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CSC 322: Operating System Concepts

1.1 Introduction to the Course; Objectives, Outine and

Course CSC 322: Operating System Concept
In this course students "i be taught the
#undamentas o# operating systems. $i%erent
modes o# operating systems "i be introduced.
&e#erences and e'ampes "i be (uoted and
e'pained #rom )*I+, ,I*$O,S and -)./ICS
Operating environments. /he #ocused "i be on the
most modern concept o# Operating Systems as a
creator o# abstraction e.g. abstraction o# C!) into
mutipe processes, abstraction o# memory into
virtua address space or abstraction o# dis0 into 1es
"i be e'pained.
/he students "i be #amiiari2ed "ith di%erent OS
structure modes and their components. /he
#unctionaities and responsibiities o# di%erent
modues o# operating systems such as !rocess
-anagement, -emory -anagement, I3O
-anagement and 4ie management "i be e'pained
and discussed in detai. 4e" case studies "i be
underta0en to e'pain and study the #eatures o#
)*I+, ,indo"s and 5mbedded operating systems.
Introduction to Operating System
Operating system defnition, simple batch systems,
multiprogramming, time-sharing, personal computer
systems, parallel systems.
Processes and Threads
Introduction to process, process scheduling,
operations on processes, cooperating processes,
interposes communications, interrupts. Process
synchronization, Critical-section problem,
synchronizing hardware, semaphores,
synchronization problems, critical regions, process
monitors. CP scheduling, Criteria and algorithms,
multiple process and real-time, scheduling, algorithm
"emory management
#i$erent "emory "anagement Techni%ues,
swapping, contiguous allocation, &irtual "emory
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
"anagement 'Paging, Segmentation( &irtual and
Physical address spaces, #esign and implementation
)ile concepts, access methods, directory structure,
protection and consistency semantics. )iles and
#irectories, )ile System implementation,
Per*ormance, "anagement. )ile Systems, e+ample o*
)ile systems.
Input, Output
Principles o* I,O hardware, Principals o* I,O So*tware,
I,O So*tware -ayers, I,O de!ices, .ard #is/, 01I#, C#,
#&#, Cloc/ .ardware and So*tware
Characterization and handling o* deadloc/s, deadloc/
pre!ention a!oidance and detection, deadloc/
Case Studies
Case studies o* 2indows and 3I4,-I34 Operating
/e't 6oo0s: "odern Operating Systems, 1ndrew S. Tanenbaum,
Second 5dition, Prentice .all.
Operating System Concepts, by 1braham
Silberschatz, Peter 6. 7al!in

Operating Systems #esign and Implementation,
1ndrew S. Tanenbaum, 1lbert S. 2oodhull
1n Introduction to Operating systems, by .. ". #eitel
'Including Case studies in 3I4, OS,8, "S-#OS, &",
Open Systems
!oicy9 $eivery 5vauation and 7rading:
$eivery: /hrough 32 &ecorded .ectures
5vauation and 7rading:
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
8ui22es 4 10%
9ssignments 4 15%
-idterm 5'amination 2
4irst Sessiona 1 10%
Second Sessiona 1 15%
/ermina 5'amination 1 50%
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
1.2 6rea0do"n o# .ecture /opics
S:ST5"; The Operating System as an 5+tended "achine, The
Operating System as a 0esource "anager .ISTO0: O)
OP501TI37 S:ST5"S
The )irst 7eneration '<=>?-??(, The Second 7eneration '<=??-
@?( , The Third 7eneration '<=@?-<=AB(, )ourth 7eneration
:2 T.5 OP501TI37 S:ST5" COO
CO"PT50 .10#2105 05&I52, OP501TI37 S:ST5"
CO3C5PTSD Processes, #eadloc/s, "emory "anagement,
:3 OP501TI37 S:ST5" CO3C5PTSD 'continued(
Input,Output, I,O 'by Polling, Interrupt and #"1(
)iles, Security, The Shell.
:; OP501TI37 S:ST5" CO3C5PTSD Process "anagementD System
Calls, )ile System "anagement and 1PIs.
:< OP501TI37 S:ST5" ST0CT05
"onolithic Systems, -ayered Systems, "icro/ernel, 5+o-/ernels ,
Client-Ser!er "odel, &irtual "achines and &irtual "achines
PROCESSES: The Process "odel , Process Creation,
Process Termination, Process .ierarchies, Process States,
Implementation o* Processes, Processes and Threads. The
Thread "odel , Thread sage, Implementing Threads in
ser Space,
:> THREADS: Implementing Threads in the Eernel, .ybrid
Implementations, Scheduler 1cti!ations, Pop up Threads.
