ sond mana!ement o,
%a5ardos 2astes.
2).#). International or!ani5ations s%old provide assistance to member States in
assessin! t%e %ealt% and environmental ris*s resltin! ,rom e3posre to %a5ardos 2astes
and in identi,$in! t%eir priorities ,or controllin! t%e varios cate!ories or classes o,
2astes.
2).#1. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations and indstries0 s%old.
BaC Spport national instittions in dealin! 2it% %a5ardos 2astes ,rom t%e re!lator$
monitorin! and en,orcement perspectives0 2it% sc% spport incldin! enablin! o, t%ose
instittions to implement international conventions<
BbC Develop indstr$-based instittions ,or dealin! 2it% %a5ardos 2astes and service
indstries ,or %andlin! %a5ardos 2astes<
BcC :dopt tec%nical !idelines ,or t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos
2astes and spport t%e implementation o, re!ional and international conventions<
BdC Develop and e3pand international net2or*in! amon! pro,essionals 2or*in! in t%e
area o, %a5ardos 2astes and maintain an in,ormation ,lo2 amon! contries<
BeC :ssess t%e ,easibilit$ o, establis%in! and operatin! national0 sbre!ional and re!ional
%a5ardos 2astes treatment centres. Sc% centres cold be sed ,or edcation and
trainin!0 as 2ell as ,or ,acilitation and promotion o, t%e trans,er o, tec%nolo!ies ,or t%e
environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes<
B,C Identi,$ and stren!t%en relevant academic=researc% instittions or centres ,or
e3cellence to enable t%em to carr$ ot edcation and trainin! activities in t%e
environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes<
B!C Develop a pro!ramme ,or t%e establis%ment o, national capacities and capabilities to
edcate and train sta,, at varios levels in %a5ardos 2astes mana!ement<
B%C Condct environmental adits o, e3istin! indstries to improve in-plant re!imes ,or
t%e mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes.
C$ Promoting and strengtening international cooperation in te
management of transboundar0 movements of a7ardous 4astes
-asis for action
2).#2. In order to promote and stren!t%en international cooperation in t%e mana!ement0
incldin! control and monitorin!0 o, transbondar$ movements o, %a5ardos 2astes0 a
precationar$ approac% s%old be applied. T%ere is a need to %armoni5e t%e procedres
and criteria sed in varios international and le!al instrments. T%ere is also a need to
develop or %armoni5e e3istin! criteria ,or identi,$in! 2astes dan!eros to t%e
environment and to bild monitorin! capacities.
#b.ectives
2).##. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To ,acilitate and stren!t%en international cooperation in t%e environmentall$ sond
mana!ement o, %a5ardos 2astes0 incldin! control and monitorin! o, transbondar$
movements o, sc% 2astes0 incldin! 2astes ,or recover$0 b$ sin! internationall$
adopted criteria to identi,$ and classi,$ %a5ardos 2astes and to %armoni5e relevant
international le!al instrments<
BbC To adopt a ban on or pro%ibit0 as appropriate0 t%e e3port o, %a5ardos 2astes to
contries t%at do not %ave t%e capacit$ to deal 2it% t%ose 2astes in an environmentall$
sond 2a$ or t%at %ave banned t%e import o, sc% 2astes<
BcC To promote t%e development o, control procedres ,or t%e transbondar$ movement
o, %a5ardos 2astes destined ,or recover$ operations nder t%e Easel Convention t%at
encora!e environmentall$ and economicall$ sond rec$clin! options.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
Stren!t%enin! and %armoni5in! criteria and re!lations
2).#". 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Incorporate t%e noti,ication procedre called ,or in t%e Easel Convention and relevant
re!ional conventions0 as 2ell as in t%eir anne3es0 into national le!islation<
BbC Formlate0 2%ere appropriate0 re!ional a!reements sc% as t%e Eama*o Convention
re!latin! t%e transbondar$ movement o, %a5ardos 2astes<
BcC 4elp promote t%e compatibilit$ and complementarit$ o, sc% re!ional a!reements
2it% international conventions and protocols<
BdC Stren!t%en national and re!ional capacities and capabilities to monitor and control t%e
transbondar$ movement o, %a5ardos 2astes<
BeC Promote t%e development o, clear criteria and !idelines0 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, t%e
Easel Convention and re!ional conventions0 as appropriate0 ,or environmentall$ and
economicall$ sond operation in resorce recover$0 rec$clin! reclamation0 direct se or
alternative ses and ,or determination o, acceptable recover$ practices0 incldin!
recover$ levels 2%ere ,easible and appropriate0 2it% a vie2 to preventin! abses and
,alse presentation in t%e above operations<
B!C Consider settin! p0 at national and re!ional levels0 as appropriate0 s$stems ,or
monitorin! and srveillance o, t%e transbondar$ movements o, %a5ardos 2astes<
B%C Develop !idelines ,or t%e assessment o, environmentall$ sond treatment o,
%a5ardos 2astes<
BiC Develop !idelines ,or t%e identi,ication o, %a5ardos 2astes at t%e national level0
ta*in! into accont e3istin! internationall$ - and0 2%ere appropriate0 re!ionall$ - a!reed
criteria and prepare a list o, %a5ard pro,iles ,or t%e %a5ardos 2astes listed in national
le!islation<
B?C Develop and se appropriate met%ods ,or testin!0 c%aracteri5in! and classi,$in!
%a5ardos 2astes and adopt or adapt sa,et$ standards and principles ,or mana!in!
%a5ardos 2astes in an environmentall$ sond 2a$.
Implementin! e3istin! a!reements
2).#'. 7overnments are r!ed to rati,$ t%e Easel Convention and t%e Eama*o
Convention0 as applicable0 and to prse t%e e3peditios elaboration o, related protocols0
sc% as protocols on liabilit$ and compensation0 and o, mec%anisms and !idelines to
,acilitate t%e implementation o, t%e Conventions.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
2).#6. Eecase t%is pro!ramme area covers a relativel$ ne2 ,ield o, operation and
becase o, t%e lac* so ,ar o, ade1ate stdies on costin! o, activities nder t%is
pro!ramme0 no cost estimate is available at present. 4o2ever0 t%e costs ,or some o, t%e
activities related to capacit$-bildin! t%at are presented nder t%is pro!ramme cold be
considered to %ave been covered nder t%e costin! o, pro!ramme area E above.
2).#&. T%e interim secretariat ,or t%e Easel Convention s%old nderta*e stdies in order
to arrive at a reasonable cost estimate ,or activities to be nderta*en initiall$ ntil t%e
$ear 2))).
-/ Capacit01building
2).#(. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old.
