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Introduction to Islamic

Law
SESSI ON 1
MARYAM I NSTI TUTE
Taharah: Purification

Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves.
(2:222)

Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves.
(9:108)
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Cleanliness is half of faith. (Sahih Muslim Book 2, Number 0432)
Taharah (Cleanliness from Physical Impurities)
Nazafah (Neatness)
Difference between being clean and pure
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Importance of Cleanliness
The key to the prayer (salah) is cleanliness (Tirmidhi)
"Who ever eats garlic, onion, then keeps away from our Masjid because the angels get offended
from what offends the children of Adam. (Bukhari)
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Outward Inward
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Types of Impurity
Najasah Water
Shirk Kalima
Sin - Istighfar
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Types of Najasah (Impurity)
Najasah
Haqiqi
(Physical)
Galeezha
(Heavy)
Khafeefa
(Light)
Hukmi
(Legislative)
Hadathe Asghar
(Minor Impurity)
Hadathe Akbar
(Major Impurity)
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Types of Najasah
Najasa is of two types.
1. Haqeeqi (real or literal) which can be seen (e.g. it is physical impurity), and further divided
into, namely
Ghaleeza (pronounced GHA-LEE-ZA) Heavy
Khafeefa (pronounced KHA-FEE-FA) Light
2. Hukmi (pronounced HUK-MI means legislative) impurity which cannot be physically seen
but the person affected by it is unable to carry out an act of worship e.g. prayer, recitation of
the Quran etc.
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Najasat-e-Hukmi (Legislative)
- Hadath-e-Asghar (Minor Impurity): Need Wudu to become pure
Examples: passing wind, passing urine or stool
- Hadath-e-Akbar (Major Impurity): Need Ghusl to become pure
Examples: marital relations, bleeding due to child birth, menstrual period
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G
h
a
l
i
z
a
h
:

H
e
a
v
y

I
m
p
u
r
i
t
y
Blood
Feces
Urine
Semen and / or other sexual
fluids
Vomit (mouthful
Pus
Wine (Intoxicating Drinks)
Droppings of birds that
cannot fly
K
h
a
f
i
f
a
h
:

M
i
l
d

I
m
p
u
r
i
t
y
Urine of Halal Animals
Urine of Horses
Droppings of Birds that are
Haram to Eat
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Two types of Najasah Haqeeqi (Physical)
There are two types of Najasah Haqeeqi:
1. Najasa Ghaleeza (Heavy): blood; stool, urine and semen of humans; intoxicating drinks; the
excreta and urine of cats and dogs; the meat, hair, bones, and everything else of pigs; the
dung of horses, donkeys, mules, cattle, oxen, buffaloes, etc; the droppings of goats and
sheep; in other words the excreta of all animals; the droppings of fowls, ducks and wild
ducks; and the urine of donkeys, mules and all haraamanimals, vomit (mouthful)
The stool and urine of a small child that is still being breast-fed is also najaasat-e-ghaleezah.
2. Najasa Khafeefa (Light): The excreta of haraambirds and the urine of halaal animals, such
as goats, cows and buffaloes, the urine of horses, is najaasat-e-khafeefah.
With the exception of fowls, ducks and wild ducks, the excreta of all other halaal birds such as
pigeons, sparrows, etc. is pure. The urine and stool of bats is pure.
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Follow up Masail
Impure oil fell on one's clothing but the extent of it was less than three centimetres in diameter.
However, after some time it spread and became more than three centimetres in diameter. As
long as it was less, it will be excused. But once it spreads beyond the limit, it will not be excused.
Washing it off will be wajib. If it is not washed off, salah will not be valid.
The blood of fish is not impure. There is no harm if it falls on a person. The same applies to the
blood of flies, bugs and mosquitos.
If a drop of urine equal to the eye of a needle falls, and it cannot be seen except after very
careful examination, then there's no harm in it. It is not obligatory to wash it off, but to do so is
preferable.
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When are Najasat-e- Ghalizah
& Khafifah Excused?