"a/ing single thread "ultithreaded.
0ace Conditions , Critical 0egions, "utual 5+clusion with 6usy
2aiting, Sleep and 2a/eup,
:@ Semaphores, "ute+es, Conditional !ariables, "onitors,
"essage Passing, 6arriers.
1: SCHEDULING ,Introduction to Scheduling ,Scheduling in 6atch
Systems, Pre-empti!e and 3on Pre-empti!e scheduling.
#i$erent scheduling 1lgorithms.
11 Scheduling in Interacti!e Systems, Scheduling in 0eal-Time
Systems, Policy !ersus "echanism, Thread Scheduling
MANAGEMENT9 "ono-programming without Swapping,
"ultiprogramming with )i+ed Partitions , "odeling
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
"ultiprogramming, 1nalysis o* "ultiprogramming System
Per*ormance, 0elocation and Protection, Contagious "emory.
"emory "anagement with 6itmaps , "emory "anagement with
-in/ed -ists
13 VIRTUAL MEMORY Maa!"#"$: Paging , Page Tables , Page
*ault handling, "", T-6s 'Translation -oo/-aside 6u$ers ( ,
In!erted Page Tables
The Optimal Page 0eplacement 1lgorithm , The 3ot 0ecently
sed Page 0eplacement 1lgorithm , The )irst-In, )irst-Out, The
Second Chance Page 0eplacement 1lgorithm, The Cloc/ Page
0eplacement 1lgorithm, The -east 0ecently sed, Simulating
-0 in So*tware, The 2or/ing Set Page 0eplacement 1lgorithm ,
The 2SCloc/ Page 0eplacement 1lgorithm ,Summary o* Page
0eplacement 1lgorithms
-ocal !ersus 7lobal 1llocation Policies , -oad Control , Page
Size , Separate Instruction and #ata Spaces , Shared Pages ,
Cleaning Policy &irtual "emory Inter*ace
1= IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES9 Operating System In!ol!ement
with Paging , Page )ault .andling ,
1> PER%ORMANCE ISSUES: Instruction 6ac/up -oc/ing Pages in
"emory 6ac/ing Store , Separation o* Policy and "echanism
1? SEGMENTATION: Implementation o* Pure Segmentation ,
Segmentation with Paging9 "-TICS , Segmentation with Paging9
The Intel Pentium
1@ CHAPTER-&: %ILE SYSTEMS: %ILES' )ile 3aming , )ile
Structure , )ile Types , )ile 1ccess , )ile 1ttributes , )ile
Operations ,
1n 5+ample Program sing )ile System Calls , "emory-"apped
DIRECTORIESD Single--e!el #irectory Systems , Two-le!el
#irectory Systems , .ierarchical #irectory Systems , Path
3ames , #irectory Operations
2: %ILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION9 )ile System -ayout ,
allocating 6loc/s to fle, Contiguous allocation, lin/ed allocation,
i-nodes allocation. Implementing #irectories.
21 Shared )iles, i-node problems and solutions, symbolic lin/s,
-og-Structured )ile Systems, Fournaling )ile Systems, #is/ space
22 #is/ space management, '"anage )ree 6loc/s (, "anage #is/
)ile System 6ac/ups, )ile System Consistency, )ile System
5+amples o* )ile System
23 CHAPTER -( : INPUT)OUTPUT: P0I3CIP-5S O) I,O .10#2105
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
I,O #e!ices , #e!ice Controllers , "emory-"apped I,O , #irect
"emory 1ccess , Interrupts 0e!isited, Precise and Imprecise
2; PRINCIPLES O% I)O SO%T*ARE9 7oals o* the I,O So*tware ,
Programmed I,O , Interrupt-#ri!en I,O , I,O sing #"1
2< I,O SO)T2105 -1:50S
Interrupt .andlers , #e!ice #ri!ers , #e!ice-Independent I,O
So*tware , ser-Space I,O So*tware
2= DIS+S: #is/ .ardware , #is/ 1rm Scheduling 1lgorithms, 5rror
C#, #&#.
2> Di,- RAID,.