BaC /laborate or adopt policies ,or t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, %a5ardos
2astes0 ta*in! into accont e3istin! international instrments<
BbC -a*e recommendations to t%e appropriate ,orms or establis% or adapt norms0
incldin! t%e e1itable implementation o, t%e pollter pa$s principle0 and re!lator$
measres to compl$ 2it% obli!ations and principles o, t%e Easel Convention0 t%e Eama*o
Convention and ot%er relevant e3istin! or ,tre a!reements0 incldin! protocols0 as
appropriate0 ,or settin! appropriate rles and procedres in t%e ,ield o, liabilit$ and
compensation ,or dama!e resltin! ,rom t%e transbondar$ movement and disposal o,
%a5ardos 2astes<
BcC Implement policies ,or t%e implementation o, a ban or pro%ibition0 as appropriate0 o,
e3ports o, %a5ardos 2astes to contries t%at do not %ave t%e capacit$ to deal 2it% t%ose
2astes in an environmentall$ sond 2a$ or t%at %ave banned t%e import o, sc% 2astes<
BdC Std$0 in t%e conte3t o, t%e Easel Convention and relevant re!ional conventions0 t%e
,easibilit$ o, providin! temporar$ ,inancial assistance in t%e case o, an emer!enc$
sitation0 in order to minimi5e dama!e ,rom accidents arisin! ,rom transbondar$
movements o, %a5ardos 2astes or drin! t%e disposal o, t%ose 2astes.
D$ Preventing illegal international traffic in a7ardous 4astes
-asis for action
2).#+. T%e prevention o, ille!al tra,,ic in %a5ardos 2astes 2ill bene,it t%e environment
and pblic %ealt% in all contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries. It 2ill also %elp to
ma*e t%e Easel Convention and re!ional international instrments0 sc% as t%e Eama*o
Convention and t%e ,ort% 8om Convention0 more e,,ective b$ promotin! compliance
2it% t%e controls establis%ed in t%ose a!reements. :rticle IF o, t%e Easel Convention
speci,icall$ addresses t%e isse o, ille!al s%ipments o, %a5ardos 2astes. Ille!al tra,,ic o,
%a5ardos 2astes ma$ case serios t%reats to %man %ealt% and t%e environment and
impose a special and abnormal brden on t%e contries t%at receive sc% s%ipments.
2)."). /,,ective prevention re1ires action t%ro!% e,,ective monitorin! and t%e
en,orcement and imposition o, appropriate penalties.
#b.ectives
2)."1. T%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme area are.
BaC To rein,orce national capacities to detect and %alt an$ ille!al attempt to introdce
%a5ardos 2astes into t%e territor$ o, an$ State in contravention o, national le!islation
and relevant international le!al instrments<
BbC To assist all contries0 particlarl$ developin! contries0 in obtainin! all appropriate
in,ormation concernin! ille!al tra,,ic in %a5ardos 2astes<
BcC To cooperate0 2it%in t%e ,rame2or* o, t%e Easel Convention0 in assistin! contries
t%at s,,er t%e conse1ences o, ille!al tra,,ic.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
2)."2. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC :dopt0 2%ere necessar$0 and implement le!islation to prevent t%e ille!al import and
e3port o, %a5ardos 2astes<
BbC Develop appropriate national en,orcement pro!rammes to monitor compliance 2it%
sc% le!islation0 detect and deter violations t%ro!% appropriate penalties and !ive special
attention to t%ose 2%o are *no2n to %ave condcted ille!al tra,,ic in %a5ardos 2astes
and to %a5ardos 2astes t%at are particlarl$ ssceptible to ille!al tra,,ic.
-/ Data and information
2)."#. 7overnments s%old develop as appropriate0 an in,ormation net2or* and alert
s$stem to assist in detectin! ille!al tra,,ic in %a5ardos 2astes. 8ocal commnities and
ot%ers cold be involved in t%e operation o, sc% a net2or* and s$stem.
2)."". 7overnments s%old cooperate in t%e e3c%an!e o, in,ormation on ille!al
transbondar$ movements o, %a5ardos 2astes and s%old ma*e sc% in,ormation
available to appropriate >nited ;ations bodies sc% as >;/P and t%e re!ional
commissions.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation
2)."'. T%e re!ional commissions0 in cooperation 2it% and rel$in! pon e3pert spport
and advice ,rom >;/P and ot%er relevant bodies o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 ta*in!
,ll accont o, t%e Easel Convention0 s%all contine to monitor and assess t%e ille!al
tra,,ic in %a5ardos 2astes0 incldin! its environmental0 economic and %ealt%
implications0 on a continin! basis0 dra2in! pon t%e reslts and e3perience !ained in t%e
?oint >;/P=/SC:P preliminar$ assessment o, ille!al tra,,ic.
2)."6. Contries and international or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old cooperate to
stren!t%en t%e instittional and re!lator$ capacities0 in particlar o, developin!
contries0 in order to prevent t%e ille!al import and e3port o, %a5ardos 2astes.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 21
Environmentall0 Sound %anagement of Solid Dastes , Se4age1&elated
"ssues
"ntroduction
21.1. T%is c%apter %as been incorporated in :!enda 21 in response to 7eneral :ssembl$
resoltion ""=22(0 section I0 para!rap% #0 in 2%ic% t%e :ssembl$ a,,irmed t%at t%e
Con,erence s%old elaborate strate!ies and measres to %alt and reverse t%e e,,ects o,
environmental de!radation in t%e conte3t o, increased national and international e,,orts to
promote sstainable and environmentall$ sond development in all contries0 and to
section I0 para!rap% 12 B!C0 o, t%e same resoltion0 in 2%ic% t%e :ssembl$ a,,irmed t%at
environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, 2astes 2as amon! t%e environmental isses o,
ma?or concern in maintainin! t%e 1alit$ o, t%e /art%9s environment and especiall$ in
ac%ievin! environmentall$ sond and sstainable development in all contries.
21.2. Pro!ramme areas inclded in t%e present c%apter o, :!enda 21 are closel$ related to
t%e ,ollo2in! pro!ramme areas o, ot%er c%apters o, :!enda 21.
BaC Protection o, t%e 1alit$ and sppl$ o, ,res%2ater resorces. application o, inte!rated
approac%es to t%e development0 mana!ement and se o, 2ater resorces Bc%apter 1(C<
BbC Promotin! sstainable %man settlement development Bc%apter &C<
BcC Protectin! and promotin! %man %ealt% conditions Bc%apter 6C<
BdC C%an!in! consmption patterns Bc%apter "C.