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Najasat Ghalizah
Heavy Impurity
Thin & Flowing
Excused if area is
3 cm
Not excused if
area is greater
than 3 cm
Thick & Solid
Excused if weight
is 4 grams
Not excused if
weight is greater
than 4 grams
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Mild Impurity
Excused if area of
impurity is < of the
whole area*
Not excused if area if
impurity is equal to or
greater than 1/4
th
of
the whole area*
*
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Najasat-e-Ghaleezah: Allowed Quantity
If a najaasat-e-ghaleezah that is thin and flowing falls on the body or clothes, it will be excused
if the area on which it falls is equal to or less than a fifty cents coin in extent ( Approximately 3
cm in diameter). If the person performs his salah without washing it off, his salah will be valid.
But to refrain from washing it and to continue offering his salah in this way is makruh. If it is
more than a fifty cents coin, then it will not be excused. Salah will not be valid if it is not washed
off.
If a najaasat-e-ghaleezah is thick and solid, for example stool or the excreta of fowls, etc. and its
weight is equal to or less than about 4 grams, then performing salaah without washing it off will
be valid. But if it is more than this weight, salah will not be valid.
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Najasat-e-Khafifah: Allowed Quantity
Najaasat-e-khafeefah falls on the body or clothing. If it is less than a quarter of the area on
which it fell, it will be excused. But if it is equal to a quarter or more, it will not be excused. In
other words, if it falls on one sleeve, it is less than a quarter of that sleeve. If it falls on one panel
of a shirt, it is less than a quarter of it. If it falls on a scarf, it is less than a quarter of that scarf.
Only if it is less than a quarter of all these it will be excused.
Similarly, if the najaasat-e-khafeefah falls on one hand or on a leg, then if it is less than a
quarter of that hand or leg, salah will be valid if it is not washed. In other words, on whichever
limb the najaasat falls, less than a quarter of that limb will be considered. If it is equal to a
quarter or more, then it will not be excused. It will have to be washed. salah that is performed
without washing it will not be valid.
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Purifying Najasah that can be seen:
If a najaasat which can be seen, such as stool or blood, falls on the clothing or body, it should
be washed until the najaasat is removed and no stain remains. There is no limit to the number
of times it should be washed - the moment the najaasat is removed, it will become pure.
However, if thenajaasat is removed in the first instance, it will be better to wash it two more
times. And if it is removed in the second time, it will be better to wash it one more time. In
other words, it is preferable to wash it three times.
If the najaasat is such that despite washing it several times and despite it being removed, the
foul smell still remains or some stain is still there. Even in this instance, the clothing will be
purified. It is not necessary to use any soap or detergents in order to get rid of the smell or stain.
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Purifying Najasah that cannot be seen:
If any impurity similar to urine which cannot be seen, falls on the clothing; then it should be
washed three times. Each time that it is washed, the water should be squeezed out of it. After
washing it the third time, the cloth should be wrung with full force - only then will it be purified.
If it is not wrung with full force, the cloth will not be purified.
If any impurity falls on such a thing which cannot be wrung or squeezed, such as a bed, mat,
jewelry, sand, utensils, bottles, shoes, etc., then the method of purifying these things is as
follows: the item should be washed once and then the person should wait. When the water
stops dripping from it, it should be washed a second time. When the water stops dripping, it
should be washed a third time. In this way it will be purified.
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Absorbent
Should be washed and
wrung thrice; If cannot
be wrung, must be left
to dry each time
Less
Absorbent
Washing or Wiping to
remove traces is enough
Non
Absorbent
Washed or even just
wiped: Example, jewelry,
swords, things made out
of metal
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Follow up Masail
If anything is thin and pure like water, it can also be used to wash off any impurity. If a person uses rose-
water, or the extract of any herb, or vinegar; even then that thing will be purified. However, it is not
permissible to use ghee, oil, milk and other similar substances which are sticky or fatty. That thing will
remain impure.
