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Design of Microstrip Antenna Array

Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 1





HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
CENTER FOR TRAINING OF EXCELLENT STUDENT


GRADUATION THESIS
Project:
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array

Students : Nguyen Trong Quynh
Telecomucation - AP - K53
Advisors : Lam Hong Thach Ph.D



Hanoi, 5 - 2013
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 2

HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
CENTER FOR TRAINING OF EXCELLENT STUDENT


GRADUATION THESIS
Project:
Design Array of Microstrip Patch Antenna


Students : Nguyen Trong Quynh Telecommunication K53
Advisors : Lam Hong Thach Ph.D

Critical Staff :






Hanoi, 5 2013
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 3

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM
HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Independence Freedom Happiness
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MINISTER OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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ENGINEERING THESIS COMMENT

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Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................................7
LIST OF TABLE ....................................................................................................................................10
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ......................................................................................................................11
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................12
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................13
CHAPTER 1 ...........................................................................................................................................13
MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ....................................................................................................................13
1.1 MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ..........................................................................................................14
1.1.1 The basic shape of the micro-strip antenna ............................................................................15
1.1.3 The digital power supply for micro strip antennas (feed method) .........................................19
1.1.4 Bandwidth of MSA ................................................................................................................22
1.1.5 Principle of the radiated micro strip antennas ........................................................................24
1.1.6 Radiation field of micro strip antenna ....................................................................................27
1.1.7 The polarized waves ...............................................................................................................31
1.2 ANALYSIS MODELS MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ....................................................................32
1.2.1 Model line (Transmission Line) .............................................................................................33
1.2.2 Model cavity ..........................................................................................................................44
CHAPTER 2 ...........................................................................................................................................55
MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ARRAY .....................................................................................................55
2.1 TWO ARRAY ELEMENT ...........................................................................................................57
2.2 N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY - MINUTES OF UNIFORM UNIFORM AND DISTANCE 60
2.2.1. Broadside array and End-Fire array ......................................................................................64
2.2.2 Phased Scanning Array ..........................................................................................................68
2.3 N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY - THREE DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES ............................70
2.3.1 N elements along the z axis ....................................................................................................70
2.3.2 N elements along the X or Y axis ..........................................................................................71
2.4 N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY - UNIFORM DISTANCE, BORDER HETEROGENEITY ...72
2.4.1 Coefficient array.....................................................................................................................73
2.4.2 Binomial Arrays .....................................................................................................................75
2.4.3 Schebyscheff Arrays ............................................................................................................77
2.5 TWO DIMENSIONAL ARRAY ..................................................................................................78
2.5.1 Coefficient array.....................................................................................................................78
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2.5.2 Beamwidth .............................................................................................................................82
2.5.3 The orientation .......................................................................................................................84
2.6 CHANGE OF RADIATION PROPERTIES OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAY ANTENNA 84
2.7 INFLUENCE MUTUAL CONSTRUCT BETWEEN TWO MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ......87
CHAPTER 3 ...........................................................................................................................................90
DESIGN AND SIMULATION MICROSTRIP ANTENNA .................................................................90
3.1 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA ...............................90
3.1.1 Design ....................................................................................................................................90
3.1.2 Simulation ..............................................................................................................................93
3.2 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA ...................................97
3.2.1 Design ....................................................................................................................................97
3.2.2 SIMULATION OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA ARRAY .......................................99
REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................104
















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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Microstrip Antenna
Figure 1.2 - The micro strip antennas form commonly used
Figure 1.3 - Power by transmission line
Figure 1.4 - Power by cables coaxial
Figure 1.5 - Power grafting using slot - Aperture coupled
Figure 1.6 - Power close coupling method - Proximity Coupled
Figure 1.7 - Distribution of charge and current in the antenna of rectangular strips.
Figure 1.8 - Effective Dielectric Constant
Figure 1.9 - Physical length and effective length piece patch
Figure 1:10 - Patch and Rectangle in the equivalent circuit model of the transmission
line

Figure 1.11 - Change the location of the feed impedance to match
Figure 1:12 - electrical distribution and power lines
Figure 1:13 - Analysis of micro-strip antenna pattern axis coordinates
Figure 1:14 - The mode of the antenna radiation range
Figure 2.1 - Four types of antenna array geometry
Figure 2.2 - 2 geometry of the array elements along the z-axis at
Figure 2.3 - If the remote array and phase diagram of N isotropic elements
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Figure 2.4 - Graph of the three-dimensional radiation array broadside and broadside /
end-fire
Figure 2.5- two-dimensional graph of the radiation array broadside and broadside /
end-fire
Figure 2.6 - Graph of radiation of three-dimensional and two-dimensional array of 10
identical scanning elements (N=10,
0
cos kd | u = ,
0
u =60
0
, d= / 4 )
Figure 2.7 - N linear array of isotropic elements placed along the x axis\
Figure 2.8 - The layout of the antenna element
Figure 2.9 - Correlation coefficient amplitude of an array of 10 elements.
Figure 2.10 - Geometry of linear array and two-dimensional array
Figure 2.11 - The degree half power beam width of the main beam and the direction 0

0

Figure 2.12 - Block Diagram impact process signals through complex weights.
Figure 2.13- Sort band antenna in the plane of E and H
Figure 3.1 - Window simulation program
Figure 3.2 - frequency response of S parameters
Figure 3.3 orientation of the antenna
Figure 3.4 - Grap of 3D radiation
Figure 3.5- The Smith Chart
Figure 3.6- 2-dimensional array system
Figure 3.7- 2x2 2D array system designed
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Figure 3.9 - frequency response of S parameters
Figure 3.8 - Window simulation program of patch antenna array
Figure 3.10- Bandwidth of patch antenna array
Figure 3.11 Orientation of the array of antenna
Figure 3.12 - Grap of 3D radiation
Figure 3.13 The Smith Chart


















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LIST OF TABLE

Table 2.1 The null point, half of the maximum power, maximum sidelobes for uniform
amplitude array broadside
Table 2.2 The beam width for uniform amplitude array broadside
Table 3.1: The antenna design parameters
Table 3.2: The calculated parameters patch antenna 2.4 GHz range
Table 3.3 - S11 parameter
Table 3.4- S
11
parameter
















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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The completion of this thesis could not have been fulfilled without the support
of many people, to whom I am profoundly indebted.
Firstly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisors, Mr. Lam
Hong Thach (Ph.D.), for his immeasurable assistance and valuable comments
throughout the conduct of the research.
Secondly, I am thankful to teachers of my faculty for their consultancy and
attentiveness to the completion of my thesis paper.
Last but not least, I am particularly thankful to the support I have had from my
family and friends during the five years of my tertiary study and their encouragement
when I conducted this graduation thesis.













Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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ABSTRACT

























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INTRODUCTION
A patch antenna (also known as a rectangular microstrip antenna) is a type of
radio antenna with a low profile, which can be mounted on a flat surface. It consists of
a flat rectangular sheet or "patch" of metal, mounted over a larger sheet of metal called
a ground plane.
In this orientation, the thesis is divided into three chapters as follows:
Chapter 1: Microstrip antenna
Chapter 2: Microstrip antenna array
Chapter 3: Design and Simulation microstrip antenna











CHAPTER 1
MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

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1.1 MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
The concept of band radiation was first initiated by Deschamps in 1953. But it
was not until 20 years later, an antenna engineering applications of the new range is
made. Micro-strip antenna experiments were first developed by Howell and Munson
and continue research and development in many different areas.
Micro-strip antenna simplest including a very thin metal patch (thickness t <<

0
,
0
is the wavelength in free space) ground plane placed some very small range (h
<<
0
,in usually 0.003
0
<h <0:05
0
). Micro-strip patch antenna is designed to have
the maximum radiation pattern. This is done by selecting the correct mode of the
radiation field in the space beneath the patch. End-fire radiation can also be done by
selecting the correct operating mode. For a rectangular patch, the length L is commonly
used in approximately
0
/ 3 <L <
0
/ 2. Patch and ground plane separated by a
dielectric layer as shown in Figure 1.1

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Figure 1.1 - Microstrip Antenna
There are dielectric backgrounds can be used to design micro-strip antenna and
dielectric constants are usually in the range 2.2 <
r
<12. The dielectric layer is used to
design the antenna mostly thick, its dielectric constant is usually lower than the value at
the end of the strip so we better performance, greater bandwidth and the radiation limit
the loss in space, but the size of the larger particles. Limit the loss of radiation into
space, but the size of the larger particles. Foundations with larger dielectric constant
can be used to design microwave circuits, because they require the strict limits to
minimize the combined radiation and unwanted, and also to enable smaller size
particles. However, because of the greater loss, leading to lower performance and less
bandwidth.
1.1.1 The basic shape of the micro-strip antenna
Microstrip antenna is also designed in different geometries such as squares,
circular, triangular, semicircular, sectoral, annular (annular ring) .

Figure 1.2 - The micro strip antennas form commonly used
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Coaxial-line feeds, where the inner conductor of the coax is attached to the
radiation patch while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane, are also
widely used. The coaxial probe feed is also easy to fabricate and match, and it has low
spurious radiation. However, it also has narrow bandwidth and it is more difficult to
model, especially for thick substrates (h > 0.02
0
).
All micro-strip antenna is divided into four basic categories: micro-strip patch
antenna, micro strip dipole, slot antennas used in engineering, antenna band traveling-
wave behavior.
Microstrip patch antenna
A micro-strip patch antenna includes a conductive patch as flat or planar
geometry on one side of the piece of dielectric substrate and ground plane on the other
surface of the substrate. Patch antenna with strips of different types, but their radiation
characteristics virtually identical because they act like a dipole. Among the micro-strip
patch antennas, antenna square and circle are two types of commonly used and widely
used.
Dipole microstrip
Dipole micro strip antenna shaped like a square patch of bands but different
ratio L / W. The width of the dipole typically less than 0:05 wavelengths in free space.
Dipole radiation pattern of the antenna patch and strips of the same great features but in
others, such as radiation resistance, bandwidth and cross-polarized radiation, they
hardly differ. Dipole antennas, the range of suitable for high frequency applications
because they use pieces of dielectric substrate thickness is relatively thick so that they
achieve significant bandwidth. The choice of source model is very important and must
be taken into account when analyzing micro-strip dipole antenna.
Printed Slot Antenna
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Printed Slot Antenna structure includes a slot in the ground plane of a grounded
substrate (substrate ground). This slot can have many different shapes such as
rectangles, circles, candles, .. This type of antenna radiation in both directions means
that our radiation on both sides of the slot, we can create unidirectional radiation using
a reflective surface on one side of the slot.

Traveling-Wave Microstrip Antennas (MTA)
MTA is constituted by a series of chain conductors together or a strip of the line
is long enough and wide enough to support the TE mode transmission. In particular,
the antenna is grounded and the other end is the impedance to avoid standing waves on
the antenna. MTA antenna can be designed to direct the beam in any way from
broadside to endfire.
1.1.2 Characteristics of Microstrip Antennas (MSAs)
Micro strip antennas (MSAs) have many advantages compared to traditional
antennas. Therefore, micro-strip antenna used in many applications in the range of
bands from 100MHz to 100GHz. MSA has proven to be an effective emission devices
for many applications with many advantages, however, it is still a number of
weaknesses that need to be overcome.
Advantages:
There is the small size and weight, thin thickness.
Low production costs, easy mass production.
Ability to linearly polarized with the simple power engineering.
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The supply lines and the impedance components can be produced
simultaneously with the fabricated antenna.
Easy integration with other MIC on the same substrate.
Flexibility between circularly polarized and linearly polarized.
Compatible for personal mobile devices.
Disadvantages:
MSA have narrow bandwidth and tolerance issues.
Some MSA with low gain.
Ability to low-power storage.
Almost all radiation MSA in half the space above the ground plane.
There is excess radiation from transmission lines and connections.
MSA has a very narrow bandwidth, typically only about 1-5%, this is the
biggest drawback in the application of MSA to cover a broad spectrum.
With the advantages that MSAs that become suitable for many applications.
Some applications of MSAs:
The antenna used in radio communications to a compact MSA is used.
The radar reflector used MSA emission ranges.
Aviation information systems and satellite MSA arrays used to locate
Smart Weapons used by the MSA their compact size.
GSM and GPS can also use the MSA.
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1.1.3 The digital power supply for micro strip antennas (feed method)
Due antenna with a range of radiation on a surface of the dielectric substrate so
the technique to power micro-strip antenna baseline by using a micro-strip transmission
line or a coaxial probe through the ground plane connection to the metal patch micro
strip antennas. Along with the development of science and technology, a new power
supply specifications for the micro strip antennas have been studied and developed.
Currently, the common method used to supply power for micro-strip antenna is: use the
power of strip transmission lines, coaxial probe, join slot (aperture-coupling), liver
transplantation (proximiti-coupling).
The choice of power supply is dependent on many different factors. However,
the most important factor is the efficiency of energy transfer between the radiation and
the power that is to be coordinated resistance between two parts together. In addition,
the impedance transformation step, the bend .. also give rise to leakage radiation and
surface wave attenuation. The unexpected radiation raises the secondary radiation of
the antenna radiation pattern of bands. minimizing radiation leakage and the effects of
radiation on the plot it is one of the key factors evaluating the supply is good or not?
1.1.3.1 Power transmission range by transmission line
The stimulus for micro-strip antenna micro strip transmission lines on the same
substrate is a natural choice because the patch can be considered as a transmission
range of both open and can be designed on the same circuit. However, this technique
has several limitations. It is the unwanted emission from the feed line to feed the line
size is negligible compared with patch (for example in the case of L is small enough
for a few mm).