21.#. Solid 2astes0 as de,ined in t%is c%apter0 inclde all domestic re,se and non-
%a5ardos 2astes sc% as commercial and instittional 2astes0 street s2eepin!s and
constrction debris. In some contries0 t%e solid 2astes mana!ement s$stem also %andles
%man 2astes sc% as ni!%t-soil0 as%es ,rom incinerators0 septic tan* sld!e and sld!e
,rom se2a!e treatment plants. I, t%ese 2astes mani,est %a5ardos c%aracteristics t%e$
s%old be treated as %a5ardos 2astes.
21.". /nvironmentall$ sond 2aste mana!ement mst !o be$ond t%e mere sa,e disposal
or recover$ o, 2astes t%at are !enerated and see* to address t%e root case o, t%e problem
b$ attemptin! to c%an!e nsstainable patterns o, prodction and consmption. T%is
implies t%e application o, t%e inte!rated li,e c$cle mana!ement concept0 2%ic% presents a
ni1e opportnit$ to reconcile development 2it% environmental protection.
21.'. :ccordin!l$0 t%e ,rame2or* ,or re1isite action s%old be ,onded on a %ierarc%$ o,
ob?ectives and ,ocsed on t%e ,or ma?or 2aste-related pro!ramme areas0 as ,ollo2s.
BaC -inimi5in! 2astes<
BbC -a3imi5in! environmentall$ sond 2aste rese and rec$clin!<
BcC Promotin! environmentall$ sond 2aste disposal and treatment<
BdC /3tendin! 2aste service covera!e.
21.6. T%e ,or pro!ramme areas are interrelated and mtall$ spportive and mst
t%ere,ore be inte!rated in order to provide a compre%ensive and environmentall$
responsive ,rame2or* ,or mana!in! mnicipal solid 2astes. T%e mi3 and emp%asis !iven
to eac% o, t%e ,or pro!ramme areas 2ill var$ accordin! to t%e local socio-economic and
p%$sical conditions0 rates o, 2aste !eneration and 2aste composition. :ll sectors o,
societ$ s%old participate in all t%e pro!ramme areas.
P&#(&A%%E A&EAS
A$ %inimi7ing 4astes
-asis for action
21.&. >nsstainable patterns o, prodction and consmption are increasin! t%e 1antities
and variet$ o, environmentall$ persistent 2astes at nprecedented rates. T%e trend cold
si!ni,icantl$ increase t%e 1antities o, 2astes prodced b$ t%e end o, t%e centr$ and
increase 1antities ,or to ,ive,old b$ t%e $ear 2)2'. : preventive 2aste mana!ement
approac% ,ocsed on c%an!es in li,est$les and in prodction and consmption patterns
o,,ers t%e best c%ance ,or reversin! crrent trends.
#b.ectives
21.(. T%e ob?ectives in t%is area are.
BaC To stabili5e or redce t%e prodction o, 2astes destined ,or ,inal disposal0 over an
a!reed time-,rame0 b$ ,ormlatin! !oals based on 2aste 2ei!%t0 volme and composition
and to indce separation to ,acilitate 2aste rec$clin! and rese<
BbC To stren!t%en procedres ,or assessin! 2aste 1antit$ and composition c%an!es ,or
t%e prpose o, ,ormlatin! operational 2aste minimi5ation policies tili5in! economic or
ot%er instrments to indce bene,icial modi,ications o, prodction and consmption
patterns.
21.+. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 ensre s,,icient national0 re!ional and international capacit$ to
access0 process and monitor 2aste trend in,ormation and implement 2aste minimi5ation
policies<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 %ave in place in all indstriali5ed contries pro!rammes to stabili5e
or redce0 i, practicable0 prodction o, 2astes destined ,or ,inal disposal0 incldin! per
capita 2astes B2%ere t%is concept appliesC0 at t%e level prevailin! at t%at date< developin!
contries as 2ell s%old 2or* to2ards t%at !oal 2it%ot ?eopardi5in! t%eir development
prospects<
BcC :ppl$ b$ t%e $ear 2)))0 in all contries0 in particlar in indstriali5ed contries0
pro!rammes to redce t%e prodction o, a!roc%emical 2astes0 containers and pac*a!in!
materials0 2%ic% do not meet %a5ardos c%aracteristics.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
21.1). 7overnments s%old initiate pro!rammes to ac%ieve sstained minimi5ation o,
2aste !eneration. ;on-!overnmental or!ani5ations and consmer !rops s%old be
encora!ed to participate in sc% pro!rammes0 2%ic% cold be dra2n p 2it% t%e
cooperation o, international or!ani5ations0 2%ere necessar$. T%ese pro!rammes s%old0
2%erever possible0 bild pon e3istin! or planned activities and s%old.
BaC Develop and stren!t%en national capacities in researc% and desi!n o, environmentall$
sond tec%nolo!ies0 as 2ell as adopt measres to redce 2astes to a minimm<
BbC Provide ,or incentives to redce nsstainable patterns o, prodction and
consmption<
BcC Develop0 2%ere necessar$0 national plans to minimi5e 2aste !eneration as part o,
overall national development plans<
BdC /mp%asi5e 2aste minimi5ation considerations in procrement 2it%in t%e >nited
;ations s$stem.
-/ Data and information
21.11. -onitorin! is a *e$ prere1isite ,or *eepin! trac* o, c%an!es in 2aste 1antit$ and
1alit$ and t%eir resltant impact on %ealt% and t%e environment. 7overnments0 2it% t%e
spport o, international a!encies0 s%old.
BaC Develop and appl$ met%odolo!ies ,or contr$-level 2aste monitorin!<
BbC >nderta*e data !at%erin! and anal$sis0 establis% national !oals and monitor pro!ress<
BcC >tili5e data to assess environmental sondness o, national 2aste policies as a basis ,or
corrective action<
BdC Inpt in,ormation into !lobal in,ormation s$stems.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
21.12. T%e >nited ;ations and inter!overnmental or!ani5ations0 2it% t%e collaboration o,
7overnments0 s%old %elp promote 2aste minimi5ation b$ ,acilitatin! !reater e3c%an!e
o, in,ormation0 *no2-%o2 and e3perience. T%e ,ollo2in! is a non-e3%astive list o,
speci,ic activities t%at cold be nderta*en.
