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COURSE OUTLINE

SESSION 1
LTD
ARELLANO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW
I. Review of Constitutiona !"ovisions "eative to an#$ its %assifi%ation an# use
ARTICLE I
NATIONAL TERRITORY
T&e nationa te""ito"' %o()"ises t&e !&ii))ine a"%&i)ea*o$ wit& a t&e isan#s an# wate"s e(+"a%e# t&e"ein$
an# a ot&e" te""ito"ies ove" w&i%& t&e !&ii))ines &as sove"ei*nt' o" ,u"is#i%tion$ %onsistin* of its te""est"ia$
fuvia an# ae"ia #o(ains$ in%u#in* its te""ito"ia sea$ t&e sea+e#$ t&e su+soi$ t&e insua" s&eves$ an# ot&e"
su+(a"ine a"eas. T&e wate"s a"oun#$ +etween$ an# %onne%tin* t&e isan#s of t&e a"%&i)ea*o$ "e*a"#ess of
t&ei" +"ea#t& an# #i(ensions$ fo"( )a"t of t&e inte"na wate"s of t&e !&ii))ines.
ARTICLE II
DECLARATION OF !RINCI!LES AND STATE !OLICIES !RINCI!LES
Se%tion 1. T&e !&ii))ines is a #e(o%"ati% an# "e)u+i%an State. Sove"ei*nt' "esi#es in t&e )eo)e an# a
*ove"n(ent aut&o"it' e(anates f"o( t&e(.
Se%tion -. T&e !&ii))ines "enoun%es wa" as an inst"u(ent of nationa )oi%'$ a#o)ts t&e *ene"a' a%%e)te#
)"in%i)es of inte"nationa aw as )a"t of t&e aw of t&e an# an# a#&e"es to t&e )oi%' of .!E/FCA0 )ea%e$
e1uait'$ ,usti%e$ f"ee#o($ %oo)e"ation$ an# a(it' wit& a nations.
Se%tion 2. Civiian aut&o"it' is$ at a ti(es$ su)"e(e ove" t&e (iita"'. T&e A"(e# Fo"%es of t&e !&ii))ines is
t&e )"ote%to" of t&e )eo)e an# t&e State. Its *oa is to se%u"e t&e sove"ei*nt' of t&e State an# t&e inte*"it'
of t&e nationa te""ito"'.
Se%tion 3. T&e )"i(e #ut' of t&e 4ove"n(ent is to se"ve an# )"ote%t t&e )eo)e. T&e 4ove"n(ent (a' %a
u)on t&e )eo)e to #efen# t&e State an#$ in t&e fufi(ent t&e"eof$ a %iti5ens (a' +e "e1ui"e#$ un#e"
%on#itions )"ovi#e# +' aw$ to "en#e" )e"sona$ (iita"' o" %ivi se"vi%e.
Se%tion 6. T&e (aintenan%e of )ea%e an# o"#e"$ t&e )"ote%tion of ife$ i+e"t'$ an# )"o)e"t'$ an# )"o(otion of
t&e *ene"a wefa"e a"e essentia fo" t&e en,o'(ent +' a t&e )eo)e of t&e +essin*s of #e(o%"a%'.
Se%tion 7. T&e se)a"ation of C&u"%& an# State s&a +e invioa+e.
STATE !OLICIES
Se%tion 8. T&e State s&a )u"sue an in#e)en#ent fo"ei*n )oi%'. In its "eations wit& ot&e" states$ t&e
)a"a(ount %onsi#e"ation s&a +e nationa sove"ei*nt'$ te""ito"ia inte*"it'$ nationa inte"est$ an# t&e "i*&t to
sef9#ete"(ination.
Se%tion :. T&e !&ii))ines$ %onsistent wit& t&e nationa inte"est$ a#o)ts an# )u"sues a )oi%' of f"ee#o(
f"o( nu%ea" wea)ons in its te""ito"'.
Se%tion ;. T&e State s&a )"o(ote a ,ust an# #'na(i% so%ia o"#e" t&at wi ensu"e t&e )"os)e"it' an#
in#e)en#en%e of t&e nation an# f"ee t&e )eo)e f"o( )ove"t' t&"ou*& )oi%ies t&at )"ovi#e a#e1uate so%ia
se"vi%es$ )"o(ote fu e()o'(ent$ a "isin* stan#a"# of ivin*$ an# an i()"ove# 1uait' of ife fo" a.
Se%tion 1<. T&e State s&a )"o(ote so%ia ,usti%e in a )&ases of nationa #eveo)(ent.
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Se%tion 11. T&e State vaues t&e #i*nit' of eve"' &u(an )e"son an# *ua"antees fu "es)e%t fo" &u(an
"i*&ts.
Se%tion 1-. T&e State "e%o*ni5es t&e san%tit' of fa(i' ife an# s&a )"ote%t an# st"en*t&en t&e fa(i' as a
+asi% autono(ous so%ia institution. It s&a e1ua' )"ote%t t&e ife of t&e (ot&e" an# t&e ife of t&e un+o"n
f"o( %on%e)tion. T&e natu"a an# )"i(a"' "i*&t an# #ut' of )a"ents in t&e "ea"in* of t&e 'out& fo" %ivi%
effi%ien%' an# t&e #eveo)(ent of (o"a %&a"a%te" s&a "e%eive t&e su))o"t of t&e 4ove"n(ent.
Se%tion 12. T&e State "e%o*ni5es t&e vita "oe of t&e 'out& in nation9+ui#in* an# s&a )"o(ote an# )"ote%t
t&ei" )&'si%a$ (o"a$ s)i"itua$ intee%tua$ an# so%ia we9+ein*. It s&a in%u%ate in t&e 'out& )at"iotis( an#
nationais($ an# en%ou"a*e t&ei" invove(ent in )u+i% an# %ivi% affai"s.
Se%tion 13. T&e State "e%o*ni5es t&e "oe of wo(en in nation9+ui#in*$ an# s&a ensu"e t&e fun#a(enta
e1uait' +efo"e t&e aw of wo(en an# (en.
Se%tion 16. T&e State s&a )"ote%t an# )"o(ote t&e "i*&t to &eat& of t&e )eo)e an# insti &eat&
%ons%iousness a(on* t&e(.
Se%tion 17. T&e State s&a )"ote%t an# a#van%e t&e "i*&t of t&e )eo)e to a +aan%e# an# &eat&fu e%oo*'
in a%%o"# wit& t&e "&'t&( an# &a"(on' of natu"e.
Se%tion 18. T&e State s&a *ive )"io"it' to e#u%ation$ s%ien%e an# te%&noo*'$ a"ts$ %utu"e$ an# s)o"ts to
foste" )at"iotis( an# nationais($ a%%ee"ate so%ia )"o*"ess$ an# )"o(ote tota &u(an i+e"ation an#
#eveo)(ent.
Se%tion 1:. T&e State affi"(s a+o" as a )"i(a"' so%ia e%ono(i% fo"%e. It s&a )"ote%t t&e "i*&ts of wo"=e"s
an# )"o(ote t&ei" wefa"e.
Se%tion 1;. T&e State s&a #eveo) a sef9"eiant an# in#e)en#ent nationa e%ono(' effe%tive' %ont"oe# +'
Fii)inos.
Se%tion -<. T&e State "e%o*ni5es t&e in#is)ensa+e "oe of t&e )"ivate se%to"$ en%ou"a*es )"ivate ente")"ise$
an# )"ovi#es in%entives to nee#e# invest(ents.
Se%tion -1. T&e State s&a )"o(ote %o()"e&ensive "u"a #eveo)(ent an# a*"a"ian "efo"(.
Se%tion --. T&e State "e%o*ni5es an# )"o(otes t&e "i*&ts of in#i*enous %utu"a %o((unities wit&in t&e
f"a(ewo"= of nationa unit' an# #eveo)(ent.
Se%tion -2. T&e State s&a en%ou"a*e non9*ove"n(enta$ %o((unit'9+ase#$ o" se%to"a o"*ani5ations t&at
)"o(ote t&e wefa"e of t&e nation.
ARTICLE III
>ILL OF RI4HTS
Se%tion 1. No )e"son s&a +e #e)"ive# of ife$ i+e"t'$ o" )"o)e"t' wit&out #ue )"o%ess of aw$ no" s&a an'
)e"son +e #enie# t&e e1ua )"ote%tion of t&e aws.
Se%tion -. T&e "i*&t of t&e )eo)e to +e se%u"e in t&ei" .!H!E0 )e"sons$ &ouses$ )a)e"s$ an# effe%ts a*ainst
un"easona+e sea"%&es an# sei5u"es of w&ateve" natu"e an# fo" an' )u")ose s&a +e invioa+e$ an# no
sea"%& wa""ant o" wa""ant of a""est s&a issue e?%e)t u)on )"o+a+e %ause to +e #ete"(ine# )e"sona' +'
t&e ,u#*e afte" e?a(ination un#e" oat& o" affi"(ation of t&e %o()ainant an# t&e witnesses &e (a' )"o#u%e$
an# )a"ti%ua"' #es%"i+in* t&e )a%e to +e sea"%&e# an# t&e )e"sons o" t&in*s to +e sei5e#.
@ a+"i#*e#. +e not s&a aw to %ont"a"' )u")oses fo" so%ieties o" asso%iations$ unions$ fo"( se%to"s$ )"ivateA
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Se%tion 6. No aw s&a +e (a#e "es)e%tin* an esta+is&(ent of "ei*ion$ o" )"o&i+itin* t&e f"ee e?e"%ise
t&e"eof. T&e f"ee e?e"%ise an# en,o'(ent of "ei*ious )"ofession an# wo"s&i)$ wit&out #is%"i(ination o"
)"efe"en%e$ s&a fo"eve" +e aowe#. No "ei*ious test s&a +e "e1ui"e# fo" t&e e?e"%ise of %ivi o" )oiti%a
"i*&ts.
Se%tion 7. T&e i+e"t' of a+o#e an# of %&an*in* t&e sa(e wit&in t&e i(its )"es%"i+e# +' aw s&a not +e
i()ai"e# e?%e)t u)on awfu o"#e" of t&e %ou"t. Neit&e" s&a t&e "i*&t to t"ave +e i()ai"e# e?%e)t in t&e
inte"est of nationa se%u"it'$ )u+i% safet'$ o" )u+i% &eat&$ as (a' +e )"ovi#e# +' aw.
Se%tion 8. T&e "i*&t of t&e )eo)e to info"(ation on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n s&a +e "e%o*ni5e#. A%%ess to
offi%ia "e%o"#s$ an# to #o%u(ents an# )a)e"s )e"tainin* to offi%ia a%ts$ t"ansa%tions$ o" #e%isions$ as we
as to *ove"n(ent "esea"%& #ata use# as +asis fo" )oi%' #eveo)(ent$ s&a +e affo"#e# t&e %iti5en$ su+,e%t
to su%& i(itations as (a' +e )"ovi#e# +' aw.
Se%tion :. T&e "i*&t of t&e )eo)e$ in%u#in* t&ose e()o'e# in t&e )u+i% an# )"ivate se%to"s$ to fo"(
unions$ asso%iations$ o" so%ieties fo" )u")oses not %ont"a"' to aw s&a not +e a+"i#*e#.
Se%tion ;. !"ivate )"o)e"t' s&a not +e ta=en fo" )u+i% use wit&out ,ust %o()ensation.
Se%tion 1<. No aw i()ai"in* t&e o+i*ation of %ont"a%ts s&a +e )asse#.
Se%tion 17. A )e"sons s&a &ave t&e "i*&t to a s)ee#' #is)osition of t&ei" %ases +efo"e a ,u#i%ia$ 1uasi9
,u#i%ia$ o" a#(inist"ative +o#ies.
Se%tion --. No e? )ost fa%to aw o" +i of attain#e" s&a +e ena%te#.
ARTICLE IV
CITIBENSHI!
Se%tion 1. T&e foowin* a"e %iti5ens of t&e !&ii))inesC
.10 T&ose w&o a"e %iti5ens of t&e !&ii))ines at t&e ti(e of t&e a#o)tion of t&is ConstitutionD
.-0 T&ose w&ose fat&e"s o" (ot&e"s a"e %iti5ens of t&e !&ii))inesD
.20 T&ose +o"n +efo"e /anua"' 18$ 1;82$ of Fii)ino (ot&e"s$ w&o ee%t !&ii))ine Citi5ens&i) u)on
"ea%&in* t&e a*e of (a,o"it'D an#
.30 T&ose w&o a"e natu"ai5e# in t&e a%%o"#an%e wit& aw.
Se%tion -. Natu"a9+o"n %iti5ens a"e t&ose w&o a"e %iti5ens of t&e !&ii))ines f"o( +i"t& wit&out &avin* to
)e"fo"( an' a%t to a%1ui"e o" )e"fe%t t&ei" !&ii))ine %iti5ens&i). T&ose w&o ee%t !&ii))ine %iti5ens&i) in
a%%o"#an%e wit& )a"a*"a)& .20$ Se%tion 1 &e"eof s&a +e #ee(e# natu"a9+o"n %iti5ens.
Se%tion 2. !&ii))ine %iti5ens&i) (a' +e ost o" "ea%1ui"e# in t&e (anne" )"ovi#e# +' aw.
Se%tion 3. Citi5ens of t&e !&ii))ines w&o (a""' aiens s&a "etain t&ei" %iti5ens&i)$ uness +' t&ei" a%t o"
o(ission t&e' a"e #ee(e#$ un#e" t&e aw to &ave "enoun%e# it.
Se%tion 6. Dua ae*ian%e of %iti5ens is ini(i%a to t&e nationa inte"est an# s&a +e #eat wit& +' aw.
ARTICLE VI
THE LE4ISLATIVE DE!ARTEENT
Se%tion -3. A a))"o)"iation$ "evenue o" ta"iff +is$ +is aut&o"i5in* in%"ease of t&e )u+i% #e+t$ +is of o%a
a))i%ation$ an# )"ivate +is$ s&a o"i*inate e?%usive' in t&e House of Re)"esentatives$ +ut t&e Senate (a'
)"o)ose o" %on%u" wit& a(en#(ents.
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Se%tion -:.
1. T&e "ue of ta?ation s&a +e unifo"( an# e1uita+e. T&e Con*"ess s&a evove a )"o*"essive
s'ste( of ta?ation.
-. FFF
2. C&a"ita+e institutions$ %&u"%&es an# )e"sona*es o" %onvents a))u"tenant t&e"eto$ (os1ues$ non9
)"ofit %e(ete"ies$ an# a an#s$ +ui#in*s$ an# i()"ove(ents$ a%tua'$ #i"e%t'$ an# e?%usive'
use# fo" "ei*ious$ %&a"ita+e$ o" e#u%ationa )u")oses s&a +e e?e()t f"o( ta?ation.
3. No aw *"antin* an' ta? e?e()tion s&a +e )asse# wit&out t&e %on%u""en%e of a (a,o"it' of a t&e
Ee(+e"s of t&e Con*"ess.
ARTICLE VII
EFECUTIVE DE!ARTEENT
Se%tion -1. No t"eat' o" inte"nationa a*"ee(ent s&a +e vai# an# effe%tive uness %on%u""e# in +' at east
two9t&i"#s of a t&e Ee(+e"s of t&e Senate.
ARTICLE VIII
/UDICIAL DE!ARTEENT
Se%tion 1. T&e ,u#i%ia )owe" s&a +e veste# in one Su)"e(e Cou"t an# in su%& owe" %ou"ts as (a' +e
esta+is&e# +' aw.
/u#i%ia )owe" in%u#es t&e #ut' of t&e %ou"ts of ,usti%e to sette a%tua %ont"ove"sies invovin* "i*&ts w&i%&
a"e e*a' #e(an#a+e an# enfo"%ea+e$ an# to #ete"(ine w&et&e" o" not t&e"e &as +een a *"ave a+use of
#is%"etion a(ountin* to a%= o" e?%ess of ,u"is#i%tion on t&e )a"t of an' +"an%& o" inst"u(entait' of t&e
4ove"n(ent.
Se%tion 3.
1. FFF
-. A %ases invovin* t&e %onstitutionait' of a t"eat'$ inte"nationa o" e?e%utive a*"ee(ent$ o" aw$
w&i%& s&a +e &ea"# +' t&e Su)"e(e Cou"t en +an%$ an# a ot&e" %ases w&i%& un#e" t&e Rues of
Cou"t a"e "e1ui"e# to +e &ea"# en +an%$ in%u#in* t&ose invovin* t&e %onstitutionait'$ a))i%ation$
o" o)e"ation of )"esi#entia #e%"ees$ )"o%a(ations$ o"#e"s$ inst"u%tions$ o"#inan%es$ an# ot&e"
"e*uations$ s&a +e #e%i#e# wit& t&e %on%u""en%e of a (a,o"it' of t&e Ee(+e"s w&o a%tua' too=
)a"t in t&e #ei+e"ations on t&e issues in t&e %ase an# vote# t&e"eon.
2. FFF
Se%tion 6. T&e Su)"e(e Cou"t s&a &ave t&e foowin* )owe"sC
1. FFF
-. Review$ "evise$ "eve"se$ (o#if'$ o" affi"( on a))ea o" %e"tio"a"i$ as t&e aw o" t&e Rues of Cou"t
(a' )"ovi#e$ fina ,u#*(ents an# o"#e"s of owe" %ou"ts inC
a. A %ases in w&i%& t&e %onstitutionait' o" vai#it' of an' t"eat'$ inte"nationa o" e?e%utive
a*"ee(ent$ aw$ )"esi#entia #e%"ee$ )"o%a(ation$ o"#e"$ inst"u%tion$ o"#inan%e$ o"
"e*uation is in 1uestion.
+. A %ases invovin* t&e e*ait' of an' ta?$ i()ost$ assess(ent$ o" to$ o" an' )enat'
i()ose# in "eation t&e"eto.
%. A %ases in w&i%& t&e ,u"is#i%tion of an' owe" %ou"t is in issue.
#. A %"i(ina %ases in w&i%& t&e )enat' i()ose# is "e%usion )e")etua o" &i*&e".
e. A %ases in w&i%& on' an e""o" o" 1uestion of aw is invove#.
2. FFF
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3. FFF
6. FFF
7. FFF
ARTICLE F
LOCAL 4OVERNEENT
4ENERAL !ROVISIONS
Se%tion 1. T&e te""ito"ia an# )oiti%a su+#ivisions of t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines a"e t&e )"ovin%es$ %ities$
(uni%i)aities$ an# +a"an*a's. T&e"e s&a +e autono(ous "e*ions in Eusi( Ein#anao an# t&e Co"#ie"as
as &e"einafte" )"ovi#e#.
Se%tion -. T&e te""ito"ia an# )oiti%a su+#ivisions s&a en,o' o%a autono('.
Se%tion 8. Lo%a *ove"n(ents s&a +e entite# to an e1uita+e s&a"e in t&e )"o%ee#s of t&e utii5ation an#
#eveo)(ent of t&e nationa weat& wit&in t&ei" "es)e%tive a"eas$ in t&e (anne" )"ovi#e# +' aw$ in%u#in*
s&a"in* t&e sa(e wit& t&e in&a+itants +' wa' of #i"e%t +enefits.
Se%tion 1<. No )"ovin%e$ %it'$ (uni%i)ait'$ o" +a"an*a' (a' +e %"eate#$ #ivi#e#$ (e"*e#$ a+ois&e#$ o" its
+oun#a"' su+stantia' ate"e#$ e?%e)t in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e %"ite"ia esta+is&e# in t&e o%a *ove"n(ent
%o#e an# su+,e%t to a))"ova +' a (a,o"it' of t&e votes %ast in a )e+is%ite in t&e )oiti%a units #i"e%t'
affe%te#.
Se%tion 11. T&e Con*"ess (a'$ +' aw$ %"eate s)e%ia (et"o)oitan )oiti%a su+#ivisions$ su+,e%t to a
)e+is%ite as set fo"t& in Se%tion 1< &e"eof. T&e %o()onent %ities an# (uni%i)aities s&a "etain t&ei" +asi%
autono(' an# s&a +e entite# to t&ei" own o%a e?e%utive an# e*isative asse(+ies. T&e ,u"is#i%tion of t&e
(et"o)oitan aut&o"it' t&at wi t&e"e+' +e %"eate# s&a +e i(ite# to +asi% se"vi%es "e1ui"in* %oo"#ination.
ARTICLE FII
NATIONAL ECONOEY AND !ATRIEONY
Se%tion -. A an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ wate"s$ (ine"as$ %oa$ )et"oeu($ an# ot&e" (ine"a ois$ a fo"%es
of )otentia ene"*'$ fis&e"ies$ fo"ests o" ti(+e"$ wi#ife$ fo"a an# fauna$ an# ot&e" natu"a "esou"%es a"e
owne# +' t&e State. Wit& t&e e?%e)tion of a*"i%utu"a an#s$ a ot&e" natu"a "esou"%es s&a not +e
aienate#. T&e e?)o"ation$ #eveo)(ent$ an# utii5ation of natu"a "esou"%es s&a +e un#e" t&e fu %ont"o
an# su)e"vision of t&e State. T&e State (a' #i"e%t' un#e"ta=e su%& a%tivities$ o" it (a' ente" into %o9
)"o#u%tion$ ,oint ventu"e$ o" )"o#u%tion9s&a"in* a*"ee(ents wit& Fii)ino %iti5ens$ o" %o")o"ations o"
asso%iations at east 7< )e" %entu( of w&ose %a)ita is owne# +' su%& %iti5ens. Su%& a*"ee(ents (a' +e
fo" a )e"io# not e?%ee#in* twent'9five 'ea"s$ "enewa+e fo" not (o"e t&an twent'9five 'ea"s$ an# un#e" su%&
te"(s an# %on#itions as (a' )"ovi#e# +' aw. In %ases of wate" "i*&ts fo" i""i*ation$ wate" su))'$ fis&e"ies$
o" in#ust"ia uses ot&e" t&an t&e #eveo)(ent of wate")owe"$ +enefi%ia use (a' +e t&e (easu"e an# i(it of
t&e *"ant.
T&e State s&a )"ote%t t&e nations (a"ine weat& in its a"%&i)ea*i% wate"s$ te""ito"ia sea$ an# e?%usive
e%ono(i% 5one$ an# "ese"ve its use an# en,o'(ent e?%usive' to Fii)ino %iti5ens.
T&e Con*"ess (a'$ +' aw$ aow s(a9s%ae utii5ation of natu"a "esou"%es +' Fii)ino %iti5ens$ as we as
%oo)e"ative fis& fa"(in*$ wit& )"io"it' to su+sisten%e fis&e"(en an# fis& wo"=e"s in "ive"s$ a=es$ +a's$ an#
a*oons.
T&e !"esi#ent (a' ente" into a*"ee(ents wit& fo"ei*n9owne# %o")o"ations invovin* eit&e" te%&ni%a o"
finan%ia assistan%e fo" a"*e9s%ae e?)o"ation$ #eveo)(ent$ an# utii5ation of (ine"as$ )et"oeu($ an#
ot&e" (ine"a ois a%%o"#in* to t&e *ene"a te"(s an# %on#itions )"ovi#e# +' aw$ +ase# on "ea %ont"i+utions
to t&e e%ono(i% *"owt& an# *ene"a wefa"e of t&e %ount"'. In su%& a*"ee(ents$ t&e State s&a )"o(ote t&e
#eveo)(ent an# use of o%a s%ientifi% an# te%&ni%a "esou"%es.
5
T&e !"esi#ent s&a notif' t&e Con*"ess of eve"' %ont"a%t ente"e# into in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&is )"ovision$
wit&in t&i"t' #a's f"o( its e?e%ution.
Se%tion 2. Lan#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain a"e %assifie# into a*"i%utu"a$ fo"est o" ti(+e"$ (ine"a an#s an#
nationa )a"=s. A*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain (a' +e fu"t&e" %assifie# +' aw a%%o"#in* to t&e uses
to w&i%& t&e' (a' +e #evote#. Aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain s&a +e i(ite# to a*"i%utu"a an#s.
!"ivate %o")o"ations o" asso%iations (a' not &o# su%& aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +' ease$
fo" a )e"io# not e?%ee#in* twent'9five 'ea"s$ "enewa+e fo" not (o"e t&an twent'9five 'ea"s$ an# not to
e?%ee# one t&ousan# &e%ta"es in a"ea. Citi5ens of t&e !&ii))ines (a' ease not (o"e t&an five &un#"e#
&e%ta"es$ o" a%1ui"e not (o"e t&an tweve &e%ta"es t&e"eof$ +' )u"%&ase$ &o(estea#$ o" *"ant.
Ta=in* into a%%ount t&e "e1ui"e(ents of %onse"vation$ e%oo*'$ an# #eveo)(ent$ an# su+,e%t to t&e
"e1ui"e(ents of a*"a"ian "efo"($ t&e Con*"ess s&a #ete"(ine$ +' aw$ t&e si5e of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
w&i%& (a' +e a%1ui"e#$ #eveo)e#$ &e#$ o" ease# an# t&e %on#itions t&e"efo".
Se%tion 3. T&e Con*"ess s&a$ as soon as )ossi+e$ #ete"(ine$ +' aw$ t&e s)e%ifi% i(its of fo"est an#s an#
nationa )a"=s$ (a"=in* %ea"' t&ei" +oun#a"ies on t&e *"oun#. T&e"eafte"$ su%& fo"est an#s an# nationa
)a"=s s&a +e %onse"ve# an# (a' not +e in%"ease# no" #i(inis&e#$ e?%e)t +' aw. T&e Con*"ess s&a
)"ovi#e fo" su%& )e"io# as it (a' #ete"(ine$ (easu"es to )"o&i+it o**in* in en#an*e"e# fo"ests an#
wate"s&e# a"eas.
Se%tion 6. T&e State$ su+,e%t to t&e )"ovisions of t&is Constitution an# nationa #eveo)(ent )oi%ies an#
)"o*"a(s$ s&a )"ote%t t&e "i*&ts of in#i*enous %utu"a %o((unities to t&ei" an%est"a an#s to ensu"e t&ei"
e%ono(i%$ so%ia$ an# %utu"a we9+ein*.
T&e Con*"ess (a' )"ovi#e fo" t&e a))i%a+iit' of %usto(a"' aws *ove"nin* )"o)e"t' "i*&ts o" "eations in
#ete"(inin* t&e owne"s&i) an# e?tent of an%est"a #o(ain.
Se%tion 8. Save in %ases of &e"e#ita"' su%%ession$ no )"ivate an#s s&a +e t"ansfe""e# o" %onve'e# e?%e)t
to in#ivi#uas$ %o")o"ations$ o" asso%iations 1uaifie# to a%1ui"e o" &o# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
Se%tion :. Notwit&stan#in* t&e )"ovisions of Se%tion 8 of t&is A"ti%e$ a natu"a9+o"n %iti5en of t&e !&ii))ines
w&o &as ost &is !&ii))ine %iti5ens&i) (a' +e a t"ansfe"ee of )"ivate an#s$ su+,e%t to i(itations )"ovi#e# +'
aw.
CasesC
4.R. No. 122-6< /u' ;$ -<<-
FRANCISCO I. CHAVEB$ )etitione"$ vs. !EA an# AEARI $ "es)on#ents.
CAR!IO$ /.C
T&is is an o"i*ina !etition fo" Ean#a(us wit& )"a'e" fo" a w"it of )"ei(ina"' in,un%tion an# a te()o"a"'
"est"ainin* o"#e". T&e )etition see=s to %o()e t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' .G!EAG fo" +"evit'0 to #is%ose a
fa%ts on !EAHs t&en on9*oin* "ene*otiations wit& A(a"i Coasta >a' an# Deveo)(ent Co")o"ation
.GAEARIG fo" +"evit'0 to "e%ai( )o"tions of Eania >a'. T&e )etition fu"t&e" see=s to en,oin !EA f"o( si*nin*
a new a*"ee(ent wit& AEARI invovin* su%& "e%a(ation.
T&e Fa%ts
On Nove(+e" -<$ 1;82$ t&e *ove"n(ent$ t&"ou*& t&e Co((issione" of !u+i% Hi*&wa's$ si*ne# a %ont"a%t
wit& t&e Const"u%tion an# Deveo)(ent Co")o"ation of t&e !&ii))ines .GCDC!G fo" +"evit'0 to "e%ai( %e"tain
fo"es&o"e an# offs&o"e a"eas of Eania >a'. T&e %ont"a%t aso in%u#e# t&e %onst"u%tion of !&ases I an# II of
t&e Eania9Cavite Coasta Roa#. CDC! o+i*ate# itsef to %a""' out a t&e wo"=s in %onsi#e"ation of fift'
)e"%ent of t&e tota "e%ai(e# an#.
6
On Fe+"ua"' 3$ 1;88$ t&en !"esi#ent Fe"#inan# E. Ea"%os issue# !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3 %"eatin*
!EA. !D No. 1<:3 tas=e# !EA Gto "e%ai( an#$ in%u#in* fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas$G an# Gto #eveo)$
i()"ove$ a%1ui"e$ ? ? ? ease an# se an' an# a =in#s of an#s.G
1
On t&e sa(e #ate$ t&en !"esi#ent Ea"%os
issue# !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:6 t"ansfe""in* to !EA t&e Gan#s "e%ai(e# in t&e fo"es&o"e an# offs&o"e
of t&e Eania >a'G
-
un#e" t&e Eania9Cavite Coasta Roa# an# Re%a(ation !"o,e%t .ECCRR!0.
On De%e(+e" -;$ 1;:1$ t&en !"esi#ent Ea"%os issue# a (e(o"an#u( #i"e%tin* !EA to a(en# its %ont"a%t
wit& CDC!$ so t&at GIAJ futu"e wo"=s in ECCRR! ? ? ? s&a +e fun#e# an# owne# +' !EA.G A%%o"#in*'$
!EA an# CDC! e?e%ute# a Ee(o"an#u( of A*"ee(ent #ate# De%e(+e" -;$ 1;:1$ w&i%& state#C
G.i0 CDC! s&a un#e"ta=e a "e%a(ation$ %onst"u%tion$ an# su%& ot&e" wo"=s in t&e ECCRR! as
(a' +e a*"ee# u)on +' t&e )a"ties$ to +e )ai# a%%o"#in* to )"o*"ess of wo"=s on a unit )"i%eKu()
su( +asis fo" ite(s of wo"= to +e a*"ee# u)on$ su+,e%t to )"i%e es%aation$ "etention an# ot&e"
te"(s an# %on#itions )"ovi#e# fo" in !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 16;3. A t&e finan%in* "e1ui"e# fo"
su%& wo"=s s&a +e )"ovi#e# +' !EA.
? ? ?
.iii0 ? ? ? CDC! s&a *ive u) a its #eveo)(ent "i*&ts an# &e"e+' a*"ees to %e#e an# t"ansfe" in
favo" of !EA$ a of t&e "i*&ts$ tite$ inte"est an# )a"ti%i)ation of CDC! in an# to a t&e a"eas of an#
"e%ai(e# +' CDC! in t&e ECCRR! as of De%e(+e" 2<$ 1;:1 w&i%& &ave not 'et +een so#$
t"ansfe""e# o" ot&e"wise #is)ose# of +' CDC! as of sai# #ate$ w&i%& a"eas %onsist of
a))"o?i(ate' Ninet'9Nine T&ousan# Fou" Hun#"e# Sevent' T&"ee .;;$3820 s1ua"e (ete"s in t&e
Finan%ia Cente" A"ea %ove"e# +' an# )e#*e No. 6 an# a))"o?i(ate' T&"ee Eiion T&"ee
Hun#"e# Ei*&t' Two T&ousan# Ei*&t Hun#"e# Ei*&t' Ei*&t .2$2:-$:::0 s1ua"e (ete"s of "e%ai(e#
a"eas at va"'in* eevations a+ove Eean Low Wate" Leve o%ate# outsi#e t&e Finan%ia Cente" A"ea
an# t&e Fi"st Nei*&+o"&oo# Unit.G
2
On /anua"' 1;$ 1;::$ t&en !"esi#ent Co"a5on C. A1uino issue# S)e%ia !atent No. 2618$ *"antin* an#
t"ansfe""in* to !EA Gt&e )a"%es of an# so "e%ai(e# un#e" t&e Eania9Cavite Coasta Roa# an#
Re%a(ation !"o,e%t .ECCRR!0 %ontainin* a tota a"ea of one (iion nine &un#"e# fifteen t&ousan# ei*&t
&un#"e# ninet' fou" .1$;16$:;30 s1ua"e (ete"s.G Su+se1uent'$ on A)"i ;$ 1;::$ t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s of
t&e Euni%i)ait' of !a"aLa1ue issue# T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ates of Tite Nos. 82<;$ 8211$ an# 821-$ in t&e na(e of
!EA$ %ove"in* t&e t&"ee "e%ai(e# isan#s =nown as t&e GF"ee#o( Isan#sG o%ate# at t&e sout&e"n )o"tion
of t&e Eania9Cavite Coasta Roa#$ !a"aLa1ue Cit'. T&e F"ee#o( Isan#s &ave a tota an# a"ea of One
Eiion Five Hun#"e# Sevent' Ei*&t T&ousan# Fou" Hun#"e# an# Fo"t' One .1$68:$3310 s1ua"e (ete"s o"
168.:31 &e%ta"es.
On A)"i -6$ 1;;6$ !EA ente"e# into a /oint Ventu"e A*"ee(ent .G/VAG fo" +"evit'0 wit& AEARI$ a )"ivate
%o")o"ation$ to #eveo) t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s. T&e /VA aso "e1ui"e# t&e "e%a(ation of an a##itiona -6<
&e%ta"es of su+(e"*e# a"eas su""oun#in* t&ese isan#s to %o()ete t&e %onfi*u"ation in t&e Easte"
Deveo)(ent !an of t&e Sout&e"n Re%a(ation !"o,e%t9ECCRR!. !EA an# AEARI ente"e# into t&e /VA
t&"ou*& ne*otiation wit&out )u+i% +i##in*.
3
On A)"i -:$ 1;;6$ t&e >oa"# of Di"e%to"s of !EA$ in its
Resoution No. 1-36$ %onfi"(e# t&e /VA.
6
On /une :$ 1;;6$ t&en !"esi#ent Fi#e V. Ra(os$ t&"ou*& t&en
E?e%utive Se%"eta"' Ru+en To""es$ a))"ove# t&e /VA.
7
On Nove(+e" -;$ 1;;7$ t&en Senate !"esi#ent E"nesto Ea%e#a #eive"e# a )"ivie*e s)ee%& in t&e Senate
an# #enoun%e# t&e /VA as t&e G*"an#(ot&e" of a s%a(s.G As a "esut$ t&e Senate Co((ittee on
4ove"n(ent Co")o"ations an# !u+i% Ente")"ises$ an# t&e Co((ittee on A%%ounta+iit' of !u+i% Offi%e"s
an# Investi*ations$ %on#u%te# a ,oint investi*ation. T&e Senate Co((ittees "e)o"te# t&e "esuts of t&ei"
investi*ation in Senate Co((ittee Re)o"t No. 67< #ate# Se)te(+e" 17$ 1;;8.
8
A(on* t&e %on%usions of
t&ei" "e)o"t a"eC .10 t&e "e%ai(e# an#s !EA see=s to t"ansfe" to AEARI un#e" t&e /VA a"e an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain w&i%& t&e *ove"n(ent &as not %assifie# as aiena+e an#s an# t&e"efo"e !EA %annot aienate
t&ese an#sD .-0 t&e %e"tifi%ates of tite %ove"in* t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s a"e t&us voi#$ an# .20 t&e /VA itsef is
ie*a.
On De%e(+e" 6$ 1;;8$ t&en !"esi#ent Fi#e V. Ra(os issue# !"esi#entia A#(inist"ative O"#e" No. 276
%"eatin* a Le*a Tas= Fo"%e to %on#u%t a stu#' on t&e e*ait' of t&e /VA in view of Senate Co((ittee
Re)o"t No. 67<. T&e (e(+e"s of t&e Le*a Tas= Fo"%e we"e t&e Se%"eta"' of /usti%e$
:
t&e C&ief !"esi#entia
7
Le*a Counse$
;
an# t&e 4ove"n(ent Co")o"ate Counse.
1<
T&e Le*a Tas= Fo"%e u)&e# t&e e*ait' of t&e
/VA$ %ont"a"' to t&e %on%usions "ea%&e# +' t&e Senate Co((ittees.
11
On A)"i 3 an# 6$ 1;;:$ t&e !&ii))ine Dai' In1ui"e" an# To#a' )u+is&e# "e)o"ts t&at t&e"e we"e on9*oin*
"ene*otiations +etween !EA an# AEARI un#e" an o"#e" issue# +' t&en !"esi#ent Fi#e V. Ra(os. A%%o"#in*
to t&ese "e)o"ts$ !EA Di"e%to" Nesto" Maaw$ !EA C&ai"(an A"senio Yuo an# "eti"e# Nav' Offi%e" Se"*io
C"u5 %o()ose# t&e ne*otiatin* )ane of !EA.
On A)"i 12$ 1;;:$ Antonio E. Buueta fie# +efo"e t&e Cou"t a !etition fo" !"o&i+ition wit& A))i%ation fo" t&e
Issuan%e of a Te()o"a"' Rest"ainin* O"#e" an# !"ei(ina"' In,un%tion #o%=ete# as 4.R. No. 12-;;3
see=in* to nuif' t&e /VA. T&e Cou"t #is(isse# t&e )etition Gfo" unwa""ante# #is"e*a"# of ,u#i%ia &ie"a"%&'$
wit&out )"e,u#i%e to t&e "efiin* of t&e %ase +efo"e t&e )"o)e" %ou"t.G
1-
On A)"i -8$ 1;;:$ )etitione" F"an= I. C&ave5 .G!etitione"G fo" +"evit'0 as a ta?)a'e"$ fie# t&e instant !etition
fo" Ean#a(us wit& !"a'e" fo" t&e Issuan%e of a W"it of !"ei(ina"' In,un%tion an# Te()o"a"' Rest"ainin*
O"#e". !etitione" %onten#s t&e *ove"n(ent stan#s to ose +iions of )esos in t&e sae +' !EA of t&e
"e%ai(e# an#s to AEARI. !etitione" )"a's t&at !EA )u+i%' #is%ose t&e te"(s of an' "ene*otiation of t&e
/VA$ invo=in* Se%tion -:$ A"ti%e II$ an# Se%tion 8$ A"ti%e III$ of t&e 1;:8 Constitution on t&e "i*&t of t&e
)eo)e to info"(ation on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n. !etitione" assais t&e sae to AEARI of an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain as a +atant vioation of Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution )"o&i+itin* t&e sae of
aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate %o")o"ations. Fina'$ )etitione" asse"ts t&at &e see=s to en,oin
t&e oss of +iions of )esos in )"o)e"ties of t&e State t&at a"e of )u+i% #o(inion.
Afte" seve"a (otions fo" e?tension of ti(e$
12
!EA an# AEARI fie# t&ei" Co((ents on O%to+e" 1;$ 1;;: an#
/une -6$ 1;;:$ "es)e%tive'. Eeanw&ie$ on De%e(+e" -:$ 1;;:$ )etitione" fie# an O(ni+us EotionC .a0 to
"e1ui"e !EA to su+(it t&e te"(s of t&e "ene*otiate# !EA9AEARI %ont"a%tD .+0 fo" issuan%e of a te()o"a"'
"est"ainin* o"#e"D an# .%0 to set t&e %ase fo" &ea"in* on o"a a"*u(ent. !etitione" fie# a Reite"ative Eotion
fo" Issuan%e of a TRO #ate# Ea' -7$ 1;;;$ w&i%& t&e Cou"t #enie# in a Resoution #ate# /une --$ 1;;;.
In a Resoution #ate# Ea"%& -2$ 1;;;$ t&e Cou"t *ave #ue %ou"se to t&e )etition an# "e1ui"e# t&e )a"ties to
fie t&ei" "es)e%tive (e(o"an#a.
On Ea"%& 2<$ 1;;;$ !EA an# AEARI si*ne# t&e A(en#e# /oint Ventu"e A*"ee(ent .GA(en#e# /VA$G fo"
+"evit'0. On Ea' -:$ 1;;;$ t&e Offi%e of t&e !"esi#ent un#e" t&e a#(inist"ation of t&en !"esi#ent /ose)& E.
Est"a#a a))"ove# t&e A(en#e# /VA.
Due to t&e a))"ova of t&e A(en#e# /VA +' t&e Offi%e of t&e !"esi#ent$ )etitione" now )"a's t&at on
G%onstitutiona an# statuto"' *"oun#s t&e "ene*otiate# %ont"a%t +e #e%a"e# nu an# voi#.G
13
T&e Issues
T&e issues "aise# +' )etitione"$ !EA
16
an# AEARI
17
a"e as foowsC
I. WHETHER THE !RINCI!AL RELIEFS !RAYED FOR IN THE !ETITION ARE EOOT AND
ACADEEIC >ECAUSE OF SU>SENUENT EVENTSD
II. WHETHER THE !ETITION EERITS DISEISSAL FOR FAILIN4 TO O>SERVE THE !RINCI!LE
4OVERNIN4 THE HIERARCHY OF COURTSD
III. WHETHER THE !ETITION EERITS DISEISSAL FOR NON9EFHAUSTION OF
ADEINISTRATIVE REEEDIESD
IV. WHETHER !ETITIONER HAS LOCUS STANDI TO >RIN4 THIS SUITD
V. WHETHER THE CONSTITUTIONAL RI4HT TO INFOREATION INCLUDES OFFICIAL
INFOREATION ON ON94OIN4 NE4OTIATIONS >EFORE A FINAL A4REEEENTD
8
VI. WHETHER THE STI!ULATIONS IN THE AEENDED /OINT VENTURE A4REEEENT FOR
THE TRANSFER TO AEARI OF CERTAIN LANDS$ RECLAIEED AND STILL TO >E RECLAIEED$
VIOLATE THE 1;:8 CONSTITUTIOND AND
VII. WHETHER THE COURT IS THE !RO!ER FORUE FOR RAISIN4 THE ISSUE OF
WHETHER THE AEENDED /OINT VENTURE A4REEEENT IS 4ROSSLY DISADVANTA4EOUS
TO THE 4OVERNEENT.
T&e Cou"tHs Ruin*
Fi"st issueC w&et&e" t&e )"in%i)a "eiefs )"a'e# fo" in t&e )etition a"e (oot an# a%a#e(i% +e%ause of
su+se1uent events.
T&e )etition )"a's t&at !EA )u+i%' #is%ose t&e Gte"(s an# %on#itions of t&e on9*oin* ne*otiations fo" a
new a*"ee(ent.G T&e )etition aso )"a's t&at t&e Cou"t en,oin !EA f"o( G)"ivate' ente"in* into$ )e"fe%tin*
an#Ko" e?e%utin* an' new a*"ee(ent wit& AEARI.G
!EA an# AEARI %ai( t&e )etition is now (oot an# a%a#e(i% +e%ause AEARI fu"nis&e# )etitione" on /une
-1$ 1;;; a %o)' of t&e si*ne# A(en#e# /VA %ontainin* t&e te"(s an# %on#itions a*"ee# u)on in t&e
"ene*otiations. T&us$ !EA &as satisfie# )etitione"Hs )"a'e" fo" a )u+i% #is%osu"e of t&e "ene*otiations.
Li=ewise$ )etitione"Hs )"a'e" to en,oin t&e si*nin* of t&e A(en#e# /VA is now (oot +e%ause !EA an# AEARI
&ave a"ea#' si*ne# t&e A(en#e# /VA on Ea"%& 2<$ 1;;;. Eo"eove"$ t&e Offi%e of t&e !"esi#ent &as
a))"ove# t&e A(en#e# /VA on Ea' -:$ 1;;;.
!etitione" %ounte"s t&at !EA an# AEARI %annot avoi# t&e %onstitutiona issue +' si()' fast9t"a%=in* t&e
si*nin* an# a))"ova of t&e A(en#e# /VA +efo"e t&e Cou"t %ou# a%t on t&e issue. !"esi#entia a))"ova
#oes not "esove t&e %onstitutiona issue o" "e(ove it f"o( t&e a(+it of ,u#i%ia "eview.
We "ue t&at t&e si*nin* of t&e A(en#e# /VA +' !EA an# AEARI an# its a))"ova +' t&e !"esi#ent %annot
o)e"ate to (oot t&e )etition an# #ivest t&e Cou"t of its ,u"is#i%tion. !EA an# AEARI &ave sti to i()e(ent
t&e A(en#e# /VA. T&e )"a'e" to en,oin t&e si*nin* of t&e A(en#e# /VA on %onstitutiona *"oun#s
ne%essa"i' in%u#es )"eventin* its i()e(entation if in t&e (eanti(e !EA an# AEARI &ave si*ne# one in
vioation of t&e Constitution. !etitione"Hs )"in%i)a +asis in assaiin* t&e "ene*otiation of t&e /VA is its
vioation of Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e Constitution$ w&i%& )"o&i+its t&e *ove"n(ent f"o( aienatin* an#s of
t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate %o")o"ations. If t&e A(en#e# /VA in#ee# vioates t&e Constitution$ it is t&e #ut'
of t&e Cou"t to en,oin its i()e(entation$ an# if a"ea#' i()e(ente#$ to annu t&e effe%ts of su%&
un%onstitutiona %ont"a%t.
T&e A(en#e# /VA is not an o"#ina"' %o((e"%ia %ont"a%t +ut one w&i%& see=s to t"ansfe" tite an#
owne"s&i) to 278.6 &e%ta"es of "e%ai(e# an#s an# su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a' to a sin*e )"ivate
%o")o"ation. It now +e%o(es (o"e %o()ein* fo" t&e Cou"t to "esove t&e issue to insu"e t&e *ove"n(ent
itsef #oes not vioate a )"ovision of t&e Constitution inten#e# to safe*ua"# t&e nationa )at"i(on'.
Su)e"venin* events$ w&et&e" inten#e# o" a%%i#enta$ %annot )"event t&e Cou"t f"o( "en#e"in* a #e%ision if
t&e"e is a *"ave vioation of t&e Constitution. In t&e instant %ase$ if t&e A(en#e# /VA "uns %ounte" to t&e
Constitution$ t&e Cou"t %an sti )"event t&e t"ansfe" of tite an# owne"s&i) of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain in t&e na(e of AEARI. Even in %ases w&e"e su)e"venin* events &a# (a#e t&e %ases (oot$ t&e
Cou"t #i# not &esitate to "esove t&e e*a o" %onstitutiona issues "aise# to fo"(uate %ont"oin* )"in%i)es to
*ui#e t&e +en%&$ +a"$ an# t&e )u+i%.
18
Aso$ t&e instant )etition is a %ase of fi"st i()"ession. A )"evious #e%isions of t&e Cou"t invovin* Se%tion 2$
A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution$ o" its %ounte")a"t )"ovision in t&e 1;82 Constitution$
1:
%ove"e#
a*"i%utu"a an#s so# to )"ivate %o")o"ations w&i%& a%1ui"e# t&e an#s f"o( )"ivate )a"ties. T&e t"ansfe"o"s
of t&e )"ivate %o")o"ations %ai(e# o" %ou# %ai( t&e "i*&t to ,u#i%ia %onfi"(ation of t&ei" i()e"fe%t tites
1;