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Patch
GND
Feed

Figure 1.3 - Power by transmission line
1.1.3.2 Power by coaxial probe
Power over probe is one of the most basic methods for high-frequency
transmission capacity. With this feed, the feed section of the core is connected to the
patch, ground plane connected to the outside. The advantage of doing this is simple in
design process, with the ability to feed at every position on the patch panel so easy to
coordinate resistance. However, the downside is this:
First, because the feed using the feed should be made to the outside antenna is
not perfectly flat and loses its symmetry. Second, the need for a powered coaxial range
would require increasing the number of connections and thus would be difficult to
manufacture and reduced reliability. Third, the need to increase bandwidth of the
antenna is required to increase the thickness and length of the probe. As a result,
radiation leaks and the inductance of the probe increases.
Patch
im tip xc in
Cp ng trc

r
GND
Patch

Figure 1.4 - Power by cables coaxial
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1.1.3.3 Power slot transplant method - Aperture coupled
GND

r2

r1
Patch
khe
ng cp ngun vi di

Figure 1.5 - Power grafting using slot - Aperture coupled
Power method often used to eliminate the unnecessary radiation of the
microstrip line. The structure consists of two dielectric layers. Patch antenna is placed
on top, in the middle ground with small slot 1 slot, transmission line feed at the bottom
dielectric layer. Typically, the dielectric pads above low dielectric constant, the
dielectric layer under high dielectric constants have aimed to optimize the antenna's
radiation. However, this method difficult to implement power to do so many layers,
and the thickness of the antenna increases. This method is supplied for Narrowband
(narrow bandwidth).
1.1.3.4 Power grafting using near - Proximity Coupled
This structure consists of two dielectric layers, piece patch antenna located on a
piece of dielectric, the feed line in between two dielectric layers. This method has the
advantage of removing the maximum height that the radiation of power lines (line
feed) and broadband (approximately 13%).
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GND

r2

r1
Patch
ng cp ngun vi di

Figure 1.6 - Power close coupling method - Proximity Coupled
This method is also called electromagnetic coupling method. This method is
essentially capacitive coupling between the patch and the power supply. Parameters of
the two layers can be selected to improve bandwidth and reduce radiation leaks in the
open end of the transmission line. Also for this reason, the thickness of the second
dielectric layer is thinner. Radiation in this case will be greater. However this method
more complex manufacturing and production.
1.1.4 Bandwidth of MSA
As we know, the biggest drawback of the MSA is the width of the bandwidth.
Bandwidth (BW) can be determined through a standing wave ratio (VSWR),
impedance changes in the frequency or radiation parameters. for circularly polarized
antenna, BW are axial ratio (AR).
BW is determined by the frequency at which the impedance is the ability of the
antenna within a given limit. BW of the MSA inversely proportional to the quality
factor Q:

1 VSWR
BW
Q VSWR

= (1-1)
The VSWR is determined by the reflection coefficient :
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1 | |
1 | |
VSWR
+ I
=
I
(1-2)
Reflection coefficient assessment reflected signal at the antenna feed point,
is determined by the input impedance of the antenna Zin and Zo the characteristic
impedance of the feedline:

in o
in o
Z Z
Z Z

I =
+
(1-3)
Generally, the BW is defined in the frequency that is less than 2 VSWR (return
loss <10dB or reflective capacity <11%). For special applications VSWR <1.5dB
(return loss <14dB spurious or <4%).
With standard VSWR <2, we graph the change of BW (in%) according to h / o
with different parameters r (r = 2.2 and r = 10).
Approximate formula for BW:

0
%
r
Ah W
BW
L c
= (1-4)

With
A=180 when
0 r
h
c
s0.045 (1-5)
A=200 when 0.045
0 r
h
c
s s0.075 (1-6)
A=220 when
0 r
h
c
>0.075 (1-7)
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From the above formula we can see if we can increase W, the increasing BW,
but W is limited by because if W> can not single-mode transmission.
1.1.5 Principle of the radiated micro strip antennas
We know that the radiation of micro strip lines, a structure similar to the micro-
strip antenna, can be significantly reduced if the dielectric substrate is used and the
thickness of thin dielectric coefficient is relatively low. In other words, it helps to
radiation micro strip antennas better with higher radiation efficiency. Thus, in a range
of antennas, we use the dielectric coefficient of low permeability. Radiation from
micro-strip antenna can be determined from the distribution between the patch and the
ground plane or in the form of electric current distribution on the surface of the patch.
At a micro-strip antenna is powered by a high frequency source (microwave
source). The power supply for the patch to form the charge distribution at the top and
bottom of the patch, as well as on the surface of the ground plane. Under the effect of
the thrust force formed by the interaction of the electrons with the same sign, on the
surface of the patch makes a number of charges in the periphery of the surface patch
moving from bottom to top surface patch. The movement of electrical charge to form
on the surface of the patch under the current density vector and vector current density
on the surface.

L
h
J
t
J
b c
r
h
W

Figure 1.7 - Distribution of charge and current in the antenna of rectangular strips.
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As in most of the antenna is very small ratio because the electrical attraction
between the dominant and the most concentrated and line charge still exists beneath the
surface patch. And so, only a small amount of movement from the edge of the patch
piece on top of the patch to form a small way to the edge of the tangent patch.
Therefore, to simplify the calculation, we approximate that the tangential magnetic
field is zero and the tangential magnetic field can be established from the walls around
the perimeter of the patch. The assumptions are more reasonable than in the case of
dielectric substrate thickness thin with large dielectric constants. Similar to the case of
the electromagnetic field, because the thickness of the dielectric substrate is very thin
compared to the wavelength in the dielectric layer transmission, so the high variability
along the electric field is constant and almost perpendicular to the surface the patch.
From the condition of the electric and magnetic fields, the patch can be seen as the
model of a resonant cavity (cavity) with the electromagnetic field radiation above and
below (due to the electric field perpendicular to the surface of patch) and four along the
wall from the edge of the patch (due to tangential magnetic field is almost zero). From
the resonance condition of the cavity just mentioned, only the TM mode can be
transmitted in the resonant cavity.
Four side walls of the cavity corresponding to the four slot radiation. Patch of
micro strip antennas can be represented by a vector corresponding current density.
Meanwhile, the four slots in the side radiation is characterized by the vector density
and lines respectively with the electric and magnetic fields in the radiation slot.

n a
J n H = (1-8)
a
s
M n E = (1-9)

Since we consider dielectric substrate
t
J thickness on the current density should
be very small compared with the current density
b
J of the patch below. Therefore, will
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be set to zero to indicate that virtually no radiation from the surface of the patch.
Similarly, the tangential magnetic field along the edges of the patch and the
corresponding current density
s
M is set to zero. Therefore, only one other current
density component vector density
s
M is not along the lines of patch perimeter. In order
to demonstrate the presence of the ground plane image we use the theory that the
current density will double compared to when not at the ground plane. The density of
the new line will be:
2 a
s
M n E = (1-10)
The electromagnetic field in the slot radiation determined:
0
.
a
E z E = for two slots of length W and height h
0
. sin
a
x
E z E
L
t | |
=
|
\ .
on slot length L and height h
Due to the conditions considered above, we realize as a result of the radiation of
the slot along the x-axis is almost zero because the current distribution and reversed by
the slots together. However, the results of radiation along the y axis exists in the form
of a strip of two components with the same current density component amplitude and
phase and separated by a distance L - length of the patch. Thus, radiation from the
patch can be described as two longitudinal slots (vertical slots).
The analysis of longitudinal slots in dielectric medium heterogeneity is a very
difficult problem to the gaps along the slit is replaced by two flat (planar slots). For the
micro-strip antenna configurations can also be represented by the corresponding slots
of the same type.
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1.1.6 Radiation field of micro strip antenna
If radiation from antennas that great line from surfaces like walls along the
perimeter of the patch. In another method, but a bit more radiation field is determined
from the power line on the surface of the conductive patch antenna piece of strip. Both
methods are considered equivalent. The micro-strip antenna radiation is sometimes
seen as the radiation range of open circuit transmission line. The graph of a radiation
transmission openings of similar range of radiation pattern of a Hertz dipole. This
method is also used to calculate the effects of radiation on the quality factor Q of the
resonance box of strips. Theoretical and experimental results shows that the high
frequency attenuation due to radiation higher than the attenuation due to dielectric and
conductance. In addition, it also shows that the range of open circuit transmission line
radiation is more powerful when made with thick dielectric layer with low dielectric
constant.
Vectors that are used to determine the radiation field due to the currents.
1.1.6.1 The vector and a formula for calculating the radiation
First, we assume that there exist lines from. Where electric and magnetic field at
any point P (r, , ) external antenna is represented as follows:

1
( ) m E r F
c
= V (1-11)

1
( ) .( . ) m H r F j F
j
e
ec
= V V (1-12)
With a dielectric constant and is the absolute permeability of the material,
the letter "m" implies that the by-line from cause and is the angular frequency. The
vector F is defined as follows:

0
| '|
( ') '
4 | ' |
jk r r
s
e
F M r dS
r r
c
t

=

}}
(1-13)
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In particular, the constant k
0
is the free space wave and surface current density
from the point of origin at a distance r '.
Similarly, using the vector A , the currents induced by can be performed

1
( ) .( . ) e E r F j A
j
e
ec
= V V (1-14)

1
( ) e H r A

= V (1-15)
In particular, since the vector is given by

0
| '|
( ') '
4 | ' |
jk r r
s
e
A J r dS
r r

t

=

}}
(1-16)
Therefore, the total current due to both the source and cause of

1 1
( ) .( . ) e m E r E E A j A F
j
e
ec c
= + = V V V (1-17)

1 1
( ) .( . ) e m H r H H F j F A
j
e
ec
= + = V V V (1-18)
For the remote, the components of net components perpendicular to the
direction of propagation, ie, and component. In particular from the line, we have:

H j F
u u
e = v H j F
| |
e = (1-19)
In free space:

0 0 0
( ) ( ) E r H H H j F F
u | u |
q q | u eq | u = = = (1-20)
Which
0
120 q t = O is constant free space. Similarly, when looking only at
current own:
E j A
u u
e = v E j A
| |
e = (1-21)
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And in free space:

0
r E
H
q

= (1-22)
Far field is described by the following conditions: r >> r 'or r >>
2
0
2L

, where L
is the length of the slot. Hence, from (1-13) instead of | ' | r r = r-r'cos in the
numerator and | ' | r r in the denominator, we get:

0
0
' cos
( ') '
4
jk r
jk r
s
e
F M r e dS
r

c
t

=
}}
(1-23)
And from:

0
0
' cos
( ') '
4
jk r
jk r
s
e
A J r e dS
r

t

=
}}
(1-24)
In which case is the angle by and. Here, we will apply the results to construct
the far field distribution of rectangular lines.
1.1.6.2 Radiated Power
Radiated power of the antenna can be calculated by taking the integral of the
Poynting vector radiation slots:

1
Re ( )
2
r
aperture
P E H dS =
}}
(1-25)
For micro-strip antenna, electromagnetic field inside the patch pieces
perpendicular to the ground plane and the conductive pads and magnetic fields are
parallel to the edge of the antenna. Also, we can calculate the radiated power from the
radiation graph the following equation:

2 2 2
0
1
(| | | | ) sin
2
r
P E E r d d
u |
u u |
q
= +
}}
(1-26)
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1.1.6.3 Power Dissipation
Power dissipation in micro-strip antenna attenuation inductor including Pc and
Pd dielectric loss:
2 ( . *)
2
s
c
s
R
P J J dS =
}}
(1-27)
In which, Rs is the real part of the impedance of the metal surface, S is the area
of the patch piece and the surface current density.
We calculate the dielectric loss by integrating over the entire volume of the
cavity resonance of bands:

2 2
" "
| | | |
2 2
d
V S
P E dV h E dS
ec ec
= =
}}} }}
(1-28)
With is the angular frequency, "is the imaginary part of the complex
permeability and h is the slice thickness of the pieces.
1.1.6.4 Energy accumulation
Energy accumulation of micro strip antennas is the total energy of both electric
and magnetic components:

2 2
1
( | | | | )
4
t e m
V
W W W E H dV c = + = +
}}}
(1-29)
In particular, is the magnetic permeability. At the resonant frequency electric and
magnetic energy are equal. When the accumulated energy

2
| |
2
T
s
h
W h E dS
c
=
}}
(1-30)
1.1.6.5 Resistance to
Almost all micro strip antennas must be coordinated preparation of the source
impedance and load it into the calculation of the antenna impedance is very important.
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Micro-strip antenna can be powered from a coaxial cable, micro-strip transmission line
or waveguide. For micro-strip antenna powered by a coaxial cable, the capacity is
calculated as follows:

* c
in
v
P EJ dV =
}}}
(1-31)
In particular, J[A/m
2
] is the current density of the source axis, denoted "c"
indicates that the power supply is coaxial. If coaxial cable lines in the z direction and
assume that the power is small:

*
0 0
0
( , ) ( ') '
h
c
in
P E x y I z dz =
}
(1-32)
In particular, (x0, y0) are the coordinates of the source point. Therefore, the
input impedance can be calculated based on relations P
in
=|I
in
|
2
Z
in
:

* 0 0
2
0
( , )
( ') '
| |
h
in
in
E x y
Z I z dz
I
=
}
(1-33)
When h<<
0
, the E and I(z) are constant so:

in
in
in
V
Z
I
= (1-34)
In which:
0 0 0 0
0
( , ) ' ( , )
h
in
V E x y dz hE x y = =
}
(1-35)
1.1.7 The polarized waves
Antenna polarization direction has been identified as polarized waves radiated
by the antenna. Note that the direction is not clear, the polarization is considered
polarized in the direction of maximum gain. The polarization of the wave is defined as
the image left by the tip of the vector when viewed along the direction of propagation.
Polarization may be classified as linear polarization, circular, ellipse. If the electric
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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field vector describes a point in space as a function of time is always directed along a
street, then known as the linear polarization. However, the electric candle shape that
outlines a case ellipse, the ellipse called polarization. Linear polarization and circular
polarization are special cases of elliptical polarization because they can be achieved
when the ellipse becomes a straight line or a circle, respectively.
* Polarization vector:
Polarization vector P (, ) is given by:

( , ) ( , )
( , )
( , )
F F
P
F
u |
u | u |
u |
u |
+
= (1-36)
With :
2 2
( , ) | ( , ) | | ( , ) | F F F
u |
u | u | u | = + (1-37)
( , ) F u | : The amplitude field function

1.2 ANALYSIS MODELS MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
There are many different methods to analyze the micro-strip antenna. Each
method offers an approximate model to analyze antenna. The model is the most
popular model of the transmission line (microstrip line), model cavity (cavity model).
The models provide a meaningful analysis of great practical reality for the
reason:
Help us to reduce a large number of test cycles and removed by an impact on
the design process.
Help us evaluate correctly the strengths and weaknesses of antennas by
studying its parameters.
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Provide operational principles of micro strip antennas from it as the basis for
the research and development of future designs.
Transmission line model considered a micro strip antenna rectangular patch as a
piece of micro-strip transmission lines. This is the simplest model, it gives us a deeper
understanding of physics, but less accurate and difficult to apply to the transplant
model, and can not be applied to the antenna complex shapes.
Unlike the transmission line model, cavity model is more accurate but also more
complex. However, the advantage of this model can be applied on different types of
patch. Like a transmission line model, cavity model also gives an in-depth
understanding of physics and quite complex when applied to the antenna coupling
model and it is also used quite successfully. Here, we consider the transmission line
model and the cavity model. However, it is also used in some of the results of the
design calculations and full-wave models. In particular, we consider only the micro
strip antennas as popular and most practical rectangular patch.
1.2.1 Model line (Transmission Line)
The model is the easiest way to transfer all kinds of little but for the most
accurate results because it lacks flexibility. However, it gives a relatively clear
understanding of physical properties. A rectangular microstrip antenna can be
described as an array of radiation two narrow slits, each slit width is W, the height h
and separated by a distance L. The model describes the basic transmission range of two
slot antennas separated by a low impedance transmission line and length L. Z
c

1.2.1.1 Fringing Effects
Due to the size of the patch is limited by the length and width, the border being
at the edge of the patch. General outline of a function of patch size and the height of
the dielectric layer. In-plane E-plane (xy plane), as a function of contour length ratio of
the patch, the dielectric layer length (L / h), and dielectric constant. When micro-strip
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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antenna L / h >> 1, border effect is reduced, but it must be taken into account because
it significantly affects the resonant frequency of the antenna.
As we know, most of the electric field lines in the dielectric layer and a portion
of a line exists in the air. When L / h >> 1,
r
c >> 1, the electric field lines most
concentrated in the dielectric. Fringing effects in this case makes the transmission of
wide range of power seem more real size no.Khi a few waves into the dielectric layer,
and some others went into the air. Effective dielectric constant
reff
c is used to correct
the effects of fringing effects of waves on the transmission line.
To make the effective dielectric constant, we assume the lead center line of the
strip on the size and height of the original land surface it is put into a homogeneous
dielectric layer as shown in Figure 1.9. For a transmission line with the air in the
background, the effective dielectric constant value in the range 1 <
reff
c <
r
c . In most
applications where a dielectric constant greater than 1 (
r
c >> 1), the value of the
effective dielectric constant will be close to the value of the dielectric constant is more
realistic. Effective dielectric constant is also a function of frequency. As the operating
frequency increases, most of the electric field lines should be concentrated in the
dielectric. So the line will be nearly identical to the range of transmission line located
in homogeneous dielectric with dielectric constant to the effective value of the
dielectric constant over.
At low frequencies, the effective dielectric constant c is fundamental. At
intermediate frequencies the value of it and have started to increase towards the end of
dielectric constant values platform. The initial value (at low frequency) of the effective
dielectric constant can be represented as a static value.
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t
h

reff

r
w
(a) Microstrip line
(b) Trng in
(c) Hng s in mi hiu dng

Figure 1.8 - Effective Dielectric Constant
Effective dielectric constant is given by the formula:

1
2 1
1
1 12
2 2
reff
r
reff
h
W
c
c
c

+

(
= + +
(

vi W/h >> 1 (1-38)
1.2.1.2 Effective Length, resonant frequency and the effective width
Because of fringing effects, micro-strip patch antenna of the phone looks bigger
than its physical size in the xy plane. This is demonstrated in Figure 1.10, where the
electrical length of the patch beyond some physical length L A of each side, with a
function of the effective dielectric constant and width ratio of the dielectric thickness
(W / h). The difference between length and length make this power is approximated by
the formula:
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( )
( )
0.3 0.264
0.412
0.258 0.8
reff
reff
W
h
L h
W
h
c
c
| |
+ +
|
\ .
A =
| |
+
|
\ .
(1-39)
When the length of an extended patch on each side about the length of time the
patch is:

L
reff
= L +2 L A (1-40)
Suppose the dominant TM010 mode, the resonant frequency of the antenna's
range of modes as a function of length and are due by the formula:

0
010
0 0
1
( )
2 2
r
r r
v
f
L L c c c
= = (1-41)
In particular, the speed of light in free space. But due to fringing effects and
impact on the length of the effective dielectric constant in the formula should be
replaced by:

010
0 0 0 0
1 1
( )
2 2( 2 )
re
reff reff reff
f
L L L c c c c
= =
+ A


0
0 0
1
2 2
r r
v
q q
L L c c c
= = (1-42)

with
010
010
( )
( )
re
r
f
q
f
=
''q'' coefficient is expressed as the coefficient contour (attenuation coefficient
length). When the height of the dielectric increases fringing effects also increase and
lead to a big difference between the edge of the radiation and the lower resonance
frequency
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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h
r
L
(b) Mt phng ct ngang
t
L L
(a) Mt trn

Figure 1.9 - Physical length and effective length piece patch
1.2.1.3 Design Problem
Based on the simple formula has been described, a process design calculations
for a rectangular strip of the antenna is outlined. Suppose we had the initial parameters:
dielectric constant, the operating frequency f0, and the height h of the dielectric layer.
We have designed the following sequence:
Hypothesis:
r
c ,f
0
and h
Determination of: W, L
The design steps:
Step 1
To achieve efficient radiation, the width of the patch is calculated using the formula:

0 0 0 0 0
1 2 2
1 2 1 2
r
c
W
f f c c c
= =
+ +
(1-44)

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With c

:speed of light , c = 310
8
m/s
f
0
: Operating frequency of antenna

r
c : Dielectric constant
Step 2
Determination of the effective dielectric constant of the micro strip antennas using the
formula
1
2 1
1
1 12
2 2
reff
r
reff
h
W
c
c
c

+

(
= + +
(


Step 3
As the length increases due to side effects formula
( )
( )
0.3 0.264
0.412
0.258 0.8
reff
reff
W
h
L h
W
h
c
c
| |
+ +
|
\ .
A =
| |
+
|
\ .

Step 4
Actual length of the patch can now be calculated by:
L

= L
reff
+2 L A
1.2.1.4 Electrical leads
Each slot radiation is described by any admittance Y (with conductance G and
susceptance B) are shown in Figure 1:10. The slots are named 1 and 2, the equivalent
admittance of slot 1 based on infinite width, uniform slot.
In that slot with a finite width W:
Y
1
= G
1
jB
1
(1-45)
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( )
(

=
2
0
0
1
24
1
1
120
h k
W
G

;
0
1
10
h

< (1-45a)

1
0
[1 0.636ln( )
120
o
W
B k h

= ] ;
0
1
10
h

< (1-45b)
L
W
B
1
G
1
B
2
G
2
Y
c
(a) Ming patch hnh ch nht (b) Ti tng ng

Figure 1.10 - Patch and Rectangle in the equivalent circuit model of the transmission
line
Slot 2 is considered as the best slot 1, its equivalent admittance
Y
2
= Y
1
G
2
=G
1
B
2
=B
1

Electrical conductivity of a single slot can be calculated by analyzing the
radiation cavity model. Meanwhile, the inductor is calculated by the formula:

1 2
0
2
| |
rad
P
G
V
= (1-46)
Use of electromagnetic fields radiated energy we have:

2
0
2
3 0
0 0
sin cos
| | 2
sin
2 cos
rad
k W
V
P d
t
u
u u
tq u
( | |
| (
\ .
( =
(
(

}
(1-47)
So inductor in formula (1-46), can be calculated by
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1
1 2
120
I
G
t
= (1-48)
In which:

2
0
3
1
0
sin cos
2
sin
cos
k W
I d
t
u
u u
u
( | |
| (
\ .
( =
(
(

}

=
sin
2 cos( ) ( )
X
X XSi X
X
+ + + (1-48a)
X = k
0
W
1.2.1.5 Input impedance at the resonant frequency
Leading the charge is calculated by reflecting the admittance of the 2nd slot in
the output of the input by the formula reflects the impedance of the transmission line.
In the ideal case, the two slits spaced about 1/2 with a wavelength in the dielectric.
However, due to fringing effects of the patch electrical length longer than its actual
length. Thus, the distance of two smaller slots / 2. If using reduced length is calculated
using the formula (1-39), the admittance of slot 2 is:
2 2 2 1 1
Y G jB G jB = + = +

Or
2 1
G G =
2 1
B B =
So the result is loaded into the resonance
1 2 1
2
in
Y Y Y G = + =
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As a result the total number of load carried, the input impedance at resonance is
also real numbers:

1
1 1
2
in in
in
Z R
Y G
= = = (1-49)
Impedance at resonance is given by equation (1-49) does not take effect
between the two slots. If after this impact can adjust the formula as follows:

1 12
1
2( )
in
R
G G
=

(1-50)
In particular, the "+" for each distribution mode voltage resonance odd
(asymmetric) patch underneath and between the slots, the "-" solution for voltage-mode
resonant distributed parity (symmetry). G12 mutual inductance is defined in terms of
the remote as follows:

12 1 2 2
0
1
Re
| |
s
G E H dS
V
-
=
}
(1-51)
With E
1
electromagnetic field radiation is 1 slot, H2 is the magnetic field
radiated by slot 2, V0 is the voltage across the gap, and the integral is taken over the
sphere of radius larger. Using some of the results already, G12 can be calculated:

2
0
3
12 0 0 2
0
sin cos
1 2
( sin )sin
120 cos
k W
G J k L d
t
u
u u u
t u
( | |
| (
\ .
( =
(
(

}
(1-52)
In that J
0
is the Bessel function of order 0 1. For the range of standard antennas,
mutual inductor G12 calculated from equation (1-52) is relatively small compared to
the G1 conductance formula (1-46) and (1-48).
As shown in formula (1-47) and (1-48), resistance does not depend on the
thickness h of the dielectric layer. In the real world, with very small values h (k
0
h <<
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1), the resistance does not depend on h. From (1-47) and (1-48), we see resistance at
the resonance can be reduced by increasing the width W of the patch, this is acceptable
as long as the ratio W / L does not exceed 2 because the resonance effect of a single
patch will be interrupted when the ratio W / L exceeds 2.
Resistance resonance is given by formula (1.48), is described by the slot 1.
Resistance in resonance can be altered by grafting supply lines into some y0 from slot
# 1 as of 1:12. This technique can be used effectively to coordinate with the supply
impedance. The impedance of the transmission line is given by the formula

0
0
0 0
60 8
ln
4
120
1.393 0.667ln 1.444
4 4
reff
c
reff
w h
w h
Z
w w
h h
c
t
c
(
+
(

( | |

+ + +
| (

\ .