BaC Identi,$in!0 developin! and %armoni5in! met%odolo!ies ,or 2aste monitorin! and
trans,errin! sc% met%odolo!ies to contries<
BbC Identi,$in! and ,rt%er developin! t%e activities o, e3istin! in,ormation net2or*s on
clean tec%nolo!ies and 2aste minimi5ation<
BcC >nderta*in! periodic assessment0 collatin! and anal$sin! contr$ data and reportin!
s$stematicall$0 in an appropriate >nited ;ations ,orm0 to t%e contries concerned<
BdC Revie2in! t%e e,,ectiveness o, all 2aste minimi5ation instrments and identi,$in!
potential ne2 instrments t%at cold be sed and tec%ni1es b$ 2%ic% t%e$ cold be
made operational at t%e contr$ level. 7idelines and codes o, practice s%old be
developed<
BeC >nderta*in! researc% on t%e social and economic impacts o, 2aste minimi5ation at
t%e consmer level.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
21.1#. T%e Con,erence secretariat s!!ests t%at indstriali5ed contries s%old consider
investin! in 2aste minimi5ation t%e e1ivalent o, abot 1 per cent o, t%e e3penditres on
solid 2astes and se2a!e disposal. :t crrent levels0 t%is 2old amont to abot D6.'
billion annall$0 incldin! abot D1.( billion related to minimi5in! mnicipal solid
2astes. :ctal amonts 2old be determined b$ relevant mnicipal0 provincial and
national bd!et at%orities based on local circmstances.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
21.1". 6aste minimi5ation tec%nolo!ies and procedres 2ill need to be identi,ied and
2idel$ disseminated. T%is 2or* s%old be coordinated b$ national 7overnments0 2it% t%e
cooperation and collaboration o, non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 researc% instittions
and appropriate or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations0 and cold inclde t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC >nderta*in! a continos revie2 o, t%e e,,ectiveness o, all 2aste minimi5ation
instrments and identi,$in! potential ne2 instrments t%at cold be sed and tec%ni1es
b$ 2%ic% instrments cold be made operational at t%e contr$ level. 7idelines and
codes o, practice s%old be developed<
BbC Promotin! 2aste prevention and minimi5ation as t%e principal ob?ective o, national
2aste mana!ement pro!rammes<
BcC Promotin! pblic edcation and a ran!e o, re!lator$ and non-re!lator$ incentives to
encora!e indstr$ to c%an!e prodct desi!n and redce indstrial process 2astes
t%ro!% cleaner prodction tec%nolo!ies and !ood %ose*eepin! practices and to
encora!e indstries and consmers to se t$pes o, pac*a!in! t%at can be sa,el$ resed<
BdC /3ectin!0 in accordance 2it% national capacities0 demonstration and pilot
pro!rammes to optimi5e 2aste minimi5ation instrments<
BeC /stablis%in! procedres ,or ade1ate transport0 stora!e0 conservation and
mana!ement o, a!ricltral prodcts0 ,oodst,,s and ot%er peris%able !oods in order to
redce t%e loss o, t%ose prodcts0 2%ic% reslts in t%e prodction o, solid 2aste<
B,C Facilitatin! t%e trans,er o, 2aste-redction tec%nolo!ies to indstr$0 particlarl$ in
developin! contries0 and establis%in! concrete national standards ,or e,,lents and solid
2aste0 ta*in! into accont0 inter alia0 ra2 material se and ener!$ consmption.
C/ *uman resource development
21.1'. 4man resorce development ,or 2aste minimi5ation not onl$ s%old be tar!eted
at pro,essionals in t%e 2aste mana!ement sector bt also s%old see* to obtain t%e
spport o, citi5ens and indstr$. 4man resorce development pro!rammes mst
t%ere,ore aim to raise consciosness and edcate and in,orm concerned !rops and t%e
pblic in !eneral. Contries s%old incorporate 2it%in sc%ool crricla0 2%ere
appropriate0 t%e principles and practices o, preventin! and minimi5in! 2astes and
material on t%e environmental impacts o, 2aste.
-$ %a8imi7ing environmentall0 sound 4aste reuse and rec0cling
-asis for action
21.16. T%e e3%astion o, traditional disposal sites0 stricter environmental controls
!overnin! 2aste disposal and increasin! 1antities o, more persistent 2astes0 particlarl$
in indstriali5ed contries0 %ave all contribted to a rapid increase in t%e cost o, 2aste
disposal services. Costs cold doble or triple b$ t%e end o, t%e decade. Some crrent
disposal practices pose a t%reat to t%e environment. :s t%e economics o, 2aste disposal
services c%an!e0 2aste rec$clin! and resorce recover$ are becomin! increasin!l$ cost-
e,,ective. Ftre 2aste mana!ement pro!rammes s%old ta*e ma3imm advanta!e o,
resorce-e,,icient approac%es to t%e control o, 2astes. T%ese activities s%old be carried
ot in con?nction 2it% pblic edcation pro!rammes. It is important t%at mar*ets ,or
prodcts ,rom reclaimed materials be identi,ied in t%e development o, rese and
rec$clin! pro!rammes.
#b.ectives
21.1&. T%e ob?ectives in t%is area are.
BaC To stren!t%en and increase national 2aste rese and rec$clin! s$stems<
BbC To create a model internal 2aste rese and rec$clin! pro!ramme ,or 2aste streams0
incldin! paper0 2it%in t%e >nited ;ations s$stem<
BcC To ma*e available in,ormation0 tec%ni1es and appropriate polic$ instrments to
encora!e and ma*e operational 2aste rese and rec$clin! sc%emes.
21.1(. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 promote s,,icient ,inancial and tec%nolo!ical capacities at t%e
re!ional0 national and local levels0 as appropriate0 to implement 2aste rese and rec$clin!
policies and actions<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 in all indstriali5ed contries0 and b$ t%e $ear 2)1)0 in all
developin! contries0 %ave a national pro!ramme0 incldin!0 to t%e e3tent possible0
tar!ets ,or e,,icient 2aste rese and rec$clin!.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
21.1+. 7overnments and instittions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 incldin!
consmer0 2omen9s and $ot% !rops0 in collaboration 2it% appropriate or!ani5ations o,
t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 s%old lanc% pro!rammes to demonstrate and ma*e
operational en%anced 2aste rese and rec$clin!. T%ese pro!rammes s%old0 2%erever
possible0 bild pon e3istin! or planned activities and s%old.
BaC Develop and stren!t%en national capacit$ to rese and rec$cle an increasin!
proportion o, 2astes<
BbC Revie2 and re,orm national 2aste policies to provide incentives ,or 2aste rese and
rec$clin!<
BcC Develop and implement national plans ,or 2aste mana!ement t%at ta*e advanta!e o,0
and !ive priorit$ to0 2aste rese and rec$clin!<
BdC -odi,$ e3istin! standards or prc%ase speci,ications to avoid discrimination a!ainst
rec$cled materials0 ta*in! into accont t%e savin! in ener!$ and ra2 materials<
BeC Develop pblic edcation and a2areness pro!rammes to promote t%e se o, rec$cled
prodcts.