Semen fell on the body or clothes and got dried. The body and clothes can be purified by scraping it off
and rubbing it thoroughly. But if it has not dried as yet, it will have to be washed. But if a person did not
wash himself after passing urine, and at that time semen came out; it will not become purified by rubbing
it off. It will have to be washed. Prophet (saw) said: Wash it if it is wet and and rub it if it is dry
If najaasat which can be seen, eg. dung, stool, blood, semen, etc., falls on one's shoes or leather socks, it
could be removed and purified by rubbing it thoroughly on the ground. Similarly, it can also be purified by
scraping it off. Even if it is not dry, and it is thoroughly scraped and rubbed off to such an extent that no
sign of the najaasat remains, it will be purified.
If any najaasat like urine which is not seen, falls on the shoes or leather socks, then it cannot be purified
except by washing.
As for clothing and the body, these can only be purified by washing. This is irrespective of whether
the najaasat can be seen or not.
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Follow up Masail
If mirrors, knives, gold and silver jewellery, copper, brass, steel, etc. become impure, they can be purified by
wiping them thoroughly, or scraping them, or rubbing them with sand. But if these items have been engraved,
they cannot be purified except by washing. The Companions (ra) would kill a disbeliever with their swords, and
then wipe them and pray.
Some najaasat fell on the ground and got dried in such a way that there is no sign of it - there is no stain nor any
foul smell of that najaasat. If it gets dry in this way, the ground will be pure. However, tayammumon such a piece
of ground will not be permissible. However, it will be permissible to perform salah there. The same rule applies to
bricks and stones that have been embedded with limestone or mortar into the ground in such a way that these
cannot be removed except by digging them out. That is, once the najaasat dries and no sign of it remains, they
will be purified, but tayammumwill not be permissible. Prophet (saw): Any ground that is dry, then verily it is
pure
Those bricks that have just been placed on the ground without being embedded with lime or cement will not get
purified with the drying of the najaasat. They will have to be washed.
Grass which is growing on the ground also becomes purified with the drying and disappearance of the najaasat.
But if the grass is cut, it will not be purified without washing.
If impure knives, earthen and copper utensils are placed on a blazing fire, they will also get purified.
There was some impurity on one's hand. Someone removed this najaasat by licking it off three times. It will
become purified, but it is prohibited to lick it.
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Follow up Masail
If an unused earthenware utensil becomes impure, and it is such that it absorbs the impurity,
then it will not become purified by merely washing it. Instead, it should be filled with water and
when traces of the impurity appear in the water, the utensil should be emptied. It should be
filled again, and emptied again. This should be continuously done until no sign of the impurity
remains - neither its colour nor its smell. Only then will it be purified.
The utensils which a potter makes with impure clay will remain impure as long as they are
unbaked. Once they get baked, they will become pure.
Honey, syrup, ghee or oil became impure. Whatever the amount may be, add the same amount
or more of water to it and keep it to boil. Once the water has evaporated, add more water and
do the same three times. In this way it will get purified.
Alternatively, add the same amount of water and stir the contents. Once it comes on top of the
water, remove it in some way or another. Repeat the process three times and it will be purified.
If the ghee is gone hard, add water to it and heat it. Once it melts, remove it.
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Follow up Masail
One corner of a mat is impure and the balance of it is pure. It will be permissible to offer salah in
the corner that is pure.
A dog put its mouth in flour or a monkey ate some of it. Whatever portion of the flour got dirty
should be removed. It is permissible to eat the rest of it. If the flour was dry, then wherever its
saliva is, that place should be removed. The balance of it is pure.
The saliva of a dog is impure, but the dog itself is not impure. So if a dog touches anyone's body
or clothes, they will not become impure irrespective of whether the dog's body is dry or wet.
However, it will be a different case if there is some najaasat on the dog's body.