un#e" Tite II of Co((onweat& A%t. 131 .GCA No. 131G fo" +"evit'0. In t&e instant %ase$ AEARI see=s to
a%1ui"e f"o( !EA$ a )u+i% %o")o"ation$ "e%ai(e# an#s an# su+(e"*e# a"eas fo" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses
+' )u"%&ase un#e" !D No. 1<:3 .%&a"te" of !EA0 an# Tite III of CA No. 131. Ce"tain un#e"ta=in*s +' AEARI
un#e" t&e A(en#e# /VA %onstitute t&e %onsi#e"ation fo" t&e )u"%&ase. Neit&e" AEARI no" !EA %an %ai(
,u#i%ia %onfi"(ation of t&ei" tites +e%ause t&e an#s %ove"e# +' t&e A(en#e# /VA a"e new' "e%ai(e# o"
sti to +e "e%ai(e#. /u#i%ia %onfi"(ation of i()e"fe%t tite "e1ui"es o)en$ %ontinuous$ e?%usive an#
9
noto"ious o%%u)ation of a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain fo" at east t&i"t' 'ea"s sin%e /une 1-$ 1;36 o"
ea"ie". >esi#es$ t&e #ea#ine fo" fiin* a))i%ations fo" ,u#i%ia %onfi"(ation of i()e"fe%t tite e?)i"e# on
De%e(+e" 21$ 1;:8.
-<
Last'$ t&e"e is a nee# to "esove i((e#iate' t&e %onstitutiona issue "aise# in t&is )etition +e%ause of t&e
)ossi+e t"ansfe" at an' ti(e +' !EA to AEARI of tite an# owne"s&i) to )o"tions of t&e "e%ai(e# an#s.
Un#e" t&e A(en#e# /VA$ !EA is o+i*ate# to t"ansfe" to AEARI t&e atte"Hs sevent' )e"%ent )"o)o"tionate
s&a"e in t&e "e%ai(e# a"eas as t&e "e%a(ation )"o*"esses. T&e A(en#e# /VA even aows AEARI to
(o"t*a*e at an' ti(e t&e enti"e "e%ai(e# a"ea to "aise finan%in* fo" t&e "e%a(ation )"o,e%t.
-1
Se%on# issueC w&et&e" t&e )etition (e"its #is(issa fo" faiin* to o+se"ve t&e )"in%i)e *ove"nin* t&e
&ie"a"%&' of %ou"ts.
!EA an# AEARI %ai( )etitione" i*no"e# t&e ,u#i%ia &ie"a"%&' +' see=in* "eief #i"e%t' f"o( t&e Cou"t. T&e
)"in%i)e of &ie"a"%&' of %ou"ts a))ies *ene"a' to %ases invovin* fa%tua 1uestions. As it is not a t"ie" of
fa%ts$ t&e Cou"t %annot ente"tain %ases invovin* fa%tua issues. T&e instant %ase$ &oweve"$ "aises
%onstitutiona issues of t"ans%en#enta i()o"tan%e to t&e )u+i%.
--
T&e Cou"t %an "esove t&is %ase wit&out
#ete"(inin* an' fa%tua issue "eate# to t&e %ase. Aso$ t&e instant %ase is a )etition fo" (an#a(us w&i%&
fas un#e" t&e o"i*ina ,u"is#i%tion of t&e Cou"t un#e" Se%tion 6$ A"ti%e VIII of t&e Constitution. We "esove to
e?e"%ise )"i(a"' ,u"is#i%tion ove" t&e instant %ase.
T&i"# issueC w&et&e" t&e )etition (e"its #is(issa fo" non9e?&austion of a#(inist"ative "e(e#ies.
!EA fauts )etitione" fo" see=in* ,u#i%ia inte"vention in %o()ein* !EA to #is%ose )u+i%' %e"tain
info"(ation wit&out fi"st as=in* !EA t&e nee#e# info"(ation. !EA %ai(s )etitione"Hs #i"e%t "eso"t to t&e Cou"t
vioates t&e )"in%i)e of e?&austion of a#(inist"ative "e(e#ies. It aso vioates t&e "ue t&at (an#a(us (a'
issue on' if t&e"e is no ot&e" )ain$ s)ee#' an# a#e1uate "e(e#' in t&e o"#ina"' %ou"se of aw.
!EA #istin*uis&es t&e instant %ase f"o( TaLa#a v. Tuve"a
-2
w&e"e t&e Cou"t *"ante# t&e )etition fo"
(an#a(us even if t&e )etitione"s t&e"e #i# not initia' #e(an# f"o( t&e Offi%e of t&e !"esi#ent t&e
)u+i%ation of t&e )"esi#entia #e%"ees. !EA )oints out t&at in TaLa#a$ t&e E?e%utive De)a"t(ent &a# an
affi"(ative statuto"' #ut' un#e" A"ti%e - of t&e Civi Co#e
-3
an# Se%tion 1 of Co((onweat& A%t No. 72:
-6
to
)u+is& t&e )"esi#entia #e%"ees. T&e"e was$ t&e"efo"e$ no nee# fo" t&e )etitione"s in TaLa#a to (a=e an
initia #e(an# f"o( t&e Offi%e of t&e !"esi#ent. In t&e instant %ase$ !EA %ai(s it &as no affi"(ative statuto"'
#ut' to #is%ose )u+i%' info"(ation a+out its "ene*otiation of t&e /VA. T&us$ !EA asse"ts t&at t&e Cou"t
(ust a))' t&e )"in%i)e of e?&austion of a#(inist"ative "e(e#ies to t&e instant %ase in view of t&e faiu"e of
)etitione" &e"e to #e(an# initia' f"o( !EA t&e nee#e# info"(ation.
T&e o"i*ina /VA sou*&t to #is)ose to AEARI )u+i% an#s &e# +' !EA$ a *ove"n(ent %o")o"ation. Un#e"
Se%tion 8; of t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e$
-7
t&e #is)osition of *ove"n(ent an#s to )"ivate )a"ties
"e1ui"es )u+i% +i##in*. !EA was un#e" a )ositive e*a #ut' to #is%ose to t&e )u+i% t&e te"(s an#
%on#itions fo" t&e sae of its an#s. T&e aw o+i*ate# !EA to (a=e t&is )u+i% #is%osu"e even wit&out
#e(an# f"o( )etitione" o" f"o( an'one. !EA faie# to (a=e t&is )u+i% #is%osu"e +e%ause t&e o"i*ina /VA$
i=e t&e A(en#e# /VA$ was t&e "esut of a ne*otiate# %ont"a%t$ not of a )u+i% +i##in*. Consi#e"in* t&at !EA
&a# an affi"(ative statuto"' #ut' to (a=e t&e )u+i% #is%osu"e$ an# was even in +"ea%& of t&is e*a #ut'$
)etitione" &a# t&e "i*&t to see= #i"e%t ,u#i%ia inte"vention.
Eo"eove"$ an# t&is aone is #ete"(inative of t&is issue$ t&e )"in%i)e of e?&austion of a#(inist"ative "e(e#ies
#oes not a))' w&en t&e issue invove# is a )u"e' e*a o" %onstitutiona 1uestion.
-8
T&e )"in%i)a issue in
t&e instant %ase is t&e %a)a%it' of AEARI to a%1ui"e an#s &e# +' !EA in view of t&e %onstitutiona +an
)"o&i+itin* t&e aienation of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate %o")o"ations. We "ue t&at t&e )"in%i)e of
e?&austion of a#(inist"ative "e(e#ies #oes not a))' in t&e instant %ase.
Fou"t& issueC w&et&e" )etitione" &as o%us stan#i to +"in* t&is suit
!EA a"*ues t&at )etitione" &as no stan#in* to institute (an#a(us )"o%ee#in*s to enfo"%e &is %onstitutiona
"i*&t to info"(ation wit&out a s&owin* t&at !EA "efuse# to )e"fo"( an affi"(ative #ut' i()ose# on !EA +'
t&e Constitution. !EA aso %ai(s t&at )etitione" &as not s&own t&at &e wi suffe" an' %on%"ete in,u"'
10
+e%ause of t&e si*nin* o" i()e(entation of t&e A(en#e# /VA. T&us$ t&e"e is no a%tua %ont"ove"s'
"e1ui"in* t&e e?e"%ise of t&e )owe" of ,u#i%ia "eview.
T&e )etitione" &as stan#in* to +"in* t&is ta?)a'e"Hs suit +e%ause t&e )etition see=s to %o()e !EA to %o()'
wit& its %onstitutiona #uties. T&e"e a"e two %onstitutiona issues invove# &e"e. Fi"st is t&e "i*&t of %iti5ens to
info"(ation on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n. Se%on# is t&e a))i%ation of a %onstitutiona )"ovision inten#e# to
insu"e t&e e1uita+e #ist"i+ution of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain a(on* Fii)ino %iti5ens. T&e t&"ust of
t&e fi"st issue is to %o()e !EA to #is%ose )u+i%' info"(ation on t&e sae of *ove"n(ent an#s wo"t&
+iions of )esos$ info"(ation w&i%& t&e Constitution an# statuto"' aw (an#ate !EA to #is%ose. T&e t&"ust
of t&e se%on# issue is to )"event !EA f"o( aienatin* &un#"e#s of &e%ta"es of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain in vioation of t&e Constitution$ %o()ein* !EA to %o()' wit& a %onstitutiona #ut' to t&e nation.
Eo"eove"$ t&e )etition "aises (atte"s of t"ans%en#enta i()o"tan%e to t&e )u+i%. In C&ave5 v. !C44$
-:
t&e
Cou"t u)&e# t&e "i*&t of a %iti5en to +"in* a ta?)a'e"Hs suit on (atte"s of t"ans%en#enta i()o"tan%e to t&e
)u+i%$ t&us 9
G>esi#es$ )etitione" e()&asi5es$ t&e (atte" of "e%ove"in* t&e i9*otten weat& of t&e Ea"%oses is
an issue of Ht"ans%en#enta i()o"tan%e to t&e )u+i%.H He asse"ts t&at o"#ina"' ta?)a'e"s &ave a
"i*&t to initiate an# )"ose%ute a%tions 1uestionin* t&e vai#it' of a%ts o" o"#e"s of *ove"n(ent
a*en%ies o" inst"u(entaities$ if t&e issues "aise# a"e of H)a"a(ount )u+i% inte"est$H an# if t&e'
Hi((e#iate' affe%t t&e so%ia$ e%ono(i% an# (o"a we +ein* of t&e )eo)e.H
Eo"eove"$ t&e (e"e fa%t t&at &e is a %iti5en satisfies t&e "e1ui"e(ent of )e"sona inte"est$ w&en t&e
)"o%ee#in* invoves t&e asse"tion of a )u+i% "i*&t$ su%& as in t&is %ase. He invo=es seve"a
#e%isions of t&is Cou"t w&i%& &ave set asi#e t&e )"o%e#u"a (atte" of o%us stan#i$ w&en t&e su+,e%t
of t&e %ase invove# )u+i% inte"est.
? ? ?
In TaLa#a v. Tuve"a$ t&e Cou"t asse"te# t&at w&en t&e issue %on%e"ns a )u+i% "i*&t an# t&e o+,e%t
of (an#a(us is to o+tain t&e enfo"%e(ent of a )u+i% #ut'$ t&e )eo)e a"e "e*a"#e# as t&e "ea
)a"ties in inte"estD an# +e%ause it is suffi%ient t&at )etitione" is a %iti5en an# as su%& is inte"este# in
t&e e?e%ution of t&e aws$ &e nee# not s&ow t&at &e &as an' e*a o" s)e%ia inte"est in t&e "esut of
t&e a%tion. In t&e afo"esai# %ase$ t&e )etitione"s sou*&t to enfo"%e t&ei" "i*&t to +e info"(e# on
(atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n$ a "i*&t t&en "e%o*ni5e# in Se%tion 7$ A"ti%e IV of t&e 1;82 Constitution$
in %onne%tion wit& t&e "ue t&at aws in o"#e" to +e vai# an# enfo"%ea+e (ust +e )u+is&e# in t&e
Offi%ia 4a5ette o" ot&e"wise effe%tive' )"o(u*ate#. In "uin* fo" t&e )etitione"sH e*a stan#in*$ t&e
Cou"t #e%a"e# t&at t&e "i*&t t&e' sou*&t to +e enfo"%e# His a )u+i% "i*&t "e%o*ni5e# +' no ess t&an
t&e fun#a(enta aw of t&e an#.H
Le*as)i v. Civi Se"vi%e Co((ission$ w&ie "eite"atin* TaLa#a$ fu"t&e" #e%a"e# t&at Hw&en a
(an#a(us )"o%ee#in* invoves t&e asse"tion of a )u+i% "i*&t$ t&e "e1ui"e(ent of )e"sona inte"est
is satisfie# +' t&e (e"e fa%t t&at )etitione" is a %iti5en an#$ t&e"efo"e$ )a"t of t&e *ene"a H)u+i%H
w&i%& )ossesses t&e "i*&t.H
Fu"t&e"$ in A+ano v. Re'es$ we sai# t&at w&ie e?)en#itu"e of )u+i% fun#s (a' not &ave +een
invove# un#e" t&e 1uestione# %ont"a%t fo" t&e #eveo)(ent$ (ana*e(ent an# o)e"ation of t&e
Eania Inte"nationa Containe" Te"(ina$ H)u+i% inte"est IwasJ #efinite' invove# %onsi#e"in* t&e
i()o"tant "oe Iof t&e su+,e%t %ont"a%tJ . . . in t&e e%ono(i% #eveo)(ent of t&e %ount"' an# t&e
(a*nitu#e of t&e finan%ia %onsi#e"ation invove#.H We %on%u#e# t&at$ as a %onse1uen%e$ t&e
#is%osu"e )"ovision in t&e Constitution wou# %onstitute suffi%ient aut&o"it' fo" u)&o#in* t&e
)etitione"Hs stan#in*.
Si(ia"'$ t&e instant )etition is an%&o"e# on t&e "i*&t of t&e )eo)e to info"(ation an# a%%ess to
offi%ia "e%o"#s$ #o%u(ents an# )a)e"s a "i*&t *ua"antee# un#e" Se%tion 8$ A"ti%e III of t&e 1;:8
Constitution. !etitione"$ a fo"(e" soi%ito" *ene"a$ is a Fii)ino %iti5en. >e%ause of t&e satisfa%tion of
t&e two +asi% "e1uisites ai# #own +' #e%isiona aw to sustain )etitione"Hs e*a stan#in*$ i.e. .10 t&e
enfo"%e(ent of a )u+i% "i*&t .-0 es)ouse# +' a Fii)ino %iti5en$ we "ue t&at t&e )etition at +a"
s&ou# +e aowe#.G
11
We "ue t&at sin%e t&e instant )etition$ +"ou*&t +' a %iti5en$ invoves t&e enfo"%e(ent of %onstitutiona "i*&ts 9
to info"(ation an# to t&e e1uita+e #iffusion of natu"a "esou"%es 9 (atte"s of t"ans%en#enta )u+i%
i()o"tan%e$ t&e )etitione" &as t&e "e1uisite o%us stan#i.
Fift& issueC w&et&e" t&e %onstitutiona "i*&t to info"(ation in%u#es offi%ia info"(ation on on9*oin*
ne*otiations +efo"e a fina a*"ee(ent.
Se%tion 8$ A"ti%e III of t&e Constitution e?)ains t&e )eo)eHs "i*&t to info"(ation on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n
in t&is (anne"C
GSe%. 8. T&e "i*&t of t&e )eo)e to info"(ation on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n s&a +e "e%o*ni5e#.
A%%ess to offi%ia "e%o"#s$ an# to #o%u(ents$ an# )a)e"s )e"tainin* to offi%ia a%ts$ t"ansa%tions$ o"
#e%isions$ as we as to *ove"n(ent "esea"%& #ata use# as +asis fo" )oi%' #eveo)(ent$ s&a +e
affo"#e# t&e %iti5en$ su+,e%t to su%& i(itations as (a' +e )"ovi#e# +' aw.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&e State )oi%' of fu t"ans)a"en%' in a t"ansa%tions invovin* )u+i% inte"est "einfo"%es t&e )eo)eHs "i*&t
to info"(ation on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n. T&is State )oi%' is e?)"esse# in Se%tion -:$ A"ti%e II of t&e
Constitution$ t&usC
GSe%. -:. Su+,e%t to "easona+e %on#itions )"es%"i+e# +' aw$ t&e State a#o)ts an# i()e(ents a
)oi%' of fu )u+i% #is%osu"e of a its t"ansa%tions invovin* )u+i% inte"est.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&ese twin )"ovisions of t&e Constitution see= to )"o(ote t"ans)a"en%' in )oi%'9(a=in* an# in t&e
o)e"ations of t&e *ove"n(ent$ as we as )"ovi#e t&e )eo)e suffi%ient info"(ation to e?e"%ise effe%tive'
ot&e" %onstitutiona "i*&ts. T&ese twin )"ovisions a"e essentia to t&e e?e"%ise of f"ee#o( of e?)"ession. If
t&e *ove"n(ent #oes not #is%ose its offi%ia a%ts$ t"ansa%tions an# #e%isions to %iti5ens$ w&ateve" %iti5ens
sa'$ even if e?)"esse# wit&out an' "est"aint$ wi +e s)e%uative an# a(ount to not&in*. T&ese twin
)"ovisions a"e aso essentia to &o# )u+i% offi%ias Gat a ti(es ? ? ? a%%ounta+e to t&e )eo)e$G
-;
fo" uness
%iti5ens &ave t&e )"o)e" info"(ation$ t&e' %annot &o# )u+i% offi%ias a%%ounta+e fo" an't&in*. A"(e# wit&
t&e "i*&t info"(ation$ %iti5ens %an )a"ti%i)ate in )u+i% #is%ussions ea#in* to t&e fo"(uation of *ove"n(ent
)oi%ies an# t&ei" effe%tive i()e(entation. An info"(e# %iti5en"' is essentia to t&e e?isten%e an# )"o)e"
fun%tionin* of an' #e(o%"a%'. As e?)aine# +' t&e Cou"t in Va(onte v. >e(onte$ /".
2<