0
0
1
1
w
h
w
h
s
>

(1-53)
In that w0 is the width of the strip line. Coupling impedance is calculated by:
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 2
1 2
1 2
cos sin sin
2
in
c c
G B B
R y y y y y
G G L Y L Y L
t t t ( + | | | | | |
= = +
( | | |

\ . \ . \ .

(1-54)
In which:
1
c
c
Y
Z
=
For most micro-strip antenna,
1
1
c
G
Y
<< and
1
1
c
B
Y
<< so formula (1:54) become

( )
( )
2 2
0 0 0
1 2
1
cos ( 0) cos
2
in
in
R y y y R y y
G G L L
t t ( | | | |
= = = =
| | (

\ . \ .
(1-55a)
Often the impedance with 50 ohm resistors should have
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1
0
50
cos
in
L
y
R t

| |
=
|
|
\ .
(1-55b)
L
W
(a) V tr im feed cho patch antenna
1.0
0.75
0.5
0.25
0 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
y
0
/L
R
i
n
(
y
=
y
0
)
/
R
i
n
(
y
=
0
)
(a) th biu din tr khng vo
y
0

Figure 1.11 - Change the location of the feed impedance to match
The value calculated by the formula (1:55) quite correctly compared with
experimental results. However, the introduction of a feed on the border between y0
also creates a physical slot formed a junction capacitance. Physical slot junction
capacitance and its small image to the resonance frequency (typically generate about
1% change).
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1.2.2 Model cavity
Micro-strip antenna similar to the homogeneous dielectric cavity and give us
higher-order resonances. The standardized field in the dielectric (between the patch and
the ground plane) can be found by looking at the exact space between the patch and the
ground plane as a resonant cavity is limited by the inductor material (in above and
below it), and from the walls (to see an open circuit) along the perimeter of the patch.
This is an approximate model which in principle leads to an input impedance response
(resonance value zero or infinity), and it does not emit any power to do. However,
assuming that the real case is similar to cases generated by this model, radiation
pattern, resulting in the load, and the resonances are relatively accurate in comparison
with experiment.
To better understand the resonant cavity model, we give a physical
interpretation of the formation in the cavity and the radiation through its walls. When
the energy patch received a distribution charge will be set at the top and bottom of the
patch, as well as on the surface of the ground plane. The charge distribution is
controlled by two mechanisms: one push mechanism and a suction mechanism.
Mechanism of electrical attraction between the different marks on the underside of the
patch and the ground plane tends to maintain focus on the underside of the charge
patch. The mechanism of the charge repulsion between the marks on the bottom
surface of the patch tends to push a couple of electric rings from the bottom of the
patch around the edges of the patch to the upper surface of the patch. The movement of
electrical charges creates the equivalent current density Jb and Jt corresponding surface
beneath and above the surface of the patch.
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L
h
J
t
J
b c
r
h
W

Figure 1.12 - electrical distribution and power lines
Since most of the range of actual antenna ratio on the dielectric height of the
patch width (h / W) is small, the dominant mechanism of smoking and most focus and
the flow of electricity primarily in underneath the patch, a few flow around the edges
of the patch. However, this current will decrease with the decrease of the ratio (h / W).
When you reach a certain limit, the flow on the surface of the patch will not, then in the
ideal case would seem to create tangential component of the magnetic field. This
allows as four surrounding walls created by the perfect surface that resulted from the
ideal case would not disturb the magnetic field and electric field distribution under the
patch. Due to the fact the limit of the ratio h / W, although small, tangential component
at the edges will not completely zero, but very small value. An approximate way we
see the walls surrounding the leads from this entirely will result in a good distribution
of the electric field and magnetic field under the standardized patch, making analysis
easier.
If micro-strip antenna is regarded as only a cavity, it will not be enough to
calculate the absolute magnitude of the electric and magnetic fields. In fact, regarded
by the walls of the cavity in which it is material loss at least, will not cavity radiation
and its impedance to be fully reflected. To calculate the radiation loss mechanisms are
included. That is taken into account radiation resistance resistors RA and two resistors
RL loss making in complex impedance on its function extremely complex. The saps
are taken into account by introducing the coefficient of loss tangent (loss of) effective.
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Due to the thickness of the micro strip antennas very small waves generated within
dielectric (between the patch and ground) are subject to significant reflection when we
go to the edge of the patch. So only a small fraction of the energy to be radiated, so the
antenna is considered to be very inefficient. The patch below the standing wave can be
described by the wave function varies with the cosine. When the height of the very
small (h <<
0
, with
0
is a wavelength in the dielectric), different schools along the
height h will be considered constant. Moreover, because of the very small height, the
effect of the border along the edges of the patch is very small, in which the
electromagnetic field is considered nearly unchanged from the ground plane to the
surface of the patch. So just as the TM
x
(transverse electromagnetic wave mode) will be
considered within the cavity. Meanwhile, the top and bottom of the cavity resonance is
seen as completely conductive, while the surrounding walls is considered the result of
entirely (zero tangential fields along the four walls around).
1.2.2.1 The school mode - TM
x

The shape of the field inside the cavity is determined by using the vector A.
View (1:13), the volume beneath the patch can be viewed as a rectangular cavity filled
with a dielectric material with a dielectric constant
Vector that Ax must satisfy homogeneous wave equation:
2 2
0
x x
A k A V + = with
2
k
t

=
Solution of differential equations we get the general solution of the form:
| | | |
1 1 2 2 3 3
cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin( )
x x x y y z z
A A k x B k x A k y B k y A k z B k z ( = + + +


Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 47

x
z
y
h
L
W

Figure 1.13 - Analysis of micro-strip antenna pattern axis coordinates
With k
x
, k
y
, k
z
are constant wavelength along the axis x, y, z. As A
1
, B
1,
A
2
, B
2,
C
2
, A
3
, B
3
is the integration constant that we need to determine based on the initial
conditions. The electromagnetic field in the cavity is related to the vector Ax by:
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
x x
x
y
x
z
E j k A
x
A
E j
x y
A
E j
x z
ec
ec
ec
| | c
= +
|
c
\ .
c
=
c c
c
=
c c

0
1
1
x
x
y
x
z
H
A
H
z
A
H
y

=
c
=
c
c
=
c
(1-56)
The boundary conditions for the above, the below patch and four walls around:
( ' 0, 0 ' , 0 ' ) ( ' , 0 ' , 0 ' ) 0
(0 ' , 0 ' , ' 0) (0 ' , 0 ' , ' ) 0
(0 ' , ' 0, 0 ' ) (0 ' , ' , 0 ' ) 0
y y
y y
z y
E x y L z W E x h y L z W
H x h y L z H x h y L z W
H x h y z W H x h y L z W
= s s s s = = s s s s =
s s s s = = s s s s = =
s s = s s = s s = s s =

Solve the above equation using the boundary conditions we get
1 2 3
0, 0, 0 B B B = = =
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


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x
m
k
h
t
= m = 0,1,2,
y
n
k
h
t
= n = 0,1,2
z
p
k
h
t
= p = 0,1,2
From the above results, we have:
cos( ') cos( ') cos( ')
x mnp x y z
A A k x k y k z = (1-57)
With
mnp
A is the amplitude coefficient of the MNP mode. As m, n, p is the
number of half wavelengths along the respective axes x, y, z.
We have:

2 2 2
2 2 2
x y z
m n p
k k k
h L W
t t t | | | | | |
+ + = + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
(1-58)
The coefficient kr is the wave propagation in the dielectric. From here we calculate the
resonant frequency:

2 2 2
1
( )
2
r mnp
m n p
f
h L W
t t t
t c
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
(1-59)
To determine the dominant mode is the lowest resonance, we need to consider the
resonant frequency. Mode with the lowest frequency resonance mode called dominant.
The resonant frequency higher than the level determined by the operating mode. For
most of the micro-strip antenna h < L and h < W. If L> W> h, the dominant mode is
TM
x
010
, its resonant frequency is given by:
( )
0
010
1
2 2
r
r
v
f
L L c c
= = (1-60)
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 49

With v
0
is the velocity of light in free space. If L> W> L/2> h mode higher than
the next (Monday) is TM
x
001
, its resonant frequency is given by:
( )
0
001
1
2 2
r
r
v
f
W W c c
= = (1-61)
If L> L2> W> h, is TM
x
020
secondary mode (instead of TMx001), the resonant
frequency is given by:
( )
0
020
1
r
r
v
f
L L c c
= = (1-62)
If W> L> h is TMx001 dominant mode, the resonant frequency is given by (1-61).
Whereas if W> W / 2> L> h, the secondary mode is TM
x
002
. Distribution of the
tangential electric field along the walls surrounding the cavity mode in the TM
x
010
,
TM
x
001
, TM
x
020
, TM
x
002
performed in the order shown in Figure 1.14
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 50

TM
x
020
TM
x
010
TM
x
001
TM
x
002
W
L
h
W
L
h
W
L
h
W
L
h
(a) TM
x
010
(b) TM
x
001
(c) TM
x
020
(d) TM
x
002

Figure 1.14 - The mode of the antenna radiation range
1.2.2.2 Radiation School - Mode TM
x
010

Micro-strip antenna radiation field radiation field is the sum of two element
array, with each element representing a slot. When two identical slots can be calculated
by the total generation capacity of the array for two slots.
The radiation slot
If remote power radiated by each slot is based on the equivalent current density
as follows:
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 51

0
0 0 0
0
sin( ) sin( )
sin cos sin sin
2 2
r
r
jk r
e
E E E E
E E
k hWE e k L X Z
E j
r X Z
|
u
|
|
u u |
t

= + +
= =

= +
` `
) )
(1-63a)
0
0
sin cos
2
cos
2
k h
X
k W
Z
u |
|
=
=
(1-63b)
When very small height (k0h << 1), the above formula is reduced also:

0
0
0
sin cos
2
sin
cos
jk r
k W
V e
E j
r
|
u
u
t u

| |
|

\ .
= +
`


)
(1-64)
E-plane (
0 0 0 0 0
90 , 0 90 , 270 360 u | | = s s s s )
For micro-strip antenna, the xy plane () is the E-plane and in-plane radiation field in
the above formula becomes

0
( ) 2cos sin sin
2
e
y
k L
AF | u
| |
=
|
\ .
(1-65)
H-plane (
0 0 0
90 , 0 180 | u = s s )
The H-plane antenna is great xz plane () and in the plane of the radiation field in (1.68)
becomes:

0
0 0 0
sin sin
sin cos sin sin
2
jk r
t e
k hWE e k L X Z
E j
r X Z
|
u | u
t

| |
= +
`
|
) \ .
(1-66)

0
0
sin cos
2
cos
2
k h
X
k W
Z
u |
|
=
=

The slots no radiation
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 52

Use the equivalent current density of 1 slot no radiation along the axis + z is:

0
'
2 2 cos
s a y
e
y
M nE a E
L
t | |
= =
|
\ .
(1-70)
Similar to the z-axis. Using the same reasoning as for the radiation slot.
Standardized components crazy remote field radiated by each slot is given by:

0
( ) 0 0
2 2
sin cos
cos
2 ( / 2)
jk r
j X Y e
k hL E e X Y
E j Y e
r X Y
u
|
t t

+

=
`

)
(1-71)