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Ways of Purifying Physical Impurity
Water Earth Sun
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Types of Water Permissible for
Purification

And it is He who sends the winds as good tidings before His mercy, and We send down purifying
water from the sky (25:48)
Water is pure and is not rendered impure by anything, except a thing that alters its colour, taste
or smell
The words of the Prophet (bless him and give him peace) regarding rivers [Its water is pure and
the dead things in it are permissible
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Types of Water Permissible for
Purification
1. Rain
2. Ocean
3. River
4. Water from Wells
5. Water from melted snow
6. Hail water upon melting
7. Spring water
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5 Types of Water
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5 Types of Water
1. Pure in itself, and purifying for others
2. Pure in itself and is purifying for other things, although it is disliked to use because it is a
small quantity of water that a cat or a similar animal has drunk from.
3. Used Water: The third type is water that is pure in itself, though is not purifying for other
things. This is water that one has used to remove his minor impurity either through the
process of wudu or bathing, or water used to make wudu upon with the intention of attaining
the pleasure of Allah swt (mustamal).
Furthermore, used water [musta'mal] is fit for the purification of physical filth from the body
or clothes, such as urine, pus and wine, but it is not valid to perform wudu or bath with this
used water.
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5 Types of Water
4. Filthy water (Small Quantity in which impurity has fallen)
Still water or Small Quantity of Water: Impurity falls- water is deemed impure even if no trace of the filth
appears
Small Quantity: Less than 10 * 10 arms length (approximately 48 cm)
Circular: Less than 36 arms length
Depth: One reaches into it to scoop up water, the base of the water would not appear
Flowing Water or Large Quantity of Water:
o Liquid Impurity Falls: Pure unless one of the traits of water changes: color, taste or smell
o Solid Impurity Falls: Pure unless its flow and viscosity are affected
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Water
Flowing
Small
Large
Still
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Properties of Water
W
a
t
e
r
Color
Smell
Taste
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Small Quantity of Water: What happens
when impurity falls?
Still Water /
Small Quantity
of Water
Impure even if
no trace of the
filth remains
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Flowing Water: What happens when impurity falls?
Flowing Water / Large
Quantity of Water
Liquid Impurity
Pure unless ONE of the
traits of water
changes: Color, taste or
Smell
Solid Impurity
Pure unless flow &
viscosity are effected
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Pure Water
Flowing Water
River
Washing
Machine
Large Quantity
of Water
Lake or Pool
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5 Types of Water
5. Doubtful Water: Doubtful with respect to its purifying other things, and not with respect to its actual
purity Example, Water with which a mule or a donkey has drunk from
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Istinja & Istibra
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Cleaning after using the rest room
Ibn Abbas (RadiyAllahu Ta'ala Anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) came
upon two graves and said: "Their occupants are being punished, but not for a great sin (in their
own view). However, it is in fact a great sin. One of them went about spreading slander. The
other did not clean himself properly after urination..." (Bukhari and Muslim)
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Istibra & Istinja
It is compulsory to do Istibra' after urinating. Istibra' is to ensure that the traces of urine has
come out completely.
ISTINJAAA means cleaning the private parts after passing out urine and stool by using clean
water and earth etc.
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Istibra & Istinja
Istinja is Sunnah when the filth that exits from the private part has not spread past the
boundary of the outlet. For example; if a person defecates and the faecal matter does not smear
beyond the perimeter of the anus, then istinja is Sunnah. This applies to male and female.
If the filth crosses the boundary of its outlet and is equal to the size of a dirham, then it is
necessary to remove it with water or with a liquid cleanser such as rose water.
And if the filth passes the boundary of the outlet and is more than the size of a dirham, then it
is obligatory to clean with water.
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Istinja
Additionally, when a person is observing the major bath from post intercourse discharge,
menstrual bleeding and postnatal bleeding, it is obligatory to wash the filth in the exit passage,
even if it is a minimal quantity
It is sunna to perform istinja with a clean stone or the like provided it is not rough such as
burnt clay and not valuable, and washing with water is superior than simply wiping the filthy
area.
The best method is to combine between washing with water and wiping. Hence, the individual
wipes, and then washes. And it is permitted if a person uses only one method; meaning, if one
restricts the cleaning to washing only, it is permitted and vice versa.
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Privacy:
Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) states that, 'When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace) would go to relieve himself he would go so far that no-one could see him.'
