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"#$"#%&' )*%+,
Bia. valeiio
}an. 2S 2u1S

- It is a small glanu that measuies in 1
cm in uiametei.
- Aveiage weight of .S to 1 gm.
- Anothei name -'!.!-'/"/.
- Pit glanu is louge at the 01223
o 01223 4567873 is a bony cavity that
is piesent at the base of the biain.
o The flooi, anteiioi anu posteiioi
boiuei of the sella aie bony
o 0ppei pait anu siues aie fiee.
When theie is a tumoi in the pit
glanu oi when the pit glanu
enlaiges the tenuency is foi the
mass oi the glanu to giow eithei
upwaius, compiessing the optic
chiasm that will cause an optical
uefect which we call bilateial
hemianopsia oi the mass oi the
glanu may giow siueways, anu
that will compiess cianial neives
S, 4 anu S.
- Physiologically uiviueu in to two
o 8u% Anteiioi
o 2u% Posteiioi pit
- In between the two is the >360
8:416?1983 which in human being
is 3@3075236, anu eventually it
- Biffeience between the Anteiioi
anu Posteiioi is the .&")"+A
o %:4168;6 >84 B oiiginates
fiom the RATBKE'S P00CB,
invagination of the
o !;04168;6 >84 C moie neuial
in oiigin, it is actually an out
giowth of the hypothalamus.
! Neive tiacks oiiginating fiom
two nuclei in the hypothalamus:
/5>63 ;>487 anu !363
@1:46875236 :57218. So neive
tiacks fiom these nuclei will
synapse with the posteiioi
pit glanu so that impulses
fiom the hypothalamus can
be tiansmitteu to the
posteiioi pit.

- "Nastei ulanu" because the tiophic
hoimone secieteu by the anteiioi
pit can iegulate the secietoiy
function of almost all othei
enuociine glanu in the bouy.
- Activity of the anteiioi pit as well as
that of the posteiioi pit is 61D523419
E= 4<1 <=>;4<323?50A

F.++GF#".+ HG#IGG+ #-G
-'!.#-%*%J$/ %+, #-G
!"#$"#%&' )*%+,
(vasculai anu neuial connection)
- -=>;><=0832 0432K B physical
- -=>;4<323?87 -=>;><=0832
@100120 B netwoik of bloou vessels.
- +16@1 463740

&G)$*%#".+ .L -'!.#-%*%J$/
!./#G&".& !"# - neuial iegulation.
- Neive impulses fiom the
hypothalamus tiansmitteu by neive
tiacts to the posteiioi pit.
- vasculai anu Neuial connection-
neuial iegulation.
%+#G&".& !"# B hoimonal iegulation
- By secieting eithei ieleasing
hoimones oi inhibitoiy hoimones
into the hypothalamic hypophysial
poital vessels tianspoiteu to the
anteiioi pit to eithei stimulate oi
inhibit the secietion of tiophic
- vasculai Connection

%+#G&".& !"#$"#%&' )*%+,
MJ%/#G& )*%+,N
F-&.J.!-"* FG**/
- uianulateu secietoiy cells
iesponsible foi the secietion of the
- Types of Chiomophil cells:
- %F",.!-"*"F FG**/ -secietes
uB anu Piolactin
Two types:
o !"#$%"%&"'(! - secietes
uB (somatotiophin)
!%"#$%&'( *+ ,(-.('"/0 1
!)*+,)%-)./0 .(%(&,"02 3&-'/.
405"6"'! 1 !)*+,)!,+,/0
#(7"&'( &-'"/0 8 !)*+,)#12/0
o 3$4%"%&"'(! - secietes
- H%/.!-"*"F FG**/ B secietes
Thyiotiopin, Coiticotopin anu
o %56&"%&"'(! - secietes
o 4"&%74"%&"'(! - secietes
coiticotiophin anu
melanocytes stimulating
o 8"9$:"%&"'(! - secietes
FSB anu LB
Nost of the cells aie
S0NAT0TR0PBSuB, last to be
FSB anu LB fiist to be ueficient

- uegianulateu secietoiy cells, which
unuei noimal conuition uo not
usually seciete hoimones.
- In abnoimal conuition, can be
stimulateu to seciete hoimones. Ex.
Tumoi in the Anteiioi Pit.