-/ Data and information
21.2). In,ormation and researc% is re1ired to identi,$ promisin! sociall$ acceptable and
cost-e,,ective ,orms o, 2aste rese and rec$clin! relevant to eac% contr$. For e3ample0
spportin! activities nderta*en b$ national and local !overnments in collaboration 2it%
t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er international or!ani5ations cold inclde.
BaC >nderta*in! an e3tensive revie2 o, options and tec%ni1es ,or rese and rec$clin! all
,orms o, mnicipal solid 2astes. Policies ,or rese and rec$clin! s%old be made an
inte!ral component o, national and local 2aste mana!ement pro!rammes<
BbC :ssessin! t%e e3tent and practice o, 2aste rese and rec$clin! operations crrentl$
nderta*en and identi,$in! 2a$s b$ 2%ic% t%ese cold be increased and spported<
BcC Increasin! ,ndin! ,or researc% pilot pro!rammes to test varios options ,or rese and
rec$clin!0 incldin! t%e se o, small-scale0 cotta!e-based rec$clin! indstries< compost
prodction< treated 2aste-2ater irri!ation< and ener!$ recover$ ,rom 2astes<
BdC Prodcin! !idelines and best practices ,or 2aste rese and rec$clin!<
BeC Intensi,$in! e,,orts0 at collectin!0 anal$sin! and disseminatin!0 to *e$ tar!et !rops0
relevant in,ormation on 2aste isses. Special researc% !rants cold be made available on
a competitive basis ,or innovative researc% pro?ects on rec$clin! tec%ni1es<
B,C Identi,$in! potential mar*ets ,or rec$cled prodcts.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
21.21. States0 t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%ro!% t%e >nited
;ations and ot%er relevant international or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old.
BaC >nderta*e a periodic revie2 o, t%e e3tent to 2%ic% contries rese and rec$cle t%eir
2astes<
BbC Revie2 t%e e,,ectiveness o, tec%ni1es ,or and approac%es to 2aste rese and
rec$clin! and 2a$s o, en%ancin! t%eir application in contries<
BcC Revie2 and pdate international !idelines ,or t%e sa,e rese o, 2astes<
BdC /stablis% appropriate pro!rammes to spport small commnities9 2aste rese and
rec$clin! indstries in developin! contries.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
21.22. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%at i, t%e e1ivalent o, 1 per cent o,
2aste-related mnicipal e3penditres 2as devoted to sa,e 2aste rese sc%emes0
2orld2ide e3penditres ,or t%is prpose 2old amont to D( billion. T%e secretariat
estimates t%e total annal cost B1++#-2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is
pro!ramme area in developin! contries to be abot D(') million on !rant or
concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave
not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at
are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic pro!rammes proposed b$
international instittions and approved b$ t%eir !overnin! bodies.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
21.2#. T%e trans,er o, tec%nolo!$ s%old spport 2aste rec$clin! and rese b$ t%e
,ollo2in! means.
BaC Incldin! t%e trans,er o, rec$clin! tec%nolo!ies0 sc% as mac%iner$ ,or resin!
plastics0 rbber and paper0 2it%in bilateral and mltilateral tec%nical cooperation and aid
pro!rammes<
BbC Developin! and improvin! e3istin! tec%nolo!ies0 especiall$ indi!enos tec%nolo!ies0
and ,acilitatin! t%eir trans,er nder on!oin! re!ional and interre!ional tec%nical
assistance pro!rammes<
BcC Facilitatin! t%e trans,er o, 2aste rese and rec$clin! tec%nolo!$.
21.2". Incentives ,or 2aste rese and rec$clin! are nmeros. Contries cold consider
t%e ,ollo2in! options to encora!e indstr$0 instittions0 commercial establis%ments and
individals to rec$cle 2astes instead o, disposin! o, t%em.
BaC O,,erin! incentives to local and mnicipal at%orities t%at rec$cle t%e ma3imm
proportion o, t%eir 2astes<
BbC Providin! tec%nical assistance to in,ormal 2aste rese and rec$clin! operations<
BcC :ppl$in! economic and re!lator$ instrments0 incldin! ta3 incentives0 to spport
t%e principle t%at !enerators o, 2astes pa$ ,or t%eir disposal<
BdC Providin! le!al and economic conditions condcive to investments in 2aste rese and
rec$clin!<
BeC Implementin! speci,ic mec%anisms sc% as deposit=re,nd s$stems as incentives ,or
rese and rec$clin!<
B,C Promotin! t%e separate collection o, rec$clable parts o, %ose%old 2astes<
B!C Providin! incentives to improve t%e mar*etabilit$ o, tec%nicall$ rec$clable 2aste<
B%C /ncora!in! t%e se o, rec$clable materials0 particlarl$ in pac*a!in!0 2%ere
,easible<
BiC /ncora!in! t%e development o, mar*ets ,or rec$cled !oods b$ establis%in!
pro!rammes.
C/ *uman resource development
21.2'. Trainin! 2ill be re1ired to reorient crrent 2aste mana!ement practices to
inclde 2aste rese and rec$clin!. 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% >nited ;ations
international and re!ional or!ani5ations0 s%old nderta*e t%e ,ollo2in! indicative list o,
actions.
BaC Incldin! 2aste rese and rec$clin! in in-service trainin! pro!rammes as inte!ral
components o, tec%nical cooperation pro!rammes on rban mana!ement and
in,rastrctre development<
BbC /3pandin! trainin! pro!rammes on 2ater sppl$ and sanitation to incorporate
tec%ni1es and policies ,or 2aste rese and rec$clin!<
BcC Incldin! t%e advanta!es and civic obli!ations associated 2it% 2aste rese and
rec$clin! in sc%ool crricla and relevant !eneral edcational corses<
BdC /ncora!in! non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 commnit$-based or!ani5ations and
2omen9s0 $ot% and pblic interest !rop pro!rammes0 in collaboration 2it% local
mnicipal at%orities0 to mobili5e commnit$ spport ,or 2aste rese and rec$clin!
t%ro!% ,ocsed commnit$-level campai!ns.
D/ Capacit01building
21.26. Capacit$-bildin! to spport increased 2aste rese and rec$clin! s%old ,ocs on
t%e ,ollo2in! areas.
BaC -a*in! operational national policies and incentives ,or 2aste mana!ement<
BbC /nablin! local and mnicipal at%orities to mobili5e commnit$ spport ,or 2aste
rese and rec$clin! b$ involvin! and assistin! in,ormal sector 2aste rese and rec$clin!
operations and nderta*in! 2aste mana!ement plannin! t%at incorporates resorce
recover$ practices.