We should make sure that there is complete privacy whilst relieving one's self; this is modesty that every
Muslim should have.
Covering The Head:
Habib bin Saleh (may Allah be pleased with him) has related that when the Messenger of Allah (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace) entered the toilet, he would put on his shoes and cover his head.'
Which Foot:
The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) would enter the toilet with his left foot,
and exit with the right foot.
Removing The Clothing:
Anas bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) states that, 'When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) would go to relieve himself, he would not remove the clothing from his body
until he was close to the ground.'
Jinns and Devils Stay in The Toilets:
Zaid bin Arqam(may Allah be pleased with him) has reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) said, 'These toilets are peopled by Jinn and devils, so when one of you goes
there say, 'I seek protection in you from the male and female devil.'' Meaning pray the supplication before
entering the toilet.
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The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, 'When one of you intends to go to the toilet then
recite 'Bismillah' a veil will be placed between the jinn and the parts of your body.' This should be recited before entering
the toilet.
Salman (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that it was said to him, 'Your Apostle (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace) teaches you about everything, even about excrement'' He replied, 'Yes, he has forbidden us to face the Qibla at the
time of defecation or urination, or cleansing with the right hand or with less than three pebbles, or with dung or bone.'
Facing the Qibla
Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, 'When any one amongst you squats for answering the call of
nature, he should neither turn his face towards the Qibla nor turn his back towards it.'
Facing or keeping the back towards the Qibla whilst going to the toilet is Makruh-e-Tahrimi. Even if children are taken to
the toilet then it is the adult's responsibility to make sure the child does not face or have the back towards the Qibla or the
sin will lie on the adult.
Punished For Splashes And Backbiting
Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) states that, 'Once the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace) while passing through a graveyard heard the voices of two persons who were being punished in their graves. The
Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, 'These two persons are being punished not for
something major (it is not difficult to be save from it).' The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) then added,
'Yes! (They are being tortured for a major sin) Indeed, one of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine
while the other would go about with backbiting (to make enmity between friends).' The Messenger of Allah (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace) then asked for a branch of a date-palm tree, broke it into two pieces, and put one on each
grave. On being asked why he had done so, he replied, 'I hope that their torture might be lessened, until these get dried.'
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Using The Left Hand
Abu Qatada (may Allah be pleased with him) reported it from his father that, 'The Messenger of
Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said that, 'None of you should hold the private
parts with the right hand while urinating, or wipe with the right hand in the privy.
Relieve Yourself First
'Abd Allah bin Arqam(may Allah be pleased with him) has related that he heard the Messenger of
Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) say 'When the time for prayer comes and one of
you needs to relieve himself, he should do that first.'
In the books of Hanafi Fiqh (Jurisprudence) it states it is Makrooh-e-Tehrimi to hold urine/wind or
the need to go to the toilet.
Not talk unless out of necessity
Head covered
Uncover only when very close to the ground
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Summary: Abstain from the following while answering
the call of nature
1. To talk.
2. To cough unnecessarily.
3. To read some verse of the Quran, Hadith, or respected thing.
4. To take something to the toilet on which the following things are written: the name of Allah, any prophet,
any angel, or any respected person; any verse of the Quran, Hadith, or dua. But if these things are in the
pocket, or wrapped in a ta'wiz (amulet), then there's no harm in this.
5. To relieve one's self in a standing or lying down position without any genuine excuse.
6. To remove all the clothes and relieve one's self completely naked.
7. To make istinja with the right hand.
8. To face the moon or sun, or to turn one's back towards them while one is passing stool or urinating
is makruh. It is also makruh to do the same on the bank of a river, pond, etc. even if the impurity does not fall
inside. Similarly, it is makruh to do this under trees in whose shade people sit, or under fruit and flowering
trees where people sit in winter in order to get some sunshine. It is makruh tahrimi (extremely detestable) to
do this in the following places: among animals, very close to the musjid or eid-gah whereby the foul smell
disturbs the musallis, in a grave yard, at a place where people make wudu or ghusl, on the road, in the
direction of the wind, in a hole, on the road-side, near a caravan or some gathering.