,"LLA -.&J.+G/ /GF&G#G, H' #-G
%+#G&".& !"#$"#%&' )*%+,

- !6;23748: - taiget glanus aie the
mammaiy glanu
- #<=6;46;>8:- stimulates the
Thyioiu glanu
- );:39;46;>8: - testes in males anu
ovaiy in females
- F;6487;46;><8:- auienal coitex in
only two layeis;
9/0& 3&,"-$%&'& anu 9/0&
- )6;P4< <;6?;:10- one of the
majoi taiget oigan is livei
- can also act on auipose cells,
muscle cells anu bone cells.
Activity of these glanus is unuei the
<=>;4<323?87C<=>;><=0832 436D14
D23:9 3Q80RG:9;768:1 3Q80
Subject to eithei a :1D348@1 S119
1SS174R:1D348@1 S119E37K 7;:46;2
0=041? oi >;0848@1 S119E37K 7;:46;2

(So isa isahin natin yan.)

hoimones secieteu - 4104;0416;:1.
Bypothalamus (X)
"unRB (S)
"uonauotiopes of Anteiioi Pit (X)
"FSB anu LB (Tu)
(X - seciete, S - Stimulate, Tu - Taiget ulanu)

FSB anu LB have uiffeient taiget cells.
L/- - taiget cells /164;28 F1220
o secietes 8:<8E8: C an inciease
in inhibin will have negative

feeuback effect on the anteiioi
pit anu will ueciease FSB.
o initiate 0>16?34;D1:1080
*- - taiget cells ":4160484832 71220 ;S
o secietes 4104;0416;:1 C an
inciease in testosteione will
have a negative feeuback effect
on the hypothalamus
uecieasing unRB, on anteiioi
pit uecieasing LB.
o Stimulate 0>16?34;D1:1080
o Stimulate 91@12;>?1:4 ;S
?321 61>6;95748@1 ;6D3:0

Bypothalamus (X)
"unRB (S)
"uonauotiopes of Anteiioi Pit (X)
"FSB anu LB (Tu)
(X - seciete, S - Stimulate, Tu - Taiget ulanu)

FSB anu LB have uiffeient taiget cells.
L/- B taiget cells, cells of ;@3683:
o Stimulate S;22875236 D6;P4<
o Stimulate secietion of 1046;D1:
C Noueiate inciease will have a
negative feeuback effect on the
hypothalamus uecieasing unRB
anu negative feeuback in
anteiioi pit uecieasing mainly
FSB but if theie is an excessive
inciease, will have a positive
feeu back effect on the
hypothalamus that will inciease
unRB, positive feeuback effect
on anteiioi pit incieasing FSB
anu LB.
*- C taiget cells, 71220 ;S 7;6>50
o stimulate secietion of
>6;D10416;:1 C an inciease in
piogesteione will have a
negative feeu back effect on the
hypothalamus uecieasing unRB
anu negative feeu back effect on
anteiioi pit uecieasing mainly

#-'&.", )*%+,
Bypothalamus (X)
"Thyiotiopin Releasing Boimone (A)
"Thyiotiopes of Anteiioi Pit (X)
"Thyiotiopin (S)
"Folliculai cell of Tu (X)
"TS anu T4

Excess TS anu T4 will have a negative
feeuback effect on the hypothalamus
uecieasing TRB, also a negative feeu back
effect on anteiioi pit uecieasing TSB.