GAn essentia ee(ent of t&ese f"ee#o(s is to =ee) o)en a %ontinuin* #iao*ue o" )"o%ess of
%o((uni%ation +etween t&e *ove"n(ent an# t&e )eo)e. It is in t&e inte"est of t&e State t&at t&e
%&annes fo" f"ee )oiti%a #is%ussion +e (aintaine# to t&e en# t&at t&e *ove"n(ent (a' )e"%eive
an# +e "es)onsive to t&e )eo)eHs wi. Yet$ t&is o)en #iao*ue %an +e effe%tive on' to t&e e?tent
t&at t&e %iti5en"' is info"(e# an# t&us a+e to fo"(uate its wi intei*ent'. On' w&en t&e
)a"ti%i)ants in t&e #is%ussion a"e awa"e of t&e issues an# &ave a%%ess to info"(ation "eatin*
t&e"eto %an su%& +ea" f"uit.G
!EA asse"ts$ %itin* C&ave5 v. !C44$
21
t&at in %ases of on9*oin* ne*otiations t&e "i*&t to info"(ation is
i(ite# to G#efinite )"o)ositions of t&e *ove"n(ent.G !EA (aintains t&e "i*&t #oes not in%u#e a%%ess to
Gint"a9a*en%' o" inte"9a*en%' "e%o((en#ations o" %o((uni%ations #u"in* t&e sta*e w&en %o((on
asse"tions a"e sti in t&e )"o%ess of +ein* fo"(uate# o" a"e in t&e He?)o"ato"' sta*eH.G
Aso$ AEARI %onten#s t&at )etitione" %annot invo=e t&e "i*&t at t&e )"e9#e%isiona sta*e o" +efo"e t&e %osin*
of t&e t"ansa%tion. To su))o"t its %ontention$ AEARI %ites t&e foowin* #is%ussion in t&e 1;:7 Constitutiona
Co((issionC
GE". Sua"e5. An# w&en we sa' Ht"ansa%tionsH w&i%& s&ou# +e #istin*uis&e# f"o( %ont"a%ts$
a*"ee(ents$ o" t"eaties o" w&ateve"$ #oes t&e 4ente(an "efe" to t&e ste)s ea#in* to t&e
%onsu((ation of t&e %ont"a%t$ o" #oes &e "efe" to t&e %ont"a%t itsefO
E". O)eC T&e Ht"ansa%tionsH use# &e"e$ I su))ose is *ene"i% an# t&e"efo"e$ it %an %ove" +ot& ste)s
ea#in* to a %ont"a%t an# a"ea#' a %onsu((ate# %ont"a%t$ E". !"esi#in* Offi%e".
12
E". Sua"e5C T&is %onte()ates in%usion of ne*otiations ea#in* to t&e %onsu((ation of t&e
t"ansa%tion.
E". O)eC Yes$ su+,e%t on' to "easona+e safe*ua"#s on t&e nationa inte"est.
E". Sua"e5C T&an= 'ou.G
2-
.E()&asis su))ie#0
AEARI a"*ues t&e"e (ust fi"st +e a %onsu((ate# %ont"a%t +efo"e )etitione" %an invo=e t&e "i*&t. Re1ui"in*
*ove"n(ent offi%ias to "evea t&ei" #ei+e"ations at t&e )"e9#e%isiona sta*e wi #e*"a#e t&e 1uait' of
#e%ision9(a=in* in *ove"n(ent a*en%ies. 4ove"n(ent offi%ias wi &esitate to e?)"ess t&ei" "ea senti(ents
#u"in* #ei+e"ations if t&e"e is i((e#iate )u+i% #isse(ination of t&ei" #is%ussions$ )uttin* t&e( un#e" a
=in#s of )"essu"e +efo"e t&e' #e%i#e.
We (ust fi"st #istin*uis& +etween info"(ation t&e aw on )u+i% +i##in* "e1ui"es !EA to #is%ose )u+i%'$
an# info"(ation t&e %onstitutiona "i*&t to info"(ation "e1ui"es !EA to "eease to t&e )u+i%. >efo"e t&e
%onsu((ation of t&e %ont"a%t$ !EA (ust$ on its own an# wit&out #e(an# f"o( an'one$ #is%ose to t&e
)u+i% (atte"s "eatin* to t&e #is)osition of its )"o)e"t'. T&ese in%u#e t&e si5e$ o%ation$ te%&ni%a #es%"i)tion
an# natu"e of t&e )"o)e"t' +ein* #is)ose# of$ t&e te"(s an# %on#itions of t&e #is)osition$ t&e )a"ties
1uaifie# to +i#$ t&e (ini(u( )"i%e an# si(ia" info"(ation. !EA (ust )"e)a"e a t&ese #ata an# #is%ose
t&e( to t&e )u+i% at t&e sta"t of t&e #is)osition )"o%ess$ on* +efo"e t&e %onsu((ation of t&e %ont"a%t$
+e%ause t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e "e1ui"es )u+i% +i##in*. If !EA fais to (a=e t&is #is%osu"e$ an'
%iti5en %an #e(an# f"o( !EA t&is info"(ation at an' ti(e #u"in* t&e +i##in* )"o%ess.
Info"(ation$ &oweve"$ on on9*oin* evauation o" "eview of +i#s o" )"o)osas +ein* un#e"ta=en +' t&e +i##in*
o" "eview %o((ittee is not i((e#iate' a%%essi+e un#e" t&e "i*&t to info"(ation. W&ie t&e evauation o"
"eview is sti on9*oin*$ t&e"e a"e no Goffi%ia a%ts$ t"ansa%tions$ o" #e%isionsG on t&e +i#s o" )"o)osas.
Howeve"$ on%e t&e %o((ittee (a=es its offi%ia "e%o((en#ation$ t&e"e a"ises a G#efinite )"o)ositionG on t&e
)a"t of t&e *ove"n(ent. F"o( t&is (o(ent$ t&e )u+i%Hs "i*&t to info"(ation atta%&es$ an# an' %iti5en %an
a%%ess a t&e non9)"o)"ieta"' info"(ation ea#in* to su%& #efinite )"o)osition. In C&ave5 v. !C44$
22
t&e
Cou"t "ue# as foowsC
GConsi#e"in* t&e intent of t&e f"a(e"s of t&e Constitution$ we +eieve t&at it is in%u(+ent u)on t&e
!C44 an# its offi%e"s$ as we as ot&e" *ove"n(ent "e)"esentatives$ to #is%ose suffi%ient )u+i%
info"(ation on an' )"o)ose# sette(ent t&e' &ave #e%i#e# to ta=e u) wit& t&e ostensi+e owne"s
an# &o#e"s of i9*otten weat&. Su%& info"(ation$ t&ou*&$ (ust )e"tain to #efinite )"o)ositions of
t&e *ove"n(ent$ not ne%essa"i' to int"a9a*en%' o" inte"9a*en%' "e%o((en#ations o"
%o((uni%ations #u"in* t&e sta*e w&en %o((on asse"tions a"e sti in t&e )"o%ess of +ein*
fo"(uate# o" a"e in t&e Ge?)o"ato"'G sta*e. T&e"e is nee#$ of %ou"se$ to o+se"ve t&e sa(e
"est"i%tions on #is%osu"e of info"(ation in *ene"a$ as #is%usse# ea"ie" su%& as on (atte"s
invovin* nationa se%u"it'$ #i)o(ati% o" fo"ei*n "eations$ intei*en%e an# ot&e" %assifie#
info"(ation.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
Cont"a"' to AEARIHs %ontention$ t&e %o((issione"s of t&e 1;:7 Constitutiona Co((ission un#e"stoo# t&at
t&e "i*&t to info"(ation G%onte()ates in%usion of ne*otiations ea#in* to t&e %onsu((ation of t&e
t"ansa%tion.G Ce"tain'$ a %onsu((ate# %ont"a%t is not a "e1ui"e(ent fo" t&e e?e"%ise of t&e "i*&t to
info"(ation. Ot&e"wise$ t&e )eo)e %an neve" e?e"%ise t&e "i*&t if no %ont"a%t is %onsu((ate#$ an# if one is
%onsu((ate#$ it (a' +e too ate fo" t&e )u+i% to e?)ose its #efe%ts.
Re1ui"in* a %onsu((ate# %ont"a%t wi =ee) t&e )u+i% in t&e #a"= unti t&e %ont"a%t$ w&i%& (a' +e *"oss'
#isa#vanta*eous to t&e *ove"n(ent o" even ie*a$ +e%o(es a fait a%%o()i. T&is ne*ates t&e State )oi%'
of fu t"ans)a"en%' on (atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n$ a situation w&i%& t&e f"a(e"s of t&e Constitution %ou# not
&ave inten#e#. Su%& a "e1ui"e(ent wi )"event t&e %iti5en"' f"o( )a"ti%i)atin* in t&e )u+i% #is%ussion of an'
)"o)ose# %ont"a%t$ effe%tive' t"un%atin* a +asi% "i*&t ens&"ine# in t&e >i of Ri*&ts. We %an aow neit&e" an
e(as%uation of a %onstitutiona "i*&t$ no" a "et"eat +' t&e State of its avowe# G)oi%' of fu #is%osu"e of a
its t"ansa%tions invovin* )u+i% inte"est.G
T&e "i*&t %ove"s t&"ee %ate*o"ies of info"(ation w&i%& a"e G(atte"s of )u+i% %on%e"n$G na(e'C .10 offi%ia
"e%o"#sD .-0 #o%u(ents an# )a)e"s )e"tainin* to offi%ia a%ts$ t"ansa%tions an# #e%isionsD an# .20
*ove"n(ent "esea"%& #ata use# in fo"(uatin* )oi%ies. T&e fi"st %ate*o"' "efe"s to an' #o%u(ent t&at is )a"t
13
of t&e )u+i% "e%o"#s in t&e %usto#' of *ove"n(ent a*en%ies o" offi%ias. T&e se%on# %ate*o"' "efe"s to
#o%u(ents an# )a)e"s "e%o"#in*$ evi#en%in*$ esta+is&in*$ %onfi"(in*$ su))o"tin*$ ,ustif'in* o" e?)ainin*
offi%ia a%ts$ t"ansa%tions o" #e%isions of *ove"n(ent a*en%ies o" offi%ias. T&e t&i"# %ate*o"' "efe"s to
"esea"%& #ata$ w&et&e" "aw$ %oate# o" )"o%esse#$ owne# +' t&e *ove"n(ent an# use# in fo"(uatin*
*ove"n(ent )oi%ies.
T&e info"(ation t&at )etitione" (a' a%%ess on t&e "ene*otiation of t&e /VA in%u#es evauation "e)o"ts$
"e%o((en#ations$ e*a an# e?)e"t o)inions$ (inutes of (eetin*s$ te"(s of "efe"en%e an# ot&e" #o%u(ents
atta%&e# to su%& "e)o"ts o" (inutes$ a "eatin* to t&e /VA. Howeve"$ t&e "i*&t to info"(ation #oes not
%o()e !EA to )"e)a"e ists$ a+st"a%ts$ su((a"ies an# t&e i=e "eatin* to t&e "ene*otiation of t&e /VA.
23
T&e
"i*&t on' affo"#s a%%ess to "e%o"#s$ #o%u(ents an# )a)e"s$ w&i%& (eans t&e o))o"tunit' to ins)e%t an#
%o)' t&e(. One w&o e?e"%ises t&e "i*&t (ust %o)' t&e "e%o"#s$ #o%u(ents an# )a)e"s at &is e?)ense. T&e
e?e"%ise of t&e "i*&t is aso su+,e%t to "easona+e "e*uations to )"ote%t t&e inte*"it' of t&e )u+i% "e%o"#s an#
to (ini(i5e #is"u)tion to *ove"n(ent o)e"ations$ i=e "ues s)e%if'in* w&en an# &ow to %on#u%t t&e
ins)e%tion an# %o)'in*.
26
T&e "i*&t to info"(ation$ &oweve"$ #oes not e?ten# to (atte"s "e%o*ni5e# as )"ivie*e# info"(ation un#e" t&e
se)a"ation of )owe"s.
27
T&e "i*&t #oes not aso a))' to info"(ation on (iita"' an# #i)o(ati% se%"ets$
info"(ation affe%tin* nationa se%u"it'$ an# info"(ation on investi*ations of %"i(es +' aw enfo"%e(ent
a*en%ies +efo"e t&e )"ose%ution of t&e a%%use#$ w&i%& %ou"ts &ave on* "e%o*ni5e# as %onfi#entia.
28
T&e
"i*&t (a' aso +e su+,e%t to ot&e" i(itations t&at Con*"ess (a' i()ose +' aw.
T&e"e is no %ai( +' !EA t&at t&e info"(ation #e(an#e# +' )etitione" is )"ivie*e# info"(ation "oote# in t&e
se)a"ation of )owe"s. T&e info"(ation #oes not %ove" !"esi#entia %onve"sations$ %o""es)on#en%es$ o"
#is%ussions #u"in* %ose#9#oo" Ca+inet (eetin*s w&i%&$ i=e inte"na #ei+e"ations of t&e Su)"e(e Cou"t an#
ot&e" %oe*iate %ou"ts$ o" e?e%utive sessions of eit&e" &ouse of Con*"ess$
2:
a"e "e%o*ni5e# as %onfi#entia.
T&is =in# of info"(ation %annot +e )"ie# o)en +' a %o9e1ua +"an%& of *ove"n(ent. A f"an= e?%&an*e of
e?)o"ato"' i#eas an# assess(ents$ f"ee f"o( t&e *a"e of )u+i%it' an# )"essu"e +' inte"este# )a"ties$ is
essentia to )"ote%t t&e in#e)en#en%e of #e%ision9(a=in* of t&ose tas=e# to e?e"%ise !"esi#entia$
Le*isative an# /u#i%ia )owe".
2;
T&is is not t&e situation in t&e instant %ase.
We "ue$ t&e"efo"e$ t&at t&e %onstitutiona "i*&t to info"(ation in%u#es offi%ia info"(ation on on9*oin*
ne*otiations +efo"e a fina %ont"a%t. T&e info"(ation$ &oweve"$ (ust %onstitute #efinite )"o)ositions +' t&e
*ove"n(ent an# s&ou# not %ove" "e%o*ni5e# e?%e)tions i=e )"ivie*e# info"(ation$ (iita"' an# #i)o(ati%
se%"ets an# si(ia" (atte"s affe%tin* nationa se%u"it' an# )u+i% o"#e".
3<
Con*"ess &as aso )"es%"i+e# ot&e"
i(itations on t&e "i*&t to info"(ation in seve"a e*isations.
31
Si?t& issueC w&et&e" sti)uations in t&e A(en#e# /VA fo" t&e t"ansfe" to AEARI of an#s$ "e%ai(e# o" to +e
"e%ai(e#$ vioate t&e Constitution.
T&e Re*aian Do%t"ine
T&e owne"s&i) of an#s "e%ai(e# f"o( fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas is "oote# in t&e Re*aian #o%t"ine
w&i%& &o#s t&at t&e State owns a an#s an# wate"s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. U)on t&e S)anis& %on1uest of
t&e !&ii))ines$ owne"s&i) of a Gan#s$ te""ito"ies an# )ossessionsG in t&e !&ii))ines )asse# to t&e S)anis&
C"own.
3-
T&e Min*$ as t&e sove"ei*n "ue" an# "e)"esentative of t&e )eo)e$ a%1ui"e# an# owne# a an#s
an# te""ito"ies in t&e !&ii))ines e?%e)t t&ose &e #is)ose# of +' *"ant o" sae to )"ivate in#ivi#uas.
T&e 1;26$ 1;82 an# 1;:8 Constitutions a#o)te# t&e Re*aian #o%t"ine su+stitutin*$ &oweve"$ t&e State$ in
ieu of t&e Min*$ as t&e owne" of a an#s an# wate"s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&e Re*aian #o%t"ine is t&e
foun#ation of t&e ti(e9&ono"e# )"in%i)e of an# owne"s&i) t&at Ga an#s t&at we"e not a%1ui"e# f"o( t&e
4ove"n(ent$ eit&e" +' )u"%&ase o" +' *"ant$ +eon* to t&e )u+i% #o(ain.G
32
A"ti%e 22; of t&e Civi Co#e of
1::;$ w&i%& is now A"ti%e 3-< of t&e Civi Co#e of 1;6<$ in%o")o"ate# t&e Re*aian #o%t"ine.
Owne"s&i) an# Dis)osition of Re%ai(e# Lan#s
T&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77 was t&e fi"st statuto"' aw *ove"nin* t&e owne"s&i) an# #is)osition of
"e%ai(e# an#s in t&e !&ii))ines. On Ea' 1:$ 1;<8$ t&e !&ii))ine Co((ission ena%te# A%t No. 1763
w&i%& )"ovi#e# fo" t&e ease$ +ut not t&e sae$ of "e%ai(e# an#s of t&e *ove"n(ent to %o")o"ations an#
14
in#ivi#uas. Late"$ on Nove(+e" -;$ 1;1;$ t&e !&ii))ine Le*isatu"e a))"ove# A%t No. -:83$ t&e !u+i% Lan#
A%t$ w&i%& aut&o"i5e# t&e ease$ +ut not t&e sae$ of "e%ai(e# an#s of t&e *ove"n(ent to %o")o"ations an#
in#ivi#uas. On Nove(+e" 8$ 1;27$ t&e Nationa Asse(+' )asse# Co((onweat& A%t No. 131$ aso =nown
as t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t$ w&i%& aut&o"i5e# t&e ease$ +ut not t&e sae$ of "e%ai(e# an#s of t&e *ove"n(ent to
%o")o"ations an# in#ivi#uas. CA No. 131 %ontinues to t&is #a' as t&e *ene"a aw *ove"nin* t&e
%assifi%ation an# #is)osition of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
T&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77 an# t&e Civi Co#e of 1::;
Un#e" t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77$ t&e s&o"es$ +a's$ %oves$ inets an# a wate"s wit&in t&e (a"iti(e
5one of t&e S)anis& te""ito"' +eon*e# to t&e )u+i% #o(ain fo" )u+i% use.
33
T&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of
1:77 aowe# t&e "e%a(ation of t&e sea un#e" A"ti%e 6$ w&i%& )"ovi#e# as foowsC
GA"ti%e 6. Lan#s "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea in %onse1uen%e of wo"=s %onst"u%te# +' t&e State$ o" +'
t&e )"ovin%es$ )ue+os o" )"ivate )e"sons$ wit& )"o)e" )e"(ission$ s&a +e%o(e t&e )"o)e"t' of t&e
)a"t' %onst"u%tin* su%& wo"=s$ uness ot&e"wise )"ovi#e# +' t&e te"(s of t&e *"ant of aut&o"it'.G
Un#e" t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s$ an# "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea +eon*e# to t&e )a"t' un#e"ta=in* t&e
"e%a(ation$ )"ovi#e# t&e *ove"n(ent issue# t&e ne%essa"' )e"(it an# #i# not "ese"ve owne"s&i) of t&e
"e%ai(e# an# to t&e State.
A"ti%e 22; of t&e Civi Co#e of 1::; #efine# )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion as foowsC
GA"t. 22;. !"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion isC
1. T&at #evote# to )u+i% use$ su%& as "oa#s$ %anas$ "ive"s$ to""ents$ )o"ts an# +"i#*es %onst"u%te#
+' t&e State$ "ive"+an=s$ s&o"es$ "oa#stea#s$ an# t&at of a si(ia" %&a"a%te"D
-. T&at +eon*in* e?%usive' to t&e State w&i%&$ wit&out +ein* of *ene"a )u+i% use$ is e()o'e# in
so(e )u+i% se"vi%e$ o" in t&e #eveo)(ent of t&e nationa weat&$ su%& as was$ fo"t"esses$ an#
ot&e" wo"=s fo" t&e #efense of t&e te""ito"'$ an# (ines$ unti *"ante# to )"ivate in#ivi#uas.G
!"o)e"t' #evote# to )u+i% use "efe""e# to )"o)e"t' o)en fo" use +' t&e )u+i%. In %ont"ast$ )"o)e"t' #evote#
to )u+i% se"vi%e "efe""e# to )"o)e"t' use# fo" so(e s)e%ifi% )u+i% se"vi%e an# o)en on' to t&ose aut&o"i5e#
to use t&e )"o)e"t'.
!"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion "efe""e# not on' to )"o)e"t' #evote# to )u+i% use$ +ut aso to )"o)e"t' not so
use# +ut e()o'e# to #eveo) t&e nationa weat&. T&is %ass of )"o)e"t' %onstitute# )"o)e"t' of )u+i%
#o(inion at&ou*& e()o'e# fo" so(e e%ono(i% o" %o((e"%ia a%tivit' to in%"ease t&e nationa weat&.
A"ti%e 231 of t&e Civi Co#e of 1::; *ove"ne# t&e "e9%assifi%ation of )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion into )"ivate
)"o)e"t'$ to witC
GA"t. 231. !"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion$ w&en no on*e" #evote# to )u+i% use o" to t&e #efense of
t&e te""ito"'$ s&a +e%o(e a )a"t of t&e )"ivate )"o)e"t' of t&e State.G
T&is )"ovision$ &oweve"$ was not sef9e?e%utin*. T&e e*isatu"e$ o" t&e e?e%utive #e)a"t(ent )u"suant to
aw$ (ust #e%a"e t&e )"o)e"t' no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% use o" te""ito"ia #efense +efo"e t&e *ove"n(ent
%ou# ease o" aienate t&e )"o)e"t' to )"ivate )a"ties.
36
A%t No. 1763 of t&e !&ii))ine Co((ission
On Ea' :$ 1;<8$ t&e !&ii))ine Co((ission ena%te# A%t No. 1763 w&i%& "e*uate# t&e ease of "e%ai(e#
an# fo"es&o"e an#s. T&e saient )"ovisions of t&is aw we"e as foowsC
15
GSe%tion 1. T&e %ont"o an# #is)osition of t&e fo"es&o"e as #efine# in e?istin* aw$ an# t&e tite to a
4ove"n(ent o" )u+i% an#s (a#e o" "e%ai(e# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent +' #"e#*in* o" fiin* o"
ot&e"wise t&"ou*&out t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s$ s&a +e "etaine# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent wit&out )"e,u#i%e
to veste# "i*&ts an# wit&out )"e,u#i%e to "i*&ts %on%e#e# to t&e Cit' of Eania in t&e Luneta
E?tension.
Se%tion -. .a0 T&e Se%"eta"' of t&e Inte"io" s&a %ause a 4ove"n(ent o" )u+i% an#s (a#e o"
"e%ai(e# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent +' #"e#*in* o" fiin* o" ot&e"wise to +e #ivi#e# into ots o" +o%=s$
wit& t&e ne%essa"' st"eets an# ae'wa's o%ate# t&e"eon$ an# s&a %ause )ats an# )ans of su%&
su"ve's to +e )"e)a"e# an# fie# wit& t&e >u"eau of Lan#s.
.+0 U)on %o()etion of su%& )ats an# )ans t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a s&a *ive noti%e to t&e )u+i%
t&at su%& )a"ts of t&e an#s so (a#e o" "e%ai(e# as a"e not nee#e# fo" )u+i% )u")oses wi +e
ease# fo" %o((e"%ia an# +usiness )u")oses$ ? ? ?.
? ? ?
.e0 T&e eases a+ove )"ovi#e# fo" s&a +e #is)ose# of to t&e &i*&est an# +est +i##e" t&e"efo"e$
su+,e%t to su%& "e*uations an# safe*ua"#s as t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a (a' +' e?e%utive o"#e"
)"es%"i+e.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
A%t No. 1763 (an#ate# t&at t&e *ove"n(ent s&ou# "etain tite to a an#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e *ove"n(ent.
T&e A%t aso veste# in t&e *ove"n(ent %ont"o an# #is)osition of fo"es&o"e an#s. !"ivate )a"ties %ou# ease
an#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e *ove"n(ent on' if t&ese an#s we"e no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% )u")ose. A%t No.
1763 (an#ate# )u+i% +i##in* in t&e ease of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an#s. A%t No. 1763 (a#e *ove"n(ent
"e%ai(e# an#s sui *ene"is in t&at uni=e ot&e" )u+i% an#s w&i%& t&e *ove"n(ent %ou# se to )"ivate
)a"ties$ t&ese "e%ai(e# an#s we"e avaia+e on' fo" ease to )"ivate )a"ties.
A%t No. 1763$ &oweve"$ #i# not "e)ea Se%tion 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77. A%t No. 1763 #i# not
)"o&i+it )"ivate )a"ties f"o( "e%ai(in* )a"ts of t&e sea un#e" Se%tion 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s.
Lan#s "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea +' )"ivate )a"ties wit& *ove"n(ent )e"(ission "e(aine# )"ivate an#s.
A%t No. -:83 of t&e !&ii))ine Le*isatu"e
On Nove(+e" -;$ 1;1;$ t&e !&ii))ine Le*isatu"e ena%te# A%t No. -:83$ t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t.
37
T&e saient
)"ovisions of A%t No. -:83$ on "e%ai(e# an#s$ we"e as foowsC
GSe%. 7. T&e 4ove"no"94ene"a$ u)on t&e "e%o((en#ation of t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an#
Natu"a Resou"%es$ s&a f"o( ti(e to ti(e %assif' t&e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain intoC
.a0 Aiena+e o" #is)osa+e$
.+0 Ti(+e"$ an#
.%0 Eine"a an#s$ ? ? ?.
Se%. 8. Fo" t&e )u")oses of t&e *ove"n(ent an# #is)osition of aiena+e o" #is)osa+e )u+i% an#s$
t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a$ u)on "e%o((en#ation +' t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Natu"a
Resou"%es$ s&a f"o( ti(e to ti(e #e%a"e w&at an#s a"e o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession un#e"
t&is A%t.G
Se%. :. On' t&ose an#s s&a +e #e%a"e# o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession w&i%& &ave +een
offi%ia' #ei(ite# o" %assifie# ? ? ?.
? ? ?
16
Se%. 66. An' t"a%t of an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain w&i%&$ +ein* neit&e" ti(+e" no" (ine"a an#$ s&a
+e %assifie# as suita+e fo" "esi#entia )u")oses o" fo" %o((e"%ia$ in#ust"ia$ o" ot&e" )"o#u%tive
)u")oses ot&e" t&an a*"i%utu"a )u")oses$ an# s&a +e o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession$ s&a +e
#is)ose# of un#e" t&e )"ovisions of t&is %&a)te"$ an# not ot&e"wise.
Se%. 67. T&e an#s #is)osa+e un#e" t&is tite s&a +e %assifie# as foowsC
.a0 Lan#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent +' #"e#*in*$ fiin*$ o" ot&e" (eansD
.+0 Fo"es&o"eD
.%0 Ea"s&' an#s o" an#s %ove"e# wit& wate" +o"#e"in* u)on t&e s&o"es o" +an=s of
navi*a+e a=es o" "ive"sD
.#0 Lan#s not in%u#e# in an' of t&e fo"e*oin* %asses.
? ? ?.
Se%. 6:. T&e an#s %o()"ise# in %asses .a0$ .+0$ an# .%0 of se%tion fift'9si? s&a +e #is)ose# of to
)"ivate )a"ties +' ease on' an# not ot&e"wise$ as soon as t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a$ u)on
"e%o((en#ation +' t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Natu"a Resou"%es$ s&a #e%a"e t&at t&e
sa(e a"e not ne%essa"' fo" t&e )u+i% se"vi%e an# a"e o)en to #is)osition un#e" t&is %&a)te". T&e
an#s in%u#e# in %ass .#0 (a' +e #is)ose# of +' sae o" ease un#e" t&e )"ovisions of t&is A%t.G
.E()&asis su))ie#0
Se%tion 7 of A%t No. -:83 aut&o"i5e# t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a to G%assif' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into ? ? ?
aiena+e o" #is)osa+eG
38
an#s. Se%tion 8 of t&e A%t e()owe"e# t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a to G#e%a"e w&at
an#s a"e o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession.G Se%tion : of t&e A%t i(ite# aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s on'
to t&ose an#s w&i%& &ave +een Goffi%ia' #ei(ite# an# %assifie#.G
Se%tion 67 of A%t No. -:83 state# t&at an#s G#is)osa+e un#e" t&is tite
3:
s&a +e %assifie#G as *ove"n(ent
"e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s$ as we as ot&e" an#s. A t&ese an#s$ &oweve"$ (ust +e suita+e
fo" "esi#entia$ %o((e"%ia$ in#ust"ia o" ot&e" )"o#u%tive non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses. T&ese )"ovisions veste#
u)on t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a t&e )owe" to %assif' inaiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into #is)osa+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&ese )"ovisions aso e()owe"e# t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a to %assif' fu"t&e" su%&
#is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e o" (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain$ as we as ot&e" non9a*"i%utu"a an#s.
Se%tion 6: of A%t No. -:83 %ate*o"i%a' (an#ate# t&at #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain %assifie# as
*ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s Gs&a +e #is)ose# of to )"ivate )a"ties +' ease on'
an# not ot&e"wise.G T&e 4ove"no"94ene"a$ +efo"e aowin* t&e ease of t&ese an#s to )"ivate )a"ties$ (ust
fo"(a' #e%a"e t&at t&e an#s we"e Gnot ne%essa"' fo" t&e )u+i% se"vi%e.G A%t No. -:83 "eite"ate# t&e State
)oi%' to ease an# not to se *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ a
)oi%' fi"st enun%iate# in 1;<8 in A%t No. 1763. 4ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s
"e(aine# sui *ene"is$ as t&e on' aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain t&at t&e *ove"n(ent
%ou# not se to )"ivate )a"ties.
T&e "ationae +e&in# t&is State )oi%' is o+vious. 4ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' )u+i% an#s
fo" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses "etain t&ei" in&e"ent )otentia as a"eas fo" )u+i% se"vi%e. T&is is t&e "eason t&e
*ove"n(ent )"o&i+ite# t&e sae$ an# on' aowe# t&e ease$ of t&ese an#s to )"ivate )a"ties. T&e State
awa's "ese"ve# t&ese an#s fo" so(e futu"e )u+i% se"vi%e.
A%t No. -:83 #i# not aut&o"i5e t&e "e%assifi%ation of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s
into ot&e" non9a*"i%utu"a an#s un#e" Se%tion 67 .#0. Lan#s fain* un#e" Se%tion 67 .#0 we"e t&e on' an#s
fo" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses t&e *ove"n(ent %ou# se to )"ivate )a"ties. T&us$ un#e" A%t No. -:83$ t&e
*ove"n(ent %ou# not se *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s to )"ivate )a"ties$ uness t&e
e*isatu"e )asse# a aw aowin* t&ei" sae.
3;
17
A%t No. -:83 #i# not )"o&i+it )"ivate )a"ties f"o( "e%ai(in* )a"ts of t&e sea )u"suant to Se%tion 6 of t&e
S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77. Lan#s "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea +' )"ivate )a"ties wit& *ove"n(ent
)e"(ission "e(aine# )"ivate an#s.
Dis)ositions un#e" t&e 1;26 Constitution
On Ea' 13$ 1;26$ t&e 1;26 Constitution too= effe%t u)on its "atifi%ation +' t&e Fii)ino )eo)e. T&e 1;26
Constitution$ in a#o)tin* t&e Re*aian #o%t"ine$ #e%a"e# in Se%tion 1$ A"ti%e FIII$ t&atC
GSe%tion 1. A a*"i%utu"a$ ti(+e"$ an# (ine"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ wate"s$ (ine"as$ %oa$
)et"oeu($ an# ot&e" (ine"a ois$ a fo"%es of )otentia ene"*' an# ot&e" natu"a "esou"%es of t&e
!&ii))ines +eon* to t&e State$ an# t&ei" #is)osition$ e?)oitation$ #eveo)(ent$ o" utii5ation s&a
+e i(ite# to %iti5ens of t&e !&ii))ines o" to %o")o"ations o" asso%iations at east si?t' )e" %entu(
of t&e %a)ita of w&i%& is owne# +' su%& %iti5ens$ su+,e%t to an' e?istin* "i*&t$ *"ant$ ease$ o"
%on%ession at t&e ti(e of t&e inau*u"ation of t&e 4ove"n(ent esta+is&e# un#e" t&is Constitution.
Natu"a "esou"%es$ wit& t&e e?%e)tion of )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#$ s&a not +e aienate#$ an# no
i%ense$ %on%ession$ o" ease fo" t&e e?)oitation$ #eveo)(ent$ o" utii5ation of an' of t&e natu"a
"esou"%es s&a +e *"ante# fo" a )e"io# e?%ee#in* twent'9five 'ea"s$ "enewa+e fo" anot&e" twent'9
five 'ea"s$ e?%e)t as to wate" "i*&ts fo" i""i*ation$ wate" su))'$ fis&e"ies$ o" in#ust"ia uses ot&e"
t&an t&e #eveo)(ent of wate" )owe"$ in w&i%& %ases +enefi%ia use (a' +e t&e (easu"e an# i(it
of t&e *"ant.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&e 1;26 Constitution +a""e# t&e aienation of a natu"a "esou"%es e?%e)t )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s$ w&i%&
we"e t&e on' natu"a "esou"%es t&e State %ou# aienate. T&us$ fo"es&o"e an#s$ %onsi#e"e# )a"t of t&e
StateHs natu"a "esou"%es$ +e%a(e inaiena+e +' %onstitutiona fiat$ avaia+e on' fo" ease fo" -6 'ea"s$
"enewa+e fo" anot&e" -6 'ea"s. T&e *ove"n(ent %ou# aienate fo"es&o"e an#s on' afte" t&ese an#s we"e
"e%ai(e# an# %assifie# as aiena+e a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. 4ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an#
(a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ +ein* neit&e" ti(+e" no" (ine"a an#s$ fe un#e" t&e %assifi%ation of
)u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s.
6<
Howeve"$ *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s$ at&ou*& su+,e%t to
%assifi%ation as #is)osa+e )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s$ %ou# on' +e ease# an# not so# to )"ivate )a"ties
+e%ause of A%t No. -:83.
T&e )"o&i+ition on )"ivate )a"ties f"o( a%1ui"in* owne"s&i) of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of
t&e )u+i% #o(ain was on' a statuto"' )"o&i+ition an# t&e e*isatu"e %ou# t&e"efo"e "e(ove su%&
)"o&i+ition. T&e 1;26 Constitution #i# not )"o&i+it in#ivi#uas an# %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* *ove"n(ent
"e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain t&at we"e %assifie# as a*"i%utu"a an#s un#e" e?istin*
)u+i% an# aws. Se%tion -$ A"ti%e FIII of t&e 1;26 Constitution )"ovi#e# as foowsC
GSe%tion -. No )"ivate %o")o"ation o" asso%iation (a' a%1ui"e$ ease$ o" &o# )u+i% a*"i%utu"a
an#s in e?%ess of one t&ousan# an# twent' fou" &e%ta"es$ no" (a' an' in#ivi#ua a%1ui"e su%&
an#s +' )u"%&ase in e?%ess of one &un#"e# an# fo"t' &e%ta"es$ o" +' ease in e?%ess of one
t&ousan# an# twent'9fou" &e%ta"es$ o" +' &o(estea# in e?%ess of twent'9fou" &e%ta"es. Lan#s
a#a)te# to *"a5in*$ not e?%ee#in* two t&ousan# &e%ta"es$ (a' +e ease# to an in#ivi#ua$ )"ivate
%o")o"ation$ o" asso%iation.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
Sti$ afte" t&e effe%tivit' of t&e 1;26 Constitution$ t&e e*isatu"e #i# not "e)ea Se%tion 6: of A%t No. -:83 to
o)en fo" sae to )"ivate )a"ties *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. On t&e
%ont"a"'$ t&e e*isatu"e %ontinue# t&e on* esta+is&e# State )oi%' of "etainin* fo" t&e *ove"n(ent tite an#
owne"s&i) of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
Co((onweat& A%t No. 131 of t&e !&ii))ine Nationa Asse(+'
On Nove(+e" 8$ 1;27$ t&e Nationa Asse(+' a))"ove# Co((onweat& A%t No. 131$ aso =nown as t&e
!u+i% Lan# A%t$ w&i%& %o()ie# t&e t&en e?istin* aws on an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. CA No. 131$ as
a(en#e#$ "e(ains to t&is #a' t&e e?istin* *ene"a aw *ove"nin* t&e %assifi%ation an# #is)osition of an#s of
t&e )u+i% #o(ain ot&e" t&an ti(+e" an# (ine"a an#s.
61
Se%tion 7 of CA No. 131 e()owe"s t&e !"esi#ent to %assif' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into Gaiena+e o"
#is)osa+eG
6-
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ w&i%& )"io" to su%& %assifi%ation a"e inaiena+e an# outsi#e t&e
18
%o((e"%e of (an. Se%tion 8 of CA No. 131 aut&o"i5es t&e !"esi#ent to G#e%a"e w&at an#s a"e o)en to
#is)osition o" %on%ession.G Se%tion : of CA No. 131 states t&at t&e *ove"n(ent %an #e%a"e o)en fo"
#is)osition o" %on%ession on' an#s t&at a"e Goffi%ia' #ei(ite# an# %assifie#.G Se%tions 7$ 8 an# : of CA
No. 131 "ea# as foowsC
GSe%. 7. T&e !"esi#ent$ u)on t&e "e%o((en#ation of t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Co((e"%e$
s&a f"o( ti(e to ti(e %assif' t&e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into
.a0 Aiena+e o" #is)osa+e$
.+0 Ti(+e"$ an#
.%0 Eine"a an#s$
an# (a' at an' ti(e an# in i=e (anne" t"ansfe" su%& an#s f"o( one %ass to anot&e"$
62
fo" t&e
)u")ose of t&ei" a#(inist"ation an# #is)osition.
Se%. 8. Fo" t&e )u")oses of t&e a#(inist"ation an# #is)osition of aiena+e o" #is)osa+e )u+i%
an#s$ t&e !"esi#ent$ u)on "e%o((en#ation +' t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Co((e"%e$ s&a
f"o( ti(e to ti(e #e%a"e w&at an#s a"e o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession un#e" t&is A%t.
Se%. :. On' t&ose an#s s&a +e #e%a"e# o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession w&i%& &ave +een
offi%ia' #ei(ite# an# %assifie# an#$ w&en )"a%ti%a+e$ su"ve'e#$ an# w&i%& &ave not +een
"ese"ve# fo" )u+i% o" 1uasi9)u+i% uses$ no" a))"o)"iate# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent$ no" in an' (anne"
+e%o(e )"ivate )"o)e"t'$ no" t&ose on w&i%& a )"ivate "i*&t aut&o"i5e# an# "e%o*ni5e# +' t&is A%t
o" an' ot&e" vai# aw (a' +e %ai(e#$ o" w&i%&$ &avin* +een "ese"ve# o" a))"o)"iate#$ &ave
%ease# to +e so. ? ? ?.G
T&us$ +efo"e t&e *ove"n(ent %ou# aienate o" #is)ose of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ t&e !"esi#ent (ust fi"st
offi%ia' %assif' t&ese an#s as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e$ an# t&en #e%a"e t&e( o)en to #is)osition o"
%on%ession. T&e"e (ust +e no aw "ese"vin* t&ese an#s fo" )u+i% o" 1uasi9)u+i% uses.
T&e saient )"ovisions of CA No. 131$ on *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain$ a"e as foowsC
GSe%. 6:. An' t"a%t of an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain w&i%&$ +ein* neit&e" ti(+e" no" (ine"a an#$ is
inten#e# to +e use# fo" "esi#entia )u")oses o" fo" %o((e"%ia$ in#ust"ia$ o" ot&e" )"o#u%tive
)u")oses ot&e" t&an a*"i%utu"a$ an# is o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession$ s&a +e #is)ose# of
un#e" t&e )"ovisions of t&is %&a)te" an# not ot&e"wise.
Se%. 6;. T&e an#s #is)osa+e un#e" t&is tite s&a +e %assifie# as foowsC
.a0 Lan#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent +' #"e#*in*$ fiin*$ o" ot&e" (eansD
.+0 Fo"es&o"eD
.%0 Ea"s&' an#s o" an#s %ove"e# wit& wate" +o"#e"in* u)on t&e s&o"es o" +an=s of
navi*a+e a=es o" "ive"sD
.#0 Lan#s not in%u#e# in an' of t&e fo"e*oin* %asses.
Se%. 7<. An' t"a%t of an# %o()"ise# un#e" t&is tite (a' +e ease# o" so#$ as t&e %ase (a' +e$ to
an' )e"son$ %o")o"ation$ o" asso%iation aut&o"i5e# to )u"%&ase o" ease )u+i% an#s fo" a*"i%utu"a
)u")oses. ? ? ?.
19
Se%. 71. T&e an#s %o()"ise# in %asses .a0$ .+0$ an# .%0 of se%tion fift'9nine s&a +e #is)ose# of to
)"ivate )a"ties +' ease on' an# not ot&e"wise$ as soon as t&e !"esi#ent$ u)on "e%o((en#ation +'
t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e$ s&a #e%a"e t&at t&e sa(e a"e not ne%essa"' fo" t&e )u+i% se"vi%e
an# a"e o)en to #is)osition un#e" t&is %&a)te". T&e an#s in%u#e# in %ass .#0 (a' +e #is)ose# of
+' sae o" ease un#e" t&e )"ovisions of t&is A%t.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
Se%tion 71 of CA No. 131 "ea#o)te#$ afte" t&e effe%tivit' of t&e 1;26 Constitution$ Se%tion 6: of A%t No. -:83
)"o&i+itin* t&e sae of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
A t&ese an#s a"e inten#e# fo" "esi#entia$ %o((e"%ia$ in#ust"ia o" ot&e" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses. As
+efo"e$ Se%tion 71 aowe# on' t&e ease of su%& an#s to )"ivate )a"ties. T&e *ove"n(ent %ou# se to
)"ivate )a"ties on' an#s fain* un#e" Se%tion 6; .#0 of CA No. 131$ o" t&ose an#s fo" non9a*"i%utu"a
)u")oses not %assifie# as *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain. Fo"es&o"e an#s$ &oweve"$ +e%a(e inaiena+e un#e" t&e 1;26 Constitution w&i%& on' aowe# t&e
ease of t&ese an#s to 1uaifie# )"ivate )a"ties.
Se%tion 6: of CA No. 131 e?)"ess' states t&at #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain inten#e# fo"
"esi#entia$ %o((e"%ia$ in#ust"ia o" ot&e" )"o#u%tive )u")oses ot&e" t&an a*"i%utu"a Gs&a +e #is)ose# of
un#e" t&e )"ovisions of t&is %&a)te" an# not ot&e"wise.G Un#e" Se%tion 1< of CA No. 131$ t&e te"(
G#is)ositionG in%u#es ease of t&e an#. An' #is)osition of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&'
#is)osa+e an#s fo" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses (ust %o()' wit& C&a)te" IF$ Tite III of CA No. 131$
63
uness
a su+se1uent aw a(en#e# o" "e)eae# t&ese )"ovisions.
In &is %on%u""in* o)inion in t&e an#(a"= %ase of Re)u+i% Rea Estate Co")o"ation v. Cou"t of A))eas$
66