0
( ) 0 0
2 2
sin cos
cos sin
2 ( / 2)
jk r
j X Y e
k hL E e X Y
E Y e
r X Y
|
u |
t t

+

=
`

)
(1-72)
0
sin cos
2
k h
X u | =
0
sin sin
2
e
k L
Y u | =
When there are two slots radiation does not form a two-element array with
amplitude but opposite phase, separated along the z axis between the W and a
coefficient array is:

0
( ) 2 sin cos
2
z
k W
AF j u
| |
=
|
\ .
(1-73)
When the total radiation field is determined by the distance (1-68) with coupling
coefficient array above. In the E-plane (
0 0 0 0 0
90 , 0 90 , 270 360 u | | = s s s s ), (1-69) is
zero because the radiation field a quarter of each slot cycle suppressed by the radiation
field of the other slots. Similarly in the plane H (
0 0 0
90 , 0 180 | u = s s ) is the zero sum
suppressed by AF. This means that the radiation because this slot should be destroyed
by the radiation of the other slots. In fact, two slots away from the radiation the plane,
but the density of them in the other plane is small compared with the radiation and the
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 53

radiation of the two slots is often overlooked. Therefore they are not considered as
radiation slot.
1.2.2.3 The orientation
As the other antenna, the orientation is one of the important parameters, which
are defined as follows:

max max
0
0
4
rad
U U
D
U P
t
= = (1-74)
For single-slot () to use the power of (1-30), the maximum intensity of radiation
and the radiated power can be written as follows:

2 2
0
max 2
0 0
2
V
W
U
t
q t
| |
=
|
\ .
(1-75)
0
2
0 3
0 0
sin cos
2
sin
2 cos
rad
k W
V
P d
t
u
u u
q t u
( | |
| (
\ .
( =
(
(

}

So the orientation of a single slot is:

2
0
0 1
2 1 W
D
I
t

| |
=
|
\ .
(1-76)
In which

2
0
3
1
0
sin cos
sin 2
sin 2 cos( ) ( )
cos
i
k W
X
I d X XS X
X
t
u
u u
u
( | |
| (
(
\ .
( = = + + +
(
(
(

}
(1-77)
With
0
X k W =
Asymptotic value of the orientation is changed as follows
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 54


0
0
3.3 5.2dB
4
D
W

= | |

\ .

0
0
W
W

(1-78)
For the second slot, the orientation given by:

2
0 2 0
2 2
15
rad
W w
D
I G
t t

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
(1-79)
In that
rad
G is radiation conductance and

2
0
3 2 0
2
0 0
sin cos
2
sin cos sin sin
cos 2
e
k W
k L
I d d
t t
u
u u | u |
u
( | |
| (
| |
\ .
( =
|
( \ .
(

} }
(1-80)
General orientation of D2 for two slots broadside radiation, the dominant mode
segregated schools TMx010 (distribution voltage asymmetry), can be written as

2 0 0
12
2
1
AF
D D D D
g
= =
+
(1-81)

12
2
2
1
AF
D
g
= ~
+
(
12
1 g ) (1-82)
D
0
= the orientation of a single slit
D
AF
= coefficient of orientation of AF
0
cos sin sin
2
e
k L
AF u |
( | |
=
| (
\ .

G12 = Relative normalized conductance = G12/G1
We have the asymptotic value of D2 following changes
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 55


2
0
6.6 8.2dB
8
D
W

= | |

\ .

0
0
W
W

(1-83)

CHAPTER 2
MICROSTRIP ANTENNA ARRAY

In the previous chapter we have discussed and analyzed the characteristics of
the antenna elements of a single strip. However, the radiation beam micro strip
antennas typically a relatively large and highly oriented, low-gain. In many practical
applications, we need to design the antenna orientation properties (high gain) to meet
some of the requirements of long-distance communication. To do that we need to
increase the size of the antenna. However, there is another way: instead of increasing
the size of one antenna would like to include multiple antennas to form a multiple
antenna system, called the antenna array, the shape and size appropriate, and each of
which is called a single antenna element antenna. In general, an antenna array can be a
set of arbitrary antenna elements, but in reality people often use these elements is
identical to facilitate the analysis and theory construction.
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 56

x
y
z
b/ Mng trn
a/ Mng tuyn tnh
c/ Mng 2 chiu
d/ Mng 3 chiu

Figure 2.1 - Four types of antenna array geometry
The total radiation field of the antenna array is determined by taking the vector
sum of the radiation from the antenna element. To get a level of radiation is high, the
orientation of the magnetic field vector element should resonate intersect in a desired
direction and cancel each other out in the remaining space. In an antenna array of the
same element, we can change the characteristics of the radiation through an array of the
following controls:
Changing the geometry of the array (linear, circular, rectangular, bridges).
Changing the relative distance between the particles.
Change the stimulus amplitude signal for each element.
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 57

Change phase excitation signal for each element.
Figure 2.1 illustrates some of the different geometry of the antenna array.
including uniform linear array, circular array, two-dimensional array, 3-dimensional
array
Within the scope of this topic, we will focus more research on two-dimensional
array antenna (planar array) is built on the basis of one-dimensional linear array. For
simplicity, we will first learn two-element antenna array as a basis for theory building
two dimensional array antennas.

2.1 TWO ARRAY ELEMENT
Suppose we consider an array of two elements of infinite horizontal dipole
antenna along the z axis as shown in Figure 2.2 (a):
d
/
2
d
/
2
1

2
r1
r
r2
x
y
d
/
2
d
/
2

r
y

r1

r2
(a) Hai dipole v hn
(b) im kho st vng xa

Figure 2.2 - 2 geometry of the array elements along the z-axis at

The total radiation field of the array is the sum of the two radiation antenna
elements separately and in total the yz plane is given by:
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| | | |
1 2
/ 2 / 2
0
1 2 1 2
1 2
| cos | | cos |
4
j kr j kr
t
kI l e e
E E E a j
r r
| |
u
q u u
t



= + = +
`

)
(2-1)
In such | is a phase difference signal between the two antenna elements, and
the signal amplitude of the radiation is the same two elements. When surveyed schools
in remote areas, as shown in Figure 2.2 (b), we have:
1 2
u u u ~ =
1
2
cos
2
cos
2
d
r r
d
r r
u
u

~ +

)
for phase change
1 2
r r r ~ = for amplitude changes
Then (2-1) becomes

| | | | ( cos )/ 2 ( cos )/ 2
0
0
| cos |
4
1
| cos | 2cos ( cos )
4 2
jkr
j kd j kd
t
jkr
t
kI l e
E a j e e
r
kI l e
E a j kd
r
u | u |
u
u
q u
t
q u u |
t

+ + +

(
= +

(
= +
(

(2-2)
It is clear from (2-2), we find the total field of the array is equal to the radiation
field of an antenna element with a number of human origin, called the coefficient array.
So for the two-element array with the same amplitude coefficient array given by:
( )
1
2cos cos
2
AF kd u |
(
= +
(

(2-3)
Standardized format:
( )
1
( ) cos cos
2
n
AF kd u |
(
= +
(

(2-4)
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Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 59

The coefficient is a function of the array geometry and array signal phase
excitation. By changing the distance d and, or between two phases, the characteristic
element of the array factor and the total radiation field of the array can be controlled.
General form:
E (total) = [E (antenna in the benchmark)] [coefficient array] (2-5)
This expression is considered as the radiation rules for array elements in the
same array (array uniformity).
Each segment has its own array of coefficients and in general it is a function of
the number of elements in the array, the geometric arrangement, amplitude, phase and
relative distance of them. Expression array coefficient becomes easier when the
elements in the array have the same amplitude, and phase, and the same distance.
Because the system does not depend on an array of characteristics of the orient
themselves antenna radiation elements, so we can identify it by replacing the source
element carried by the (isotropic) and assuming a point source with phase, amplitude,
and position of the element to which it replaced. Once we have identified the
coefficient arrays using arrays of point sources, the radiation field of the array to get
from (2-5).
In the previous chapter, we give the expression of the intensity of the antenna
elements of a single band, it was rewritten as follows:

0
0 0 0
sin sin
sin cos sin sin
2
jk r
t e
k hWE e k L X Z
E j
r X Z
|
u | u
t

| |
= +
`
|
) \ .
(2-6)

0
sin cos
2
k h
X u | =

0
sin sin
2
e
k L
Y u | =
Design of Microstrip Antenna Array


Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 60

Thus, the remaining problem is going to find the array AF system so that can get
a total field strength of micro strip antenna array. Here we will find an array coefficient
of linear arrays and two-dimensional array.
2.2 N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY - MINUTES OF UNIFORM
UNIFORM AND DISTANCE
Considering the array of n identical elements are placed along the z axis as
shown in Figure 2.3 (a), assuming N elements have the same signal amplitude but the
phase difference between two consecutive elements is. When the array is called array
uniformity.
Coefficient array can be when we see the antenna element is the point source
(isotropic source). When the element is not the source of the total radiation field is
obtained by the radiation field of an antenna element is taken as the reference (usually
at the origin) with a coefficient array of point sources. These are the rules of the
radiation field (2-5) and only applies to the array of the same element. Array factor is
calculated as follows:

( cos ) 2( cos ) ( 1)( cos )
1
j kd j kd j N kd
AF e e e
u | u | u | + + + + + +
= + + +

( 1)( cos )
1
N
j n kd
n
AF e
u | + +
=
=

(2-7)
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Nguyen Trong Quynh- Class Telecommunications-Advanced Training Program-Course 53 Page 61

d
d

r3
y

r4
r2
r1
1
2
3
4

rN
N
d
co
s(
)
#1
#2
#3
#4
2

3
N
#N
A
F
(b) S pha
(a) Cu trc hnh hc

Figure 2.3 - If the remote array and phase diagram of N isotropic elements
Rewrite the coefficient array:

( 1)
1
N
j n
n
AF e
+
=
=

(2-8)
With cos kd u | = +
Because the array is the sum of the coefficients of the exponential complexity so
it can be performed by any of the vector sum of the vectors have unit amplitude and
phase relative to the previous vector. This idea is shown in Figure 2.3 (b). From the
phase diagram we see that for the AF uniform arrays can be controlled by selecting the
appropriate phase relative. As for the heterogeneous array amplitude and phase can be
used to control AF.
AF array factor can be expressed in the reduced form as follows:
j
e

the two
sides of (2-8) and then be

2 3 ( 1)
( ) .....
j j j j j N jN
AF e e e e e e

= + + + + + (2-9)
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Taking (2-9) except (2-8) have been
( 1) 1
j jN
AF e e

= (2-10)
Or

| |
( / 2) ( / 2)
( 1)/ 2
(1/ 2) (1/ 2)
1
1
jN j N j N
j N
j j j
e e e
AF e
e e e

( (
= =
( (




| | ( 1)/ 2
sin
2
1
sin
2
j N
N
e

( | |
|
(
\ .
( =
| |
(
|
(
\ .
(2-11)
If benchmarking is taking care of the physical array, the array factor of (2-11)
becomes

sin
2
1
sin
2
N
AF

( | |
|
(
\ .
( =
| |
(
|
(
\ .
(2-12)
To standardize the system so that the array of its maximum value by one unit,
then (2-12) is rewritten as follows:

sin
1 2
( )
1
sin
2
n
N
AF
N

( | |
|
(
\ .
( =
| |
(
|
(
\ .
(2-13)
For small values of , the above expression approximates

sin
2
( )
2
n
N
AF
N

( | |
|
(
\ .
( ~
(
(

(2-14)
To find the null point of the array, we assign (2-14) to zero. That is:
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1
2
sin 0 cos
2 2 2
n
n
N N n
n
d N
u u

t u | t
t

=
( | | | |
= = =
| | (
\ . \ .
(2-15)
n = 1,2,3.. , 2 , 3 ,..... n N N N =
the value of N will determine the degree of the null (level 1, level 2, ...). To survive, the
zero value of the expression arccosine argument is not greater than one. Thus the
number of null values may be a function of the distance d and phase deviation.
The maximum value of (2-13) occurs when:
( )
1
1
( cos ) cos
2 2 2
m
m
kd m m
d
u u

u | t u | t
t

=
(
= + = =
(

(2-16)
m = 0,1,2,
Array factor in (2-14) has only one maximum value and occurs when m = 0 in
(2-16), it means = 0. This is evident when one observes phase diagram in Figure 2.3
(b). When = 0, all vectors are located on a straight line. At this point AF module vector
sum of the vector module components. We have:

1
1
( cos ) 0 cos
2 2
m
m
kd
d
u u
|
u | u
t

=
| |
= + = =
|
\ .
(2-17)
So if you want the array direction of maximum radiation is the phase difference
between two consecutive antenna elements will be:
cos
m
kd | u = (2-18)
3dB point of the array factor (2-14) occurs when

sin
2
( ) 0.707 ( cos ) 1.391
2 2
2
h
n
N
N N
AF kd
N
u u

u |

=
( | |
|
(
\ .
( ~ = = + =
(
(


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1
2.782
cos
2
h
d N

u |
t

( | |
==
| (
\ .
(2-19)
Once calculated the maximum angle () 3dB power half angle () is the half-
power beam width:
2
h m h
u u O =
For the array factor (2-14), there exists a maximum value (second maximum
sidelobes) and occurs when the numerator of (2-14) reached its maximum value, which
is

2 1
sin sin ( cos ) 1 ( cos )
2 2 2 2
s s
N N N s
kd kd
u u u u
u | u | t
= =
+ | | ( | |
= + ~ + ~
| |
(
\ . \ .