CLOC+S : Cloc/ .ardware , Cloc/ So*tware , So*t Timers
2? CHAPTER- .: DEADLOC+S: 05SO0C5S9 Preempt able and
3on-pre-emptible 0esources , 0esource 1c%uisition, Conditions
*or #eadloc/, #eadloc/ "odeling , The Ostrich algorithm ,
#51#-OCE #5T5CTIO3 13# 05CO&50: 9 #eadloc/ #etection
with One 0esource o* 5ach Type, #eadloc/ #etection with
"ultiple, 0esource o* 5ach Type, 0eco!ery *rom #eadloc/
2@ #51#-OCE 1&OI#13C5 , 0esource TraGectories, Sa*e and nsa*e
States, The 6an/erHs 1lgorithm *or a Single 0esource, The
6an/erHs 1lgorithm *or "ultiple 0esources , #51#-OCE
P05&53TIO3 91ttac/ing the "utual 5+clusion ConditionI,
1ttac/ing the .old and 2ait Condition , 1ttac/ing the 3o
Preemption Condition , 1ttac/ing the Circular 2ait Condition,
OT.50 ISS5S9 Two-Phase -oc/ing , 3on-resource #eadloc/s,
3: Ca," S$/01' *i0o2, VISTA
31 Ca," S$/01' LINU3
32 I/ 5ssentias: )se#u !ractica /ips regarding the
instaation, operation and maintenance o# an Operating
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
1.3 /eacherAs !ro1e
9hmed -umta2 -ustehsan
7enera -anagerBI/
CO-S9/S Institute o# In#ormationa /echnoogy,
8uai1cations: -aster in Computer Sciences C1@>@B?1D
8uaidBeB92am university Isamabad.
9rea o#
5'pertise E
Sateite Image !rocessing and 7IS
.a de#ance !9&IS, 4rance
5'perience: 3: years o# e'perience in the 1ed o# I/
industry, 5ducation and & E $
Served on: $i%erent &eputabe !osts at -idde and /op
-anagement at *ationa and Internationa
Scienti1c OFcer, !95C, Isamabad.
InBcharge C/C, )7C, CO6S, !95C, GB@,
System -anager, Ha#rana .imited, Canada
-anager $ata !rocessing, S)!9&CO
$irector, Sateite 7round Station, S)!9&CO
9ssociate !ro#essor, )niversity o# .ahore
Gead $epartment o# Computer Sciences, CII/
7enera -anager I/, CII/, Isamabad.
Gands on: $eveopment o# System so#t"are, In#ormation
systems and Interactive system. -an machine
9ssemby , 4O&/&9*, CO69., Hava and C
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
1.; Schedue #or /esting 5vents
/he testing components have been prepared. /he testing needs to
be conducted at a very precise schedue matching "ith the schedue
#or the deivery o# ectures so that the students may not 1nd any
(uestion out o# se(uence o# their earning.
/he #oo"ing schedue #or conducting assignments, 8ui22es and
midterm is proposed:
!roposed /esting
!roposed /ime
1 9ssignment B1 9#ter .ectureB< Competion o#
2. 8ui2 B1 9#ter .ectureB< or
3. Sessiona B 1 9ny /ime 9#ter
.ecture B ?
;. 9ssignment B2 9#ter .ectureB11 Competion o#
<. 8ui2 B2 9#ter .ectureB11 or
=. 9ssignment B3 9#ter .ecture B 1< -idde o# ChapterB
>. 8ui2 B3 9#ter .ectureB 1<
or 1=
?. Sessiona B 2 9ny /ime 9#ter
.ecture B1?
Competion o#
@. 8ui2 B; 9#ter .ectureB 2=
or 2>
1:. 9ssignment B; 9#ter .ectureB2? Submission not
be#ore .ecture *o.
11 /ermina
9#ter .ecture 32 -a0e sure that the
soution o# above
testing events
have been
provided to the
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
1.< &e#erences:
/e't 6oo0s
Modern Operating Systems, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Second Edition,
Prentice Hall.
Operating System Concepts, by Abraham Silberschat, Peter !. "al#in
&e#erence 6oo0s:
Operating Systems #esign and Implementation, 1ndrew S. Tanenbaum,
1lbert S. 2oodhull
1n Introduction to Operating systems, by .. ". #eitel 'Including Case
studies in 3I4, OS,8, "S-#OS, &", Open Systems
OnBine &e#erence -ateria used #or the deivery o# ectures:
Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 200 !rentice"#a$$,
Si$bersc-at., /a$+in and /agne 2002, Operating System 0oncepts,
Operating Systems (T-ird 1dition) 2eite$, 2eite$ and 0-o3nes !rentice
#a$$, 2004, (0-apter"21)
S&M& Sar'ar, 4& 5orets,y and S&6& Sar'ar, 7inu8 9 T-e Te8tboo,,
6ddison :es$ey& 1
ed, 2002 ;or $ecture s$ides)materia$
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.
0isco <et'or,ing 6cademy= %T 1ssentia$s> 6d+ance Operating System,
c-apter 12
Ahmed Mumtaz Mustehsan, General Manager-IT, CIIT Islamabad Campus.