/usti%e Re'nato S. !uno su((a"i5e# su%%in%t' t&e aw on t&is (atte"$ as foowsC
GFo"es&o"e an#s a"e an#s of )u+i% #o(inion inten#e# fo" )u+i% use. So too a"e an#s "e%ai(e#
+' t&e *ove"n(ent +' #"e#*in*$ fiin*$ o" ot&e" (eans. A%t 1763 (an#ate# t&at t&e %ont"o an#
#is)osition of t&e fo"es&o"e an# an#s un#e" wate" "e(aine# in t&e nationa *ove"n(ent. Sai# aw
aowe# on' t&e Heasin*H of "e%ai(e# an#. T&e !u+i% Lan# A%ts of 1;1; an# 1;27 aso #e%a"e#
t&at t&e fo"es&o"e an# an#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e *ove"n(ent we"e to +e G#is)ose# of to )"ivate
)a"ties +' ease on' an# not ot&e"wise.G >efo"e easin*$ &oweve"$ t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a$ u)on
"e%o((en#ation of t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Natu"a Resou"%es$ &a# fi"st to #ete"(ine t&at
t&e an# "e%ai(e# was not ne%essa"' fo" t&e )u+i% se"vi%e. T&is "e1uisite (ust &ave +een (et
+efo"e t&e an# %ou# +e #is)ose# of. >ut even t&en$ t&e fo"es&o"e an# an#s un#e" wate" we"e not
to +e aienate# an# so# to )"ivate )a"ties. T&e #is)osition of t&e "e%ai(e# an# was on' +' ease.
T&e an# "e(aine# )"o)e"t' of t&e State.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
As o+se"ve# +' /usti%e !uno in &is %on%u""in* o)inion$ GCo((onweat& A%t No. 131 &as "e(aine# in effe%t
at )"esent.G
T&e State )oi%' )"o&i+itin* t&e sae to )"ivate )a"ties of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&'
aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ fi"st i()e(ente# in 1;<8 was t&us "eaffi"(e# in CA No. 131 afte" t&e
1;26 Constitution too= effe%t. T&e )"o&i+ition on t&e sae of fo"es&o"e an#s$ &oweve"$ +e%a(e a
%onstitutiona e#i%t un#e" t&e 1;26 Constitution. Fo"es&o"e an#s +e%a(e inaiena+e as natu"a "esou"%es of
t&e State$ uness "e%ai(e# +' t&e *ove"n(ent an# %assifie# as a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ in
w&i%& %ase t&e' wou# fa un#e" t&e %assifi%ation of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an#s.
Afte" t&e effe%tivit' of t&e 1;26 Constitution$ *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' #is)osa+e an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain %ontinue# to +e on' ease# an# not so# to )"ivate )a"ties.
67
T&ese an#s "e(aine# sui
*ene"is$ as t&e on' aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain t&e *ove"n(ent %ou# not se to
)"ivate )a"ties.
Sin%e t&en an# unti now$ t&e on' wa' t&e *ove"n(ent %an se to )"ivate )a"ties *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an#
(a"s&' #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain is fo" t&e e*isatu"e to )ass a aw aut&o"i5in* su%& sae. CA
No. 131 #oes not aut&o"i5e t&e !"esi#ent to "e%assif' *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s into ot&e"
non9a*"i%utu"a an#s un#e" Se%tion 6; .#0. Lan#s %assifie# un#e" Se%tion 6; .#0 a"e t&e on' aiena+e o"
#is)osa+e an#s fo" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses t&at t&e *ove"n(ent %ou# se to )"ivate )a"ties.
20
Eo"eove"$ Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 e?)"ess' "e1ui"es %on*"essiona aut&o"it' +efo"e an#s un#e" Se%tion
6; t&at t&e *ove"n(ent )"evious' t"ansfe""e# to *ove"n(ent units o" entities %ou# +e so# to )"ivate )a"ties.
Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 #e%a"es t&at:
GSe%. 7<. ? ? ? T&e a"ea so ease# o" so# s&a +e su%& as s&a$ in t&e ,u#*(ent of t&e Se%"eta"'
of A*"i%utu"e an# Natu"a Resou"%es$ +e "easona+' ne%essa"' fo" t&e )u")oses fo" w&i%& su%&
sae o" ease is "e1ueste#$ an# s&a not e?%ee# one &un#"e# an# fo"t'9fou" &e%ta"esC !"ovi#e#$
&oweve"$ T&at t&is i(itation s&a not a))' to *"ants$ #onations$ o" t"ansfe"s (a#e to a )"ovin%e$
(uni%i)ait' o" +"an%& o" su+#ivision of t&e 4ove"n(ent fo" t&e )u")oses #ee(e# +' sai# entities
%on#u%ive to t&e )u+i% inte"estD +ut t&e an# so *"ante#$ #onate#$ o" t"ansfe""e# to a )"ovin%e$
(uni%i)ait' o" +"an%& o" su+#ivision of t&e 4ove"n(ent s&a not +e aienate#$ en%u(+e"e#$ o"
ot&e"wise #is)ose# of in a (anne" affe%tin* its tite$ e?%e)t w&en aut&o"i5e# +' Con*"essC ? ? ?.G
.E()&asis su))ie#0
T&e %on*"essiona aut&o"it' "e1ui"e# in Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 (i""o"s t&e e*isative aut&o"it' "e1ui"e# in
Se%tion 67 of A%t No. -:83.
One "eason fo" t&e %on*"essiona aut&o"it' is t&at Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 e?e()te# *ove"n(ent units an#
entities f"o( t&e (a?i(u( a"ea of )u+i% an#s t&at %ou# +e a%1ui"e# f"o( t&e State. T&ese *ove"n(ent
units an# entities s&ou# not ,ust tu"n a"oun# an# se t&ese an#s to )"ivate )a"ties in vioation of
%onstitutiona o" statuto"' i(itations. Ot&e"wise$ t&e t"ansfe" of an#s fo" non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses to
*ove"n(ent units an# entities %ou# +e use# to %i"%u(vent %onstitutiona i(itations on owne"s&i) of
aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. In t&e sa(e (anne"$ su%& t"ansfe"s %ou# aso +e use#
to eva#e t&e statuto"' )"o&i+ition in CA No. 131 on t&e sae of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of
t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate )a"ties. Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 %onstitutes +' o)e"ation of aw a ien on t&ese
an#s.
68
In %ase of sae o" ease of #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain fain* un#e" Se%tion 6; of CA No. 131$
Se%tions 72 an# 78 "e1ui"e a )u+i% +i##in*. Se%tions 72 an# 78 of CA No. 131 )"ovi#e as foowsC
GSe%. 72. W&eneve" it is #e%i#e# t&at an#s %ove"e# +' t&is %&a)te" a"e not nee#e# fo" )u+i%
)u")oses$ t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s s&a as= t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Co((e"%e .now t&e
Se%"eta"' of Natu"a Resou"%es0 fo" aut&o"it' to #is)ose of t&e sa(e. U)on "e%ei)t of su%&
aut&o"it'$ t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s s&a *ive noti%e +' )u+i% a#ve"tise(ent in t&e sa(e (anne" as in
t&e %ase of eases o" saes of a*"i%utu"a )u+i% an#$ ? ? ?.
Se%. 78. T&e ease o" sae s&a +e (a#e +' o"a +i##in*D an# a#,u#i%ation s&a +e (a#e to t&e
&i*&est +i##e". ? ? ?.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&us$ CA No. 131 (an#ates t&e 4ove"n(ent to )ut to )u+i% au%tion a eases o" saes of aiena+e o"
#is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
6:
Li=e A%t No. 1763 an# A%t No. -:83 +efo"e it$ CA No. 131 #i# not "e)ea Se%tion 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of
Wate"s of 1:77. !"ivate )a"ties %ou# sti "e%ai( )o"tions of t&e sea wit& *ove"n(ent )e"(ission. Howeve"$
t&e "e%ai(e# an# %ou# +e%o(e )"ivate an# on' if %assifie# as aiena+e a*"i%utu"a an# of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain o)en to #is)osition un#e" CA No. 131. T&e 1;26 Constitution )"o&i+ite# t&e aienation of a natu"a
"esou"%es e?%e)t )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s.
T&e Civi Co#e of 1;6<
T&e Civi Co#e of 1;6< "ea#o)te# su+stantia' t&e #efinition of )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion foun# in t&e Civi
Co#e of 1::;. A"ti%es 3-< an# 3-- of t&e Civi Co#e of 1;6< state t&atC
GA"t. 3-<. T&e foowin* t&in*s a"e )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inionC
.10 T&ose inten#e# fo" )u+i% use$ su%& as "oa#s$ %anas$ "ive"s$ to""ents$ )o"ts an# +"i#*es
%onst"u%te# +' t&e State$ +an=s$ s&o"es$ "oa#stea#s$ an# ot&e"s of si(ia" %&a"a%te"D
21
.-0 T&ose w&i%& +eon* to t&e State$ wit&out +ein* fo" )u+i% use$ an# a"e inten#e# fo" so(e )u+i%
se"vi%e o" fo" t&e #eveo)(ent of t&e nationa weat&.
? ? ?.
A"t. 3--. !"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion$ w&en no on*e" inten#e# fo" )u+i% use o" fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$
s&a fo"( )a"t of t&e )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e State.G
A*ain$ t&e *ove"n(ent (ust fo"(a' #e%a"e t&at t&e )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion is no on*e" nee#e# fo"
)u+i% use o" )u+i% se"vi%e$ +efo"e t&e sa(e %ou# +e %assifie# as )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e State.
6;
In t&e
%ase of *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ t&e #e%a"ation of t&ei" +ein*
#is)osa+e$ as we as t&e (anne" of t&ei" #is)osition$ is *ove"ne# +' t&e a))i%a+e )"ovisions of CA No.
131.
Li=e t&e Civi Co#e of 1::;$ t&e Civi Co#e of 1;6< in%u#e# as )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion t&ose )"o)e"ties
of t&e State w&i%&$ wit&out +ein* fo" )u+i% use$ a"e inten#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e o" t&e G#eveo)(ent of t&e
nationa weat&.G T&us$ *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e State$ even if not e()o'e# fo" )u+i%
use o" )u+i% se"vi%e$ if #eveo)e# to en&an%e t&e nationa weat&$ a"e %assifie# as )"o)e"t' of )u+i%
#o(inion.
Dis)ositions un#e" t&e 1;82 Constitution
T&e 1;82 Constitution$ w&i%& too= effe%t on /anua"' 18$ 1;82$ i=ewise a#o)te# t&e Re*aian #o%t"ine.
Se%tion :$ A"ti%e FIV of t&e 1;82 Constitution state# t&atC
GSe%. :. A an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ wate"s$ (ine"as$ %oa$ )et"oeu( an# ot&e" (ine"a ois$ a
fo"%es of )otentia ene"*'$ fis&e"ies$ wi#ife$ an# ot&e" natu"a "esou"%es of t&e !&ii))ines +eon*
to t&e State. Wit& t&e e?%e)tion of a*"i%utu"a$ in#ust"ia o" %o((e"%ia$ "esi#entia$ an#
"esette(ent an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ natu"a "esou"%es s&a not +e aienate#$ an# no i%ense$
%on%ession$ o" ease fo" t&e e?)o"ation$ #eveo)(ent$ e?)oitation$ o" utii5ation of an' of t&e
natu"a "esou"%es s&a +e *"ante# fo" a )e"io# e?%ee#in* twent'9five 'ea"s$ "enewa+e fo" not (o"e
t&an twent'9five 'ea"s$ e?%e)t as to wate" "i*&ts fo" i""i*ation$ wate" su))'$ fis&e"ies$ o" in#ust"ia
uses ot&e" t&an t&e #eveo)(ent of wate" )owe"$ in w&i%& %ases$ +enefi%ia use (a' +e t&e
(easu"e an# t&e i(it of t&e *"ant.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&e 1;82 Constitution )"o&i+ite# t&e aienation of a natu"a "esou"%es wit& t&e e?%e)tion of Ga*"i%utu"a$
in#ust"ia o" %o((e"%ia$ "esi#entia$ an# "esette(ent an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.G In %ont"ast$ t&e 1;26
Constitution +a""e# t&e aienation of a natu"a "esou"%es e?%e)t G)u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s.G Howeve"$ t&e
te"( G)u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#sG in t&e 1;26 Constitution en%o()asse# in#ust"ia$ %o((e"%ia$ "esi#entia an#
"esette(ent an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
7<
If t&e an# of )u+i% #o(ain we"e neit&e" ti(+e" no" (ine"a an#$ it
wou# fa un#e" t&e %assifi%ation of a*"i%utu"a an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. >ot& t&e 1;26 an# 1;82
Constitutions$ t&e"efo"e$ )"o&i+ite# t&e aienation of a natu"a "esou"%es e?%e)t a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain.
T&e 1;82 Constitution$ &oweve"$ i(ite# t&e aienation of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to in#ivi#uas w&o we"e
%iti5ens of t&e !&ii))ines. !"ivate %o")o"ations$ even if w&o' owne# +' !&ii))ine %iti5ens$ we"e no on*e"
aowe# to a%1ui"e aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain uni=e in t&e 1;26 Constitution. Se%tion 11$ A"ti%e
FIV of t&e 1;82 Constitution #e%a"e# t&at:
GSe%. 11. T&e >atasan* !a(+ansa$ ta=in* into a%%ount %onse"vation$ e%oo*i%a$ an# #eveo)(ent
"e1ui"e(ents of t&e natu"a "esou"%es$ s&a #ete"(ine +' aw t&e si5e of an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
w&i%& (a' +e #eveo)e#$ &e# o" a%1ui"e# +'$ o" ease# to$ an' 1uaifie# in#ivi#ua$ %o")o"ation$ o"
asso%iation$ an# t&e %on#itions t&e"efo". No )"ivate %o")o"ation o" asso%iation (a' &o# aiena+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +' ease not to e?%ee# one t&ousan# &e%ta"es in a"ea no" (a'
an' %iti5en &o# su%& an#s +' ease in e?%ess of five &un#"e# &e%ta"es o" a%1ui"e +' )u"%&ase$
&o(estea# o" *"ant$ in e?%ess of twent'9fou" &e%ta"es. No )"ivate %o")o"ation o" asso%iation (a'
&o# +' ease$ %on%ession$ i%ense o" )e"(it$ ti(+e" o" fo"est an#s an# ot&e" ti(+e" o" fo"est
"esou"%es in e?%ess of one &un#"e# t&ousan# &e%ta"es. Howeve"$ su%& a"ea (a' +e in%"ease# +'
22
t&e >atasan* !a(+ansa u)on "e%o((en#ation of t&e Nationa E%ono(i% an# Deveo)(ent
Aut&o"it'.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&us$ un#e" t&e 1;82 Constitution$ )"ivate %o")o"ations %ou# &o# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain on'
t&"ou*& ease. On' in#ivi#uas %ou# now a%1ui"e aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ an# )"ivate
%o")o"ations +e%a(e a+soute' +a""e# f"o( a%1ui"in* an' =in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&e
%onstitutiona +an e?ten#e# to a =in#s of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ w&ie t&e statuto"' +an un#e"
CA No. 131 a))ie# on' to *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain.
!D No. 1<:3 C"eatin* t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it'
On Fe+"ua"' 3$ 1;88$ t&en !"esi#ent Fe"#inan# Ea"%os issue# !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3 %"eatin* !EA$
a w&o' *ove"n(ent owne# an# %ont"oe# %o")o"ation wit& a s)e%ia %&a"te". Se%tions 3 an# : of !D No.
1<:3$ vests !EA wit& t&e foowin* )u")oses an# )owe"sC
GSe%. 3. !u")ose. T&e Aut&o"it' is &e"e+' %"eate# fo" t&e foowin* )u")osesC
.a0 To "e%ai( an#$ in%u#in* fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas$ +' #"e#*in*$ fiin* o" ot&e" (eans$
o" to a%1ui"e "e%ai(e# an#D
.+0 To #eveo)$ i()"ove$ a%1ui"e$ a#(iniste"$ #ea in$ su+#ivi#e$ #is)ose$ ease an# se an' an# a
=in#s of an#s$ +ui#in*s$ estates an# ot&e" fo"(s of "ea )"o)e"t'$ owne#$ (ana*e#$ %ont"oe#
an#Ko" o)e"ate# +' t&e *ove"n(entD
.%0 To )"ovi#e fo"$ o)e"ate o" a#(iniste" su%& se"vi%e as (a' +e ne%essa"' fo" t&e effi%ient$
e%ono(i%a an# +enefi%ia utii5ation of t&e a+ove )"o)e"ties.
Se%. 6. !owe"s an# fun%tions of t&e Aut&o"it'. T&e Aut&o"it' s&a$ in %a""'in* out t&e )u")oses fo"
w&i%& it is %"eate#$ &ave t&e foowin* )owe"s an# fun%tionsC
.a0To )"es%"i+e its +'9aws.
? ? ?
.i0 To &o# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain in e?%ess of t&e a"ea )e"(itte# to )"ivate %o")o"ations +'
statute.
.,0 To "e%ai( an#s an# to %onst"u%t wo"= a%"oss$ o" ot&e"wise$ an' st"ea($ wate"%ou"se$ %ana$
#it%&$ fu(e ? ? ?.
? ? ?
.o0 To )e"fo"( su%& a%ts an# e?e"%ise su%& fun%tions as (a' +e ne%essa"' fo" t&e attain(ent of t&e
)u")oses an# o+,e%tives &e"ein s)e%ifie#.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
!D No. 1<:3 aut&o"i5es !EA to "e%ai( +ot& fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
Fo"es&o"e a"eas a"e t&ose %ove"e# an# un%ove"e# +' t&e e++ an# fow of t&e ti#e.
71
Su+(e"*e# a"eas a"e
t&ose )e"(anent' un#e" wate" "e*a"#ess of t&e e++ an# fow of t&e ti#e.
7-
Fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas
in#is)uta+' +eon* to t&e )u+i% #o(ain
72
an# a"e inaiena+e uness "e%ai(e#$ %assifie# as aiena+e an#s
o)en to #is)osition$ an# fu"t&e" #e%a"e# no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e.
T&e +an in t&e 1;82 Constitution on )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
#i# not a))' to !EA sin%e it was t&en$ an# unti to#a'$ a fu' owne# *ove"n(ent %o")o"ation. T&e
%onstitutiona +an a))ie# t&en$ as it sti a))ies now$ on' to G)"ivate %o")o"ations an# asso%iations.G !D No.
1<:3 e?)"ess' e()owe"s !EA Gto &o# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ainG even Gin e?%ess of t&e a"ea )e"(itte# to
23
)"ivate %o")o"ations +' statute.G T&us$ !EA %an &o# tite to )"ivate an#s$ as we as tite to an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain.
In o"#e" fo" !EA to se its "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ t&e"e
(ust +e e*isative aut&o"it' e()owe"in* !EA to se t&ese an#s. T&is e*isative aut&o"it' is ne%essa"' in
view of Se%tion 7< of CA No.131$ w&i%& statesC
GSe%. 7<. ? ? ?D +ut t&e an# so *"ante#$ #onate# o" t"ansfe""e# to a )"ovin%e$ (uni%i)ait'$ o"
+"an%& o" su+#ivision of t&e 4ove"n(ent s&a not +e aienate#$ en%u(+e"e# o" ot&e"wise #is)ose#
of in a (anne" affe%tin* its tite$ e?%e)t w&en aut&o"i5e# +' Con*"essD ? ? ?.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
Wit&out su%& e*isative aut&o"it'$ !EA %ou# not se +ut on' ease its "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e#
aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Neve"t&eess$ an' e*isative aut&o"it' *"ante# to !EA to se its
"e%ai(e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain wou# +e su+,e%t to t&e %onstitutiona +an on )"ivate
%o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Hen%e$ su%& e*isative aut&o"it' %ou# on'
+enefit )"ivate in#ivi#uas.
Dis)ositions un#e" t&e 1;:8 Constitution
T&e 1;:8 Constitution$ i=e t&e 1;26 an# 1;82 Constitutions +efo"e it$ &as a#o)te# t&e Re*aian #o%t"ine.
T&e 1;:8 Constitution #e%a"es t&at a natu"a "esou"%es a"e Gowne# +' t&e State$G an# e?%e)t fo" aiena+e
a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ natu"a "esou"%es %annot +e aienate#. Se%tions - an# 2$ A"ti%e FII of
t&e 1;:8 Constitution state t&atC
GSe%tion -. A an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ wate"s$ (ine"as$ %oa$ )et"oeu( an# ot&e" (ine"a ois$
a fo"%es of )otentia ene"*'$ fis&e"ies$ fo"ests o" ti(+e"$ wi#ife$ fo"a an# fauna$ an# ot&e" natu"a
"esou"%es a"e owne# +' t&e State. Wit& t&e e?%e)tion of a*"i%utu"a an#s$ a ot&e" natu"a
"esou"%es s&a not +e aienate#. T&e e?)o"ation$ #eveo)(ent$ an# utii5ation of natu"a "esou"%es
s&a +e un#e" t&e fu %ont"o an# su)e"vision of t&e State. ? ? ?.
Se%tion 2. Lan#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain a"e %assifie# into a*"i%utu"a$ fo"est o" ti(+e"$ (ine"a an#s$
an# nationa )a"=s. A*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain (a' +e fu"t&e" %assifie# +' aw
a%%o"#in* to t&e uses w&i%& t&e' (a' +e #evote#. Aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain s&a +e
i(ite# to a*"i%utu"a an#s. !"ivate %o")o"ations o" asso%iations (a' not &o# su%& aiena+e an#s
of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +' ease$ fo" a )e"io# not e?%ee#in* twent'9five 'ea"s$ "enewa+e fo"
not (o"e t&an twent'9five 'ea"s$ an# not to e?%ee# one t&ousan# &e%ta"es in a"ea. Citi5ens of t&e
!&ii))ines (a' ease not (o"e t&an five &un#"e# &e%ta"es$ o" a%1ui"e not (o"e t&an tweve
&e%ta"es t&e"eof +' )u"%&ase$ &o(estea#$ o" *"ant.
Ta=in* into a%%ount t&e "e1ui"e(ents of %onse"vation$ e%oo*'$ an# #eveo)(ent$ an# su+,e%t to
t&e "e1ui"e(ents of a*"a"ian "efo"($ t&e Con*"ess s&a #ete"(ine$ +' aw$ t&e si5e of an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain w&i%& (a' +e a%1ui"e#$ #eveo)e#$ &e#$ o" ease# an# t&e %on#itions t&e"efo".G
.E()&asis su))ie#0
T&e 1;:8 Constitution %ontinues t&e State )oi%' in t&e 1;82 Constitution +annin* )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o(
a%1ui"in* an' =in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Li=e t&e 1;82 Constitution$ t&e 1;:8 Constitution
aows )"ivate %o")o"ations to &o# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain on' t&"ou*& ease. As in t&e 1;26
an# 1;82 Constitutions$ t&e *ene"a aw *ove"nin* t&e ease to )"ivate %o")o"ations of "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e
an# (a"s&' aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain is sti CA No. 131.
T&e Rationae +e&in# t&e Constitutiona >an
T&e "ationae +e&in# t&e %onstitutiona +an on %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in*$ e?%e)t t&"ou*& ease$ aiena+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain is not we un#e"stoo#. Du"in* t&e #ei+e"ations of t&e 1;:7 Constitutiona
Co((ission$ t&e %o((issione"s )"o+e# t&e "ationae +e&in# t&is +an$ t&usC
GFR. >ERNASC E". Vi%e9!"esi#ent$ (' 1uestions &ave "efe"en%e to )a*e 2$ ine 6 w&i%& sa'sC
24
PNo )"ivate %o")o"ation o" asso%iation (a' &o# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +'
ease$ not to e?%ee# one t&ousan# &e%ta"es in a"ea.H
If we "e%a$ t&is )"ovision #i# not e?ist un#e" t&e 1;26 Constitution$ +ut t&is was int"o#u%e# in t&e
1;82 Constitution. In effe%t$ it )"o&i+its )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* aiena+e )u+i% an#s.
>ut it &as not +een ve"' %ea" in ,u"is)"u#en%e w&at t&e "eason fo" t&is is. In so(e of t&e %ases
#e%i#e# in 1;:- an# 1;:2$ it was in#i%ate# t&at t&e )u")ose of t&is is to )"event a"*e an#&o#in*s.
Is t&at t&e intent of t&is )"ovisionO
ER. VILLE4ASC I t&in= t&at is t&e s)i"it of t&e )"ovision.
FR. >ERNASC In e?istin* #e%isions invovin* t&e I*esia ni C"isto$ t&e"e we"e instan%es w&e"e t&e
I*esia ni C"isto was not aowe# to a%1ui"e a (e"e 2129s1ua"e (ete" an# w&e"e a %&a)e stoo#
+e%ause t&e Su)"e(e Cou"t sai# it wou# +e in vioation of t&is.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
In A'o* v. Cusi$
73
t&e Cou"t e?)aine# t&e "ationae +e&in# t&is %onstitutiona +an in t&is wa'C
GIn#ee#$ one )u")ose of t&e %onstitutiona )"o&i+ition a*ainst )u"%&ases of )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s
+' )"ivate %o")o"ations is to e1uita+' #iffuse an# owne"s&i) o" to en%ou"a*e Howne"9%utivato"s&i)
an# t&e e%ono(i% fa(i'9si5e fa"(H an# to )"event a "e%u""en%e of %ases i=e t&e instant %ase. Hu*e
an#&o#in*s +' %o")o"ations o" )"ivate )e"sons &a# s)awne# so%ia un"est.G
Howeve"$ if t&e %onstitutiona intent is to )"event &u*e an#&o#in*s$ t&e Constitution %ou# &ave si()'
i(ite# t&e si5e of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain t&at %o")o"ations %ou# a%1ui"e. T&e Constitution
%ou# &ave foowe# t&e i(itations on in#ivi#uas$ w&o %ou# a%1ui"e not (o"e t&an -3 &e%ta"es of aiena+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain un#e" t&e 1;82 Constitution$ an# not (o"e t&an 1- &e%ta"es un#e" t&e 1;:8
Constitution.
If t&e %onstitutiona intent is to en%ou"a*e e%ono(i% fa(i'9si5e fa"(s$ )a%in* t&e an# in t&e na(e of a
%o")o"ation wou# +e (o"e effe%tive in )"eventin* t&e +"ea=9u) of fa"(an#s. If t&e fa"(an# is "e*iste"e# in
t&e na(e of a %o")o"ation$ u)on t&e #eat& of t&e owne"$ &is &ei"s wou# in&e"it s&a"es in t&e %o")o"ation
instea# of su+#ivi#e# )a"%es of t&e fa"(an#. T&is wou# )"event t&e %ontinuin* +"ea=9u) of fa"(an#s into
s(ae" an# s(ae" )ots f"o( one *ene"ation to t&e ne?t.
In a%tua )"a%ti%e$ t&e %onstitutiona +an st"en*t&ens t&e %onstitutiona i(itation on in#ivi#uas f"o(
a%1ui"in* (o"e t&an t&e aowe# a"ea of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Wit&out t&e %onstitutiona +an$
in#ivi#uas w&o a"ea#' a%1ui"e# t&e (a?i(u( a"ea of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain %ou# easi' set
u) %o")o"ations to a%1ui"e (o"e aiena+e )u+i% an#s. An in#ivi#ua %ou# own as (an' %o")o"ations as &is
(eans wou# aow &i(. An in#ivi#ua %ou# even &i#e &is owne"s&i) of a %o")o"ation +' )uttin* &is
no(inees as sto%=&o#e"s of t&e %o")o"ation. T&e %o")o"ation is a %onvenient ve&i%e to %i"%u(vent t&e
%onstitutiona i(itation on a%1uisition +' in#ivi#uas of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
T&e %onstitutiona intent$ un#e" t&e 1;82 an# 1;:8 Constitutions$ is to t"ansfe" owne"s&i) of on' a i(ite#
a"ea of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to a 1uaifie# in#ivi#ua. T&is %onstitutiona intent is safe*ua"#e#
+' t&e )"ovision )"o&i+itin* %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ sin%e t&e
ve&i%e to %i"%u(vent t&e %onstitutiona intent is "e(ove#. T&e avaia+e aiena+e )u+i% an#s a"e *"a#ua'
#e%"easin* in t&e fa%e of an eve"9*"owin* )o)uation. T&e (ost effe%tive wa' to insu"e fait&fu a#&e"en%e to
t&is %onstitutiona intent is to *"ant o" se aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain on' to in#ivi#uas. T&is$ it
wou# see($ is t&e )"a%ti%a +enefit a"isin* f"o( t&e %onstitutiona +an.
T&e A(en#e# /oint Ventu"e A*"ee(ent
T&e su+,e%t (atte" of t&e A(en#e# /VA$ as state# in its se%on# W&e"eas %ause$ %onsists of t&"ee
)"o)e"ties$ na(e'C
1. GITJ&"ee )a"tia' "e%ai(e# an# su+stantia' e"o#e# isan#s aon* E(iio A*uina#o >oueva"# in
!a"ana1ue an# Las !inas$ Eet"o Eania$ wit& a %o(+ine# tite# a"ea of 1$68:$331 s1ua"e (ete"sDG
25
-. GIAJnot&e" a"ea of -$3-1$66; s1ua"e (ete"s %onti*uous to t&e t&"ee isan#sDG an#
2. GIAJt AEARIHs o)tion as a))"ove# +' !EA$ an a##itiona 26< &e%ta"es (o"e o" ess to "e*ua"i5e
t&e %onfi*u"ation of t&e "e%ai(e# a"ea.G
76
!EA %onfi"(s t&at t&e A(en#e# /VA invoves Gt&e #eveo)(ent of t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s an# fu"t&e"
"e%a(ation of a+out -6< &e%ta"es ? ? ?$G )us an o)tion G*"ante# to AEARI to su+se1uent' "e%ai( anot&e"
26< &e%ta"es ? ? ?.G
77
In s&o"t$ t&e A(en#e# /VA %ove"s a "e%a(ation a"ea of 86< &e%ta"es. On' 168.:3 &e%ta"es of t&e 86<9
&e%ta"e "e%a(ation )"o,e%t &ave +een "e%ai(e#$ an# t&e "est of t&e 6;-.16 &e%ta"es a"e sti su+(e"*e#
a"eas fo"(in* )a"t of Eania >a'.
Un#e" t&e A(en#e# /VA$ AEARI wi "ei(+u"se !EA t&e su( of !1$:;3$1-;$-<<.<< fo" !EAHs Ga%tua %ostG
in )a"tia' "e%ai(in* t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s. AEARI wi aso %o()ete$ at its own e?)ense$ t&e "e%a(ation of
t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s. AEARI wi fu"t&e" s&ou#e" a t&e "e%a(ation %osts of a t&e ot&e" a"eas$ totain*
6;-.16 &e%ta"es$ sti to +e "e%ai(e#. AEARI an# !EA wi s&a"e$ in t&e )"o)o"tion of 8< )e"%ent an# 2<
)e"%ent$ "es)e%tive'$ t&e tota net usa+e a"ea w&i%& is #efine# in t&e A(en#e# /VA as t&e tota "e%ai(e#
a"ea ess 2< )e"%ent ea"(a"=e# fo" %o((on a"eas. Tite to AEARIHs s&a"e in t&e net usa+e a"ea$ totain*
278.6 &e%ta"es$ wi +e issue# in t&e na(e of AEARI. Se%tion 6.- .%0 of t&e A(en#e# /VA )"ovi#es t&atC
G? ? ?$ !EA s&a &ave t&e #ut' to e?e%ute wit&out #ea' t&e ne%essa"' #ee# of t"ansfe" o"
%onve'an%e of t&e tite )e"tainin* to AEARIHs Lan# s&a"e +ase# on t&e Lan# Ao%ation !an. !EA$
w&en "e1ueste# in w"itin* +' AEARI$ s&a t&en %ause t&e issuan%e an# #eive"' of t&e )"o)e"
%e"tifi%ates of tite %ove"in* AEARIHs Lan# S&a"e in t&e na(e of AEARI$ ? ? ?D )"ovi#e#$ t&at if (o"e
t&an sevent' )e"%ent .8<Q0 of t&e tite# a"ea at an' *iven ti(e )e"tains to AEARI$ !EA s&a #eive"
to AEARI on' sevent' )e"%ent .8<Q0 of t&e tites )e"tainin* to AEARI$ unti su%& ti(e w&en a
%o""es)on#in* )"o)o"tionate a"ea of a##itiona an# )e"tainin* to !EA &as +een tite#.G .E()&asis
su))ie#0
In#is)uta+'$ un#e" t&e A(en#e# /VA AEARI wi a%1ui"e an# own a (a?i(u( of 278.6 &e%ta"es of
"e%ai(e# an# w&i%& wi +e tite# in its na(e.
To i()e(ent t&e A(en#e# /VA$ !EA #ee*ate# to t&e unin%o")o"ate# !EA9AEARI ,oint ventu"e !EAHs
statuto"' aut&o"it'$ "i*&ts an# )"ivie*es to "e%ai( fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas in Eania >a'. Se%tion
2.-.a of t&e A(en#e# /VA states t&atC
G!EA &e"e+' %ont"i+utes to t&e ,oint ventu"e its "i*&ts an# )"ivie*es to )e"fo"( Rawan#
Re%a(ation an# Ho"i5onta Deveo)(ent as we as own t&e Re%a(ation A"ea$ t&e"e+' *"antin*
t&e /oint Ventu"e t&e fu an# e?%usive "i*&t$ aut&o"it' an# )"ivie*e to un#e"ta=e t&e !"o,e%t in
a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e Easte" Deveo)(ent !an.G
T&e A(en#e# /VA is t&e )"o#u%t of a "ene*otiation of t&e o"i*ina /VA #ate# A)"i -6$ 1;;6 an# its
su))e(enta a*"ee(ent #ate# Au*ust ;$ 1;;6.
T&e T&"es&o# Issue
T&e t&"es&o# issue is w&et&e" AEARI$ a )"ivate %o")o"ation$ %an a%1ui"e an# own un#e" t&e A(en#e# /VA
278.6 &e%ta"es of "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas in Eania >a' in view of Se%tions - an# 2$
A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution w&i%& state t&atC
GSe%tion -. A an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ wate"s$ (ine"as$ %oa$ )et"oeu($ an# ot&e" (ine"a ois$
a fo"%es of )otentia ene"*'$ fis&e"ies$ fo"ests o" ti(+e"$ wi#ife$ fo"a an# fauna$ an# ot&e" natu"a
"esou"%es a"e owne# +' t&e State. Wit& t&e e?%e)tion of a*"i%utu"a an#s$ a ot&e" natu"a
"esou"%es s&a not +e aienate#. ? ? ?.
? ? ?
26
Se%tion 2. ? ? ? Aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain s&a +e i(ite# to a*"i%utu"a an#s. !"ivate
%o")o"ations o" asso%iations (a' not &o# su%& aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +'
ease$ ? ? ?.G.E()&asis su))ie#0
Cassifi%ation of Re%ai(e# Fo"es&o"e an# Su+(e"*e# A"eas
!EA "ea#i' %on%e#es t&at an#s "e%ai(e# f"o( fo"es&o"e o" su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a' a"e aiena+e
o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. In its Ee(o"an#u($
78
!EA a#(its t&atC
GUn#e" t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t .CA 131$ as a(en#e#0$ "e%ai(e# an#s a"e %assifie# as aiena+e an#
#is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ainC
HSe%. 6;. T&e an#s #is)osa+e un#e" t&is tite s&a +e %assifie# as foowsC
.a0 Lan#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e *ove"n(ent +' #"e#*in*$ fiin*$ o" ot&e" (eansD
? ? ?.HG .E()&asis su))ie#0
Li=ewise$ t&e Le*a Tas= Fo"%e
7:
%onstitute# un#e" !"esi#entia A#(inist"ative O"#e" No. 276 a#(itte# in its
Re)o"t an# Re%o((en#ation to t&en !"esi#ent Fi#e V. Ra(os$ GIRJe%ai(e# an#s a"e %assifie# as
aiena+e an# #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.G
7;
T&e Le*a Tas= Fo"%e %on%u#e# t&atC
GD. Con%usion
Re%ai(e# an#s a"e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Howeve"$ +' statuto"' aut&o"it'$ t&e "i*&ts of
owne"s&i) an# #is)osition ove" "e%ai(e# an#s &ave +een t"ansfe""e# to !EA$ +' vi"tue of w&i%&
!EA$ as owne"$ (a' vai#' %onve' t&e sa(e to an' 1uaifie# )e"son wit&out vioatin* t&e
Constitution o" an' statute.
T&e %onstitutiona )"ovision )"o&i+itin* )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( &o#in* )u+i% an#$ e?%e)t +'
ease .Se%. 2$ A"t. FVII$
8<
1;:8 Constitution0$ #oes not a))' to "e%ai(e# an#s w&ose owne"s&i)
&as )asse# on to !EA +' statuto"' *"ant.G
Un#e" Se%tion -$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution$ t&e fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a' a"e
)a"t of t&e Gan#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ wate"s ? ? ? an# ot&e" natu"a "esou"%esG an# %onse1uent' Gowne#
+' t&e State.G As su%&$ fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas Gs&a not +e aienate#$G uness t&e' a"e %assifie#
as Ga*"i%utu"a an#sG of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&e (e"e "e%a(ation of t&ese a"eas +' !EA #oes not %onve"t
t&ese inaiena+e natu"a "esou"%es of t&e State into aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
T&e"e (ust +e a aw o" )"esi#entia )"o%a(ation offi%ia' %assif'in* t&ese "e%ai(e# an#s as aiena+e o"
#is)osa+e an# o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession. Eo"eove"$ t&ese "e%ai(e# an#s %annot +e %assifie# as
aiena+e o" #is)osa+e if t&e aw &as "ese"ve# t&e( fo" so(e )u+i% o" 1uasi9)u+i% use.
81
Se%tion : of CA No. 131 )"ovi#es t&at Gon' t&ose an#s s&a +e #e%a"e# o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession
w&i%& &ave +een offi%ia' #ei(ite# an# %assifie#.G
8-
T&e !"esi#ent &as t&e aut&o"it' to %assif' inaiena+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ )u"suant to Se%tion 7 of
CA No. 131. In Lau"e vs. 4a"%ia$
82
t&e E?e%utive De)a"t(ent atte()te# to se t&e Ro))on*i )"o)e"t' in
To='o$ /a)an$ w&i%& was a%1ui"e# +' t&e !&ii))ine 4ove"n(ent fo" use as t&e C&an%e"' of t&e !&ii))ine
E(+ass'. At&ou*& t&e C&an%e"' &a# t"ansfe""e# to anot&e" o%ation t&i"teen 'ea"s ea"ie"$ t&e Cou"t sti
"ue# t&at$ un#e" A"ti%e 3--
83
of t&e Civi Co#e$ a )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion "etains su%& %&a"a%te" unti
fo"(a' #e%a"e# ot&e"wise. T&e Cou"t "ue# t&atC
GT&e fa%t t&at t&e Ro))on*i site &as not +een use# fo" a on* ti(e fo" a%tua E(+ass' se"vi%e #oes
not auto(ati%a' %onve"t it to )at"i(onia )"o)e"t'. An' su%& %onve"sion &a))ens on' if t&e
)"o)e"t' is wit&#"awn f"o( )u+i% use .Ce+u O?'*en an# A%et'ene Co. v. >e"%ies$ 77 SCRA 3:1
I1;86J. A )"o)e"t' %ontinues to +e )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ not avaia+e fo" )"ivate a))"o)"iation
o" owne"s&i) Hunti t&e"e is a fo"(a #e%a"ation on t&e )a"t of t&e *ove"n(ent to wit&#"aw it f"o(
+ein* su%&H .I*na%io v. Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ 1<: !&i. 226 I1;7<J.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
27
!D No. 1<:6$ issue# on Fe+"ua"' 3$ 1;88$ aut&o"i5e# t&e issuan%e of s)e%ia an# )atents fo" an#s
"e%ai(e# +' !EA f"o( t&e fo"es&o"e o" su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a'. On /anua"' 1;$ 1;:: t&en
!"esi#ent Co"a5on C. A1uino issue# S)e%ia !atent No. 2618 in t&e na(e of !EA fo" t&e 168.:3 &e%ta"es
%o()"isin* t&e )a"tia' "e%ai(e# F"ee#o( Isan#s. Su+se1uent'$ on A)"i ;$ 1;;; t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s of
t&e Euni%i)ait' of !a"ana1ue issue# TCT Nos. 82<;$ 8211 an# 821- in t&e na(e of !EA )u"suant to
Se%tion 1<2 of !D No. 16-; aut&o"i5in* t&e issuan%e of %e"tifi%ates of tite %o""es)on#in* to an# )atents. To
t&is #a'$ t&ese %e"tifi%ates of tite a"e sti in t&e na(e of !EA.
!D No. 1<:6$ %ou)e# wit& !"esi#ent A1uinoHs a%tua issuan%e of a s)e%ia )atent %ove"in* t&e F"ee#o(
Isan#s$ is e1uivaent to an offi%ia )"o%a(ation %assif'in* t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. !D No. 1<:6 an# !"esi#ent A1uinoHs issuan%e of a an# )atent aso %onstitute a
#e%a"ation t&at t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s a"e no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e. T&e F"ee#o( Isan#s a"e t&us
aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ o)en to #is)osition o" %on%ession to 1uaifie# )a"ties.
At t&e ti(e t&en !"esi#ent A1uino issue# S)e%ia !atent No. 2618$ !EA &a# a"ea#' "e%ai(e# t&e F"ee#o(
Isan#s at&ou*& su+se1uent' t&e"e we"e )a"tia e"osions on so(e a"eas. T&e *ove"n(ent &a# aso
%o()ete# t&e ne%essa"' su"ve's on t&ese isan#s. T&us$ t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s we"e no on*e" )a"t of
Eania >a' +ut )a"t of t&e an# (ass. Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution %assifies an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain into Ga*"i%utu"a$ fo"est o" ti(+e"$ (ine"a an#s$ an# nationa )a"=s.G >ein* neit&e" ti(+e"$
(ine"a$ no" nationa )a"= an#s$ t&e "e%ai(e# F"ee#o( Isan#s ne%essa"i' fa un#e" t&e %assifi%ation of
a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Un#e" t&e 1;:8 Constitution$ a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
a"e t&e on' natu"a "esou"%es t&at t&e State (a' aienate to 1uaifie# )"ivate )a"ties. A ot&e" natu"a
"esou"%es$ su%& as t&e seas o" +a's$ a"e Gwate"s ? ? ? owne# +' t&e StateG fo"(in* )a"t of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain$ an# a"e inaiena+e )u"suant to Se%tion -$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution.
AEARI %ai(s t&at t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s a"e )"ivate an#s +e%ause CDC!$ t&en a )"ivate %o")o"ation$
"e%ai(e# t&e isan#s un#e" a %ont"a%t #ate# Nove(+e" -<$ 1;82 wit& t&e Co((issione" of !u+i%
Hi*&wa's. AEARI$ %itin* A"ti%e 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77$ a"*ues t&at Gif t&e owne"s&i) of
"e%ai(e# an#s (a' +e *iven to t&e )a"t' %onst"u%tin* t&e wo"=s$ t&en it %annot +e sai# t&at "e%ai(e#
an#s a"e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain w&i%& t&e State (a' not aienate.G
86
A"ti%e 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of
Wate"s "ea#s as foowsC
GA"ti%e 6. Lan#s "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea in %onse1uen%e of wo"=s %onst"u%te# +' t&e State$ o" +'
t&e )"ovin%es$ )ue+os o" )"ivate )e"sons$ wit& )"o)e" )e"(ission$ s&a +e%o(e t&e )"o)e"t' of t&e
)a"t' %onst"u%tin* su%& wo"=s$ uness ot&e"wise )"ovi#e# +' t&e te"(s of t&e *"ant of aut&o"it'.G
.E()&asis su))ie#0
Un#e" A"ti%e 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77$ )"ivate )a"ties %ou# "e%ai( f"o( t&e sea on' wit&
G)"o)e" )e"(issionG f"o( t&e State. !"ivate )a"ties %ou# own t&e "e%ai(e# an# on' if not Got&e"wise
)"ovi#e# +' t&e te"(s of t&e *"ant of aut&o"it'.G T&is %ea"' (eant t&at no one %ou# "e%ai( f"o( t&e sea
wit&out )e"(ission f"o( t&e State +e%ause t&e sea is )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion. It aso (eant t&at t&e
State %ou# *"ant o" wit&&o# owne"s&i) of t&e "e%ai(e# an# +e%ause an' "e%ai(e# an#$ i=e t&e sea f"o(
w&i%& it e(e"*e#$ +eon*e# to t&e State. T&us$ a )"ivate )e"son "e%ai(in* f"o( t&e sea wit&out )e"(ission
f"o( t&e State %ou# not a%1ui"e owne"s&i) of t&e "e%ai(e# an# w&i%& wou# "e(ain )"o)e"t' of )u+i%
#o(inion i=e t&e sea it "e)a%e#.
87
A"ti%e 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77 a#o)te# t&e ti(e9&ono"e#
)"in%i)e of an# owne"s&i) t&at Ga an#s t&at we"e not a%1ui"e# f"o( t&e *ove"n(ent$ eit&e" +' )u"%&ase o"
+' *"ant$ +eon* to t&e )u+i% #o(ain.G
88
A"ti%e 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s (ust +e "ea# to*et&e" wit& aws su+se1uent' ena%te# on t&e
#is)osition of )u+i% an#s. In )a"ti%ua"$ CA No. 131 "e1ui"es t&at an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain (ust fi"st +e
%assifie# as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e +efo"e t&e *ove"n(ent %an aienate t&e(. T&ese an#s (ust not +e
"ese"ve# fo" )u+i% o" 1uasi9)u+i% )u")oses.
8:
Eo"eove"$ t&e %ont"a%t +etween CDC! an# t&e *ove"n(ent
was e?e%ute# afte" t&e effe%tivit' of t&e 1;82 Constitution w&i%& +a""e# )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in*
an' =in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&is %ont"a%t %ou# not &ave %onve"te# t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s
into )"ivate an#s of a )"ivate %o")o"ation.
!"esi#entia De%"ee No. 29A$ issue# on /anua"' 11$ 1;82$ "evo=e# a aws aut&o"i5in* t&e "e%a(ation of
a"eas un#e" wate" an# "eveste# soe' in t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent t&e )owe" to "e%ai( an#s. Se%tion 1 of
!D No. 29A #e%a"e# t&atC
28
GT&e )"ovisions of an' aw to t&e %ont"a"' notwit&stan#in*$ t&e "e%a(ation of a"eas un#e" wate"$
w&et&e" fo"es&o"e o" inan#$ s&a +e i(ite# to t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent o" an' )e"son aut&o"i5e#
+' it un#e" a )"o)e" %ont"a%t. .E()&asis su))ie#0
? ? ?.G
!D No. 29A "e)eae# Se%tion 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77 +e%ause "e%a(ation of a"eas un#e"
wate" %ou# now +e un#e"ta=en on' +' t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent o" +' a )e"son %ont"a%te# +' t&e Nationa
4ove"n(ent. !"ivate )a"ties (a' "e%ai( f"o( t&e sea on' un#e" a %ont"a%t wit& t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent$
an# no on*e" +' *"ant o" )e"(ission as )"ovi#e# in Se%tion 6 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77.
E?e%utive O"#e" No. 6-6$ issue# on Fe+"ua"' 13$ 1;8;$ #esi*nate# !EA as t&e Nationa 4ove"n(entHs
i()e(entin* a"( to un#e"ta=e Ga "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts of t&e *ove"n(ent$G w&i%& Gs&a +e un#e"ta=en +'
t&e !EA o" t&"ou*& a )"o)e" %ont"a%t e?e%ute# +' it wit& an' )e"son o" entit'.G Un#e" su%& %ont"a%t$ a
)"ivate )a"t' "e%eives %o()ensation fo" "e%a(ation se"vi%es "en#e"e# to !EA. !a'(ent to t&e %ont"a%to"
(a' +e in %as&$ o" in =in# %onsistin* of )o"tions of t&e "e%ai(e# an#$ su+,e%t to t&e %onstitutiona +an on
)"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&e "e%ai(e# an# %an +e use# as
)a'(ent in =in# on' if t&e "e%ai(e# an# is fi"st %assifie# as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an# o)en to
#is)osition$ an# t&en #e%a"e# no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e.
T&e A(en#e# /VA %ove"s not on' t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s$ +ut aso an a##itiona 6;-.16 &e%ta"es w&i%& a"e
sti su+(e"*e# an# fo"(in* )a"t of Eania >a'. T&e"e is no e*isative o" !"esi#entia a%t %assif'in* t&ese
su+(e"*e# a"eas as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain o)en to #is)osition. T&ese
su+(e"*e# a"eas a"e not %ove"e# +' an' )atent o" %e"tifi%ate of tite. T&e"e %an +e no #is)ute t&at t&ese
su+(e"*e# a"eas fo"( )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ an# in t&ei" )"esent state a"e inaiena+e an# outsi#e t&e
%o((e"%e of (an. Unti "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea$ t&ese su+(e"*e# a"eas a"e$ un#e" t&e Constitution$
Gwate"s ? ? ? owne# +' t&e State$G fo"(in* )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# %onse1uent' inaiena+e. On'
w&en a%tua' "e%ai(e# f"o( t&e sea %an t&ese su+(e"*e# a"eas +e %assifie# as )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s$
w&i%& un#e" t&e Constitution a"e t&e on' natu"a "esou"%es t&at t&e State (a' aienate. On%e "e%ai(e# an#
t"ansfo"(e# into )u+i% a*"i%utu"a an#s$ t&e *ove"n(ent (a' t&en offi%ia' %assif' t&ese an#s as
aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s o)en to #is)osition. T&e"eafte"$ t&e *ove"n(ent (a' #e%a"e t&ese an#s no
on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e. On' t&en %an t&ese "e%ai(e# an#s +e %onsi#e"e# aiena+e o" #is)osa+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# wit&in t&e %o((e"%e of (an.
T&e %assifi%ation of !EAHs "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# an#s into aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s
o)en to #is)osition is ne%essa"' +e%ause !EA is tas=e# un#e" its %&a"te" to un#e"ta=e )u+i% se"vi%es t&at
"e1ui"e t&e use of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Un#e" Se%tion 6 of !D No. 1<:3$ t&e fun%tions of !EA in%u#e
t&e foowin*C GITJo own o" o)e"ate "ai"oa#s$ t"a(wa's an# ot&e" =in#s of an# t"ans)o"tation$ ? ? ?D ITJo
%onst"u%t$ (aintain an# o)e"ate su%& s'ste(s of sanita"' sewe"s as (a' +e ne%essa"'D ITJo %onst"u%t$
(aintain an# o)e"ate su%& sto"( #"ains as (a' +e ne%essa"'.G !EA is e()owe"e# to issue G"ues an#
"e*uations as (a' +e ne%essa"' fo" t&e )"o)e" use +' )"ivate )a"ties of an' o" a of t&e &i*&wa's$ "oa#s$
utiities$ +ui#in*s an#Ko" an' of its )"o)e"ties an# to i()ose o" %oe%t fees o" tos fo" t&ei" use.G T&us$ )a"t of
t&e "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# an#s &e# +' t&e !EA wou# a%tua' +e nee#e# fo" )u+i% use o"
se"vi%e sin%e (an' of t&e fun%tions i()ose# on !EA +' its %&a"te" %onstitute essentia )u+i% se"vi%es.
Eo"eove"$ Se%tion 1 of E?e%utive O"#e" No. 6-6 )"ovi#es t&at !EA Gs&a +e )"i(a"i' "es)onsi+e fo"
inte*"atin*$ #i"e%tin*$ an# %oo"#inatin* a "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts fo" an# on +e&af of t&e Nationa
4ove"n(ent.G T&e sa(e se%tion aso states t&at GIAJ "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts s&a +e a))"ove# +' t&e
!"esi#ent u)on "e%o((en#ation of t&e !EA$ an# s&a +e un#e"ta=en +' t&e !EA o" t&"ou*& a )"o)e"
%ont"a%t e?e%ute# +' it wit& an' )e"son o" entit'D ? ? ?.G T&us$ un#e" EO No. 6-6$ in "eation to !D No. 29A
an# !D No.1<:3$ !EA +e%a(e t&e )"i(a"' i()e(entin* a*en%' of t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent to "e%ai(
fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. EO No. 6-6 "e%o*ni5e# !EA as t&e *ove"n(ent entit'
Gto un#e"ta=e t&e "e%a(ation of an#s an# ensu"e t&ei" (a?i(u( utii5ation in )"o(otin* )u+i% wefa"e an#
inte"ests.G
8;
Sin%e a"*e )o"tions of t&ese "e%ai(e# an#s wou# o+vious' +e nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$
t&e"e (ust +e a fo"(a #e%a"ation se*"e*atin* "e%ai(e# an#s no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e f"o(
t&ose sti nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e.
Se%tion 2 of EO No. 6-6$ +' #e%a"in* t&at a an#s "e%ai(e# +' !EA Gs&a +eon* to o" +e owne# +' t&e
!EA$G %ou# not auto(ati%a' o)e"ate to %assif' inaiena+e an#s into aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain. Ot&e"wise$ "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain wou#
29
auto(ati%a' +e%o(e aiena+e on%e "e%ai(e# +' !EA$ w&et&e" o" not %assifie# as aiena+e o"
#is)osa+e.
T&e Revise# A#(inist"ative Co#e of 1;:8$ a ate" aw t&an eit&e" !D No. 1<:3 o" EO No. 6-6$ vests in t&e
De)a"t(ent of Envi"on(ent an# Natu"a Resou"%es .GDENRG fo" +"evit'0 t&e foowin* )owe"s an# fun%tionsC
GSe%. 3. !owe"s an# Fun%tions. T&e De)a"t(ent s&aC
.10 ? ? ?
? ? ?
.30 E?e"%ise su)e"vision an# %ont"o ove" fo"est an#s$ aiena+e an# #is)osa+e )u+i% an#s$
(ine"a "esou"%es an#$ in t&e )"o%ess of e?e"%isin* su%& %ont"o$ i()ose a))"o)"iate ta?es$ fees$
%&a"*es$ "entas an# an' su%& fo"( of ev' an# %oe%t su%& "evenues fo" t&e e?)o"ation$
#eveo)(ent$ utii5ation o" *at&e"in* of su%& "esou"%esD
? ? ?
.130 !"o(u*ate "ues$ "e*uations an# *ui#eines on t&e issuan%e of i%enses$ )e"(its$
%on%essions$ ease a*"ee(ents an# su%& ot&e" )"ivie*es %on%e"nin* t&e #eveo)(ent$ e?)o"ation
an# utii5ation of t&e %ount"'Hs (a"ine$ f"es&wate"$ an# +"a%=is& wate" an# ove" a a1uati%
"esou"%es of t&e %ount"' an# s&a %ontinue to ove"see$ su)e"vise an# )oi%e ou" natu"a "esou"%esD
%an%e o" %ause to %an%e su%& )"ivie*es u)on faiu"e$ non9%o()ian%e o" vioations of an'
"e*uation$ o"#e"$ an# fo" a ot&e" %auses w&i%& a"e in fu"t&e"an%e of t&e %onse"vation of natu"a
"esou"%es an# su))o"tive of t&e nationa inte"estD
.160 E?e"%ise e?%usive ,u"is#i%tion on t&e (ana*e(ent an# #is)osition of a an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain an# se"ve as t&e soe a*en%' "es)onsi+e fo" %assifi%ation$ su+9%assifi%ation$ su"ve'in*
an# titin* of an#s in %onsutation wit& a))"o)"iate a*en%ies.G
:<
.E()&asis su))ie#0
As (ana*e"$ %onse"vato" an# ove"see" of t&e natu"a "esou"%es of t&e State$ DENR e?e"%ises Gsu)e"vision
an# %ont"o ove" aiena+e an# #is)osa+e )u+i% an#s.G DENR aso e?e"%ises Ge?%usive ,u"is#i%tion on t&e
(ana*e(ent an# #is)osition of a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.G T&us$ DENR #e%i#es w&et&e" a"eas un#e"
wate"$ i=e fo"es&o"e o" su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a'$ s&ou# +e "e%ai(e# o" not. T&is (eans t&at !EA
nee#s aut&o"i5ation f"o( DENR +efo"e !EA %an un#e"ta=e "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts in Eania >a'$ o" in an' )a"t
of t&e %ount"'.
DENR aso e?e"%ises e?%usive ,u"is#i%tion ove" t&e #is)osition of a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Hen%e$
DENR #e%i#es w&et&e" "e%ai(e# an#s of !EA s&ou# +e %assifie# as aiena+e un#e" Se%tions 7
:1
an# 8
:-