C$ Promoting environmentall0 sound 4aste disposal and treatment
-asis for action
21.2&. /ven 2%en 2astes are minimi5ed0 some 2astes 2ill still remain. /ven a,ter
treatment0 all disc%ar!es o, 2astes %ave some residal impact on t%e receivin!
environment. Conse1entl$0 t%ere is scope ,or improvin! 2aste treatment and disposal
practices sc% as0 ,or e3ample0 avoidin! t%e disc%ar!e o, sld!es at sea. In developin!
contries0 t%e problem is o, a more ,ndamental natre. less t%an 1) per cent o, rban
2astes receive some ,orm o, treatment and onl$ a small proportion o, treatment is in
compliance 2it% an$ acceptable 1alit$ standard. Faecal matter treatment and disposal
s%old be accorded de priorit$ !iven t%e potential t%reat o, ,aeces to %man %ealt%.
#b.ectives
21.2(. T%e ob?ective in t%is area is to treat and sa,el$ dispose o, a pro!ressivel$
increasin! proportion o, t%e !enerated 2astes.
21.2+. 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 establis% 2aste treatment and disposal 1alit$ criteria0 ob?ectives
and standards based on t%e natre and assimilative capacit$ o, t%e receivin! environment<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 establis% s,,icient capacit$ to nderta*e 2aste-related polltion
impact monitorin! and condct re!lar srveillance0 incldin! epidemiolo!ical
srveillance0 2%ere appropriate<
BcC E$ t%e $ear 1++'0 in indstriali5ed contries0 and b$ t%e $ear 2))'0 in developin!
contries0 ensre t%at at least ') per cent o, all se2a!e0 2aste 2aters and solid 2astes are
treated or disposed o, in con,ormit$ 2it% national or international environmental and
%ealt% 1alit$ !idelines<
BdC E$ t%e $ear 2)2'0 dispose o, all se2a!e0 2aste 2aters and solid 2astes in con,ormit$
2it% national or international environmental 1alit$ !idelines.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
21.#). 7overnments0 instittions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 to!et%er 2it%
indstries0 in collaboration 2it% appropriate or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0
s%old lanc% pro!rammes to improve t%e control and mana!ement o, 2aste-related
polltion. T%ese pro!rammes s%old0 2%erever possible0 bild pon e3istin! or planned
activities and s%old.
BaC Develop and stren!t%en national capacit$ to treat and sa,el$ dispose o, 2astes<
BbC Revie2 and re,orm national 2aste mana!ement policies to !ain control over 2aste-
related polltion<
BcC /ncora!e contries to see* 2aste disposal soltions 2it%in t%eir soverei!n territor$
and as close as possible to t%e sorces o, ori!in t%at are compatible 2it% environmentall$
sond and e,,icient mana!ement. In a nmber o, contries0 transbondar$ movements
ta*e place to ensre t%at 2astes are mana!ed in an environmentall$ sond and e,,icient
2a$. Sc% movements observe t%e relevant conventions0 incldin! t%ose t%at appl$ to
areas t%at are not nder national ?risdiction<
BdC Develop %man 2astes mana!ement plans0 !ivin! de attention to t%e development
and application o, appropriate tec%nolo!ies and t%e availabilit$ o, resorces ,or
implementation.
-/ Data and information
21.#1. Standard settin! and monitorin! are t2o *e$ elements essential ,or !ainin! control
over 2aste-related polltion. T%e ,ollo2in! speci,ic activities are indicative o, t%e *ind o,
spportive actions t%at cold be ta*en b$ international bodies sc% as t%e >nited ;ations
Centre ,or 4man Settlements B4abitatC0 t%e >nited ;ations /nvironment Pro!ramme
and t%e 6orld 4ealt% Or!ani5ation.
BaC :ssemblin! and anal$sin! t%e scienti,ic evidence and polltion impacts o, 2astes in
t%e environment in order to ,ormlate and disseminate recommended scienti,ic criteria
and !idelines ,or t%e environmentall$ sond mana!ement o, solid 2astes<
BbC Recommendin! national and0 2%ere relevant0 local environmental 1alit$ standards
based on scienti,ic criteria and !idelines<
BcC Incldin! 2it%in tec%nical cooperation pro!rammes and a!reements t%e provision ,or
monitorin! e1ipment and ,or t%e re1isite trainin! in its se<
BdC /stablis%in! an in,ormation clearin!-%ose 2it% e3tensive net2or*s at t%e re!ional0
national and local levels to collect and disseminate in,ormation on all aspects o, 2aste
mana!ement0 incldin! sa,e disposal.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
21.#2. States0 t%ro!% bilateral and mltilateral cooperation0 incldin! t%ro!% t%e >nited
;ations and ot%er relevant international or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old.
BaC Identi,$0 develop and %armoni5e met%odolo!ies and environmental 1alit$ and %ealt%
!idelines ,or sa,e 2aste disc%ar!e and disposal<
BbC Revie2 and *eep abreast o, developments and disseminate in,ormation on t%e
e,,ectiveness o, tec%ni1es and approac%es to sa,e 2aste disposal and 2a$s o, spportin!
t%eir application in contries.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
21.##. Sa,e 2aste disposal pro!rammes are relevant to bot% developed and developin!
contries. In developed contries t%e ,ocs is on improvin! ,acilities to meet %i!%er
environmental 1alit$ criteria0 2%ile in developin! contries considerable investment is
re1ired to bild ne2 treatment ,acilities.
21.#". T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme in developin! contries to be
abot D1' billion0 incldin! abot D#." billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant
or concessional terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and
%ave not been revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$
t%at are non-concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and
pro!rammes 7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
21.#'. Scienti,ic !idelines and researc% on varios aspects o, 2aste-related polltion
control 2ill be crcial ,or ac%ievin! t%e ob?ectives o, t%is pro!ramme. 7overnments0
mnicipalities and local at%orities0 2it% appropriate international cooperation0 s%old.
BaC Prepare !idelines and tec%nical reports on sb?ects sc% as t%e inte!ration o, land-
se plannin! in %man settlements 2it% 2aste disposal0 environmental 1alit$ criteria and
standards0 2aste treatment and sa,e disposal options0 indstrial 2aste treatment and
land,ill operations<
BbC >nderta*e researc% on critical sb?ects sc% as lo2-cost0 lo2-maintenance 2aste-
2ater treatment s$stems< sa,e sld!e disposal options< indstrial 2aste treatment< and
lo2-tec%nolo!$0 ecolo!icall$ sa,e 2aste disposal options<
BcC Trans,er tec%nolo!ies0 in con,ormit$ 2it% t%e terms as 2ell as t%e provisions o,
c%apter #" BTrans,er o, environmentall$ sond tec%nolo!$0 cooperation and capacit$-
bildin!C0 on indstrial 2aste treatment processes t%ro!% bilateral nad mltilateral
tec%nical cooperation pro!rammes and in cooperation 2it% bsiness and indstr$0
incldin! lar!e and transnational corporations0 as appropriate.