1
2 1
cos
2
s
s
d N

u | t
t

( | + | | |
==
( | |
\ . \ .
( 2-20)
s = 1,2,3,
2.2.1. Broadside array and End-Fire array
In many applications we need to design the array so that the maximum radiation
direction perpendicular to the axis of the array of array (broadside, = 900 of Figure
2.3A). Then in order to optimize the design of the antenna array elements and factors
should be calculated as = 900 directions. For this antenna element can be done by
selecting the appropriate radiation pattern, but for us, we need an array of choices
about how and how the signal level for a reasonable element .
As we mentioned above, the peak of the array:
cos 0 kd u | = + = (2-21)
As to the design maximum radiation direction = 900 should be:

90
cos 0
o
kd
u
u | |
=
= + = = (2-22)
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Therefore, for uniform linear array with maximum radiation direction is
broadside-axis perpendicular to the array - then all the elements in the array should be
mixed excitation signal (but it also has the same amplitude signals effect). The distance
between the elements can be any. However, to ensure there is no maximum value
appear in the other direction (called grating lobe), the distance between the elements is
not equal to a multiple of the wavelength ( , 1, 2, 3,... d n n = = ) when 0 | = . If
, 1, 2, 3,... d n n = = and 0 | = then:

0,180
0
cos 2 cos 2
o
d n
kd n n

u
|
u | u t
=
=
=
= + = = (2-23)
With this value instead of the one (2-13) will also make the system reach a
maximum value array. Thus for uniform arrays when 0 | = , d = n and maximum
broadside direction ( 90
o
u = ), the array also has the maximum value in the direction
along the axis of the array ( 0,180
o
u = ) - called end-fire radiation.
In the real world design, in addition to the main beam peak, people often avoid
the other peak beam (called grating lobe) have the same value as the main beam. This
requires the greatest distance between the particles must be smaller than a wavelength.
That is
max
d < .
To illustrate the idea of this design, three-dimensional radiation pattern of the
array factor for uniform array of 10 elements (N = 10) with 0 | = and d = / 4 are
plotted in Figure 2.4 (a). We find the maximum value of the array radiation appears
only in the broadside direction ( 90
o
u = ). For comparison, if the distance between the
particles d = increases the radiation pattern of the array coefficients are plotted in
Figure 2.4 (b). I found out in the direction of maximum radiation, the array also
appeared in two different directions and maximum in 0
o
u = and 180
o
u = .
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(a) Broadside, =90
0 (b) Broadside/End-fire,
=0,90,180
0

Figure 2.4 - Graph of the three-dimensional radiation array broadside and broadside /
end-fire
d =/4
d =

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Figure 2.5- two-dimensional graph of the radiation array broadside and broadside /
end-fire
If the distance between the elements in 2 d < < , the maximum range in
Figure 2.4 (b) in the direction 0
o
u = of moves to the corner 0 90
o o
u < < , and the
maxima in direction 180
o
u = will translate into the corner 90 180
o o
u < < . When 2 d =
the maximum will occur in the direction and 0 , 60 , 90 ,120
o o o o
u = and 180
0
.
To be clear, but what is above, in the tables 2.1 and 2.2 below lists the results of
the null point, peak, half-power point, maximum sidelobes, the sub-array beam width
broadside.
Table 2.1 The null point, half of the maximum power, maximum sidelobes for uniform
amplitude array broadside
The null
1
cos
n
n
Nd

u

| |
=
|
\ .

n = 1,2,3,
n= N,2N,3N,
The maximum
1
cos
m
m
d

u

| |
=
|
\ .

m = 0,1,2,
The half-power

1
1.391
cos
h
Nd

u
t

| |
=
|
\ .

/ 1 d t
The peak sidelobes
1
2 1
cos
2
s
s
d N

u

+ ( | |
=
| (
\ .

s = 1,2,3
/ 1 d t





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Table 2.2 The beam width for uniform amplitude array broadside
Beamwidth at the first null (FNBW)
1
2 cos
2
n
Nd
t

( | |
O =
| (
\ .

The half-power beam width (HPBW)
1
1.391
2 cos
2
h
Nd
t
t

( | |
O ~
| (
\ .

/ 1 d t
The first sub-beam width (FSLBW)

1
3
2 cos
2 2
s
dN
t

( | |
O ~
| (
\ .

/ 1 d t
2.2.2 Phased Scanning Array
In the previous section we have mentioned changing the phase difference between the
elements to the array radiation changes in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the
array (broadside, 90
o
u = ) and along the axis of the array (end-fire, 0
o
u = and 180
o
u =
). But we can still make an array of radiation in any direction and sweep plaque.
Suppose the array should be in the direction of any radiation (0
0
<
0
u <180
0
), whereas
stimulation phase | between elements will be:

0
0
cos 0 cos kd kd
u u
u | | u
=
= + = = (2-24)
To illustrate the principle of scanning, three-dimensional radiation pattern of the array
of 10 elements with distance and direction d = / 4 and the radiation direction
0
u =60
0

are plotted in Figure 2.6 (a). Dynamics of two-dimensional radiation are plotted in
Figure 2.6 (b).
Beam width of the array can be scanned by using (2-19) with
0
cos kd | u = . Use the "-
" in the argument of the arccosine function in (2-19) to represent half power beam
angle first and the "+" to represent half the capacity of the remaining corners. When the
beam width will be the difference between the two angles and is rewritten as follows:
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1 1
0 0
2.782 2.782
cos cos cos cos
2 2
h
kd kd
d N d N

u u
t t

( ( | | | |
O = +
| | ( (
\ . \ .


1 1
0 0
2.782 2.782
cos cos cos cos
Nkd Nkd
u u

| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
(2-25)
Because N = (L+d)/d, so (2-25) will be :

1 1
0 0
cos cos 0.443 cos cos 0.443
h
L d L d

u u

| | | |
O = +
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
(2-26)
Where L is the length of the array:

Figure 2.6 - Graph of radiation of three-dimensional and two-dimensional array of 10
identical scanning elements (N=10,
0
cos kd | u = ,
0
u =60
0
, d= / 4 )
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2.3 N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY - THREE DIMENSIONAL
PROPERTIES
In the previous section we have investigated N element linear array along the z
axis and made the determination of expression arrays. Also in this section we will look
at two-dimensional array strip is composed of a linear array along the two axes x and y,
but still had to use results from the previous chapter. Then we need to convert the
formula to calculate z-axis coefficient of two arrays x and y axis.
2.3.1 N elements along the z axis
Considering linear array N isotropic elements along the z-axis and the distance d
between the elements is as drawn in Figure 2.3 (a). Stimulation amplitude coefficient
for each element is a
n
and continuous phase between them is | . As observed in the
remote areas, the coefficient arrays from (2-7) is rewritten as follows:

( cos ) 2( cos ) ( 1)( cos )
1 2 2 2
( 1)( cos ) ( 1)
1 1
...
cos
j kd j kd j N kd
N N
j n kd j n
n n
n n
AF a a e a e a e
AF a e a e
kd
u | u | u |
u |
|
+ + + + + +
+ + +
= =
= + + + +
= =
= +

(2-27)
With is the angle made by the axis of the array and the radius vector from the
origin to the observation point. In general, the angle obtained from the product of the
unit vector along the axis of the array with the unit vector toward the observer. From
Figure 2.3 (a) we have:

( )
cos . . sin cos sin sin cos cos 0
z r z x y z
a a a a a a u | u | u u = = + + = = (2-28)
So (2:27) and (2:28) generate similar results (2.7) for the array in Figure 2.3 (a)
create symmetry around the z axis (not dependent on azimuth ). However, when the
array is placed along the x or y axis, the problem was different. Now is a parameter
constitutes coefficient array.
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2.3.2 N elements along the X or Y axis
Considering the array of N isotropic elements along the x axis as shown in
Figure 2.7. Remote array coefficient of this array is similar to the coefficient array in
Figure 2.3 (a), except for the phase factor . From Figure 2.7, we have:

( )
cos . . sin cos sin sin cos sin cos
x r x x y z
a a a a a a u | u | u u | = = + + = (2-29)
1
cos sin cos cos (sin cos ) u | u |

= =
r3
r2
r1
rN
z
y
x

1
2
3
N
d
d
A

Figure 2.7 - N linear array of isotropic elements placed along the x axis
The coefficient of this array is the array given by (2-27), but with determined
by (2-29). For this array array coefficient is a function of both azimuth and elevation
angle. (, ) for x axis does not have symmetry.
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In a similar manner, the array of N elements along the y-axis is given by (2-27),
but the angle is defined by:

1
cos . sin sin cos (sin sin )
y r
a a u | u |

= = = (2-30)
In terms of the physical elements placed along the z-axis and y-axis does not
change the characteristics of the array. mathematical terms we are born with a graph of
radiation but the mathematical expressions are different performances.
2.4 N ELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY - UNIFORM DISTANCE, BORDER
HETEROGENEITY
Theory to analyze the linear array with uniform spacing, uniform amplitude and
phase difference between consecutive elements have been mentioned in the previous
section. In this article we will look at the broadside array spacing uniform distribution
amplitude but not identical. we will mainly focus on talking about the broadside array
with amplitude binomial distribution (binomial) and Schebyscheff.
Of the three types of distributions: Uniform, Binomoal, Schebysheff the antenna
array Uniform distribution will narrow beam width, followed Schebysheff and
binomial distributions. In contrast, binomial array will sidelobes smallest level,
followed by Schebysheff and Uniform. Also, when the distance between elements is
less than or equal to / 2, the binomial array will not have the appearance of side
lobes. In fact, when designing an antenna array, there should be a balance between the
sidelobes and beam width. If we want the sidelobes at a certain threshold then the
distribution will Schebysheff of the narrowest beam width. Conversely, if we want the
beam width at a certain value, the distribution will Schebysheff the smallest sidelobes.
Before it comes to the design method for a distributed heterogeneous amplitude,
we will first seek the coefficient array.
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2.4.1 Coefficient array
Consider an array with an even number 2M isotropic elements placed
symmetrically along the z axis as shown in Figure 2.8 (a). The distance between each
element and d is the origin of the M element. Assuming that the amplitude of excitation
for elements of symmetry through the origin, whereas the array broadside array of
heterogeneous amplitude is rewritten as follows:

cos 3 cos (2 1) cos
2 2 2
2 1 2
cos 3 cos (2 1) cos
2 2 2
1 2
( ) ...
...
jkd jkd M jkd
M M
jkd jkd M jkd
M
AF a e a e a e
a e a e a e
u u u
u u u


= + + +
+ + + +
(2-31)

2
1
2 1
( ) 2 cos[ cos ]
2
M
M n
n
n
AF a kd u
=

=


In normalized form:

2
1
2 1
( ) cos[ cos ]
2
M
M n
n
n
AF a kd u
=

(2-32)
With safety as the stimulation amplitude coefficient for the elements of the
array.
If the number of array elements isotropic 2M +1 is an odd number (M is an
integer) as shown in Figure 2.8 (b), the coefficient of the array is:

cos 2 cos cos
2 1 1 2 3 1
cos 2 cos cos
2 3 1
( ) 2 ...
...
jkd j kd jMkd
M M
jkd j kd jMkd
M
AF a a e a e a e
a e a e a e
u u u
u u u
+ +

+
= + + + +
+ + + +
(2-33)

1
2 1
1
( ) 2 cos[( 1) cos ]
M
M n
n
AF a n kd u
+
+
=
=


In normalized form:
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1
2 1
1
( ) cos[( 1) cos ]
M
M n
n
AF a n kd u
+
+
=
=