of CA No. 131. On%e DENR #e%i#es t&at t&e "e%ai(e# an#s s&ou# +e so %assifie#$ it t&en "e%o((en#s to
t&e !"esi#ent t&e issuan%e of a )"o%a(ation %assif'in* t&e an#s as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain o)en to #is)osition. We note t&at t&en DENR Se%"eta"' Fu*en%io S. Fa%to"an$ /".
%ounte"si*ne# S)e%ia !atent No. 2618 in %o()ian%e wit& t&e Revise# A#(inist"ative Co#e an# Se%tions 7
an# 8 of CA No. 131.
In s&o"t$ DENR is veste# wit& t&e )owe" to aut&o"i5e t&e "e%a(ation of a"eas un#e" wate"$ w&ie !EA is
veste# wit& t&e )owe" to un#e"ta=e t&e )&'si%a "e%a(ation of a"eas un#e" wate"$ w&et&e" #i"e%t' o"
t&"ou*& )"ivate %ont"a%to"s. DENR is aso e()owe"e# to %assif' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into aiena+e o"
#is)osa+e an#s su+,e%t to t&e a))"ova of t&e !"esi#ent. On t&e ot&e" &an#$ !EA is tas=e# to #eveo)$ se
o" ease t&e "e%ai(e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
Cea"'$ t&e (e"e )&'si%a a%t of "e%a(ation +' !EA of fo"es&o"e o" su+(e"*e# a"eas #oes not (a=e t&e
"e%ai(e# an#s aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ (u%& ess )at"i(onia an#s of !EA.
Li=ewise$ t&e (e"e t"ansfe" +' t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to !EA #oes not (a=e
t&e an#s aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ (u%& ess )at"i(onia an#s of !EA.
30
A+sent two offi%ia a%ts a %assifi%ation t&at t&ese an#s a"e aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an# o)en to
#is)osition an# a #e%a"ation t&at t&ese an#s a"e not nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$ an#s "e%ai(e# +' !EA
"e(ain inaiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. On' su%& an offi%ia %assifi%ation an# fo"(a #e%a"ation %an
%onve"t "e%ai(e# an#s into aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ o)en to #is)osition un#e"
t&e Constitution$ Tite I an# Tite III
:2
of CA No. 131 an# ot&e" a))i%a+e aws.
:3
!EAHs Aut&o"it' to Se Re%ai(e# Lan#s
!EA$ i=e t&e Le*a Tas= Fo"%e$ a"*ues t&at as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ t&e
"e%ai(e# an#s s&a +e #is)ose# of in a%%o"#an%e wit& CA No. 131$ t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t. !EA$ %itin*
Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131$ a#(its t&at "e%ai(e# an#s t"ansfe""e# to a +"an%& o" su+#ivision of t&e
*ove"n(ent Gs&a not +e aienate#$ en%u(+e"e#$ o" ot&e"wise #is)ose# of in a (anne" affe%tin* its tite$
e?%e)t w&en aut&o"i5e# +' Con*"essC ? ? ?.G
:6
.E()&asis +' !EA0
In Lau"e vs. 4a"%ia$
:7
t&e Cou"t %ite# Se%tion 3: of t&e Revise# A#(inist"ative Co#e of 1;:8$ w&i%& states
t&atC
GSe%. 3:. Offi%ia Aut&o"i5e# to Conve' Rea !"o)e"t'. W&eneve" "ea )"o)e"t' of t&e 4ove"n(ent
is aut&o"i5e# +' aw to +e %onve'e#$ t&e #ee# of %onve'an%e s&a +e e?e%ute# in +e&af of t&e
*ove"n(ent +' t&e foowin*C ? ? ?.G
T&us$ t&e Cou"t %on%u#e# t&at a aw is nee#e# to %onve' an' "ea )"o)e"t' +eon*in* to t&e 4ove"n(ent.
T&e Cou"t #e%a"e# t&at 9
GIt is not fo" t&e !"esi#ent to %onve' "ea )"o)e"t' of t&e *ove"n(ent on &is o" &e" own soe wi.
An' su%& %onve'an%e (ust +e aut&o"i5e# an# a))"ove# +' a aw ena%te# +' t&e Con*"ess. It
"e1ui"es e?e%utive an# e*isative %on%u""en%e.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
!EA %onten#s t&at !D No. 1<:6 an# EO No. 6-6 %onstitute t&e e*isative aut&o"it' aowin* !EA to se its
"e%ai(e# an#s. !D No. 1<:6$ issue# on Fe+"ua"' 3$ 1;88$ )"ovi#es t&atC
GT&e an# "e%ai(e# in t&e fo"es&o"e an# offs&o"e a"ea of Eania >a' )u"suant to t&e %ont"a%t fo"
t&e "e%a(ation an# %onst"u%tion of t&e Eania9Cavite Coasta Roa# !"o,e%t +etween t&e Re)u+i%
of t&e !&ii))ines an# t&e Const"u%tion an# Deveo)(ent Co")o"ation of t&e !&ii))ines #ate#
Nove(+e" -<$ 1;82 an#Ko" an' ot&e" %ont"a%t o" "e%a(ation %ove"in* t&e sa(e a"ea is &e"e+'
t"ansfe""e#$ %onve'e# an# assi*ne# to t&e owne"s&i) an# a#(inist"ation of t&e !u+i% Estates
Aut&o"it' esta+is&e# )u"suant to !D No. 1<:3D !"ovi#e#$ &oweve"$ T&at t&e "i*&ts an# inte"ests of
t&e Const"u%tion an# Deveo)(ent Co")o"ation of t&e !&ii))ines )u"suant to t&e afo"esai# %ont"a%t
s&a +e "e%o*ni5e# an# "es)e%te#.
Hen%efo"t&$ t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' s&a e?e"%ise t&e "i*&ts an# assu(e t&e o+i*ations of t&e
Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines .De)a"t(ent of !u+i% Hi*&wa's0 a"isin* f"o($ o" in%i#ent to$ t&e
afo"esai# %ont"a%t +etween t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines an# t&e Const"u%tion an# Deveo)(ent
Co")o"ation of t&e !&ii))ines.
In %onsi#e"ation of t&e fo"e*oin* t"ansfe" an# assi*n(ent$ t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' s&a issue
in favo" of t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines t&e %o""es)on#in* s&a"es of sto%= in sai# entit' wit& an
issue# vaue of sai# s&a"es of sto%= .w&i%&0 s&a +e #ee(e# fu' )ai# an# non9assessa+e.
T&e Se%"eta"' of !u+i% Hi*&wa's an# t&e 4ene"a Eana*e" of t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' s&a
e?e%ute su%& %ont"a%ts o" a*"ee(ents$ in%u#in* a))"o)"iate a*"ee(ents wit& t&e Const"u%tion an#
Deveo)(ent Co")o"ation of t&e !&ii))ines$ as (a' +e ne%essa"' to i()e(ent t&e a+ove.
S)e%ia an# )atentK)atents s&a +e issue# +' t&e Se%"eta"' of Natu"a Resou"%es in favo" of t&e
!u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' wit&out )"e,u#i%e to t&e su+se1uent t"ansfe" to t&e %ont"a%to" o" &is
assi*nees of su%& )o"tion o" )o"tions of t&e an# "e%ai(e# o" to +e "e%ai(e# as )"ovi#e# fo" in t&e
a+ove9(entione# %ont"a%t. On t&e +asis of su%& )atents$ t&e Lan# Re*ist"ation Co((ission s&a
issue t&e %o""es)on#in* %e"tifi%ate of tite.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
31
On t&e ot&e" &an#$ Se%tion 2 of EO No. 6-6$ issue# on Fe+"ua"' 13$ 1;8;$ )"ovi#es t&at 9
GSe%. 2. A an#s "e%ai(e# +' !EA s&a +eon* to o" +e owne# +' t&e !EA w&i%& s&a +e
"es)onsi+e fo" its a#(inist"ation$ #eveo)(ent$ utii5ation o" #is)osition in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e
)"ovisions of !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3. An' an# a in%o(e t&at t&e !EA (a' #e"ive f"o( t&e
sae$ ease o" use of "e%ai(e# an#s s&a +e use# in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e )"ovisions of
!"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3.G
T&e"e is no e?)"ess aut&o"it' un#e" eit&e" !D No. 1<:6 o" EO No. 6-6 fo" !EA to se its "e%ai(e# an#s.
!D No. 1<:6 (e"e' t"ansfe""e# Gowne"s&i) an# a#(inist"ationG of an#s "e%ai(e# f"o( Eania >a' to !EA$
w&ie EO No. 6-6 #e%a"e# t&at an#s "e%ai(e# +' !EA Gs&a +eon* to o" +e owne# +' !EA.G EO No. 6-6
e?)"ess' states t&at !EA s&ou# #is)ose of its "e%ai(e# an#s Gin a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e )"ovisions of
!"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3$G t&e %&a"te" of !EA.
!EAHs %&a"te"$ &oweve"$ e?)"ess' tas=s !EA Gto #eveo)$ i()"ove$ a%1ui"e$ a#(iniste"$ #ea in$ su+#ivi#e$
#is)ose$ ease an# se an' an# a =in#s of an#s ? ? ? owne#$ (ana*e#$ %ont"oe# an#Ko" o)e"ate# +' t&e
*ove"n(ent.G
:8
.E()&asis su))ie#0 T&e"e is$ t&e"efo"e$ e*isative aut&o"it' *"ante# to !EA to se its an#s$
w&et&e" )at"i(onia o" aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. !EA (a' se to )"ivate )a"ties its )at"i(onia
)"o)e"ties in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e !EA %&a"te" f"ee f"o( %onstitutiona i(itations. T&e %onstitutiona +an on
)"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain #oes not a))' to t&e sae of !EAHs
)at"i(onia an#s.
!EA (a' aso se its aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate in#ivi#uas sin%e$ wit& t&e
e*isative aut&o"it'$ t&e"e is no on*e" an' statuto"' )"o&i+ition a*ainst su%& saes an# t&e %onstitutiona +an
#oes not a))' to in#ivi#uas. !EA$ &oweve"$ %annot se an' of its aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain to )"ivate %o")o"ations sin%e Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution e?)"ess' )"o&i+its su%&
saes. T&e e*isative aut&o"it' +enefits on' in#ivi#uas. !"ivate %o")o"ations "e(ain +a""e# f"o( a%1ui"in*
an' =in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ in%u#in* *ove"n(ent "e%ai(e# an#s.
T&e )"ovision in !D No. 1<:6 statin* t&at )o"tions of t&e "e%ai(e# an#s %ou# +e t"ansfe""e# +' !EA to t&e
G%ont"a%to" o" &is assi*neesG .E()&asis su))ie#0 wou# not a))' to )"ivate %o")o"ations +ut on' to
in#ivi#uas +e%ause of t&e %onstitutiona +an. Ot&e"wise$ t&e )"ovisions of !D No. 1<:6 wou# vioate +ot&
t&e 1;82 an# 1;:8 Constitutions.
T&e "e1ui"e(ent of )u+i% au%tion in t&e sae of "e%ai(e# an#s
Assu(in* t&e "e%ai(e# an#s of !EA a"e %assifie# as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s o)en to #is)osition$
an# fu"t&e" #e%a"e# no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$ !EA wou# &ave to %on#u%t a )u+i% +i##in* in
sein* o" easin* t&ese an#s. !EA (ust o+se"ve t&e )"ovisions of Se%tions 72 an# 78 of CA No. 131
"e1ui"in* )u+i% au%tion$ in t&e a+sen%e of a aw e?e()tin* !EA f"o( &o#in* a )u+i% au%tion.
::
S)e%ia
!atent No. 2618 e?)"ess' states t&at t&e )atent is issue# +' aut&o"it' of t&e Constitution an# !D No. 1<:3$
Gsu))e(ente# +' Co((onweat& A%t No. 131$ as a(en#e#.G T&is is an a%=nowe#*(ent t&at t&e
)"ovisions of CA No. 131 a))' to t&e #is)osition of "e%ai(e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain uness
ot&e"wise )"ovi#e# +' aw. E?e%utive O"#e" No. 763$
:;
w&i%& aut&o"i5es !EA Gto #ete"(ine t&e =in# an#
(anne" of )a'(ent fo" t&e t"ansfe"G of its assets an# )"o)e"ties$ #oes not e?e()t !EA f"o( t&e "e1ui"e(ent
of )u+i% au%tion. EO No. 763 (e"e' aut&o"i5es !EA to #e%i#e t&e (o#e of )a'(ent$ w&et&e" in =in# an# in
insta(ent$ +ut #oes not aut&o"i5e !EA to #is)ense wit& )u+i% au%tion.
Eo"eove"$ un#e" Se%tion 8; of !D No. 1336$ ot&e"wise =nown as t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e$ t&e
*ove"n(ent is "e1ui"e# to se vaua+e *ove"n(ent )"o)e"t' t&"ou*& )u+i% +i##in*. Se%tion 8; of !D No.
1336 (an#ates t&atC
GSe%tion 8;. W&en *ove"n(ent )"o)e"t' &as +e%o(e unse"vi%ea+e fo" an' %ause$ o" is no on*e"
nee#e#$ it s&a$ u)on a))i%ation of t&e offi%e" a%%ounta+e t&e"efo"$ +e ins)e%te# +' t&e &ea# of
t&e a*en%' o" &is #u' aut&o"i5e# "e)"esentative in t&e )"esen%e of t&e au#ito" %on%e"ne# an#$ if
foun# to +e vaueess o" unsaea+e$ it (a' +e #est"o'e# in t&ei" )"esen%e. If foun# to +e vaua+e$
it (a' +e so# at )u+i% au%tion to t&e &i*&est +i##e" un#e" t&e su)e"vision of t&e )"o)e" %o((ittee
on awa"# o" si(ia" +o#' in t&e )"esen%e of t&e au#ito" %on%e"ne# o" ot&e" aut&o"i5e#
"e)"esentative of t&e Co((ission$ afte" a#ve"tisin* +' )"inte# noti%e in t&e Offi%ia 4a5ette$ o" fo"
32
not ess t&an t&"ee %onse%utive #a's in an' news)a)e" of *ene"a %i"%uation$ o" w&e"e t&e vaue of
t&e )"o)e"t' #oes not wa""ant t&e e?)ense of )u+i%ation$ +' noti%es )oste# fo" a i=e )e"io# in at
east t&"ee )u+i% )a%es in t&e o%ait' w&e"e t&e )"o)e"t' is to +e so#. In t&e event t&at t&e )u+i%
au%tion fais$ t&e )"o)e"t' (a' +e so# at a )"ivate sae at su%& )"i%e as (a' +e fi?e# +' t&e sa(e
%o((ittee o" +o#' %on%e"ne# an# a))"ove# +' t&e Co((ission.G
It is on' w&en t&e )u+i% au%tion fais t&at a ne*otiate# sae is aowe#$ in w&i%& %ase t&e Co((ission on
Au#it (ust a))"ove t&e sein* )"i%e.
;<
T&e Co((ission on Au#it i()e(ents Se%tion 8; of t&e 4ove"n(ent
Au#itin* Co#e t&"ou*& Ci"%ua" No. :;9-;7
;1
#ate# /anua"' -8$ 1;:;. T&is %i"%ua" e()&asi5es t&at
*ove"n(ent assets (ust +e #is)ose# of on' t&"ou*& )u+i% au%tion$ an# a ne*otiate# sae %an +e "eso"te#
to on' in %ase of Gfaiu"e of )u+i% au%tion.G
At t&e )u+i% au%tion sae$ on' !&ii))ine %iti5ens a"e 1uaifie# to +i# fo" !EAHs "e%ai(e# fo"es&o"e an#
su+(e"*e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. !"ivate %o")o"ations a"e +a""e# f"o( +i##in* at t&e au%tion
sae of an' =in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
!EA o"i*ina' s%&e#ue# a )u+i% +i##in* fo" t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s on De%e(+e" 1<$ 1;;1. !EA i()ose# a
%on#ition t&at t&e winnin* +i##e" s&ou# "e%ai( anot&e" -6< &e%ta"es of su+(e"*e# a"eas to "e*ua"i5e t&e
s&a)e of t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s$ un#e" a 7<93< s&a"in* of t&e a##itiona "e%ai(e# a"eas in favo" of t&e
winnin* +i##e".
;-
No one$ &oweve"$ su+(itte# a +i#. On De%e(+e" -2$ 1;;3$ t&e 4ove"n(ent Co")o"ate
Counse a#vise# !EA it %ou# se t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s t&"ou*& ne*otiation$ wit&out nee# of anot&e" )u+i%
+i##in*$ +e%ause of t&e faiu"e of t&e )u+i% +i##in* on De%e(+e" 1<$ 1;;1.
;2
Howeve"$ t&e o"i*ina /VA #ate# A)"i -6$ 1;;6 %ove"e# not on' t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s an# t&e a##itiona -6<
&e%ta"es sti to +e "e%ai(e#$ it aso *"ante# an o)tion to AEARI to "e%ai( anot&e" 26< &e%ta"es. T&e
o"i*ina /VA$ a ne*otiate# %ont"a%t$ ena"*e# t&e "e%a(ation a"ea to 86< &e%ta"es.
;3
T&e faiu"e of )u+i%
+i##in* on De%e(+e" 1<$ 1;;1$ invovin* on' 3<8.:3 &e%ta"es$
;6
is not a vai# ,ustifi%ation fo" a ne*otiate#
sae of 86< &e%ta"es$ a(ost #ou+e t&e a"ea )u+i%' au%tione#. >esi#es$ t&e faiu"e of )u+i% +i##in*
&a))ene# on De%e(+e" 1<$ 1;;1$ (o"e t&an t&"ee 'ea"s +efo"e t&e si*nin* of t&e o"i*ina /VA on A)"i -6$
1;;6. T&e e%ono(i% situation in t&e %ount"' &a# *"eat' i()"ove# #u"in* t&e inte"venin* )e"io#.
Re%a(ation un#e" t&e >OT Law an# t&e Lo%a 4ove"n(ent Co#e
T&e %onstitutiona )"o&i+ition in Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution is a+soute an# %ea"C G!"ivate
%o")o"ations o" asso%iations (a' not &o# su%& aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +' ease$ ? ? ?.G
Even Re)u+i% A%t No. 7;68 .G>OT Law$G fo" +"evit'0$ %ite# +' !EA an# AEARI as e*isative aut&o"it' to se
"e%ai(e# an#s to )"ivate )a"ties$ "e%o*ni5es t&e %onstitutiona +an. Se%tion 7 of RA No. 7;68 statesC
GSe%. 7. Re)a'(ent S%&e(e. 9 Fo" t&e finan%in*$ %onst"u%tion$ o)e"ation an# (aintenan%e of an'
inf"ast"u%tu"e )"o,e%ts un#e"ta=en t&"ou*& t&e +ui#9o)e"ate9an#9t"ansfe" a""an*e(ent o" an' of its
va"iations )u"suant to t&e )"ovisions of t&is A%t$ t&e )"o,e%t )"o)onent ? ? ? (a' i=ewise +e "e)ai#
in t&e fo"( of a s&a"e in t&e "evenue of t&e )"o,e%t o" ot&e" non9(oneta"' )a'(ents$ su%& as$ +ut
not i(ite# to$ t&e *"ant of a )o"tion o" )e"%enta*e of t&e "e%ai(e# an#$ su+,e%t to t&e
%onstitutiona "e1ui"e(ents wit& "es)e%t to t&e owne"s&i) of t&e an#C ? ? ?.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
A )"ivate %o")o"ation$ even one t&at un#e"ta=es t&e )&'si%a "e%a(ation of a *ove"n(ent >OT )"o,e%t$
%annot a%1ui"e "e%ai(e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain in view of t&e %onstitutiona +an.
Se%tion 2<- of t&e Lo%a 4ove"n(ent Co#e$ aso (entione# +' !EA an# AEARI$ aut&o"i5es o%a
*ove"n(ents in an# "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts to )a' t&e %ont"a%to" o" #eveo)e" in =in# %onsistin* of a
)e"%enta*e of t&e "e%ai(e# an#$ to witC
GSe%tion 2<-. Finan%in*$ Const"u%tion$ Eaintenan%e$ O)e"ation$ an# Eana*e(ent of Inf"ast"u%tu"e
!"o,e%ts +' t&e !"ivate Se%to". ? ? ?
? ? ?
33
In %ase of an# "e%a(ation o" %onst"u%tion of in#ust"ia estates$ t&e "e)a'(ent )an (a' %onsist of
t&e *"ant of a )o"tion o" )e"%enta*e of t&e "e%ai(e# an# o" t&e in#ust"ia estate %onst"u%te#.G
At&ou*& Se%tion 2<- of t&e Lo%a 4ove"n(ent Co#e #oes not %ontain a )"oviso si(ia" to t&at of t&e >OT
Law$ t&e %onstitutiona "est"i%tions on an# owne"s&i) auto(ati%a' a))' even t&ou*& not e?)"ess'
(entione# in t&e Lo%a 4ove"n(ent Co#e.
T&us$ un#e" eit&e" t&e >OT Law o" t&e Lo%a 4ove"n(ent Co#e$ t&e %ont"a%to" o" #eveo)e"$ if a %o")o"ate
entit'$ %an on' +e )ai# wit& ease&o#s on )o"tions of t&e "e%ai(e# an#. If t&e %ont"a%to" o" #eveo)e" is an
in#ivi#ua$ )o"tions of t&e "e%ai(e# an#$ not e?%ee#in* 1- &e%ta"es
;7
of non9a*"i%utu"a an#s$ (a' +e
%onve'e# to &i( in owne"s&i) in view of t&e e*isative aut&o"it' aowin* su%& %onve'an%e. T&is is t&e on'
wa' t&ese )"ovisions of t&e >OT Law an# t&e Lo%a 4ove"n(ent Co#e %an avoi# a #i"e%t %oision wit&
Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution.
Re*ist"ation of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
Fina'$ !EA t&eo"i5es t&at t&e Ga%t of %onve'in* t&e owne"s&i) of t&e "e%ai(e# an#s to )u+i% "es)on#ent
!EA t"ansfo"(e# su%& an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate an#s.G T&is t&eo"' is e%&oe# +' AEARI w&i%&
(aintains t&at t&e Gissuan%e of t&e s)e%ia )atent ea#in* to t&e eventua issuan%e of tite ta=es t&e su+,e%t
an# awa' f"o( t&e an# of )u+i% #o(ain an# %onve"ts t&e )"o)e"t' into )at"i(onia o" )"ivate )"o)e"t'.G In
s&o"t$ !EA an# AEARI %onten# t&at wit& t&e issuan%e of S)e%ia !atent No. 2618 an# t&e %o""es)on#in*
%e"tifi%ates of tites$ t&e 168.:3 &e%ta"es %o()"isin* t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s &ave +e%o(e )"ivate an#s of
!EA. In su))o"t of t&ei" t&eo"'$ !EA an# AEARI %ite t&e foowin* "uin*s of t&e Cou"tC
1. Su(ai v. /u#*e of CFI of Cota+ato$
;8
w&e"e t&e Cou"t &e#C
GOn%e t&e )atent was *"ante# an# t&e %o""es)on#in* %e"tifi%ate of tite was issue#$ t&e an# %ease#
to +e )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# +e%a(e )"ivate )"o)e"t' ove" w&i%& t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s &as
neit&e" %ont"o no" ,u"is#i%tion.G
-. Lee Hon* Ho= v. Davi#$
;:
w&e"e t&e Cou"t #e%a"e# 9
GAfte" t&e "e*ist"ation an# issuan%e of t&e %e"tifi%ate an# #u)i%ate %e"tifi%ate of tite +ase# on a
)u+i% an# )atent$ t&e an# %ove"e# t&e"e+' auto(ati%a' %o(es un#e" t&e o)e"ation of Re)u+i%
A%t 3;7 su+,e%t to a t&e safe*ua"#s )"ovi#e# t&e"ein.G2. Hei"s of 4"e*o"io Ten*%o v. Hei"s of /ose
Aiwaas$
;;
w&e"e t&e Cou"t "ue# 9
GW&ie t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s &as t&e )owe" to "eview &o(estea# )atents$ &e (a' #o so on' so
on* as t&e an# "e(ains )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# %ontinues to +e un#e" &is e?%usive %ont"oD
+ut on%e t&e )atent is "e*iste"e# an# a %e"tifi%ate of tite is issue#$ t&e an# %eases to +e )a"t of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain an# +e%o(es )"ivate )"o)e"t' ove" w&i%& t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s &as neit&e" %ont"o
no" ,u"is#i%tion.G
3. Eanao v. Inte"(e#iate A))eate Cou"t$
1<<
w&e"e t&e Cou"t &e#
GW&en t&e ots in #is)ute we"e %e"tifie# as #is)osa+e on Ea' 1;$ 1;81$ an# f"ee )atents we"e
issue# %ove"in* t&e sa(e in favo" of t&e )"ivate "es)on#ents$ t&e sai# ots %ease# to +e )a"t of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain an#$ t&e"efo"e$ t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s ost ,u"is#i%tion ove" t&e sa(e.G
6.Re)u+i% v. Cou"t of A))eas$
1<1
w&e"e t&e Cou"t state#C
G!"o%a(ation No. 26<$ #ate# O%to+e" ;$ 1;67$ of !"esi#ent Ea*sa'sa' e*a' effe%te# a an#
*"ant to t&e Ein#anao Ee#i%a Cente"$ >u"eau of Ee#i%a Se"vi%es$ De)a"t(ent of Heat&$ of t&e
w&oe ot$ vai#' suffi%ient fo" initia "e*ist"ation un#e" t&e Lan# Re*ist"ation A%t. Su%& an# *"ant is
%onstitutive of a Hfee si()eH tite o" a+soute tite in favo" of )etitione" Ein#anao Ee#i%a Cente".
T&us$ Se%tion 1-- of t&e A%t$ w&i%& *ove"ns t&e "e*ist"ation of *"ants o" )atents invovin* )u+i%
an#s$ )"ovi#es t&at HW&eneve" )u+i% an#s in t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s +eon*in* to t&e 4ove"n(ent
of t&e Unite# States o" to t&e 4ove"n(ent of t&e !&ii))ines a"e aienate#$ *"ante# o" %onve'e# to
34
)e"sons o" to )u+i% o" )"ivate %o")o"ations$ t&e sa(e s&a +e +"ou*&t fo"t&wit& un#e" t&e
o)e"ation of t&is A%t .Lan# Re*ist"ation A%t$ A%t 3;70 an# s&a +e%o(e "e*iste"e# an#s.HG
T&e fi"st fou" %ases %ite# invove )etitions to %an%e t&e an# )atents an# t&e %o""es)on#in* %e"tifi%ates of
tites issue# to )"ivate )a"ties. T&ese fou" %ases unifo"(' &o# t&at t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s &as no ,u"is#i%tion
ove" )"ivate an#s o" t&at u)on issuan%e of t&e %e"tifi%ate of tite t&e an# auto(ati%a' %o(es un#e" t&e
To""ens S'ste(. T&e fift& %ase %ite# invoves t&e "e*ist"ation un#e" t&e To""ens S'ste( of a 1-.:9&e%ta"e
)u+i% an# *"ante# +' t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent to Ein#anao Ee#i%a Cente"$ a *ove"n(ent unit un#e" t&e
De)a"t(ent of Heat&. T&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent t"ansfe""e# t&e 1-.:9&e%ta"e )u+i% an# to se"ve as t&e site
fo" t&e &os)ita +ui#in*s an# ot&e" fa%iities of Ein#anao Ee#i%a Cente"$ w&i%& )e"fo"(e# a )u+i% se"vi%e.
T&e Cou"t affi"(e# t&e "e*ist"ation of t&e 1-.:9&e%ta"e )u+i% an# in t&e na(e of Ein#anao Ee#i%a Cente"
un#e" Se%tion 1-- of A%t No. 3;7. T&is fift& %ase is an e?a()e of a )u+i% an# +ein* "e*iste"e# un#e" A%t
No. 3;7 wit&out t&e an# osin* its %&a"a%te" as a )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion.
In t&e instant %ase$ t&e on' )atent an# %e"tifi%ates of tite issue# a"e t&ose in t&e na(e of !EA$ a w&o'
*ove"n(ent owne# %o")o"ation )e"fo"(in* )u+i% as we as )"o)"ieta"' fun%tions. No )atent o" %e"tifi%ate of
tite &as +een issue# to an' )"ivate )a"t'. No one is as=in* t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s to %an%e !EAHs )atent o"
%e"tifi%ates of tite. In fa%t$ t&e t&"ust of t&e instant )etition is t&at !EAHs %e"tifi%ates of tite s&ou# "e(ain wit&
!EA$ an# t&e an# %ove"e# +' t&ese %e"tifi%ates$ +ein* aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ s&ou# not +e
so# to a )"ivate %o")o"ation.
Re*ist"ation of an# un#e" A%t No. 3;7 o" !D No. 16-; #oes not vest in t&e "e*ist"ant )"ivate o" )u+i%
owne"s&i) of t&e an#. Re*ist"ation is not a (o#e of a%1ui"in* owne"s&i) +ut is (e"e' evi#en%e of
owne"s&i) )"evious' %onfe""e# +' an' of t&e "e%o*ni5e# (o#es of a%1ui"in* owne"s&i). Re*ist"ation #oes
not *ive t&e "e*ist"ant a +ette" "i*&t t&an w&at t&e "e*ist"ant &a# )"io" to t&e "e*ist"ation.
1<-
T&e "e*ist"ation
of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain un#e" t&e To""ens s'ste($ +' itsef$ %annot %onve"t )u+i% an#s into )"ivate
an#s.
1<2
/u"is)"u#en%e &o#in* t&at u)on t&e *"ant of t&e )atent o" issuan%e of t&e %e"tifi%ate of tite t&e aiena+e
an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain auto(ati%a' +e%o(es )"ivate an# %annot a))' to *ove"n(ent units an# entities
i=e !EA. T&e t"ansfe" of t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s to !EA was (a#e su+,e%t to t&e )"ovisions of CA No. 131 as
e?)"ess' state# in S)e%ia !atent No. 2618 issue# +' t&en !"esi#ent A1uino$ to witC
GNOW$ THEREFORE$ MNOW YE$ t&at +' aut&o"it' of t&e Constitution of t&e !&ii))ines an# in
%onfo"(it' wit& t&e )"ovisions of !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3$ su))e(ente# +' Co((onweat&
A%t No. 131$ as a(en#e#$ t&e"e a"e &e"e+' *"ante# an# %onve'e# unto t&e !u+i% Estates
Aut&o"it' t&e afo"esai# t"a%ts of an# %ontainin* a tota a"ea of one (iion nine &un#"e# fifteen
t&ousan# ei*&t &un#"e# ninet' fou" .1$;16$:;30 s1ua"e (ete"sD t&e te%&ni%a #es%"i)tion of w&i%&
a"e &e"eto atta%&e# an# (a#e an inte*"a )a"t &e"eof.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&us$ t&e )"ovisions of CA No. 131 a))' to t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s on (atte"s not %ove"e# +' !D No. 1<:3.
Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 )"o&i+its$ Ge?%e)t w&en aut&o"i5e# +' Con*"ess$G t&e sae of aiena+e an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain t&at a"e t"ansfe""e# to *ove"n(ent units o" entities. Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 %onstitutes$
un#e" Se%tion 33 of !D No. 16-;$ a Gstatuto"' ien affe%tin* titeG of t&e "e*iste"e# an# even if not annotate#
on t&e %e"tifi%ate of tite.
1<3
Aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain &e# +' *ove"n(ent entities un#e" Se%tion
7< of CA No. 131 "e(ain )u+i% an#s +e%ause t&e' %annot +e aienate# o" en%u(+e"e# uness Con*"ess
)asses a aw aut&o"i5in* t&ei" #is)osition. Con*"ess$ &oweve"$ %annot aut&o"i5e t&e sae to )"ivate
%o")o"ations of "e%ai(e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain +e%ause of t&e %onstitutiona +an. On'
in#ivi#uas %an +enefit f"o( su%& aw.
T&e *"ant of e*isative aut&o"it' to se )u+i% an#s in a%%o"#an%e wit& Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 #oes not
auto(ati%a' %onve"t aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain into )"ivate o" )at"i(onia an#s. T&e aiena+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain (ust +e t"ansfe""e# to 1uaifie# )"ivate )a"ties$ o" to *ove"n(ent entities not
tas=e# to #is)ose of )u+i% an#s$ +efo"e t&ese an#s %an +e%o(e )"ivate o" )at"i(onia an#s. Ot&e"wise$
t&e %onstitutiona +an wi +e%o(e iuso"' if Con*"ess %an #e%a"e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain as )"ivate o"
)at"i(onia an#s in t&e &an#s of a *ove"n(ent a*en%' tas=e# to #is)ose of )u+i% an#s. T&is wi aow
)"ivate %o")o"ations to a%1ui"e #i"e%t' f"o( *ove"n(ent a*en%ies i(itess a"eas of an#s w&i%&$ )"io" to
su%& aw$ a"e %on%e#e#' )u+i% an#s.
35
Un#e" EO No. 6-6$ !EA +e%a(e t&e %ent"a i()e(entin* a*en%' of t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent to "e%ai(
fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&us$ EO No. 6-6 #e%a"es t&atC
GEFECUTIVE ORDER NO. 6-6
Desi*natin* t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' as t&e A*en%' !"i(a"i' Res)onsi+e fo" a Re%a(ation
!"o,e%ts
W&e"eas$ t&e"e a"e seve"a "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts w&i%& a"e on*oin* o" +ein* )"o)ose# to +e
un#e"ta=en in va"ious )a"ts of t&e %ount"' w&i%& nee# to +e evauate# fo" %onsisten%' wit& nationa
)"o*"a(sD
W&e"eas$ t&e"e is a nee# to *ive fu"t&e" institutiona su))o"t to t&e 4ove"n(entHs #e%a"e# )oi%' to
)"ovi#e fo" a %oo"#inate#$ e%ono(i%a an# effi%ient "e%a(ation of an#sD
W&e"eas$ !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 29A "e1ui"es t&at a "e%a(ation of a"eas s&a +e i(ite# to t&e
Nationa 4ove"n(ent o" an' )e"son aut&o"i5e# +' it un#e" )"o)e" %ont"a%tD
W&e"eas$ a %ent"a aut&o"it' is nee#e# to a%t on +e&af of t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent w&i%& s&a
ensu"e a %oo"#inate# an# inte*"ate# a))"oa%& in t&e "e%a(ation of an#sD
W&e"eas$ !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1<:3 %"eates t&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' as a *ove"n(ent
%o")o"ation to un#e"ta=e "e%a(ation of an#s an# ensu"e t&ei" (a?i(u( utii5ation in )"o(otin*
)u+i% wefa"e an# inte"estsD an#
W&e"eas$ !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1317 )"ovi#es t&e !"esi#ent wit& %ontinuin* aut&o"it' to
"eo"*ani5e t&e nationa *ove"n(ent in%u#in* t&e t"ansfe"$ a+oition$ o" (e"*e" of fun%tions an#
offi%es.
NOW$ THEREFORE$ I$ FERDINAND E. EARCOS$ !"esi#ent of t&e !&ii))ines$ +' vi"tue of t&e
)owe"s veste# in (e +' t&e Constitution an# )u"suant to !"esi#entia De%"ee No. 1317$ #o &e"e+'
o"#e" an# #i"e%t t&e foowin*C
Se%tion 1. T&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' .!EA0 s&a +e )"i(a"i' "es)onsi+e fo" inte*"atin*$
#i"e%tin*$ an# %oo"#inatin* a "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts fo" an# on +e&af of t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent.
A "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts s&a +e a))"ove# +' t&e !"esi#ent u)on "e%o((en#ation of t&e !EA$ an#
s&a +e un#e"ta=en +' t&e !EA o" t&"ou*& a )"o)e" %ont"a%t e?e%ute# +' it wit& an' )e"son o"
entit'D !"ovi#e#$ t&at$ "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts of an' nationa *ove"n(ent a*en%' o" entit' aut&o"i5e#
un#e" its %&a"te" s&a +e un#e"ta=en in %onsutation wit& t&e !EA u)on a))"ova of t&e !"esi#ent.
? ? ? .G
As t&e %ent"a i()e(entin* a*en%' tas=e# to un#e"ta=e "e%a(ation )"o,e%ts nationwi#e$ wit& aut&o"it' to
se "e%ai(e# an#s$ !EA too= t&e )a%e of DENR as t&e *ove"n(ent a*en%' %&a"*e# wit& easin* o" sein*
"e%ai(e# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&e "e%ai(e# an#s +ein* ease# o" so# +' !EA a"e not )"ivate
an#s$ in t&e sa(e (anne" t&at DENR$ w&en it #is)oses of ot&e" aiena+e an#s$ #oes not #is)ose of )"ivate
an#s +ut aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. On' w&en 1uaifie# )"ivate )a"ties a%1ui"e t&ese an#s wi
t&e an#s +e%o(e )"ivate an#s. In t&e &an#s of t&e *ove"n(ent a*en%' tas=e# an# aut&o"i5e# to #is)ose of
aiena+e of #is)osa+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ t&ese an#s a"e sti )u+i%$ not )"ivate an#s.
Fu"t&e"(o"e$ !EAHs %&a"te" e?)"ess' states t&at !EA Gs&a &o# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ainG as we as Gan'
an# a =in#s of an#s.G !EA %an &o# +ot& an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# )"ivate an#s. T&us$ t&e (e"e fa%t
t&at aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain i=e t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s a"e t"ansfe""e# to !EA an# issue# an#
)atents o" %e"tifi%ates of tite in !EAHs na(e #oes not auto(ati%a' (a=e su%& an#s )"ivate.
To aow vast a"eas of "e%ai(e# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to +e t"ansfe""e# to !EA as )"ivate an#s wi
san%tion a *"oss vioation of t&e %onstitutiona +an on )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* an' =in# of
36
aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. !EA wi si()' tu"n a"oun#$ as !EA &as now #one un#e" t&e A(en#e#
/VA$ an# t"ansfe" seve"a &un#"e#s of &e%ta"es of t&ese "e%ai(e# an# sti to +e "e%ai(e# an#s to a sin*e
)"ivate %o")o"ation in on' one t"ansa%tion. T&is s%&e(e wi effe%tive' nuif' t&e %onstitutiona +an in
Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution w&i%& was inten#e# to #iffuse e1uita+' t&e owne"s&i) of
aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain a(on* Fii)inos$ now nu(+e"in* ove" :< (iion st"on*.
T&is s%&e(e$ if aowe#$ %an even +e a))ie# to aiena+e a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain sin%e !EA
%an Ga%1ui"e ? ? ? an' an# a =in#s of an#s.G T&is wi o)en t&e foo#*ates to %o")o"ations an# even
in#ivi#uas a%1ui"in* &un#"e#s of &e%ta"es of aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain un#e" t&e *uise t&at in t&e
&an#s of !EA t&ese an#s a"e )"ivate an#s. T&is wi "esut in %o")o"ations a(assin* &u*e an#&o#in*s
neve" +efo"e seen in t&is %ount"' 9 %"eatin* t&e ve"' evi t&at t&e %onstitutiona +an was #esi*ne# to )"event.
T&is wi %o()ete' "eve"se t&e %ea" #i"e%tion of %onstitutiona #eveo)(ent in t&is %ount"'. T&e 1;26
Constitution aowe# )"ivate %o")o"ations to a%1ui"e not (o"e t&an 1$<-3 &e%ta"es of )u+i% an#s.
1<6
T&e
1;82 Constitution )"o&i+ite# )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* an' =in# of )u+i% an#$ an# t&e 1;:8
Constitution &as une1uivo%a' "eite"ate# t&is )"o&i+ition.
T&e %ontention of !EA an# AEARI t&at )u+i% an#s$ on%e "e*iste"e# un#e" A%t No. 3;7 o" !D No. 16-;$
auto(ati%a' +e%o(e )"ivate an#s is %ont"a"' to e?istin* aws. Seve"a aws aut&o"i5e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain to +e "e*iste"e# un#e" t&e To""ens S'ste( o" A%t No. 3;7$ now !D No. 16-;$ wit&out osin* t&ei"
%&a"a%te" as )u+i% an#s. Se%tion 1-- of A%t No. 3;7$ an# Se%tion 1<2 of !D No. 16-;$ "es)e%tive'$ )"ovi#e
as foowsC
A%t No. 3;7
GSe%. 1--. W&eneve" )u+i% an#s in t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s +eon*in* to t&e ? ? ? 4ove"n(ent of
t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s a"e aienate#$ *"ante#$ o" %onve'e# to )e"sons o" t&e )u+i% o" )"ivate
%o")o"ations$ t&e sa(e s&a +e +"ou*&t fo"t&wit& un#e" t&e o)e"ation of t&is A%t an# s&a +e%o(e
"e*iste"e# an#s.G
!D No. 16-;
GSe%. 1<2. Ce"tifi%ate of Tite to !atents. W&eneve" )u+i% an# is +' t&e 4ove"n(ent aienate#$
*"ante# o" %onve'e# to an' )e"son$ t&e sa(e s&a +e +"ou*&t fo"t&wit& un#e" t&e o)e"ation of t&is
De%"ee.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
>ase# on its e*isative &isto"'$ t&e )&"ase G%onve'e# to an' )e"sonG in Se%tion 1<2 of !D No. 16-; in%u#es
%onve'an%es of )u+i% an#s to )u+i% %o")o"ations.
Aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain G*"ante#$ #onate#$ o" t"ansfe""e# to a )"ovin%e$ (uni%i)ait'$ o" +"an%&
o" su+#ivision of t&e 4ove"n(ent$G as )"ovi#e# in Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131$ (a' +e "e*iste"e# un#e" t&e
To""ens S'ste( )u"suant to Se%tion 1<2 of !D No. 16-;. Su%& "e*ist"ation$ &oweve"$ is e?)"ess' su+,e%t to
t&e %on#ition in Se%tion 7< of CA No. 131 t&at t&e an# Gs&a not +e aienate#$ en%u(+e"e# o" ot&e"wise
#is)ose# of in a (anne" affe%tin* its tite$ e?%e)t w&en aut&o"i5e# +' Con*"ess.G T&is )"ovision "efe"s to
*ove"n(ent "e%ai(e#$ fo"es&o"e an# (a"s&' an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain t&at &ave +een tite# +ut sti
%annot +e aienate# o" en%u(+e"e# uness e?)"ess' aut&o"i5e# +' Con*"ess. T&e nee# fo" e*isative
aut&o"it' )"events t&e "e*iste"e# an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain f"o( +e%o(in* )"ivate an# t&at %an +e #is)ose#
of to 1uaifie# )"ivate )a"ties.
T&e Revise# A#(inist"ative Co#e of 1;:8 aso "e%o*ni5es t&at an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain (a' +e "e*iste"e#
un#e" t&e To""ens S'ste(. Se%tion 3:$ C&a)te" 1-$ >oo= I of t&e Co#e states
GSe%. 3:. Offi%ia Aut&o"i5e# to Conve' Rea !"o)e"t'. W&eneve" "ea )"o)e"t' of t&e 4ove"n(ent
is aut&o"i5e# +' aw to +e %onve'e#$ t&e #ee# of %onve'an%e s&a +e e?e%ute# in +e&af of t&e
*ove"n(ent +' t&e foowin*C
.10 ? ? ?
37
.-0 Fo" )"o)e"t' +eon*in* to t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines$ +ut tite# in t&e na(e of an' )oiti%a
su+#ivision o" of an' %o")o"ate a*en%' o" inst"u(entait'$ +' t&e e?e%utive &ea# of t&e a*en%' o"
inst"u(entait'.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
T&us$ )"ivate )"o)e"t' )u"%&ase# +' t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent fo" e?)ansion of a )u+i% w&a"f (a' +e tite#
in t&e na(e of a *ove"n(ent %o")o"ation "e*uatin* )o"t o)e"ations in t&e %ount"'. !"ivate )"o)e"t'
)u"%&ase# +' t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent fo" e?)ansion of an ai")o"t (a' aso +e tite# in t&e na(e of t&e
*ove"n(ent a*en%' tas=e# to a#(iniste" t&e ai")o"t. !"ivate )"o)e"t' #onate# to a (uni%i)ait' fo" use as a
town )a5a o" )u+i% s%&oo site (a' i=ewise +e tite# in t&e na(e of t&e (uni%i)ait'.
1<7
A t&ese )"o)e"ties
+e%o(e )"o)e"ties of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ an# if a"ea#' "e*iste"e# un#e" A%t No. 3;7 o" !D No. 16-;$ "e(ain
"e*iste"e# an#. T&e"e is no "e1ui"e(ent o" )"ovision in an' e?istin* aw fo" t&e #e9"e*ist"ation of an# f"o(
t&e To""ens S'ste(.
!"ivate an#s ta=en +' t&e 4ove"n(ent fo" )u+i% use un#e" its )owe" of e(inent #o(ain +e%o(e
un1uestiona+' )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Neve"t&eess$ Se%tion :6 of !D No. 16-; aut&o"i5es t&e Re*iste"
of Dee#s to issue in t&e na(e of t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent new %e"tifi%ates of tite %ove"in* su%&
e?)"o)"iate# an#s. Se%tion :6 of !D No. 16-; states
GSe%. :6. Lan# ta=en +' e(inent #o(ain. W&eneve" an' "e*iste"e# an#$ o" inte"est t&e"ein$ is
e?)"o)"iate# o" ta=en +' e(inent #o(ain$ t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent$ )"ovin%e$ %it' o" (uni%i)ait'$
o" an' ot&e" a*en%' o" inst"u(entait' e?e"%isin* su%& "i*&t s&a fie fo" "e*ist"ation in t&e )"o)e"
Re*ist"' a %e"tifie# %o)' of t&e ,u#*(ent w&i%& s&a state #efinite' +' an a#e1uate #es%"i)tion$ t&e
)a"ti%ua" )"o)e"t' o" inte"est e?)"o)"iate#$ t&e nu(+e" of t&e %e"tifi%ate of tite$ an# t&e natu"e of
t&e )u+i% use. A (e(o"an#u( of t&e "i*&t o" inte"est ta=en s&a +e (a#e on ea%& %e"tifi%ate of
tite +' t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s$ an# w&e"e t&e fee si()e is ta=en$ a new %e"tifi%ate s&a +e issue#
in favo" of t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent$ )"ovin%e$ %it'$ (uni%i)ait'$ o" an' ot&e" a*en%' o"
inst"u(entait' e?e"%isin* su%& "i*&t fo" t&e an# so ta=en. T&e e*a e?)enses in%i#ent to t&e
(e(o"an#u( of "e*ist"ation o" issuan%e of a new %e"tifi%ate of tite s&a +e fo" t&e a%%ount of t&e
aut&o"it' ta=in* t&e an# o" inte"est t&e"ein.G .E()&asis su))ie#0
Conse1uent'$ an#s "e*iste"e# un#e" A%t No. 3;7 o" !D No. 16-; a"e not e?%usive' )"ivate o" )at"i(onia
an#s. Lan#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain (a' aso +e "e*iste"e# )u"suant to e?istin* aws.
AEARI (a=es a )a"tin* s&ot t&at t&e A(en#e# /VA is not a sae to AEARI of t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s o" of t&e
an#s to +e "e%ai(e# f"o( su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a'. In t&e wo"#s of AEARI$ t&e A(en#e# /VA Gis
not a sae +ut a ,oint ventu"e wit& a sti)uation fo" "ei(+u"se(ent of t&e o"i*ina %ost in%u""e# +' !EA fo" t&e
ea"ie" "e%a(ation an# %onst"u%tion wo"=s )e"fo"(e# +' t&e CDC! un#e" its 1;82 %ont"a%t wit& t&e
Re)u+i%.G W&et&e" t&e A(en#e# /VA is a sae o" a ,oint ventu"e$ t&e fa%t "e(ains t&at t&e A(en#e# /VA
"e1ui"es !EA to G%ause t&e issuan%e an# #eive"' of t&e %e"tifi%ates of tite %onve'in* AEARIHs Lan# S&a"e in
t&e na(e of AEARI.G
1<8
T&is sti)uation sti %ont"avenes Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution w&i%& )"ovi#es t&at )"ivate
%o")o"ations Gs&a not &o# su%& aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain e?%e)t +' ease.G T&e t"ansfe" of tite
an# owne"s&i) to AEARI %ea"' (eans t&at AEARI wi G&o#G t&e "e%ai(e# an#s ot&e" t&an +' ease. T&e
t"ansfe" of tite an# owne"s&i) is a G#is)ositionG of t&e "e%ai(e# an#s$ a t"ansa%tion %onsi#e"e# a sae o"
aienation un#e" CA No. 131$
1<:
t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e$
1<;
an# Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8
Constitution.
T&e Re*aian #o%t"ine is #ee)' i()ante# in ou" e*a s'ste(. Fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas fo"( )a"t of
t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# a"e inaiena+e. Lan#s "e%ai(e# f"o( fo"es&o"e an# su+(e"*e# a"eas aso fo"( )a"t
of t&e )u+i% #o(ain an# a"e aso inaiena+e$ uness %onve"te# )u"suant to aw into aiena+e o" #is)osa+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Histo"i%a'$ an#s "e%ai(e# +' t&e *ove"n(ent a"e sui *ene"is$ not avaia+e fo"
sae to )"ivate )a"ties uni=e ot&e" aiena+e )u+i% an#s. Re%ai(e# an#s "etain t&ei" in&e"ent )otentia as
a"eas fo" )u+i% use o" )u+i% se"vi%e. Aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ in%"easin*' +e%o(in* s%a"%e
natu"a "esou"%es$ a"e to +e #ist"i+ute# e1uita+' a(on* ou" eve"9*"owin* )o)uation. To insu"e su%&
e1uita+e #ist"i+ution$ t&e 1;82 an# 1;:8 Constitutions &ave +a""e# )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* an'
=in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. T&ose w&o atte()t to #is)ose of inaiena+e natu"a "esou"%es of
t&e State$ o" see= to %i"%u(vent t&e %onstitutiona +an on aienation of an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to )"ivate
%o")o"ations$ #o so at t&ei" own "is=.
38
We %an now su((a"i5e ou" %on%usions as foowsC
1. T&e 168.:3 &e%ta"es of "e%ai(e# an#s %o()"isin* t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s$ now %ove"e# +'
%e"tifi%ates of tite in t&e na(e of !EA$ a"e aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. !EA (a' ease
t&ese an#s to )"ivate %o")o"ations +ut (a' not se o" t"ansfe" owne"s&i) of t&ese an#s to )"ivate
%o")o"ations. !EA (a' on' se t&ese an#s to !&ii))ine %iti5ens$ su+,e%t to t&e owne"s&i)
i(itations in t&e 1;:8 Constitution an# e?istin* aws.
-. T&e 6;-.16 &e%ta"es of su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a' "e(ain inaiena+e natu"a "esou"%es of
t&e )u+i% #o(ain unti %assifie# as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e an#s o)en to #is)osition an# #e%a"e#
no on*e" nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e. T&e *ove"n(ent %an (a=e su%& %assifi%ation an# #e%a"ation
on' afte" !EA &as "e%ai(e# t&ese su+(e"*e# a"eas. On' t&en %an t&ese an#s 1uaif' as
a*"i%utu"a an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ w&i%& a"e t&e on' natu"a "esou"%es t&e *ove"n(ent %an
aienate. In t&ei" )"esent state$ t&e 6;-.16 &e%ta"es of su+(e"*e# a"eas a"e inaiena+e an# outsi#e
t&e %o((e"%e of (an.
2. Sin%e t&e A(en#e# /VA see=s to t"ansfe" to AEARI$ a )"ivate %o")o"ation$ owne"s&i) of 88.23
&e%ta"es
11<
of t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s$ su%& t"ansfe" is voi# fo" +ein* %ont"a"' to Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII
of t&e 1;:8 Constitution w&i%& )"o&i+its )"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* an' =in# of aiena+e
an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
3. Sin%e t&e A(en#e# /VA aso see=s to t"ansfe" to AEARI owne"s&i) of -;<.167 &e%ta"es
111
of sti
su+(e"*e# a"eas of Eania >a'$ su%& t"ansfe" is voi# fo" +ein* %ont"a"' to Se%tion -$ A"ti%e FII of
t&e 1;:8 Constitution w&i%& )"o&i+its t&e aienation of natu"a "esou"%es ot&e" t&an a*"i%utu"a
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. !EA (a' "e%ai( t&ese su+(e"*e# a"eas. T&e"eafte"$ t&e *ove"n(ent
%an %assif' t&e "e%ai(e# an#s as aiena+e o" #is)osa+e$ an# fu"t&e" #e%a"e t&e( no on*e"
nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e. Sti$ t&e t"ansfe" of su%& "e%ai(e# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
to AEARI wi +e voi# in view of Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution w&i%& )"o&i+its
)"ivate %o")o"ations f"o( a%1ui"in* an' =in# of aiena+e an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
Cea"'$ t&e A(en#e# /VA vioates *a"in*' Se%tions - an# 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution. Un#e"
A"ti%e 13<;
11-
of t&e Civi Co#e$ %ont"a%ts w&ose Go+,e%t o" )u")ose is %ont"a"' to aw$G o" w&ose Go+,e%t is
outsi#e t&e %o((e"%e of (en$G a"e Gine?istent an# voi# f"o( t&e +e*innin*.G T&e Cou"t (ust )e"fo"( its #ut'
to #efen# an# u)&o# t&e Constitution$ an# t&e"efo"e #e%a"es t&e A(en#e# /VA nu an# voi# a+ initio.
Sevent& issueC w&et&e" t&e Cou"t is t&e )"o)e" fo"u( to "aise t&e issue of w&et&e" t&e A(en#e# /VA is
*"oss' #isa#vanta*eous to t&e *ove"n(ent.
Consi#e"in* t&at t&e A(en#e# /VA is nu an# voi# a+ initio$ t&e"e is no ne%essit' to "ue on t&is ast issue.
>esi#es$ t&e Cou"t is not a t"ie" of fa%ts$ an# t&is ast issue invoves a #ete"(ination of fa%tua (atte"s.
WHEREFORE$ t&e )etition is 4RANTED. T&e !u+i% Estates Aut&o"it' an# A(a"i Coasta >a' Deveo)(ent
Co")o"ation a"e !EREANENTLY EN/OINED f"o( i()e(entin* t&e A(en#e# /oint Ventu"e A*"ee(ent
w&i%& is &e"e+' #e%a"e# NULL an# VOID a+ initio.
SO ORDERED.
Davi#e$ /".$ C./.$ >eosio$ !uno$ Vitu*$ Ma)unan$ Een#o5a$ !an*ani+an$ Nuisu(+in*$ Yna"es9Santia*o$
San#ova94utie""e5$ Aust"ia9Ea"tine5$ an# Co"ona$ //.$ %on%u".
Footnote
1
Se%tion 3 of !D No. 1<:3.
-
!EAHs Ee(o"an#u( #ate# Au*ust 3$ 1;;;$ ). 2.
39
2
!EAHs Ee(o"an#u($ su)"a note - at 8. !EAHs Ee(o"an#u( 1uote# e?tensive'$ in its State(ent
of Fa%ts an# t&e Case$ t&e State(ent of Fa%ts in Senate Co((ittee Re)o"t No. 67< #ate#
Se)te(+e" 17$ 1;;8.
3
In O)inion No. 22< #ate# De%e(+e" -2$ 1;;3$ t&e 4ove"n(ent Co")o"ate Counse$ %itin* COA
Au#it Ci"%ua" No. :;9-;7$ a#vise# !EA t&at !EA %ou# ne*otiate t&e sae of t&e 168.:39&e%ta"e
F"ee#o( Isan#s in view of t&e faiu"e of t&e )u+i% +i##in* &e# on De%e(+e" 1<$ 1;;1 w&e"e t&e"e
was not a sin*e +i##e". See aso Senate Co((ittee Re)o"t No. 67<$ ). 1-.
6
!EAHs Ee(o"an#u($ su)"a note - at ;.
7
I+i#.
8
T&e e?isten%e of t&is "e)o"t is a (atte" of ,u#i%ia noti%e )u"suant to Se%tion 1$ Rue 1-; of t&e
Rues of Cou"t w&i%& )"ovi#es$ GA %ou"t s&a ta=e ,u#i%ia noti%e$ wit&out t&e int"o#u%tion of
evi#en%e$ of ? ? ? t&e offi%ia a%ts of t&e e*isatu"e ? ? ?.G
:
Teofisto 4uin*ona$ /".
;
Renato Ca'etano.
1<
Vi"*iio C. A+e,o.
11
Re)o"t an# Re%o((en#ation of t&e Le*a Tas= Fo"%e$ Anne? GCG$ AEARIHs Ee(o"an#u( #ate#
/une 1;$ 1;;;.
1-
AEARIHs Co((ent #ate# /une -3$ 1;;:$ ). 2D Roo$ ). 7:.
12
AEARI fie# t&"ee (otions fo" e?tension of ti(e to fie %o((ent .Roo$ )). 2-$ 2:$ 3:0$ w&ie !EA
fie# nine (otions fo" e?tension of ti(e .Roo$ )). 1-8$ 12;0.
13
!etitione"Hs Ee(o"an#u( #ate# /u' 7$ 1;;;$ ). 3-.
16
Re)"esente# +' t&e Offi%e of t&e Soi%ito" 4ene"a$ wit& Soi%ito" 4ene"a Ri%a"#o !. 4ave5$
Assistant Soi%ito" 4ene"a A5u%ena R. >aanon9Co")u5$ an# Asso%iate Soi%ito" Ra'(un# I.
Ri*o#on si*nin* !EAHs Ee(o"an#u(.
17
Re)"esente# +' A5%una Yo"a% A""o'o R C&ua Law Offi%es$ an# Ro(uo Ea+anta Sa'o% R De os
An*ees Law Offi%es.
18
Saon*a v. !aLo$ 123 SCRA 32: .1;:60D 4on5aes v. Ea"%os$ 76 SCRA 7-3 .1;86 0D A1uino v.
En"ie$ 6; SCRA 1:2 .1;83 0D Dea Ca(a"a v. Ena*e$ 31 SCRA 1 .1;81 0.
1:
Se%tion 11$ A"ti%e FIV.
1;
Eania Ee%t"i% Co. v. /u#*e F. Cast"o9>a"too(e$ 113 SCRA 8;; .1;:-0D Re)u+i% v. CA an#
I*esia$ an# Re)u+i% v. Cen#ana an# I*esia ni C"isto$ 11; SCRA 33; .1;:-0D Re)u+i% v.
Vianueva an# I*esia ni C"isto$ 113 SCRA :86 .1;:-0D Di"e%to" of Lan#s v. Loo#$ 1-3 SCRA 37<
.1;:20D Re)u+i% v. I*esia ni C"isto$ 1-: SCRA 33 .1;:30D Di"e%to" of Lan#s v. He"(anos '
He"(anas #e Sta. C"u5 #e Ea'o$ In%.$ 131 SCRA -1 .1;:70D Di"e%to" of Lan#s v. IAC an# A%(e
!'woo# R Venee" Co.$ 137 SCRA 6<; .1;:70D Re)u+i% v. IAC an# Ro(an Cat&oi% >is&o) of
Lu%ena$ 17: SCRA 176 .1;::0D Nativi#a# v. CA$ -<- SCRA 3;2 .1;;10D Viafo" v. CA an# Nasi)it
Lu(+e" Co.$ -:< SCRA -;8 .1;;80. In A'o* v. Cusi$ 11: SCRA 3;- .1;:-0$ t&e Cou"t #i# not a))'
t&e %onstitutiona +an in t&e 1;82 Constitution +e%ause t&e a))i%ant %o")o"ation$ >iLan
Deveo)(ent Co.$ In%.$ &a# fu' %o()ie# wit& a its o+i*ations an# even )ai# t&e fu )u"%&ase
40
)"i%e +efo"e t&e effe%tivit' of t&e 1;82 Constitution$ at&ou*& t&e saes )atent was issue# afte" t&e
1;82 Constitution too= effe%t.
-<
!D No. 1<82.
-1
Anne? G>G$ AEARIHs Ee(o"an#u( #ate# /une 1;$ 1;;;$ Se%tion 6.- .%0 an# .e0 of t&e A(en#e#
/VA$ )). 17918.
--
C&ave5 v. !C44$ -;; SCRA 833 .1;;:0.
-2
127 SCRA -8 .1;:60.
-3
A"ti%e - of t&e Civi Co#e .)"io" to its a(en#(ent +' EO No. -<<0 )"ovi#e# as foowsC GLaws
s&a ta=e effe%t afte" fifteen #a's foowin* t&e %o()etion of t&ei" )u+i%ation in t&e Offi%ia
4a5ette$ uness it is )"ovi#e# ot&e"wise$ ? ? ?.G
-6
Se%tion 1 of CA No. 72: )"ovi#es as foowsC GT&e"e s&a +e )u+is&e# in t&e Offi%ia 4a5ette a
i()o"tant e*isative a%ts an# "esoutions of t&e Con*"ess of t&e !&ii))inesD a e?e%utive an#
a#(inist"ative o"#e"s an# )"o%a(ations$ e?%e)t su%& as &ave no *ene"a a))i%a+iit'D ? ? ?.G
-7
Se%tion 8; of t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#es )"ovi#es as foowsC GW&en *ove"n(ent )"o)e"t'
&as +e%o(e unse"vi%ea+e fo" an' %ause$ o" is no on*e" nee#e#$ it s&a$ u)on a))i%ation of t&e
offi%e" a%%ounta+e t&e"efo"$ +e ins)e%te# +' t&e &ea# of t&e a*en%' o" &is #u' aut&o"i5e#
"e)"esentative in t&e )"esen%e of t&e au#ito" %on%e"ne# an#$ if foun# to +e vaueess o" unsaea+e$
it (a' +e #est"o'e# in t&ei" )"esen%e. If foun# to +e vaua+e$ it (a' +e so# at )u+i% au%tion to t&e
&i*&est +i##e" un#e" t&e su)e"vision of t&e )"o)e" %o((ittee on awa"# o" si(ia" +o#' in t&e
)"esen%e of t&e au#ito" %on%e"ne# o" ot&e" aut&o"i5e# "e)"esentative of t&e Co((ission$ afte"
a#ve"tisin* +' )"inte# noti%e in t&e Offi%ia 4a5ette$ o" fo" not ess t&an t&"ee %onse%utive #a's in
an' news)a)e" of *ene"a %i"%uation$ o" w&e"e t&e vaue of t&e )"o)e"t' #oes not wa""ant t&e
e?)ense of )u+i%ation$ +' noti%es )oste# fo" a i=e )e"io# in at east t&"ee )u+i% )a%es in t&e
o%ait' w&e"e t&e )"o)e"t' is to +e so#. In t&e event t&at t&e )u+i% au%tion fais$ t&e )"o)e"t' (a'
+e so# at a )"ivate sae at su%& )"i%e as (a' +e fi?e# +' t&e sa(e %o((ittee o" +o#' %on%e"ne#
an# a))"ove# +' t&e Co((ission.G
-8
!aat v. Cou"t of A))eas$ -77 SCRA 178 .1;;80D Nuisu(+in* v. /u#*e 4u(+an$ 1;2 SCRA 6-<
.1;;10D Va(onte v. >e(onte$ /".$ 18< SCRA -67 .1;:;0.
-:
See note --.
-;
Se%tion 1$ A"ti%e FI of t&e 1;:8 Constitution states as foowsC G!u+i% offi%e is a )u+i% t"ust.
!u+i% offi%e"s an# e()o'ees (ust at a ti(es +e a%%ounta+e to t&e )eo)e$ se"ve t&e( wit&
ut(ost "es)onsi+iit'$ inte*"it'$ o'at'$ an# effi%ien%'$ a%t wit& )at"iotis( an# ,usti%e$ an# ea#
(o#est ives.G
2<
18< SCRA -67 .1;:;0.
21
See note --.
2-
Re%o"# of t&e Constitutiona Co((ission$ Vo. V$ )). -39-6$ .1;:70.
22
Su)"a$ Note --.
23
I+i#.
26
Le*as)i v. Civi Se"vi%e Co((ission$ 16< SCRA 62< .1;:80.
41
27
A(onte v. Vas1ue5$ -33 SCRA -:7 .1;;60.
28
See Note --.
2:
C&ave5 v. !C44$ see note --D A1uino9Sa"(iento v. Eo"ato$ -<2 SCRA 616 .1;;10.
2;
A(onte v. Vas1ue5$ see note 27.
3<
!eo)eHs Eove(ent fo" !"ess F"ee#o($ et a. v. Hon. Rau Ean*a)us$ 4.R. No. :373-$ En >an%
Resoution #ate# A)"i 12$ 1;::D C&ave5 v. !C44$ see note --.
31
Se%tion -8< of t&e Nationa Inte"na Revenue Co#e )unis&es an' offi%e" o" e()o'ee of t&e
>u"eau of Inte"na Revenue w&o #ivu*es to an' )e"son$ e?%e)t as aowe# +' aw$ info"(ation
"e*a"#in* t&e +usiness$ in%o(e$ o" estate of an' ta?)a'e"$ t&e se%"ets$ o)e"ation$ st'e of wo"=$ o"
a))a"atus of an' (anufa%tu"e" o" )"o#u%e"$ o" %onfi#entia info"(ation "e*a"#in* t&e +usiness of
an' ta?)a'e"$ =nowe#*e of w&i%& was a%1ui"e# +' &i( in t&e #is%&a"*e of &is offi%ia #uties.
Se%tion 13 of R.A. No. ::<< .Safe*ua"# Eeasu"es A%t0 )"o&i+its t&e "eease to t&e )u+i% of
%onfi#entia info"(ation su+(itte# in evi#en%e to t&e Ta"iff Co((ission. Se%tion 2 .n0 of R.A. No.
:6<3 .!&ii))ine AIDS !"evention an# Cont"o A%t0 %assifies as %onfi#entia t&e (e#i%a "e%o"#s of
HIV )atients. Se%tion 7 .,0 of R.A. No. :<32 .Inte"9Count"' A#o)tion A%t0 %assifies as %onfi#entia
t&e "e%o"#s of t&e a#o)te# %&i#$ a#o)tin* )a"ents$ an# natu"a )a"ents. Se%tion ;3 .f0 of R.A. No.
8;3- .!&ii))ine Einin* A%t0 "e1ui"es t&e De)a"t(ent of Envi"on(ent an# Natu"a Resou"%es to
(aintain t&e %onfi#entiait' of %onfi#entia info"(ation su))ie# +' %ont"a%to"s w&o a"e )a"ties to
(ine"a a*"ee(ents o" finan%ia an# te%&ni%a assistan%e a*"ee(ents.
3-
T&e Re%o)ia%ion #e Le'es #e as In#ias #e%a"e# t&atC GWe$ &avin* a%1ui"e# fu sove"ei*nt'
ove" t&e In#ies$ an# a an#s$ te""ito"ies$ an# )ossessions not &e"etofo"e %e#e# awa' +' ou" "o'a
)"e#e%esso"s$ o" +' us$ o" in ou" na(e$ sti )e"tainin* to t&e "o'a %"own an# )at"i(on'$ it is ou" wi
t&at a an#s w&i%& a"e &e# wit&out )"o)e" an# t"ue #ee#s of *"ant +e "esto"e# to us a%%o"#in* as
t&e' +eon* to us$ in o"#e" t&at afte" "ese"vin* +efo"e a w&at to us o" to ou" vi%e"o's$ au#ien%ias$
an# *ove"no"s (a' see( ne%essa"' fo" )u+i% s1ua"es$ wa's$ )astu"es$ an# %o((ons in t&ose
)a%es w&i%& a"e )eo)e#$ ta=in* into %onsi#e"ation not on' t&ei" )"esent %on#ition$ +ut aso t&ei"
futu"e an# t&ei" )"o+a+e in%"ease$ an# afte" #ist"i+utin* to t&e natives w&at (a' +e ne%essa"' fo"
tia*e an# )astu"a*e$ %onfi"(in* t&e( in w&at t&e' now &ave an# *ivin* t&e( (o"e if ne%essa"'$
a t&e "est of sai# an#s (a' "e(ain f"ee an# unen%u(+e"e# fo" us to #is)ose of as we (a' wis&.G
See %on%u""in* o)inion of /usti%e Re'nato S. !uno in Re)u+i% Rea Estate Co")o"ation v. Cou"t of
A))eas$ -;; SCRA 1;; .1;;:0.
32
Ca"iLo v. Insua" 4ove"n(ent$ 31 !&i. ;26 .1;<;0. T&e e?%e)tion (entione# in Ca"iLo$ "efe""in*
to an#s in t&e )ossession of an o%%u)ant an# of &is )"e#e%esso"s9in9inte"est$ sin%e ti(e
i((e(o"ia$ is a%tua' a s)e%ies of a *"ant +' t&e State. T&e Unite# States Su)"e(e Cou"t$
s)ea=in* t&"ou*& /usti%e Oive" Wen#e Ho(es$ /".$ #e%a"e# in Ca"iLoC G!"es%"i)tion is (entione#
a*ain in t&e "o'a %e#ua of O%to+e" 16$ 1863$ %ite# in 2 !&ii))ine$ 637D HW&e"e su%& )ossesso"s
s&a not +e a+e to )"o#u%e tite #ee#s$ it s&a +e suffi%ient if t&e' s&a s&ow t&at an%ient
)ossession$ as a vai# tite +' )"es%"i)tion.H It (a' +e t&at t&is (eans )ossession f"o( +efo"e 18<<D
+ut$ at a events$ t&e )"in%i)e is a#(itte#. As )"es%"i)tion$ even a*ainst t&e C"own an#s$ was
"e%o*ni5e# +' t&e aws of S)ain$ we see no suffi%ient "eason fo" &esitatin* to a#(it t&at it was
"e%o*ni5e# in t&e !&ii))ines in "e*a"# to an#s ove" w&i%& S)ain &a# on' a )a)e" sove"ei*nt'.G
See aso Re)u+i% v. Lee$ 1;8 SCRA 12 .1;;10.
33
A"ti%e 1 of t&e S)anis& Law of Wate"s of 1:77.
36
I*na%io v. Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ 1<: !&i. 226 .1;7<0D /oven v. Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ ;2 !&i. 123 .1;620D
Lau"e v. 4a"%ia$ 1:8 SCRA 8;8 .1;;<0. See %on%u""in* o)inion of /usti%e Re'nato S. !uno in
Re)u+i% Rea Estate Co")o"ation v. Cou"t of A))eas$ -;; SCRA 1;; .1;;:0.
37
A%t No. ;-7$ ena%te# on O%to+e" 8$ 1;<2$ was aso tite# t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t. T&is A%t$ &oweve"$
#i# not %ove" "e%ai(e# an#s. Neve"t&eess$ Se%tion -2 of t&is A%t )"ovi#e# as foowsC G? ? ? In no
%ase (a' an#s ease# un#e" t&e )"ovisions of t&is %&a)te" +e ta=en so as to *ain %ont"o of
42
a#,a%ent an#$ wate"$ st"ea($ s&o"e ine$ wa'$ "oa#stea#$ o" ot&e" vaua+e "i*&t w&i%& in t&e o)inion
of t&e C&ief of t&e >u"eau of !u+i% Lan#s wou# +e )"e,u#i%ia to t&e inte"ests of t&e )u+i%.G
38
Se%tion 1< of A%t No. -:83 )"ovi#e# as foowsC GT&e wo"#s Gaienation$G G#is)osition$G o"
G%on%essionG as use# in t&is A%t$ s&a (ean an' of t&e (et&o#s aut&o"i5e# +' t&is A%t fo" t&e
a%1uisition$ ease$ use$ o" +enefit of t&e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain ot&e" t&an ti(+e" o" (ine"a
an#s.G
3:
Tite II of A%t No. -:83 *ove"ne# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain fo" a*"i%utu"a )u")oses$
w&ie Tite III of t&e sa(e A%t *ove"ne# aiena+e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain fo" non9a*"i%utu"a
)u")oses.
3;
Se%tion 68 of A%t No. -:83 )"ovi#e# as foowsC G? ? ?D +ut t&e an# so *"ante#$ #onate#$ o"
t"ansfe""e# to a )"ovin%e$ (uni%i)ait'$ o" +"an%& o" su+#ivision of t&e 4ove"n(ent s&a not +e
aienate#$ en%u(+e"e#$ o" ot&e"wise #is)ose# of in a (anne" affe%tin* its tite$ e?%e)t w&en
aut&o"i5e# +' t&e e*isatu"eD ? ? ?.G
6<
M"iven=o v. Re*iste" of Dee#s$ 8; !&i. 371 .1;380.
61
Se%tion - of CA No. 131 states as foowsC GT&e )"ovisions of t&is A%t s&a a))' to t&e an#s of
t&e )u+i% #o(ainD +ut ti(+e" an# (ine"a an#s s&a +e *ove"ne# +' s)e%ia aws an# not&in* in
t&is A%t )"ovi#e# s&a +e un#e"stoo# o" %onst"ue# to %&an*e o" (o#if' t&e a#(inist"ation an#
#is)osition of t&e an#s %o((on' %ae# Gf"ia" an#sG an# t&ose w&i%&$ +ein* )"ivate' owne#$ &ave
"eve"te# to o" +e%o(e t&e )"o)e"t' of t&e Co((onweat& of t&e !&ii))ines$ w&i%& a#(inist"ation
an# #is)osition s&a +e *ove"ne# +' t&e aws at )"esent in fo"%e o" w&i%& (a' &e"eafte" +e
ena%te#.G
6-
Li=e A%t No. -:83$ Se%tion 1< of CA No. 131 #efine# t&e te"(s GaienationG an# G#is)ositionG as
foowsC GT&e wo"#s Gaienation$G G#is)osition$G o" G%on%essionG as use# in t&is A%t$ s&a (ean an'
of t&e (et&o#s aut&o"i5e# +' t&is A%t fo" t&e a%1uisition$ ease$ use$ o" +enefit of t&e an#s of t&e
)u+i% #o(ain ot&e" t&an ti(+e" o" (ine"a an#s.G
62
R.A. No. 7768 &as sus)en#e# t&e aut&o"it' of t&e !"esi#ent to "e%assif' fo"est o" (ine"a an#s
into a*"i%utu"a an#s. Se%tion 3 .a0 of RA No. 7768 .Co()"e&ensive A*"a"ian Refo"( Law of 1;::0
states$ GNo "e%assifi%ation of fo"est o" (ine"a an#s to a*"i%utu"a an#s s&a +e un#e"ta=en afte"
t&e a))"ova of t&is A%t unti Con*"ess$ ta=in* into a%%ount e%oo*i%a$ #eveo)(enta an# e1uit'
%onsi#e"ations$ s&a &ave #ei(ite# +' aw$ t&e s)e%ifi% i(its of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.G
63
Cove"in* Se%tions 6: to 7: of CA No. 131.
66
-;; SCRA 1;; .1;;:0.
67
Se%tion 1$ A"ti%e FIII of t&e 1;26 Constitution i(ite# t&e #is)osition an# utii5ation of )u+i%
a*"i%utu"a an#s to !&ii))ine %iti5ens o" to %o")o"ations at east si?t' )e"%ent owne# +' !&ii))ine
%iti5ens. T&is was$ &oweve"$ su+,e%t to t&e o"i*ina O"#inan%e a))en#e# to t&e 1;26 Constitution
statin*$ a(on* ot&e"s$ t&at unti t&e wit&#"awa of Unite# States sove"ei*nt' in t&e !&ii))ines$
GCiti5ens an# %o")o"ations of t&e Unite# States s&a en,o' in t&e Co((onweat& of t&e !&ii))ines
a t&e %ivi "i*&ts of t&e %iti5ens an# %o")o"ations$ "es)e%tive'$ t&e"eof.G
68
Se%tion 33 of !D No. 16-; .)"evious' Se%tion 2; of A%t No. 3;70 )"ovi#es t&at Giens$ %ai(s o"
"i*&ts a"isin* o" e?istin* un#e" t&e aws an# t&e Constitution of t&e !&ii))ines w&i%& a"e not +' aw
"e1ui"e# to a))ea" of "e%o"# in t&e Re*ist"' of Dee#s in o"#e" to +e vai# a*ainst su+se1uent
)u"%&ase"s o" en%u(+"an%e"s of "e%o"#G %onstitute statuto"' iens affe%tin* t&e tite.1w)&i1.nt
6:
RA No. 82<$ w&i%& too= effe%t on /une 1:$ 1;6-$ aut&o"i5e# t&e )"ivate sae of &o(e ots to
a%tua o%%u)ants of )u+i% an#s not nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e. Se%tion 1 of RA No. 82< )"ovi#e# as
foowsC GNotwit&stan#in* t&e )"ovisions of Se%tions 71 an# 78 of Co((onweat& A%t No. 131$ as
a(en#e# +' RA No. -;2$ an' Fii)ino %iti5en of e*a a*e w&o is not t&e owne" of a &o(e ot in t&e
43
(uni%i)ait' o" %it' in w&i%& &e "esi#es an# w&o &a# in *oo# fait& esta+is&e# &is "esi#en%e on a
)a"%e of an# of t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines w&i%& is not nee#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$ s&a +e
*iven )"efe"en%e to )u"%&ase at a )"ivate sae of w&i%& "easona+e noti%e s&a +e *iven to &i($ not
(o"e t&an one t&ousan# s1ua"e (ete"s at a )"i%e to +e fi?e# +' t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s wit& t&e
a))"ova of t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Natu"a Resou"%es. ? ? ?.G In a##ition$ on /une 17$
1;3:$ Con*"ess ena%te# R.A. No. -;2 aowin* t&e )"ivate sae of (a"s&' aiena+e o" #is)osa+e
an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain to essees w&o &ave i()"ove# an# utii5e# t&e sa(e as fa"(s$
fis&)on#s o" ot&e" si(ia" )u")oses fo" at east five 'ea"s f"o( t&e #ate of t&e ease %ont"a%t wit&
t&e *ove"n(ent. R.A. No. -;2$ &oweve"$ #i# not a))' to (a"s&' an#s un#e" Se%tion 67 .%0$ Tite III
of CA No. 131 w&i%& "efe"s to (a"s&' an#s ease# fo" "esi#entia$ %o((e"%ia$ in#ust"ia o" ot&e"
non9a*"i%utu"a )u")oses.
6;
See note 3;.
7<
See note 7<.
71
Re)u+i% Rea Estate Co")o"ation v. Cou"t of A))eas$ see note 67.
7-
I+i#.
72
Insua" 4ove"n(ent v. A#e%oa$ 1; !&i. 6<6 .1;110D 4ove"n(ent v. Ca+an*is$ 62 !&i. 11-
.1;-;0.
73
11: SCRA 3;- .1;:-0.
76
Anne? G>G$ AEARIHs Ee(o"an#u($ see note - at 1 R -.
77
!EAHs Ee(o"an#u($ see note 7.
78
I+i#.$ ). 33.
7:
See notes ;$ 1< R 11.
7;
Anne? GCG$ ). 2$ AEARIHs Ee(o"an#u($ see note 1- at 2.
8<
T&is s&ou# "ea# A"ti%e FII.
81
Se%tion : of CA No. 131.
8-
E()&asis su))ie#.
82
1:8 SCRA 8;8 .1;;<0.
83
A"ti%e 3-- of t&e Civi Co#e states as foowsC G!"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion$ w&en no on*e"
nee#e# fo" )u+i% use o" )u+i% se"vi%e$ s&a fo"( )a"t of t&e )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e State.G
86
AEARIHs Co((ent #ate# /une -3$ 1;;:$ ). -<D Roo$ ). :6.
87
Di5on v. Ro#"i*ue5$ 12 SCRA 8<6 .1;760D Re)u+i% v. Lat V#a. #e Castio$ 172 SCRA -:7
.1;::0.
88
Ca"iLo v. Insua" 4ove"n(ent$ 31 !&i. ;26 .1;<;0.
8:
!"o%a(ation No. 31$ issue# +' !"esi#ent Ra(on Ea*sa'sa' on /u' 6$ 1;63$ "ese"ve# fo"
GNationa !a"= )u")osesG 373.77 &e%ta"es of t&e )u+i% #o(ain in Eania >a' Gsituate# in t&e %ities
44
of Eania an# !asa' an# t&e (uni%i)ait' of !a"ana1ue$ !"ovin%e of Ri5a$ Isan# of Lu5on$G w&i%&
a"ea$ as #es%"i+e# in #etai in t&e !"o%a(ation$ is G>Joun#e# on t&e No"t&$ +' Eania >a'D on t&e
East$ +' Dewe' >oueva"#D an# on t&e sout& an# west$ +' Eania >a'.G See %on%u""in* o)inion of
/usti%e Re'nato S. !uno in Re)u+i% Rea Estate Co")o"ation v. Cou"t of A))eas$ -;; SCRA 1;;;
.1;;:0. Un#e" Se%tions - an# 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution$ Gnationa )a"=sG a"e inaiena+e
natu"a "esou"%es of t&e State.
8;
Fift& W&e"eas %ause of EO No. 6-6.
:<
Se%tion 3$ C&a)te" I$ Tite FIV$ >oo= IV.
:1
Se%tion 7 of CA No 131 )"ovi#es as foowsC GT&e !"esi#ent$ u)on t&e "e%o((en#ation of t&e
Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Co((e"%e$ s&a f"o( ti(e to ti(e %assif' t&e an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain into .a0 Aiena+e o" #is)osa+e$ ? ? ?.G
:-
Se%tion 8 of CA No. 131 )"ovi#es as foowsC GFo" )u")oses of t&e a#(inist"ation an# #is)osition
of aiena+e o" #is)osa+e )u+i% an#s$ t&e !"esi#ent$ u)on "e%o((en#ation +' t&e Se%"eta"' of
A*"i%utu"e an# Co((e"%e$ s&a f"o( ti(e to ti(e #e%a"e w&at an#s a"e o)en to #is)osition o"
%on%ession un#e" t&is A%t.G
:2
On GLan#s fo" Resi#entia$ Co((e"%ia$ o" In#ust"ia an# ot&e" Si(ia" !u")oses.G
:3
RA No. -;2$ ena%te# on /une 17$ 1;3:$ aut&o"i5e# t&e sae of (a"s&' an#s un#e" %e"tain
%on#itions. Se%tion 1 of RA No. -;2 )"ovi#e# as foowsC GT&e )"ovisions of se%tion si?t'9one of
Co((onweat& A%t Nu(+e"e# One &un#"e# an# fo"t'9one to t&e %ont"a"' notwit&stan#in*$ (a"s&'
an#s an# an#s un#e" wate" +o"#e"in* on s&o"es o" +an=s o" navi*a+e a=es o" "ive"s w&i%& a"e
%ove"e# +' su+sistin* eases o" eases w&i%& (a' &e"eafte" +e #u' *"ante# un#e" t&e )"ovisions of
t&e sai# A%t an# a"e a"ea#' i()"ove# an# &ave +een utii5e# fo" fa"(in*$ fis&)on#$ o" si(ia"
)u")oses fo" at east five 'ea"s f"o( t&e #ate of t&e %ont"a%t of ease$ (a' +e so# to t&e essees
t&e"eof un#e" t&e )"ovisions of C&a)te" Five of t&e sai# A%t as soon as t&e !"esi#ent$ u)on
"e%o((en#ation of t&e Se%"eta"' of A*"i%utu"e an# Natu"a Resou"%es$ s&a #e%a"e t&at t&e sa(e
a"e not ne%essa"' fo" t&e )u+i% se"vi%e.G
:6
!EAHs Ee(o"an#u($ see note - at 36.
:7
See note 82.
:8
Se%tion 3 .+0 of !D No. 1<:3
::
R.A. No. 82< aows t&e )"ivate sae of &o(e ots to a%tua o%%u)ants of )u+i% an#s. See note
72.
:;
Issue# on Fe+"ua"' -7$ 1;:1.
;<
W&ie !EA %ai(s t&e"e was a faiu"e of )u+i% +i##in* on De%e(+e" 1<$ 1;;1$ t&e"e is no
s&owin* t&at t&e Co((ission on Au#it a))"ove# t&e )"i%e o" %onsi#e"ation sti)uate# in t&e
ne*otiate# A(en#e# /VA as "e1ui"e# +' Se%tion 8; of t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e. Senate
Co((ittee Re)o"t No. 67< #i# not #is%uss t&is issue.
;1
!a"a*"a)& - .a0 of COA Ci"%ua" No. :;9-;7$ on GSae T&"u Ne*otiation$G states t&at #is)osa
t&"ou*& ne*otiate# sae (a' +e "eso"te# to if GITJ&e"e was a faiu"e of )u+i% au%tion.G
;-
Senate Co((ittee Re)o"t No. 67<$ State(ent of Fa%ts$ ). 8$ %itin* !EA >oa"# Resoution No.
:26$ as a))ea"in* in t&e Einutes of t&e !EA >oa"# of Di"e%to"s Eeetin* &e# on Ea' 2<$ 1;;1$ )e"
Ce"tifi%ation of /ai(e T. De Ve'"a$ Co")o"ate Se%"eta"'$ #ate# /une 11$ 1;;1.
;2
O)inion No. 22<$ %itin* COA Au#it Ci"%ua" No. :;9-;7. See note 6.
45
;3
!EAHs Ee(o"an#u($ see note -.
;6
Senate Co((ittee Re)o"t No. 67<$ )). 89:$ %itin* t&e Einutes of Eeetin* of t&e !EA >oa"# of
Di"e%to"s &e# on De%e(+e" 1;$ 1;;1.
;7
Se%tion 2$ A"ti%e FII of t&e 1;:8 Constitution )"ovi#es as foowsC G? ? ? Citi5ens of t&e
!&ii))ines (a' ? ? ? a%1ui"e not (o"e t&an tweve &e%ta"es t&e"eof +' )u"%&ase$ &o(estea# o"
*"ant.G Howeve"$ Se%tion 7 of R.A. No. 7768 .Co()"e&ensive A*"a"ian Refo"( Law0 i(its t&e
owne"s&i) of G)u+i% o" )"ivate a*"i%utu"a an#G to a (a?i(u( of five &e%ta"es )e" )e"son.
;8
;7 !&i. ;37 .1;660.
;:
3: SCRA 28- .1;880.
;;
17: SCRA 1;: .1;::0.
1<<
18- SCRA 8;6 .1;:;0.
1<1
82 SCRA 137 .1;870.
1<-
Avia v. Ta)u%a"$ -<1 SCRA 13: .1;;10.
1<2
Re)u+i% v. A'aa Cia$ et a.$ 13 SCRA -6; .1;760D Di5on v. Ro#"i*ue5$ 12 SCRA 8<6 .1;760.
1<3
Se%tion 33 of !D No. 16-; states as foowsC GEve"' "e*iste"e# owne" "e%eivin* a %e"tifi%ate of
tite in )u"suan%e of a #e%"ee of "e*ist"ation$ an# eve"' su+se1uent )u"%&ase" of "e*iste"e# an#
ta=in* a %e"tifi%ate of tite fo" vaue an# in *oo# fait&$ s&a &o# t&e sa(e f"ee f"o( a
en%u(+"an%es e?%e)t t&ose note# on sai# %e"tifi%ate an# an' of t&e foowin* en%u(+"an%es w&i%&
(a' +e su+sistin*$ na(e'C Fi"st. Liens$ %ai(s o" "i*&ts a"isin* o" e?istin* un#e" t&e aws an#
Constitution of t&e !&ii))ines w&i%& a"e not +' aw "e1ui"e# to a))ea" of "e%o"# in t&e Re*ist"' of
Dee#s in o"#e" to +e vai# a*ainst su+se1uent )u"%&ase"s o" en%u(+"an%e"s of "e%o"#. ? ? ?.G
Un#e" Se%tion 1<2 of !D No. 16-;$ Se%tion 33 a))ies to %e"tifi%ates of tite issue# )u"suant to a
an# )atent *"ante# +' t&e *ove"n(ent.
1<6
Se%tion -$ A"ti%e FIII of t&e 1;26 Constitution.
1<7
Ha"t' v. Euni%i)ait' of Vi%to"ia$ 12 !&i. 16- .1;<;0.
1<8
Anne? G>G$ AEARIHs Ee(o"an#u($ see note -1 at 17$ Se%tion 6.- .%0 of t&e A(en#e# /VA.
1<:
Se%tion 1< of CA No. 131 )"ovi#es as foowsC GSe%. 1<. T&e wo"#s Gaienation$G G#is)osition$G o"
G%on%essionG as use# in t&is A%t$ s&a (ean an' of t&e (et&o#s aut&o"i5e# +' t&is A%t fo" t&e
a%1uisition$ ease$ use$ o" +enefit of t&e an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain ot&e" t&an ti(+e" o" (ine"a
an#s.G
1<;
Se%tion 8; of t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e$ w&i%& "e1ui"es )u+i% au%tion in t&e sae of
*ove"n(ent assets$ in%u#es a =in#s of #is)osa o" #ivest(ent of *ove"n(ent assets. T&us$ COA
Au#it Ci"%ua" No. :79-73 #ate# O%to+e" 17$ 1;:7 s)ea=s of G*ui#eines .w&i%&0 s&a *ove"n t&e
*ene"a )"o%e#u"es on t&e #ivest(ent o" #is)osa of assets of *ove"n(ent9owne# an#Ko" %ont"oe#
%o")o"ations an# t&ei" su+si#ia"ies.G Li=ewise$ COA Au#it Ci"%ua" No. :;9-;7 #ate# /anua"' -8$
s)ea=s of G*ui#eines .w&i%&0 s&a +e o+se"ve# an# a#&e"e# to in t&e #ivest(ent o" #is)osa of
)"o)e"t' an# ot&e" assets of a *ove"n(ent entitiesKinst"u(entaitiesG an# t&at G#ivest(ent s&a
"efe" to t&e (anne" o" s%&e(e of ta=in* awa'$ #e)"ivin*$ wit&#"awin* of an aut&o"it'$ )owe" o" tite.G
T&ese COA Ci"%ua"s i()e(ent Se%tion 8; of t&e 4ove"n(ent Au#itin* Co#e.
46
11<
T&e s&a"e of AEARI in t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s is 88.23 &e%ta"es$ w&i%& is 8< )e"%ent of t&e net
usa+e a"ea of 11<.3; &e%ta"es. T&e net usa+e a"ea is t&e tota an# a"ea of t&e F"ee#o( Isan#s
ess 2< )e"%ent ao%ate# fo" %o((on a"eas.
111
T&e s&a"e of AEARI in t&e su+(e"*e# a"eas fo" "e%a(ation is -;<.1-; &e%ta"es$ w&i%& is 8<
)e"%ent of t&e net usa+e a"ea of 313.38 &e%ta"es.
11-
A"ti%e 13<; of t&e Civi Co#e )"ovi#es as foowsC GT&e foowin* %ont"a%ts a"e ine?istent an#
voi# f"o( t&e +e*innin*C .10 T&ose w&ose %ause$ o+,e%t o" )u")ose is %ont"a"' to awD ? ? ?D .30
T&ose w&ose o+,e%t is outsi#e t&e %o((e"%e of (enD ? ? ?.G
4.R. No. 132;6: /u' 11$ -<<2
ALFRED FRITB FRENBEL$ )etitione"$ vs. EDERLINA !. CATITO$ "es)on#ent.
CALLE/O$ SR.$ /.C
>efo"e us is a )etition fo" "eview of t&e De%ision
1
of t&e Cou"t of A))eas in CA94.R. CV No. 623:6 w&i%&
affi"(e# t&e De%ision
-
of t&e Re*iona T"ia Cou"t of Davao Cit'$ >"an%& 13$ in Civi Case No. 18$:18
#is(issin* t&e )etitione"Hs %o()aint$ an# t&e "esoution of t&e Cou"t of A))eas #en'in* &is (otion fo"
"e%onsi#e"ation of t&e sai# #e%ision.
T&e Ante%e#ents
2
As *eane# f"o( t&e evi#en%e of t&e )etitione"$ t&e %ase at +a" ste((e# f"o( t&e foowin* fa%tua +a%=#"o)C
!etitione" Af"e# F"it5 F"en5e is an Aust"aian %iti5en of 4e"(an #es%ent. He is an ee%t"i%a en*inee" +'
)"ofession$ +ut wo"=e# as a )iot wit& t&e New 4uinea Ai"ines. He a""ive# in t&e !&ii))ines in 1;83$ sta"te#
en*a*in* in +usiness in t&e %ount"' two 'ea"s t&e"eafte"$ an# (a""ie# Te"esita Santos$ a Fii)ino %iti5en. In
1;:1$ Af"e# an# Te"esita se)a"ate# f"o( +e# an# +oa"# wit&out o+tainin* a #ivo"%e.
So(eti(e in Fe+"ua"' 1;:2$ Af"e# a""ive# in S'#ne'$ Aust"aia fo" a va%ation. He went to Min*Hs C"oss$ a
ni*&t s)ot in S'#ne'$ fo" a (assa*e w&e"e &e (et E#e"ina Catito$ a Fii)ina an# a native of >a,a#a$ Davao
Cit'. Un=nown to Af"e#$ s&e "esi#e# fo" a ti(e in 4e"(an' an# was (a""ie# to Maus Eue"$ a 4e"(an
nationa. S&e eft 4e"(an' an# t"ie# &e" u%= in S'#ne'$ Aust"aia$ w&e"e s&e foun# e()o'(ent as a
(asseuse in t&e Min*Hs C"oss ni*&t%u+. S&e was fuent in 4e"(an$ an# Af"e# en,o'e# ta=in* wit& &e". T&e
two saw ea%& ot&e" a*ainD t&is ti(e E#e"ina en#e# u) sta'in* in Af"e#Hs &ote fo" t&"ee #a's. Af"e# *ave
E#e"ina su(s of (one' fo" &e" se"vi%es.
3