BdC Focs on t%e re%abilitation0 operation and maintenance o, e3istin! ,acilities and
tec%nical assistance on improved maintenance practices and tec%ni1es ,ollo2ed b$ t%e
plannin! and constrction o, 2aste treatment ,acilities<
BeC /stablis% pro!rammes to ma3imi5e t%e sorce se!re!ation and sa,e disposal o, t%e
%a5ardos components o, mnicipal solid 2aste<
B,C /nsre t%e investment and provision o, 2aste collection ,acilities 2it% t%e
concomitant provision o, 2ater services and 2it% an e1al and parallel investment and
provision o, 2aste treatment ,acilities.
C/ *uman resource development
21.#6. Trainin! 2old be re1ired to improve crrent 2aste mana!ement practices to
inclde sa,e collection and 2aste disposal. T%e ,ollo2in! is an indicative list o, actions
t%at s%old be ta*en b$ 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% international or!ani5ations.
BaC Providin! bot% ,ormal and in-service trainin!0 ,ocsed on polltion control0 2aste
treatment and disposal tec%nolo!ies0 and operatin! and maintainin! 2aste-related
in,rastrctre. Intercontr$ sta,, e3c%an!e pro!rammes s%old also be establis%ed<
BbC >nderta*in! t%e re1isite trainin! ,or 2aste-related polltion monitorin! and control
en,orcement.
D/ Capacit01building
21.#&. Instittional re,orms and capacit$-bildin! 2ill be indispensable i, contries are to
be able to 1anti,$ and miti!ate 2aste-related polltion. :ctivities to ac%ieve t%is
ob?ective s%old inclde.
BaC Creatin! and stren!t%enin! independent environmental control bodies at t%e national
and local levels. International or!ani5ations and donors s%old spport needed p!radin!
o, manpo2er s*ills and provision o, e1ipment<
BbC /mpo2erin! o, polltion control a!encies 2it% t%e re1isite le!al mandate and
,inancial capacities to carr$ ot t%eir dties e,,ectivel$.
D$ E8tending 4aste service coverage
-asis for action
21.#(. E$ t%e end o, t%e centr$0 over 2.) billion people 2ill be 2it%ot access to basic
sanitation0 and an estimated %al, o, t%e rban poplation in developin! contries 2ill be
2it%ot ade1ate solid 2aste disposal services. :s man$ as '.2 million people0 incldin!
" million c%ildren nder ,ive $ears o, a!e0 die eac% $ear ,rom 2aste-related diseases. T%e
%ealt% impacts are particlarl$ severe ,or t%e rban poor. T%e %ealt% and environmental
impacts o, inade1ate 2aste mana!ement0 %o2ever0 !o be$ond t%e nserved settlements
t%emselves and reslt in 2ater0 land and air contamination and polltion over a 2ider
area. /3tendin! and improvin! 2aste collection and sa,e disposal services are crcial to
!ainin! control over t%is ,orm o, polltion.
#b.ectives
21.#+. T%e overall ob?ective o, t%is pro!ramme is to provide %ealt%-protectin!0
environmentall$ sa,e 2aste collection and disposal services to all people. 7overnments0
accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e cooperation o, t%e
>nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0 s%old.
BaC E$ t%e $ear 2)))0 %ave t%e necessar$ tec%nical0 ,inancial and %man resorce capacit$
to provide 2aste collection services commensrate 2it% needs<
BbC E$ t%e $ear 2)2'0 provide all rban poplations 2it% ade1ate 2aste services<
BcC E$ t%e $ear 2)2'0 ensre t%at ,ll rban 2aste service covera!e is maintained and
sanitation covera!e ac%ieved in all rral areas.
Activities
A/ %anagement1related activities
21."). 7overnments0 accordin! to t%eir capacities and available resorces and 2it% t%e
cooperation o, t%e >nited ;ations and ot%er relevant or!ani5ations0 as appropriate0
s%old.
BaC /stablis% ,inancin! mec%anisms ,or 2aste mana!ement service development in
deprived areas0 incldin! appropriate modes o, revene !eneration<
BbC :ppl$ t%e Apollter pa$sA principle0 2%ere appropriate0 b$ settin! 2aste mana!ement
c%ar!es at rates t%at re,lect t%e costs o, providin! t%e service and ensre t%at t%ose 2%o
!enerate t%e 2astes pa$ t%e ,ll cost o, disposal in an environmentall$ sa,e 2a$<
BcC /ncora!e instittionali5ation o, commnities9 participation in plannin! and
implementation procedres ,or solid 2aste mana!ement.
-/ Data and information
21."1. 7overnments0 in collaboration 2it% t%e >nited ;ations and international
or!ani5ations0 s%old nderta*e t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC Developin! and appl$in! met%odolo!ies ,or 2aste monitorin!<
BbC Data !at%erin! and anal$sis to establis% !oals and monitor pro!ress<
BcC Inpttin! in,ormation into a !lobal in,ormation s$stem bildin! pon e3istin!
s$stems<
BdC Stren!t%enin! t%e activities o, e3istin! in,ormation net2or*s in order to disseminate
,ocsed in,ormation on t%e application o, innovative and lo2-cost alternatives ,or 2aste
disposal to tar!eted adiences.
C/ "nternational and regional cooperation and coordination
21."2. -an$ >nited ;ations and bilateral pro!rammes e3ist t%at see* to provide 2ater
sppl$ and sanitation services to t%e nserved. T%e 6ater and Sanitation Collaborative
Concil0 a !lobal ,orm0 crrentl$ acts to coordinate development and encora!e
cooperation. /ven so0 !iven t%e ever-increasin! nmbers o, nserved rban poor
poplations and t%e need to address0 in addition0 t%e problem o, solid 2aste disposal0
additional mec%anisms are essential to ensre accelerated covera!e o, rban 2aste
disposal services. T%e international commnit$ in !eneral and selected >nited ;ations
or!ani5ations in particlar s%old.
BaC 8anc% a settlement in,rastrctre and environment pro!ramme ,ollo2in! t%e >nited
;ations Con,erence on /nvironment and Development to coordinate t%e activities o, all
or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem involved in t%is area and inclde a clearin!-
%ose ,or in,ormation dissemination on all 2aste mana!ement isses<
BbC >nderta*e and s$stematicall$ report on pro!ress in providin! 2aste services to t%ose
2it%ot sc% services<
BcC Revie2 t%e e,,ectiveness o, tec%ni1es ,or and approac%es to increasin! covera!e and
identi,$ innovative 2a$s o, acceleratin! t%e process.