(2-34)
Stimulation amplitude coefficient of the center element is 2a1
r
M
r
2
r
1
r
1
r
2
r
M
a
M
A
1
a
2 A
M-1
a
2
A
M+2
a
1
A
M
a
1
A
M+1
a
M
A
2M
d
d
d/2
d/2
x
z
r

r
M+1
r
3
r
2
r
1
r
2
r
M+1
A
1
a
3
A
M-2
a
2
A
M+1
a
2
A
M-1
A
M
d
d
d
d
x
z
a
M+1
r3
2a
1
a
3
A
M+2
A
2M+1

a
M+1

(a) The element M is even (b) odd number of elements M
Figure 2.8 - The layout of the antenna element
The equations (2:32) and (2:34) are rewritten as

2
1
( ) ( ) cos[2( 1) ]
M
M n
n
AF even a n u
=
=



1
2 1
1
( ) ( ) cos[2( 1) ]
M
M n
n
AF odd a n u
+
+
=
=

(2-35)
With cos
d
u
t
u

=
The next step, we will find the value of the coefficient of stimulus a
n

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2.4.2 Binomial Arrays
Coefficient array of binomial array is represented by formula (2-35) with an
amplitude coefficient is the stimulus that we will find the following.
To determine the coefficient of the array stimulate the binomial distribution, it is
based on the binomial expansion of the expression (1 + x) m-1 as follows:

1 2 3
( 1)( 2) ( 1)( 2)( 3)
(1 ) 1 ( 1)
2! 3!
m
m m m m m
x m x x x


+ = + + + + (2-36)
m=1 1
m=2 1 1
m=3 1 2 1
m=4 1 3 3 1
m=5 1 4 6 4 1 (2-36a)
m=6 1 5 10 10 5 1
m=7 1 6 15 20 15 6 1
m=8 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1
m=9 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
m=10 1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1
The model is Pascal's triangle. If m represents the number of elements in the
array, then the coefficients of the expansion will show the relative magnitude of the
elements in the array. Since the coefficients are determined from the binomial
expansion to the array is called the binomial array.
From (2.35) and (2.36a), the amplitude coefficient corresponding to a size of the
array is defined as follows:
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1. Two-element array (2M = 2)
a1 = 1
2. Three-element array (2M +1 = 3)
2a1 = 2 => a1 = 1
a2 = 1
3. An array of four elements (2M = 4)
a1 = 3
a2 = 1
4. The array of elements (2M +1 = 5)
2a1 = 6 => a1 = 3
4 a2 = a3 = 1
The coefficient corresponding to an array of different sizes are also similar. The
curve shows the relationship between the amplitude coefficients an (n = 1,2, ..., 10) of
an array of 10 elements along the x-axis are plotted in Figure 2.9 below.





Figure 2.9 - Correlation coefficient amplitude of an array of 10 elements.
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Because the array is binomial distribution amplitudes decrease monotonically
from the center to the ends of the array and the array of amplitude coefficient
outermost molecules can skip to the action of the amplitude ratio of the elements in
mind should the sidelobes of the array is very low. Moreover, the binomial distribution
array will not produce sidelobes when the distance between the elements in the array is
less than or equal to half of the beam. However, the binomial array has a major
drawback in the fact that the amplitude ratio between the elements in the array is a big
difference, especially when there are array elements. For example, an array with 10
elements, the amplitude ratio of the two elements in the first two ends, while the
coefficient of the central element 126.
In fact it will be difficult to achieve and maintain the large differences in
amplitude between the elements so. This makes the method less efficient binomial
array in practice.

2.4.3 Schebyscheff Arrays
An array of other, more realistic applications, the array Schebyscheff. If we
require only the sidelobes at a given level, the array will Schebyscheff maximum beam
width at its narrowest. In contrast, with a maximum beam given the array will
Schebyscheff lowest level sidelobes.
Suppose we set out the requirements that have little sidelobes than the
maximum beam R
0
dB. As such, the magnitude of the array factor is calculated by the
formula Schebyscheff following:
M even:

2 1
0
1
( 2)!(2 1)
( 1) ( )
( )!( 1)!( )!
J
J q q
j
q
q J J
a z
q j q j J q

=
+
=
+

;M=2J, j=1,2,..,J (2-37)


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M odd:

1
1 2( 1)
0
1
( 2)!(2 )
( 1) ( )
( )!( 2)!( 1)!
J
J q q
j
q
q J J
a z
q j q j J q c
+
+
=
+
=
+ +

(2-38)
2, 1
, 2 1, 1, 2,..., 1
1, 1
j
M J j J
j
c
=
= = + = +


In which:
( ) ( )
1 ( 1) 1 ( 1)
2 2
0 0 0 0 0
1
1 1
2
M M
z R R R R

(
= + +
(


2.5 TWO DIMENSIONAL ARRAY
Instead of placing elements along one axis (forming a linear array), we can
place them along a grid of rectangular shape to form two-dimensional arrays. Two-
dimensional arrays have the advantage of allowing a change of direction in a flexible
radiation in space but not limited to the plane as a linear array. Two-dimensional array
is used in a number of areas such as radar detectors, in long distance communication
and many other applications.
2.5.1 Coefficient array
Suppose initially we have M antenna elements are placed along the x-axis in
Figure 2.10 (a), the array of its coefficients are written as follows:

( 1)( sin cos )
1
1
x x
M
j m kd
m
m
AF I e
u | | +
=
=

(2-39)
With I
m1
is the amplitude coefficient of each element stimuli.
Distance and phase difference between successive elements along the x-axis and
x dx respectively. If such a linear array N was placed next to each other along the y-
axis and the distance between the successive phase of the array and y dy, then we will
have a two-dimensional array as plotted in Figure 2.10 (b) . Coefficient array of two-
dimensional array is calculated as follows:
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( 1)( sin sin )
( 1)( sin cos )
1 1
1 1
y y
x x
N M
j n kd
j m kd
n m
n m
AF I I e e
u | |
u | |
+
+
= =
(
=
(


(2-40)
Or AF=S
xm
S
yn
(2-41)
with
( 1)( sin cos )
1
1
( 1)( sin sin )
1
1
x x
y y
M
j m kd
xm m
m
N
j n kd
yn n
n
S I e
S I e
u | |
u | |
+
=
+
=
=
=


r
z
y
x

1
2
3
M
dx
dx
A
4
dx
(a): linear array
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z
y

1
2
3
M
dx
dx
A
4
dx
x
2 3
r
4 5 N
dy dy dy dy
(b) two-dimensional array
Figure 2.10 - Geometry of linear array and two-dimensional array
Equation (2:41) proves that the system of two-dimensional arrays of arrays is
the product of the coefficient of linear array along the x-axis by a factor of linear array
along the y axis.
( 1)
( 1)
1 1
sin cos
sin sin
2
y
x
M N
j n
j m
m n
m n
x x x
y y y
AF A e B e
kd
kd
k

u | |
u | |
t

= =
=
= +
= +
=

(2-42)
When the distance between the elements is greater than or equal to the
wavelength is a maximum beam of equal amplitude will appear. In particular, there is
a maximum of the main beam, minor lobe, which we want, and the other peaks of the
grating lobe.
Grating lobe is defined as the other beam with the main beam, generated by the
array element spacing is large enough to allow the radiation field in phase with each
community in more than one direction. Like the principle used for linear arrays, to
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avoid grating lobes appear in the xz and yz planes, the distance between elements in
the two-dimensional array along the x and y must be smaller than the wavelength , ie
dx < and dy <.
For two-dimensional array antenna, the main beam and grating lobe of SXM
and Syn is in the direction given by:

sin cos 2 0,1, 2...
sin sin 2 0,1, 2,...
x x
y y
kd m m
kd n n
u | | t
u | | t
+ = =
+ = =
(2-43)
The phase x and y are independent and we can adjust for different S
xm
and
S
yn
. However, in some practical applications, the main beam S
xm
and S
yn
to maximum
junction and they have the same direction. If you want only one main beam in the
direction = 0 and =
0
the continuous phase between the antenna elements in the
x and y must be equal to:

0 0
0 0
sin cos
sin sin
x x
y y
kd
kd
| u |
| u |
=
=
(2-44)
Hence :
0
2
2
2
0
tan
sin
y x
x y
y
x
x y
d
d
kd kd
|
|
|
|
|
u
=
| |
| |
= +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
(2-45)
When the main beam maximum (m = n = 0) and the grating lobe is located by:

0 0
0 0
(sin cos sin cos ) 2 0,1, 2,...
(sin sin sin sin ) 2 0,1, 2,...
x
y
kd m m
kd n n
u | u | t
u | u | t
= =
= =
(2-46)
Solve the system, we have:

0 0 1
0 0
sin sin
tan
sin cos
y
x
n d
m d
u |
|
u |

(
=
(


(2-47a)
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1 1 0 0 0 0
sin sin sin cos
sin sin
cos sin
x x
m d m d u | u |
u
| |

( (
= =
( (

(2-47b)
to a grating lobe occurs, then both sides of (2.47b) have been satisfied (ie, for the same
value of ).
2.5.2 Beamwidth
Assuming that the main beam of the array is oriented
0
and
0
as shown in
figure 2:11. To define the beam width, we need to select a 2-plane. First plane
elevation angle by angle =
0
and the second plane is the plane orthogonal to it. The
half-power beam width for each plane
h
and
h
.respectively. For example, if the
maximum beam of the array direction is
0
= t /2 and
0
=t /2, the beam width
h
is
in the yz plane, there is
h
beam width in the x-y plane.
For large arrays in the direction of maximum radiation broadside and then h
h can be calculated by the formula:

2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
1
=
cos cos sin
1
sin cos
h
x y
h
x y
u | |
| u


O
( O +O

+ =
O +O
(2-48)

0
x
z
y

h

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Figure 2.11 - The degree half power beam width of the main beam and the direction 0

0

In particular, the beam width
x0
half capacity broadside linear array of M
elements. Similarly,
y0
beam width is half the capacity of N broadside linear array
elements. For the uniform distribution, we can calculate as follows:

1 1
0
1 1
0
cos 0.443 cos 0.443 ( 1)
cos 0.443 cos 0.443 ( 1)
u
u
x x x
x x
y y y
y
L M d
L L
L M d
L Ly






( (
O = =
( (
+ +

(
(
O = =
(
(
+ +
(

(2-49)
For arrays with any amplitude distribution, the value of half power beam is
obtained by multiplying the coefficient of beam characteristics for distributed arrays
that beam with half the value of the array capacity
0
u
x
O v
0
u
y
O distribution
homogeneous as in formula (2:49).
For example, for the distribution Schebyscheff Schebyscheff beam coefficient f
is defined as follows:

( )
2
2
1 2
0
0
2
1 0.636 cosh cosh f R
R
t


(
= +
`
(

)
(2-50)
In particular, R
0
is the ratio of the voltage between the main beam and sidelobes.
Then, the width of the bun waves
x0s
v
y0s
of Schebyscheff array distribution is
calculated as follows:

0 0
0 0
.
.
x x x u
y s y s
f
f
O = O
O = O
(2-51)
With the same concept, the coefficient of the beam beam width of an array of
any amplitude distribution can be easily calculated as long as we know the coefficients
of the array beam.
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2.5.3 The orientation
The orientation of the two-dimensional array can be calculated by the following
formula:

0 0
cos
x y
D D D t u = (2-52)
In particular, D
x
and D
y
respectively, the orientation of the linear array elements
M and N along the x and y axis. They can be calculated as follows:
2 , 2
y
x
x y
d
d
D M D N

= = (2-53)
For most of the amplitude distribution of orientation in (2:52) is related to beam
solid angle
A
as follows:

( ) ( )
2
0 0
2 2
32400
cos
deg
x y
A A
D D D
rads
t
t u = ~ =
O O
(2-54)
2.6 CHANGE OF RADIATION PROPERTIES OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL
ARRAY ANTENNA
As described in the previous section, two-dimensional antenna array was built
on the basis of one-dimensional linear array antennas. Therefore, to change the
direction of radiation directivity (directivity), beam width (beamwidth), the sidelobes ..
two-dimensional arrays of us just impact on each linear antenna array. Specifically as
follows:
To change the direction of radiation: it will change the phase difference richest
two consecutive elements in the linear array along the x and y axis. It is x and
y.
To change the beam width: we will change
The number of antenna elements in the x and y axis. That is M and N.
The distance between the elements in the x and y axes. It's dx and dy.
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The distribution of the signal amplitude for the antenna element on the x and y
axes. It is Am and Bm.
However, in practice, for a given array antenna system or with the
characteristics required of the radiation beam to constantly changing array then
changing the distance between the elements or the number of antenna elements (
collectively change the "hardware") is not feasible. When it needs a software solution
for the stars to change the beam characteristics simple, flexible, fast. This can
absolutely be done. The idea is as follows: if a signal before going to the antenna for
radiation which is multiplied by a complex number, then the amplitude and phase of
the signal will be changed. Thus, if all the signals to the antenna elements in the array
are multiplied by the appropriate complex numbers, called weights, then the continuous
phase and the amplitude difference between the signal will be changes according to a
certain rule. This means that, when we get a weight matrix complex matrix effects on
signal for the antenna array, we will change the distribution of phase and amplitude of
the signal distribution for the antenna array and make radiation characteristics of the
array changes.
Calculation of complex weight matrix W
Suppose we have baseband signal s (t) to be transmitted in the RF frequency c.
First, it will be put through a splitter to create MxN cells signal components and MxN
cells signal before it is sent to M N antenna elements will be multiplied with complex
weights wi (i = 1 , 2, ..., MN) appropriate to change the amplitude and phase of the
signal components. 2:12 The figure below illustrates this mechanism.
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X
s(t)
X
X
X
Splitter
Beamformer
1
2
3
M.N
Radio
unit
Anten
x1
x2
x3
xM.N
1
2
3
M.N