Af"e# was so ena(o"e# wit& E#e"ina t&at &e )e"sua#e# &e" to sto) wo"=in* at Min*Hs C"oss$ "etu"n to t&e
!&ii))ines$ an# en*a*e in a w&oeso(e +usiness of &e" own. He aso )"o)ose# t&at t&e' (eet in Eania$ to
w&i%& s&e assente#. Af"e# *ave &e" (one' fo" &e" )ane fa"e to t&e !&ii))ines. Wit&in two wee=s of
E#e"inaHs a""iva in Eania$ Af"e# ,oine# &e". Af"e# "eite"ate# &is )"o)osa fo" E#e"ina to sta' in t&e
!&ii))ines an# en*a*e in +usiness$ even offe"in* to finan%e &e" +usiness ventu"e. E#e"ina was #ei*&te# at
t&e i#ea an# )"o)ose# to )ut u) a +eaut' )a"o". Af"e# &a))i' a*"ee#.
Af"e# to# E#e"ina t&at &e was (a""ie# +ut t&at &e was ea*e" to #ivo"%e &is wife in Aust"aia. Af"e#
)"o)ose# (a""ia*e to E#e"ina$ +ut s&e "e)ie# t&at t&e' s&ou# wait a itte +it on*e".
E#e"ina foun# a +ui#in* at No. 333 E.H. #e !ia" %o"ne" A"1ui5a St"eet$ E"(ita$ Eania$ owne# +' one Att'.
/ose Hi#a*o w&o offe"e# to %onve' &is "i*&ts ove" t&e )"o)e"t' fo" !1:$<<<.<<. Af"e# an# E#e"ina
a%%e)te# t&e offe". E#e"ina )ut u) a +eaut' )a"o" on t&e )"o)e"t' un#e" t&e +usiness na(e E#o"ia >eaut'
Saon$ an# &a# it "e*iste"e# wit& t&e De)a"t(ent of T"a#e an# In#ust"' un#e" &e" na(e. Af"e# )ai# Att'.
Hi#a*o !-<$<<<.<< fo" &is "i*&t ove" t&e )"o)e"t' an# *ave !2<<$<<<.<< to E#e"ina fo" t&e )u"%&ase of
e1ui)(ent an# fu"nitu"e fo" t&e )a"o". As E#e"ina was *oin* to 4e"(an'$ s&e e?e%ute# a s)e%ia )owe" of
47
atto"ne' on De%e(+e" 12$ 1;:2
6
a))ointin* &e" +"ot&e"$ Ase" Catito$ as &e" atto"ne'9in9fa%t in (ana*in* t&e
+eaut' )a"o" +usiness. S&e state# in t&e sai# #ee# t&at s&e was (a""ie# to Maus Eue". Af"e# went +a%=
to !a)ua New 4uinea to "esu(e &is wo"= as a )iot.
W&en Af"e# "etu"ne# to t&e !&ii))ines$ &e visite# E#e"ina in &e" Eania "esi#en%e an# foun# it unsuita+e
fo" &e". He #e%i#e# to )u"%&ase a &ouse an# ot owne# +' Vi%to"ia >inu'a Ste%=e in San F"an%is%o #e
Eonte$ Nue5on Cit'$ %ove"e# +' T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. -1:3-; fo" USS-<$<<<.<<. Sin%e Af"e#
=new t&at as an aien &e was #is1uaifie# f"o( ownin* an#s in t&e !&ii))ines$ &e a*"ee# t&at on'
E#e"inaHs na(e wou# a))ea" in t&e #ee# of sae as t&e +u'e" of t&e )"o)e"t'$ as we as in t&e tite %ove"in*
t&e sa(e. Afte" a$ &e was )annin* to (a""' E#e"ina an# &e +eieve# t&at afte" t&ei" (a""ia*e$ t&e two of
t&e( wou# ,oint' own t&e )"o)e"t'. On /anua"' -2$ 1;:3$ a Cont"a%t to Se was ente"e# into +etween
Vi%to"ia >inu'a Ste%=e as t&e ven#o" an# E#e"ina as t&e soe ven#ee. Af"e# si*ne# t&e"ein as a witness.
7