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Wudu

O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your
forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles.
And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a
journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted
women and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and
hands with it. Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify
you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful. (5:6)
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Wudu
Sayydina Uthmaan (RA) says that the Prophet Sallallaahu Alaihi Wa Sallamsaid: whoever
performs wudu and performs it well i.e. according to the prescribed rules, all his sins leave him,
even from under his finger nails. (Bukhari)
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Fard Acts of Wudu
There are four fard acts in wudu:-
1. To wash the entire face once.
2. To wash both hands upto and including the elbows once.
3. To make masah of one-quarter of the head once.
4. To wash both feet up to and including the ankles once.
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Sunnah Acts of Wudu
1. To say Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem.
2. To wash both hands upto the wrists.
3. To rinse the mouth.
4. To wash the nose.
5. To use miswaak.
6. To make masah of the entire head.
7. To wash each part three times.
8. To make masah of the ears.
9. To make khilaal of the fingers and toes.
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Complete Wudu
1. The person making wudu should face the qiblah and sit on an elevated place so that the water
does not splash on him. He should make niyyah of Wudu
2. When commencing wudu, Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheemshould be recited.
3. First of all, the hands should be washed up to the wrists three times.
4. Thereafter, rinse the mouth three times and use a miswaak. Brushing ones teeth is also
recommended before the prayer; if the teeth are yellow; if ones breath changes; before
meeting people; and reading the Quran or sacred knowledge. One should hold the tooth-stick
in ones right hand.
5. If there is no miswaak, a thick cloth or even the fore-finger could be used so that all the dirt is
removed.
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Complete Wudu
6. Rinse the nose three times with a handful of water each time. It is recommended to take
water into the nostrils with the right hand and blow it out with the left hand.
7. Wash (for the condition of washing to be fulfilled, it is necessary that water drip from the
washed limb, even if only a drop or two. Ibn Abidin cautions, however, that this merely defines
the minimum and that it is disliked to use very little water, such that it resembles wiping rather
than washing) the entire face. The face is defined as being from of the top of the forehead to the
bottom of the chin, and from earlobe to earlobe. This is the first of the four obligatory acts of
the ritual ablution. It is Sunnah to wash the face three complete times. After this, pass wetted
fingers through the beard if long. It is recommended to start washing from the forehead. One
should avoid slapping water onto the face, as this is improper.
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8. Wash your arms completely, up to and including the elbows. This is the second of the four
obligatory acts of ritual ablution. It is Sunnah to wash the arms three complete times. After this,
it is Sunnah to pass the fingers through each other. It is recommended to start washing from the
fingertips.
9. Wipe a quarter of the head once (it is disliked to wipe the head more than once with new
water), above the ears. This is the third of the four obligatory acts of ritual ablution. It is Sunnah
to wipe the entire head starting from the top of the forehead, and recommended to also wipe
the back of the neck.
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10. Wipe the ears (without taking new water) It is recommended to wipe the outsides of the
ears with the thumb, the insides with the index fingers and to insert the little fingers into the ear
canal.
11. Wash the feet up to and including the ankles. This is the fourth and final obligatory action of
the ritual ablution. It is Sunnah to wash three complete times, and to pass fingers through the
toes. It is recommended to start washing from the tips of the toes, to rub with the left hand, and
to pass the little finger through the toes starting with the little toe of the right foot and ending
with the little toe of the left foot.
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12. During the ritual ablution, it is Sunnah to observe the abovementioned order, to wash the
limbs successively without undue delay, and to rub the limbs during the first washing. It is
recommended to face the Qiblah throughout the ritual ablution, and to avoid splashing water
onto oneself. It is improper to engage in worldly speech without need, to waste water, or to
leave any of the Sunan without excuse. (When in a rush it is better to perform all the Sunan once
rather than some of them three times).
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Dua during Wudu
"O Allah! forgive my sins and give expansion
(abundance) in my home and grant me blessings in my
sustenance."
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Dua after Wudu
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Dua after Wudu
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