X
s(t)
X
X
X
Splitter
Beamformer
1
2
3
M.N
Radio
unit
Anten
x1
x2
x3
xM.N
1
2
3
M.N

Figure 2.12 - Block Diagram impact process signals through complex weights.
Thus, the signal at the output of the block radio antenna in the ith branch can be
written as follows:
( )
c
t
i i i
x s t e
e
e = (2-55)
In the case of two-dimensional antenna array, weighted
mn
impact on antenna
element in row m, column n is represented by the formula:

[( 1) ( 1) ]
x y
j m n
mn m n
A B e
| |
e
+
= (2-56)
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In which A
m
and B
n
(m = 1,2, .., M, n = 1,2, .., N) are respectively the signal
amplitude coefficient of the antenna elements in the linear array along the two axes x
and y (obtained from the distribution of a given amplitude signals, such as uniform
distribution, binomial or Schebyscheff). And x and y is the deviation signal between
consecutive antenna elements located along the x and y axis (direction of radiation can
be given from the array).
2.7 INFLUENCE MUTUAL CONSTRUCT BETWEEN TWO
MICROSTRIP ANTENNA
The effect of antenna coupling between two rectangular strips juxtaposition
(side-by-side) as a function of relative position. Figure 1:15 below illustrates two
antenna elements arranged along two planes E and H:
s
s
E
E
E E
W
L

Figure 2.13 - Sort band antenna in the plane of E and H
In general, coupling effects are mainly due to the existence of the element along
the contact between the dielectric and air. These fields can be decomposed into the air
space (space waves, radiation radius 1 / ), the higher-order waves (radius 1 / ), the
surface waves (surface waves, radius 1 /
2
) , and individual air leaks (leaky waves,
radius / e p

). In the space of wave (1 / ) and higher waves (1 /
2
) is dominant to
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the small distances, and surface waves (1 / ) to surpass the great distance. The
surface waves exist and spread in the dielectric layer, and the excitement of it is a
function of the thickness of the dielectric layer. For micro strip patch antenna
rectangular TM when schools are along the direction of propagation of the plane when
E and TE propagation direction along the plane H. With the antenna elements arranged
along the E-plane, the distance between the schools in mostly TM elements, there will
be a surface wave excitation between the elements stronger, making big influence graft
more. However, the arrangement of the antenna element along the H-plane, the
distance between the schools in mostly TE element, there is no strong excitation of
surface waves, so will have little effect coupling between the elements. The effects of
this compound will change when the thickness of the dielectric layer increases because
it will stimulate the emergence of TE surface waves higher level.
In the case of the elements arranged along the E-plane and retail distribution
beneath the patch mode (dominant mode), the coupling between the antenna
inductance of a rectangular strip is:
2
0
3
0 0 0 0 0 0 2
0
sin cos
1 2
[2 ( sin ) ( ( ) sin ) ( ( ) sin )]sin
120 cos
E
k W
G J k L J k L Y J k L Y d
t
u
u u u u u
t u
( | |
| (
\ .
( = + + +
(
(

}

(2-57)
The Y is the distance from the center-to-center between the slot and j0 is the
Bessel function of 1, 0 grade. The first component in the above formula represents the
coupling conductance between the two slits along the E-plane separated by a distance
Y, while the second component and the third represents the coupling conductance
between the two slits along the plane separated by a distance E (Y + L) and (yL).
For the arrangement of elements along the H-plane and for retail distribution under the
patch mode (dominant mode), the coupling inductor is calculated by:
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2
0
3
0 0 0 2
0
sin cos
1 2
[1 ( sin )]cos( cos ) sin
120 cos
H
k W
G J k L k Z d
t
u
u u u u
t u
( | |
| (
\ .
( = +
(
(

}
(2-58)
With Z is the distance from the center-to-center between the slots. The first
component in the above formula represents the coupling between the inductor twice
along the plane of the two slits separated by a distance H Z, while the second
component represents the coupling between the inductor twice along the plane of the
two slits E separated by a distance L and H along the plane separated by a distance Z.














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CHAPTER 3
DESIGN AND SIMULATION MICROSTRIP
ANTENNA

In this chapter we will apply the theory presented in Chapter I and Chapter II to
design a range of single antenna based on some prior information (operating frequency,
the dielectric material ....) . However, as the bandwidth of the antenna gain will not be
high, we will analyze the methods to increase the bandwidth of the antenna and
antenna array design of this range to achieve the desired benefits. The CST software is
used to calculate and simulate antenna. This is quite specialized software and high
precision are relatively common use in the design of large telecommunications
companies.
3.1 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF A MICROSTRIP PATCH
ANTENNA
3.1.1 Design
I laid out the design problem as follows:
Microstrip Patch Antenna Design 1 bronze rectangular, microstrip line style
power supply with the mains. Rectangular patch is chosen because the structure is
simple and easy design. Antennas mounted on frequency 2.4 - 2:48. wiless frequency
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wifi LAN connection between computers is widely used 802.11. Antennas are placed
on the dielectric layer. These parameters will be clearly shown in below:



Table 3.1: The antenna design parameters
Operating Frequency 2.4 - 2:48 GHz
Dielectric constant of the dielectric layer (r): 4.6 (FR4)
Dielectric layer thickness (h): 1.6 mm
Power Mode: Microstrip line
Polarization: Straight

Based on a recipe in the first chapter we calculate the parameters of the micro
strip antennas as follows:
0 0
1 2 2
1 2 1 2
r r r r
c
W
f f c c c
= =
+ +
=
9
9
3 10 2
2 2.4 10 4.6 1

+
=37.35 (mm)
Effective dielectric constant of the patch by
2
1
12 1
2
1
2
1

(

+
+
=
W
h
r r
reff
c c
c =
1
2
4.6 1 4.6 1 0.16
1 12
2 2 37.35

+ (
+ +
(

=4.2629
Extended length of the piece patch:

( )
( )
0.3 0.264
0.412
0.258 0.8
reff
reff
W
h
L h
W
h
c
c
| |
+ +
|
\ .
A =
| |
+
|
\ .
=
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=
1
2
4.6 1 4.6 1 1.6
0.412 0.16 1 12
2 2 37.7

+ (
+ +
(

=0.7339 (mm)
The length L of the patch actually calculated by:
11
0
9
3 10
2 2(0.7339) 28.8034
2 2.4 10 4.2629
r reff
v
L L
f c

= A = =

(mm)
Electrical conductivity of the G1 by 1 slot (1-48) and (1-48a)
4 1
1 2
9.3662 10
120
I
G
t

= = (siemens)
G12 inductor coupling between two slots given by (1-53):
2
0
3 4
12 0 0 2
0
sin cos
1 2
( sin ) sin 5.8044 10
120 cos
k W
G J k L d
t
u
u u u
t u

( | |
| (
\ .
( = =
(
(

}
(siemens)
With j0 is the Bessel function of 1, 0 grade.
Input impedance R in in edge (y = 0) band of the antenna by (1-50)
( )
( )
2 2
0 0 0
1 2
1
cos ( 0) cos
2
in
in
R y y y R y y
G G L L
t t ( | | | |
= = = =
| | (
+
\ . \ .

1
0
50
cos 10.7336
in
L
y
R t

= = (mm)
Table 3.2: The calculated parameters patch antenna 2.4 GHz range
The
calculated
parameters
Width
(W)
Length
(L)
R in (Rin) Power point
(y
0
)
Gain (D)
Result 37.35 mm 28.8 mm 329.6 Ohm 10.73 mm 5.93 dB

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3.1.2 Simulation
- 3-dimensional structure of the antenna is made to simulate

Figure 3.1 - Window simulation program
- S11 at the resonant frequency of 2.4 Ghz
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Figure 3.2 - frequency response of S parameters

Table 3.3 - S11 parameter
Freq [GHz] dB(S(LumpPort1,LumpPort1))
2.33 -9.799
2.34 -11.125
2.36 -14.557
2.37 -16.963
2.38 -20.297
2.39 -25.731
2.41 -24.770
2.42 -19.340
2.43 -15.805
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2.44 -13.188
2.46 -9.422

2.47 -7.99
2.48 -6.800

- Graph orientation of the antenna:

Figure 3.3 Orientation of the antenna





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- 3D radiation:


Figure 3.4 - Grap of 3D radiation
- Smith chart
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Figure 3.5- The Smith Chart
I find the input impedance of the antenna through graphs Smith is quite good, at 2.4
GHz frequency is close to 51.5 Ohm input impedance is 50 Ohm port S11,
3.2 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA
3.2.1 Design
In this section we will go into the problem of band antenna array designed to
increase the gain of the system with the antenna elements of bands was calculated
above. As we analyze the antenna radiation characteristics of strip in the first chapter,
if the antenna is placed in the XY plane, the direction of its maximum will lie in Z axis
perpendicular to the XY plane.
The problem is: we will design how the antenna array to the maximum
directivity and no secondary maxima other direction. Because peak direction
perpendicular to the plane containing the element (Enfired) will select two dimensional
array mounted on the XY plane and the synchronization element and amplitude, the
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distance between the elements is calculated according to the number of element in this
array.
z
y

1
2
3
M
dx
dx
A
4
dx
x
2 3
r
4 5 N
dy dy dy dy

Figure 3.6- 2-dimensional array system
Plate 4 elements:
4 element array for maximum z-axis direction biggest without sidelobes in the
other direction we choose d = So this antenna system is seen as one element array 2 the
amplitude and phase evolution in K0 = 0, whereas each element itself also includes two
elements synchrony and amplitude. Graph sorted this system can be achieved by
drawing the graph of the human element and create together.
Between the micro strip antennas will have the same impact as the resonance
with the third chapter I. However, due to the child element array 4 and the distance
between the elements in the array is large enough so the interaction between these
components is very small, so we can ignore. We will consider this influence when
considering the array of 16 elements in place under the influence of the elements of
source.
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/2

A
B
C
D

Figure 3.7- 2x2 2D array system designed
3.2.2 SIMULATION OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA ARRAY
- 3-dimensional structure of the antenna is made to simulate

Figure 3.8 - Window simulation program of patch antenna array
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Figure 3.9 - frequency response of S parameters
Table 3.4- S
11
parameter

Frequency (Ghz)
S
11
(dB)
2.32 -4.22
2.33 -5.679
2.34 -6.807
2.36 -9.885
2.37 -12.044
2.38 -14.907
2.39 -18.980
2.41 -24.679
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2.42 -19.244
2.43 -15.642
2.44 -13.186
2.46 -10.077
2.47 -9.037
2.48 -8.225

- Bandwidth

Figure 3.10- Bandwidth of patch antenna array
Bandwidth is 2:36 ~ 2:46 GHz (100.91 MHz) is acceptable because of the
low frequency antenna array was designed based on the microstrip dielectric
layer FR i 4 (r = 4.6) and 3.2 mm thickness
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Figure 3.11 Orientation of the array of antenna


Figure 3.12 - Grap of 3D radiation

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Figure 3.13 The Smith Chart
Comment: I find that the gain of the antenna has been improved considerably when the
array design. And graph theoretical radiation by the radiation pattern of the array
system with an array element graph is consistent with simulation. The radiation pattern
is a perfect fit on







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REFERENCES
[1] Phan Anh, thut v thut anten, NXB hoa hc v thut, 2007
2 Thi Hng Ngh, Trng in t v trun sng v anten, NXB hoa hc k thut,
2007
[3] David M. Pozar, Microwave engineering 2
nd
, John Willey & Son, INC
[4] Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory analysis and design 2
nd+
, John Willey &
Son, INC