Vi%to"ia "e%eive# f"o( Af"e#$ fo" an# in +e&af of E#e"ina$ t&e a(ount of USS1<$<<<.<< as )a"tia )a'(ent$
fo" w&i%& Vi%to"ia issue# a "e%ei)t.
8
W&en Vi%to"ia e?e%ute# t&e #ee# of a+soute sae ove" t&e )"o)e"t' on
Ea"%& 7$ 1;:3$
:
s&e "e%eive# f"o( Af"e#$ fo" an# in +e&af of E#e"ina$ t&e a(ount of USS1<$<<<.<< as fina
an# fu )a'(ent. Vi%to"ia i=ewise issue# a "e%ei)t fo" t&e sai# a(ount.
;
Afte" Vi%to"ia &a# va%ate# t&e
)"o)e"t'$ E#e"ina (ove# into &e" new &ouse. W&en s&e eft fo" 4e"(an' to visit Maus$ s&e &a# &e" fat&e"
Na"%iso Catito an# &e" two siste"s o%%u)' t&e )"o)e"t'.
Af"e# #e%i#e# to sta' in t&e !&ii))ines fo" *oo# an# ive wit& E#e"ina. He "etu"ne# to Aust"aia an# so# &is
fi+e" *ass )easu"e +oat to /o&n Rei# fo" S8$6<<.<< on Ea' 3$ 1;:3.
1<
He aso so# &is teevision an# vi#eo
+usiness in !a)ua New 4uinea fo" M126$<<<.<< to Te=e"aoi !t'. Lt#.
11
He &a# &is )e"sona )"o)e"ties
s&i))e# to t&e !&ii))ines an# sto"e# at No. 13 Fe"nan#e5 St"eet$ San F"an%is%o #e Eonte$ Nue5on Cit'.
T&e )"o%ee#s of t&e sae we"e #e)osite# in Af"e#Hs a%%ount wit& t&e Hon* Mon* S&an*&ai >an=in*
Co")o"ation .HS>C0$ Mowoon >"an%& un#e" >an= A%%ount No. <1:9-9:<8<17.
1-
W&en Af"e# was in !a)ua
New 4uinea sein* &is ot&e" )"o)e"ties$ t&e +an= sent tee*"a)&i% ette"s u)#atin* &i( of &is a%%ount.
12