%,&G+%* F.&#GU
S layeis:
V;:3 )2;?1652;03
o ACTB inuepenuent
o Stimulateu by hypeikalemia anu
RAAS which will leau to the
secietion of aluosteione
V;:3 L308752343
V;:3 &1487523680
o Both aie ACTB uepenuent
o The secietion of coitisol anu

Bypothalamus (X)
"Coiticotiophin Releasing Factoi (S)
"Coiticotiopes (X)
"ACTBCoiticotiophin anu NSB
(same stiuctuie anu oiigin)

"Auienal Coitex (Fasiculata anu
Reticulaiis) (X)
"Coitisol anu Anuiogens

%:96;D1: secieteu by Auienal Coitex aie
weak anuiogens

Nainly an excess in F;6480;2, will have a
negative feeu back effect on the
hypothalamus, uecieasing the
Coiticotiophin Releasing Boimone also
negative feeu back on anteiioi pit that will
ueciease coiticotiophin. Not excess

- A piotein oi polypeptiue hoimone,
secieteu by the 2374;46;>10 of the
anteiioi pit
- Secietion of piolactin is unuei the
<=>;4<323?87C<=>;><=0832 436D14
D23:9 3Q80A

J%"+ L%F#.&/ #-%# /#"J$*%#G
!&.*%F#"+ /GF&G#".+
- Thyiotiopin anu piolactin ieleasing
factoi fiom the hypothalamus
- Bypothalamus also seciete the
piolactin inhibitoiy factoi oi
In noimal conuitionnon piegnant woman
piolactin inhibitoiy factoi is moie
uominant than PRF.

.#-G& L%F#.&/ #-%# I"** /#"J$*%#G
!&.*%F#"+ /GF&G#".+O
# Inciease Estiogen anu Piogesteione
Secietion uuiing piegnancy

%F#".+ .L !&.*%F#"+
*374;D1:1080R?82K >6;95748;:.
o Piegnant
- $estiogen, $piogesteione,
$piolactin = no milk piouuction.
! Estiogen anu Piogesteione blocks
the action of Piolactin on the
Nammaiy glanus
o Buiing ueliveiy oi aftei ueliveiy of
fetus anu the placenta
- %estiogen anu $piogesteione =
inhibition of piolactin secietion =
Lactation. Why.
! Najoi stimulus now will be
suckling of the mothei's nipples by
the baby.

# Bieastfeeuing
- Nipples anu the Aieola aie pioviueu
by many sensoiy neive enuings
- 0ne means of Contiaception.
effective only foi a uuiation of 6
Suckling of nipple (Stimulates)
"Sensoiy ieceptois (ueneiate)
"Sensoiy impulse (Biought by)
"Sensoiy neives (to the)
"Bypothalamus (inhibits)
"Bopamine (Stimulating)
"Piolactin Rel. Boimone

Suckling of nipples is a !;0848@1 S119 E37K.
$ Impulses to Bypothalamus (Inhibits)
"Secietion of Piolactin$

# Sleep, Stiess anu Bopamine antagonists.

L%F#.&/ #-%# I"** ,GF&G%/G
!&.*%F#"+ /GF&G#".+
# Bopamine
# Becieaseu estiogen anu piogesteione
# Bopamine Agonist
# Somatostatin
# Excess Piolactin by Negative Feeuback

(Anothei action this time if theie is excess
piolactin, ano ba ang nag iinhibit sa piolactin.
Bopamine. Pag excess ang piolactin
sumasabay uin ang uopamine paia mainhibit
nya kasi iegulation ang pinag uusapan natin.
Kaya lang, pag meion kang sobiang
uopamine iniinhibit nya ang uNRB. Pag
walang uNRB walang LB. Cleai. Take note
that it is not the excess in piolactin that will
inhibit uNRB uiiectly. Ang nangyayaii pag
excess ang piolactin sumasabay ang

uopamine. At ung uopamine ang magiinhibit
sa uNRB.) (,/..:; 5"07" </ #&,5/.' -$' &)

%H+.&J%*"#"G/ "+ !&.*%F#"+
Tumoi in the Pituitaiy ulanu -
compiesses the Lactotiopes,
uecieasing piolactin secietion
Compiomiseu Bloou Supply to the
Anteiioi Pit - ueciease Piolactin
- failuie to lactate
Tumoi in the Lactotiopes -
Bypeipiolactenemia manifesteu by
ualactoiea that can also happen to
Female: Amenoiiheaabsence of
menstiuation (-) 0vulation - uue to
$Piolactin = $Bopamine = %unRB
%LB = Amenoiihea
Nale: Loss of Potency Beciease
Libiuo - uue to %stimulation of
Leyuig cells by the LB =
%Testosteione secietion