%eans of implementation
A/ )inancing and cost evaluation
21."#. T%e Con,erence secretariat %as estimated t%e avera!e total annal cost B1++#-
2)))C o, implementin! t%e activities o, t%is pro!ramme to be abot D&.' billion0
incldin! abot D2.6 billion ,rom t%e international commnit$ on !rant or concessional
terms. T%ese are indicative and order-o,-ma!nitde estimates onl$ and %ave not been
revie2ed b$ 7overnments. :ctal costs and ,inancial terms0 incldin! an$ t%at are non-
concessional0 2ill depend pon0 inter alia0 t%e speci,ic strate!ies and pro!rammes
7overnments decide pon ,or implementation.
-/ Scientific and tecnological means
21."". 7overnments and instittions0 to!et%er 2it% non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0
s%old0 in collaboration 2it% appropriate or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0
lanc% pro!rammes in di,,erent parts o, t%e developin! 2orld to e3tend 2aste services to
t%e nserved poplations. T%ese pro!rammes s%old0 2%erever possible0 bild pon and
reorient e3istin! or planned activities.
21."'. Polic$ c%an!es at t%e national and local levels cold en%ance t%e rate o, 2aste
service covera!e e3tension. T%ese c%an!es s%old inclde t%e ,ollo2in!.
BaC 7ivin! ,ll reco!nition to and sin! t%e ,ll ran!e o, lo2-cost options ,or 2aste
mana!ement0 incldin!0 2%ere appropriate0 t%eir instittionali5ation and incorporation
2it%in codes o, practice and re!lation<
BbC :ssi!nin! %i!% priorit$ to t%e e3tension o, 2aste mana!ement services0 as necessar$
and appropriate0 to all settlements irrespective o, t%eir le!al stats0 !ivin! de emp%asis
to meetin! t%e 2aste disposal needs o, t%e nserved0 especiall$ t%e nserved rban poor<
BcC Inte!ratin! t%e provision and maintenance o, 2aste mana!ement services 2it% ot%er
basic services sc% as 2ater-sppl$ and storm-2ater draina!e.
21."6. Researc% activities cold be en%anced. Contries0 in cooperation 2it% appropriate
international or!ani5ations and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 s%old0 ,or instance.
BaC Find soltions and e1ipment ,or mana!in! 2astes in areas o, concentrated
poplations and on small islands. In particlar0 t%ere is a need ,or appropriate re,se
stora!e and collection s$stems and cost-e,,ective and %$!ienic %man 2aste disposal
options<
BbC Prepare and disseminate !idelines0 case-stdies0 polic$ revie2s and tec%nical reports
on appropriate soltions and modes o, service deliver$ to nserved lo2-income areas<
BcC 8anc% campai!ns to encora!e active commnit$ participation involvin! 2omen9s
and $ot% !rops in t%e mana!ement o, 2aste0 particlarl$ %ose%old 2aste<
BdC Promote intercontr$ trans,er o, relevant tec%nolo!ies0 especiall$ tec%nolo!ies ,or
%i!%-densit$ settlements.
C/ *uman resource development
21."&. International or!ani5ations and national and local 7overnments0 in collaboration
2it% non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 s%old provide ,ocsed trainin! on lo2-cost 2aste
collection and disposal options0 particlarl$ tec%ni1es ,or t%eir plannin! and deliver$.
Intercontr$ sta,, e3c%an!e pro!rammes amon! developin! contries cold ,orm part o,
sc% trainin!. Particlar attention s%old be !iven to p!radin! t%e stats and s*ills o,
mana!ement-level personnel in 2aste mana!ement a!encies.
21."(. Improvements in mana!ement tec%ni1es are li*el$ to $ield t%e !reatest retrns in
terms o, improvin! 2aste mana!ement service e,,icienc$. T%e >nited ;ations0
international or!ani5ations and ,inancial instittions s%old0 in collaboration 2it%
national and local 7overnments0 develop and render operational mana!ement in,ormation
s$stems ,or mnicipal record *eepin! and accontin! and ,or e,,icienc$ and e,,ectiveness
assessment.
D/ Capacit01building
21."+. 7overnments0 instittions and non-!overnmental or!ani5ations0 2it% t%e
collaboration o, appropriate or!ani5ations o, t%e >nited ;ations s$stem0 s%old develop
capacities to implement pro!rammes to provide 2aste collection and disposal services to
t%e nserved poplations. Some activities nder t%e pro!rammes s%old inclde t%e
,ollo2in!.
BaC /stablis%in! a special nit 2it%in crrent instittional arran!ements to plan and
deliver services to t%e nserved poor commnities0 2it% t%eir involvement and
participation<
BbC -a*in! revisions to e3istin! codes and re!lations to permit t%e se o, t%e ,ll ran!e
o, lo2-cost alternative tec%nolo!ies ,or 2aste disposal<
BcC Eildin! instittional capacit$ and developin! procedres ,or nderta*in! service
plannin! and deliver$.
Section ""
Conservation , %anagement of &esources for Development
Capter 22
Safe , Environmentall0 Sound %anagement of &adioactive Dastes
P&#(&A%%E A&EA
Promoting te safe and environmentall0 sound management of radioactive
4astes
-asis for action
22.1. Radioactive 2astes are !enerated in t%e nclear ,el c$cle as 2ell as in nclear
applications Bt%e se o, radionclides in medicine0 researc% and indstr$C. T%e
radiolo!ical and sa,et$ ris* ,rom radioactive 2astes varies ,rom ver$ lo2 in s%ort-lived0
lo2-level 2astes p to ver$ lar!e ,or %i!%-level 2astes. :nnall$ abot 2))0))) m# o,
lo2-level and intermediate-level 2aste and 1)0))) m# o, %i!%-level 2aste Bas 2ell as
spent nclear ,el destined ,or ,inal disposalC is !enerated 2orld 2ide ,rom nclear
po2er prodction. T%ese volmes are increasin! as more nclear po2er nits are ta*en
into operation0 nclear ,acilities are decommissioned and t%e se o, radionclides
increases. T%e %i!%-level 2aste contains abot ++ per cent o, t%e radionclides and t%s
represents t%e lar!est radiolo!ical ris*. T%e 2aste volmes ,rom nclear applications are
!enerall$ mc% smaller0 t$picall$ some tens o, cbic metres or less per $ear and contr$.
4o2ever0 t%e act