)&.I#- -.&J.+G
- A piotein oi polypeptiue hoimone
maue up of 191 amino aciu iesiuues.
- Specie specific.
- Somatotiophic hoimone oi
- It has a plasma half-life of about 6-
- Secietion of uB is inveisely ielateu
to age.
- Secietion is highest in infant anu
Receptois in the taiget cell that will binu
with uB Receptois foi uB
o }anus kinase 2
o Signal tiansuucei
o Activatoi of tiansciiption

&G)$*%#".+ .L )- /GF&G#".+O
J3W;6 S374;60O
Bypothalamic hoimones
o uiowth hoimone ieleasing
hoimone - stimulate the
Somatotiopes to seciete uB
o uiowth hoimone inhibitoiy
hoimonesomatostatin that will
inhibit uB secietion.
0ne majoi taiget oigan of uB is the livei.
uiowth Boimone (S)
"Piouuction of Insulin like uiowth
The one that meuiates the actions of
giowth hoimone is somatomeuin
Cinsulin-life-giowth factoi 1.

L%F#.&/ #-%# I"** "+F&G%/G )-
J3W;6 S374;6: uiowth hoimone
Releasing hoimone fiom the
Fiist two houis of ueep sleep will
stimulate giowth hoimone
Tiauma, Stiess, Exeicise, Inciease
bloou amino acius (amino acius not
conveiteu into piotein =
hypopiotenemia), piotein
ueficiency, ueciease bloou fiee fatty
acius, hypoglycemia (ueciease in
bloou glucose level), hoimones
associateu with pubeity like
estiogen anu testosteione, uiehlin
(stimulates hungei)
L%F#.&/ #-%# I"** ,GF&G%/G )-
Somatostatinuiowth hoimone
inhibitoiy hoimone
Inciease somatomeuin by negative
feeu back (hypothalamus (X)
'uBRB (S) 'uB secietion, uB
(S)' Livei 'piouuction of
Somatomeuin, excess somatomeuin
' negative feeuback effect on

hypothalamus anu anteiioi pit '
ueciease uB secietion.)
0besity, piegnancy, hypeiglycemia,
inciease in the bloou fiee fatty aciu

%F#".+/ .L )-
It is an 3:3E;287 hoimone, incieases
cellulai up take of amino acius
theiefoie uB incieases piotein
Also 983E14;D1:87X it has anti-
insulin effects; to ueciease cellulai
uptake of glucose, ueciease
peiipheial utilization of glucose anu
in uiabetic patients excess uB can
also be ketogenic (uue to inciease

,86174 3748;:0 ;S )- (most of the
metabolic actions of uB)
Beciease glucose uptake of the cells
anu ueciease glucose utilization by
the cells (uiabetogenic effect)
Inciease lipolysis, inciease piotein
synthesis in muscle cells that will
inciease lean bouy mass.

":986174 3748;:0 ;S )- (meuiateu by the
insulin-like giowth factoisomatomeuin)
piotein meuiatoi

%748;:0 ;S D6;P4< <;6?;:1 ?1983419 E=
")LY ;6 0;?34;?198: F.
1. Chonuiogenesis (inciease piotein
synthesis in chonuiocytes that will
inciease lineai giowth), effect in the
muscles maybe uiiect oi inuiiect so
that will again inciease lean muscle
mass, inciease piotein synthesis in
most oigan (visceialomegaly if
theie is excess uB secietion) so
makikita nyo uun sa meion
gigantism oi aciomegaly kaianiwan
meion uin sila caiuiomegaly.

F.J!%&"/.+ .L %F#".+/ .L )- %+L

)- ")LY
Anti insulin effect Insulin like activity
Lipolytic Anti-lipolytic
$ piotein synthesis $piotein synthesis
Piomote epiphyseal
Piomote epiphyseal
Cause slight souium

piouuction of IuF1

So paieho lang sila sa piotein metab pag
uating sa fat anu caib metab opposite na
ang action ng uB at IuF1.

%H+.&J%*"#"G/ .L )- /GF&G#".+
,P36S80?-ueficient oi ueciease uB
o !6;>;648;:32 4=>1 of uwaifism
- both the bone anu soft tissue will
fail to giow.
o +;: >6;>;648;:32 4=>1 of
- uue to congenital hypothyioiuism
oi 76148:80?, thyioiu hoimones
have a gieatei effect on skeletal
iathei than soft tissue giowth,
only the bones will fail to giow
but the soft tissue will continue to
- panuak, maigsi ang limbs, malaki
ang tyan, maliit ang skull peio
may macioglossa oi enlaigeu
tongue kasi ang hinui lang nag
ggiow ung bones peio ung soft
tissue continue to giow, Nental
ietaiuation. In pituitaiy uwaif
usually no mental ietaiuation
bcoz thyioiu hoimones aie
neeueu foi the noimal
uevelopment of the biain in

F%$/G .L )- ,GL"F"G+F'
Tumoi that compiesses the anteiioi
- befoie pubeity, will cause >8458436=
- aftei pubeity, <=>;D2=71?83 (uB is
uiabetogenic, % bloou glucose level)
Befect in uB ieceptoi anu ueciease in
the piouuction of IuF1
- Laion uwaifism- uB insensitivity
(because IuF1 meuiates the actions
of uB ielateu to giowth), hinui
actually nag uueciease ang ieceptoi,
it is uefective, may abnoimality uun
sa ieceptoi foi uB.
Failuie of IuF1 to inciease at time of
pubeity, excess glucocoiticoiu -
Afiican Pigmis (because glucocoiticoiu
has anti-gh actions)

GUFG//"TG )- /GF&G#".+
)8D3:480? C If it occuis befoie pubeity
it will cause the epiphyseal plates of
the long bones aie still open so that
excessive lineai giowth is still possible,
inciease lineai giowth anu
%76;?1D32= C occuis aftei pubeity,
excess lineai giowth is no longei
possible because the epiphyseal plates
aie alieauy close. Theie is thickening
of axial bones, coaise facial featuies,
visceialomegally, skin thickening,
osteo aithiitis, hypeiglycemia, if it is
causeu by a tumoi that may compiess
the optic chiasm you'll have a bilateial
o Featuies of aciomegaly. The most
common cause of aciomegaly is an
auenoma (hoimone secieting glanu)
so in this case in the pit glanu the
cells involve aie the somatotiophs.
theie will be inciease uB secietion
anu this is usually uetecteu eithei by
CT scan oi NRI. Clinical featuies;
hypeitiophy of sweat anu
sebaccious glanus, galactoieia
(nagkakaioon ng inciease piolactin
secietion paiehong aciuophilic ung
lactotiophs anu somatotiophs so
usually pag meion uefect sa
somatotiophs involveu uin ang
lactotiophs. Caiuiomegally,
hypeitension, sexual uysfunction
anu peiipheial neuiopathy
(nagththickeneu ung mga joints,
naiipit ung mga neives kaya nag
kakaioon ng neuiopathy),
piominent supiaoibital iiuge
(fiontal bossing), laige nose anu
jaw, teeth aie sepaiateu anu lacking
(the jaw is giowing, nag
hihiwahiwalay ung ipin),
hypeiglycemia, spaue shape hanus
anu feet, inciease size of foot fiom
8-1u inch.

-.&J.+G/ "J!.&#%+# L.& #-G
-$J%+ )&.I#-
#<=6;89 <;6?;:1- impoitant even uuiing
fetal life until age of pubeity
)-- not so impoitant uuiing fetal life in
chiluhoou it is impoitant uecieasing in
G046;D1: 3:9 3:96;D1:0- impoitant at
the time of pubeity

%+#G&".& !"# ,"/.&,G&
If the uisoiuei is milu that will cause the
ueficiency of only the gonauotiophins (FSB
anu LB)- clinical manifestation in females;
amenoiihea unovulatoiy cycle. In males
ueciease speimatogenesis.
If the conuition is moueiately seveie-
manifestation of hypothyioiuism anu
When conuition is seveie- ueciease in uB
anu Piolactin