Seve"a %&e%=s we"e %"e#ite# to &is HS>C +an= a%%ount f"o( !a)ua New 4uinea >an=in* Co")o"ation$
West)a% >an= of Aust"aia an# New Beaan# >an=in* 4"ou) Li(ite# an# West)a% >an=9!N49Li(ite#.
Af"e# aso &a# a )eso savin*s a%%ount wit& HS>C$ Eania$ un#e" Savin*s A%%ount No. <198-691:29<1.
13

On%e$ w&en Af"e# an# E#e"ina we"e in Hon* Mon*$ t&e' o)ene# anot&e" a%%ount wit& HS>C$ Mowoon$ t&is
ti(e in t&e na(e of E#e"ina$ un#e" Savin*s A%%ount No. <1:9<9:<8;6<.
16
Af"e# t"ansfe""e# &is #e)osits in
Savin*s A%%ount No. <1:9-9:<8<17 wit& t&e sai# +an= to t&is new a%%ount. E#e"ina aso o)ene# a savin*s
a%%ount wit& t&e >an= of A(e"i%a Mowoon Eain Offi%e un#e" A%%ount No. 2<<7;<17.
17

On /u' -:$ 1;:3$ w&ie Af"e# was in !a)ua New 4uinea$ &e "e%eive# a Lette" #ate# De%e(+e" 8$ 1;:2
f"o( Maus Eue" w&o was t&en "esi#in* in >e"in$ 4e"(an'. Maus info"(e# Af"e# t&at &e an# E#e"ina &a#
+een (a""ie# on O%to+e" 17$ 1;8: an# &a# a +issfu (a""ie# ife unti Af"e# int"u#e# t&e"ein. Maus state#
t&at &e =new of Af"e# an# E#e"inaHs a(o"ous "eations&i)$ an# #is%ove"e# t&e sa(e so(eti(e in
Nove(+e" 1;:2 w&en &e a""ive# in Eania. He aso +e**e# Af"e# to eave E#e"ina aone an# to "etu"n &e"
to &i($ sa'in* t&at Af"e# %ou# not )ossi+' +ui# &is futu"e on &is .MausH0 (isfo"tune.
18

Af"e# &a# o%%asion to ta= to Sa' Ea%Ca""on$ a %ose f"ien# of E#e"ina. He in1ui"e# if t&e"e was an' t"ut&
to MausH state(ents an# Sa' %onfi"(e# t&at Maus was (a""ie# to E#e"ina. W&en Af"e# %onf"onte#
E#e"ina$ s&e a#(itte# t&at s&e an# Maus we"e$ in#ee#$ (a""ie#. >ut s&e assu"e# Af"e# t&at s&e wou#
#ivo"%e Maus. Af"e# was a))ease#. He a*"ee# to %ontinue t&e a(o"ous "eations&i) an# wait fo" t&e
out%o(e of E#e"inaHs )etition fo" #ivo"%e. Afte" a$ &e inten#e# to (a""' &e". He "etaine# t&e se"vi%es of
Re%&tsanwatin >an5&af wit& offi%es in >e"in$ as &e" %ounse w&o info"(e# &e" of t&e )"o*"ess of t&e
)"o%ee#in*s.
1:
Af"e# )ai# fo" t&e se"vi%es of t&e aw'e".
In t&e (eanti(e$ Af"e# #e%i#e# to )u"%&ase anot&e" &ouse an# ot$ owne# +' Ro#ofo Eo"eos %ove"e# +'
TCT No. ;-367 o%ate# in !eLa St"eet$ >a,a#a$ Davao Cit'.
1;
Af"e# a*ain a*"ee# to &ave t&e #ee# of sae
(a#e out in t&e na(e of E#e"ina. On Se)te(+e" 8$ 1;:3$ Ro#ofo Eo"eos e?e%ute# a #ee# of a+soute
sae ove" t&e sai# )"o)e"t' in favo" of E#e"ina as t&e soe ven#ee fo" t&e a(ount of !:<$<<<.<<.
-<
Af"e#
)ai# USS1-$6<<.<< fo" t&e )"o)e"t'.
Af"e# )u"%&ase# anot&e" )a"%e of an# f"o( one Att'. Ea"#oe%&eo Ca()o"e#on#o$ o%ate# in Eon%a#o$
>a+a=$ Davao$ %ove"e# +' TCT No. 26-61. Af"e# on%e (o"e a*"ee# fo" t&e na(e of E#e"ina to a))ea" as
t&e soe ven#ee in t&e #ee# of sae. On De%e(+e" 21$ 1;:3$ Att'. Ca()o"e#on#o e?e%ute# a #ee# of sae
ove" t&e )"o)e"t' fo" !76$<<<.<< in favo" of E#e"ina as t&e soe ven#ee.
-1
Af"e#$ t&"ou*& E#e"ina$ )ai# t&e
48
ot at t&e %ost of !22$7:-.<< an# USS8$<<<.<<$ "es)e%tive'$ fo" w&i%& t&e ven#o" si*ne# "e%ei)ts.
--
On
Au*ust 13$ 1;:6$ TCT No. 38-37 was issue# to E#e"ina as t&e soe owne" of t&e sai# )"o)e"t'.
-2

Eeanw&ie$ E#e"ina #e)osite# on De%e(+e" -8$ 1;:6$ t&e tota a(ount of USS-6<$<<< wit& t&e HS>C
Mowoon un#e" /oint De)osit A%%ount No. <1:937-2319136.
-3

T&e %ou)e #e%i#e# to )ut u) a +ea%& "eso"t on a fou"9&e%ta"e an# in Ca(u#(u#$ >a+a=$ Davao$ owne# +'
s)ouses En"i1ue an# Rosea Se""ano. Af"e# )u"%&ase# t&e )"o)e"t' f"o( t&e s)ouses fo" !;<$<<<.<<$ an#
t&e atte" issue# a "e%ei)t t&e"efo".
-6
A #"afts(an %o((issione# +' t&e %ou)e su+(itte# a s=et%& of t&e
+ea%& "eso"t.
-7
>ea%& &ouses we"e fo"t&wit& %onst"u%te# on a )o"tion of t&e )"o)e"t' an# we"e eventua'
"ente# out +' E#e"inaHs fat&e"$ Na"%iso Catito. T&e "entas we"e %oe%te# +' Na"%iso$ w&ie E#e"ina =e)t t&e
)"o%ee#s of t&e sae of %o)"a f"o( t&e %o%onut t"ees in t&e )"o)e"t'. >' t&is ti(e$ Af"e# &a# a"ea#' s)ent
!-<<$<<<.<< fo" t&e )u"%&ase$ %onst"u%tion an# u)=ee) of t&e )"o)e"t'.
E#e"ina often w"ote ette"s to &e" fa(i' info"(in* t&e( of &e" ife wit& Af"e#. In a Lette" #ate# /anua"' -1$
1;:6$ s&e w"ote a+out &ow Af"e# &a# finan%e# t&e )u"%&ases of so(e "ea )"o)e"ties$ t&e esta+is&(ent of
&e" +eaut' )a"o" +usiness$ an# &e" )etition to #ivo"%e Maus.
-8

>e%ause E#e"ina was )"eo%%u)ie# wit& &e" +usiness in Eania$ s&e e?e%ute# on /u' :$ 1;:6$ two s)e%ia
)owe"s of atto"ne'
-:
a))ointin* Af"e# as atto"ne'9in9fa%t to "e%eive in &e" +e&af t&e tite an# t&e #ee# of
sae ove" t&e )"o)e"t' so# +' t&e s)ouses En"i1ue Se""ano.
In t&e (eanti(e$ E#e"inaHs )etition fo" #ivo"%e was #enie# +e%ause Maus o))ose# t&e sa(e. A se%on#
)etition fie# +' &e" (et t&e sa(e fate. Maus wante# &af of a t&e )"o)e"ties owne# +' E#e"ina in t&e
!&ii))ines +efo"e &e wou# a*"ee to a #ivo"%e. Wo"se$ Maus t&"eatene# to fie a +i*a(' %ase a*ainst
E#e"ina.
-;

Af"e# )"o)ose# t&e %"eation of a )a"tne"s&i) to E#e"ina$ o" as an ate"native$ t&e esta+is&(ent of a
%o")o"ation$ wit& E#e"ina ownin* 2<Q of t&e e1uit' t&e"eof. S&e initia' a*"ee# to )ut u) a %o")o"ation an#
%onta%te# Att'. A"(an#o Do(in*ue5 to )"e)a"e t&e ne%essa"' #o%u(ents. E#e"ina %&an*e# &e" (in# at t&e
ast (inute w&en s&e was a#vise# to insist on %ai(in* owne"s&i) ove" t&e )"o)e"ties a%1ui"e# +' t&e(
#u"in* t&ei" %ove"tu"e.
Af"e# an# E#e"inaHs "eations&i) sta"te# #ete"io"atin*. E#e"ina &a# not +een a+e to se%u"e a #ivo"%e f"o(
Maus. T&e atte" %ou# %&a"*e &e" fo" +i*a(' an# %ou# even invove Af"e#$ w&o &i(sef was sti (a""ie#.
To avoi# %o()i%ations$ Af"e# #e%i#e# to ive se)a"ate' f"o( E#e"ina an# %ut off a %onta%ts wit& &e". In
one of &e" ette"s to Af"e#$ E#e"ina %o()aine# t&at &e &a# "uine# &e" ife. S&e a#(itte# t&at t&e (one'
use# fo" t&e )u"%&ase of t&e )"o)e"ties in Davao we"e &is. S&e offe"e# to %onve' t&e )"o)e"ties #ee#e# to
&e" +' Att'. Ea"#oe%&eo Ca()o"e#on#o an# Ro#ofo Eo"eos$ as=in* Af"e# to )"e)a"e &e" affi#avit fo" t&e
sai# )u")ose an# sen# it to &e" fo" &e" si*natu"e.
2<
T&e ast st"aw fo" Af"e# %a(e on Se)te(+e" -$ 1;:6$
w&en so(eone s(as&e# t&e f"ont an# "ea" win#s&ie#s of Af"e#Hs %a" an# #a(a*e# t&e win#ows. Af"e#
t&e"eafte" e?e%ute# an affi#avit9%o()aint %&a"*in* E#e"ina an# Sa' Ea%Ca""on wit& (ai%ious (is%&ief.
21

On O%to+e" 16$ 1;:6$ Af"e# w"ote to E#e"inaHs fat&e"$ %o()ainin* t&at E#e"ina &a# ta=en a &is ife
savin*s an# +e%ause of t&is$ &e was vi"tua' )enniess. He fu"t&e" a%%use# t&e Catito fa(i' of a%1ui"in* fo"
t&e(seves t&e )"o)e"ties &e &a# )u"%&ase# wit& &is own (one'. He #e(an#e# t&e "etu"n of a t&e
a(ounts t&at E#e"ina an# &e" fa(i' &a# GstoenG an# tu"n ove" a t&e )"o)e"ties a%1ui"e# +' &i( an#
E#e"ina #u"in* t&ei" %ove"tu"e.
2-

S&o"t' t&e"eafte"$ Af"e# fie# a Co()aint
22
#ate# O%to+e" -:$ 1;:6$ a*ainst E#e"ina$ wit& t&e Re*iona
T"ia Cou"t of Nue5on Cit'$ fo" "e%ove"' of "ea an# )e"sona )"o)e"ties o%ate# in Nue5on Cit' an# Eania.
In &is %o()aint$ Af"e# ae*e#$ inte" aia$ t&at E#e"ina$ wit&out &is =nowe#*e an# %onsent$ (ana*e# to
t"ansfe" fun#s f"o( t&ei" ,oint a%%ount in HS>C Hon* Mon*$ to &e" own a%%ount wit& t&e sa(e +an=. Usin*
t&e sai# fun#s$ E#e"ina was a+e to )u"%&ase t&e )"o)e"ties su+,e%t of t&e %o()aints. He aso ae*e# t&at
t&e +eaut' )a"o" in E"(ita was esta+is&e# wit& &is own fun#s$ an# t&at t&e Nue5on Cit' )"o)e"t' was
i=ewise a%1ui"e# +' &i( wit& &is )e"sona fun#s.
23

E#e"ina faie# to fie &e" answe" an# was #e%a"e# in #efaut. Af"e# a##u%e# &is evi#en%e e? )a"te.
49
In t&e (eanti(e$ on Nove(+e" 8$ 1;:6$ Af"e# aso fie# a %o()aint
26
a*ainst E#e"ina wit& t&e Re*iona
T"ia Cou"t$ Davao Cit'$ fo" s)e%ifi% )e"fo"(an%e$ #e%a"ation of owne"s&i) of "ea an# )e"sona )"o)e"ties$
su( of (one'$ an# #a(a*es. He ae*e#$ inte" aia$ in &is %o()aintC
3. T&at #u"in* t&e )e"io# of t&ei" %o((on9aw "eations&i)$ )aintiff soe' t&"ou*& &is own effo"ts
an# "esou"%es a%1ui"e# in t&e !&ii))ines "ea an# )e"sona )"o)e"ties vaue# (o"e o" ess at
!8-3$<<<.<<D T&e #efen#antHs %o((on9aw wife o" ive9in )a"tne" #i# not %ont"i+ute an't&in*
finan%ia' to t&e a%1uisition of t&e sai# "ea an# )e"sona )"o)e"ties. T&ese )"o)e"ties a"e as
foowsC
I. Rea !"o)e"ties
a. TCT No. T9;-367 o%ate# at >a,a#a$ Davao Cit'$ %onsistin* of -:7 s1ua"e (ete"s$ .wit&
"esi#entia &ouse0 "e*iste"e# in t&e na(e of t&e o"i*ina tite owne" Ro#ofo E. Eo"eos +ut
a"ea#' fu' )ai# +' )aintiff. Vaue# at !23-$<<<.<<D
+. TCT No. T938-37 .wit& "esi#entia &ouse0 o%ate# at >a+a=$ Sa(a$ Davao$ %onsistin*
of 7<< s1ua"e (ete"s$ "e*iste"e# in t&e na(e of E#e"ina Catito$ wit& t&e Re*iste" of
Dee#s of Ta*u($ Davao #e No"te vaue# at !133$<<<.<<D
%. A )a"%e of a*"i%utu"a an# o%ate# at Ca(u#(u#$ >a+a=$ Sa(a$ Davao #e No"te$
%onsistin* of 3.-;27 &e%ta"es )u"%&ase# f"o( En"i1ue Se""ano an# Rosea >. Se""ano.
A"ea#' )ai# in fu +' )aintiff. Vaue# at !--:$7<:.2-D
II. !e"sona !"o)e"tiesC
a. Fu"nitu"e vaue# at !1<$<<<.<<.
. . .
6. T&at #efen#ant (a#e no %ont"i+ution at a to t&e a%1uisition$ of t&e a+ove9(entione# )"o)e"ties
as a t&e (onies .si%0 use# in a%1ui"in* sai# )"o)e"ties +eon*e# soe' to )aintiffD
27

Af"e# )"a'e# t&at afte" &ea"in*$ ,u#*(ent +e "en#e"e# in &is favo"C
WHEREFORE$ in view of t&e fo"e*oin* )"e(ises$ it is "es)e%tfu' )"a'e# t&at ,u#*(ent +e
"en#e"e# in favo" of )aintiff an# a*ainst #efen#antC
a0 O"#e"in* t&e #efen#ant to e?e%ute t&e %o""es)on#in* #ee#s of t"ansfe" an#Ko" %onve'an%es in
favo" of )aintiff ove" t&ose "ea an# )e"sona )"o)e"ties enu(e"ate# in !a"a*"a)& 3 of t&is
%o()aintD
+0 O"#e"in* t&e #efen#ant to #eive" to t&e )aintiff a t&e a+ove "ea an# )e"sona )"o)e"ties o"
t&ei" (one' vaue$ w&i%& a"e in #efen#antHs na(e an# %usto#' +e%ause t&ese we"e a%1ui"e# soe'
wit& )aintiffs (one' an# "esou"%es #u"in* t&e #u"ation of t&e %o((on9aw "eations&i) +etween
)aintiff an# #efen#ant$ t&e #es%"i)tion of w&i%& a"e as foowsC
.10 TCT No. T9;-367 .wit& "esi#entia &ouse0 o%ate# at >a,a#a$ Davao Cit'$ %onsistin* of
-:7 s1ua"e (ete"s$ "e*iste"e# in t&e na(e of t&e o"i*ina tite owne" Ro#ofo Eo"eos +ut
a"ea#' fu' )ai# +' )aintiff. Vaue# at !23-$<<<.<<D
.-0 TCT No. T938-37 .wit& "esi#entia &ouse0 o%ate# at >a+a=$ Sa(a$ Davao$ %onsistin*
of 7<< s1ua"e (ete"s$ "e*iste"e# in t&e na(e of E#e"ina Catito$ wit& t&e Re*iste" of
Dee#s of Ta*u($ Davao #e No"te$ vaue# at !133$<<<.<<D
50
.20 A )a"%e of a*"i%utu"a an# o%ate# at Ca(u#(u#$ >a+a=$ Sa(a$ Davao #e No"te$
%onsistin* of 3.-;27 &e%ta"es )u"%&ase# f"o( En"i1ue Se""ano an# Rosea >. Se""ano.
A"ea#' fu' )ai# +' )aintiff. Vaue# at !--:$7<:.2-D
%0 De%a"in* t&e )aintiff to +e t&e soe an# a+soute owne" of t&e a+ove9(entione# "ea an#
)e"sona )"o)e"tiesD
#0 Awa"#in* (o"a #a(a*es to )aintiff in an a(ount #ee(e# "easona+e +' t&e t"ia %ou"tD
e0 To "ei(+u"se )aintiff t&e su( of !1-$<<<.<< as atto"ne'Hs fees fo" &avin* %o()ee# t&e )aintiff
to iti*ateD
f0 To "ei(+u"se )aintiff t&e su( of !6$<<<.<< in%u""e# as iti*ation e?)enses aso fo" &avin*
%o()ee# t&e )aintiff to iti*ateD an#
*0 To )a' t&e %osts of t&is suitD
!aintiff )"a's ot&e" "eiefs ,ust an# e1uita+e in t&e )"e(ises.
28

In &e" answe"$ E#e"ina #enie# a t&e (ate"ia ae*ations in t&e %o()aint$ insistin* t&at s&e a%1ui"e# t&e
sai# )"o)e"ties wit& &e" )e"sona fun#s$ an# as su%&$ Af"e# &a# no "i*&t to t&e sa(e. S&e ae*e# t&at t&e
#ee#s of sae$ t&e "e%ei)ts$ an# %e"tifi%ates of tites of t&e su+,e%t )"o)e"ties we"e a (a#e out in &e"
na(e.
2:
>' wa' of s)e%ia an# affi"(ative #efense$ s&e ae*e# t&at Af"e# &a# no %ause of a%tion a*ainst
&e". S&e inte")ose# %ounte"%ai(s a*ainst t&e )etitione".
2;

In t&e (eanti(e$ t&e )etitione" fie# a Co()aint #ate# Au*ust -6$ 1;:8$ a*ainst t&e HS>C in t&e Re*iona
T"ia Cou"t of Davao Cit'
3<
fo" "e%ove"' of +an= #e)osits an# #a(a*es.
31
He )"a'e# t&at afte" #ue
)"o%ee#in*s$ ,u#*(ent +e "en#e"e# in &is favo"$ t&usC
WHEREFORE$ )aintiff "es)e%tfu' )"a's t&at t&e Hono"a+e Cou"t a#,u#*e #efen#ant +an=$ u)on
&ea"in* t&e evi#en%e t&at t&e )a"ties (i*&t )"esent$ to )a' )aintiffC
1. ONE HUNDRED TWENTY SIF THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND THIRTY U.S. DOLLARS
AND NINETY EI4HT CENTS .USS1-7$-2<.;:0 )us e*a inte"ests$ eit&e" of Hon* Mon* o" of t&e
!&ii))ines$ f"o( -< De%e(+e" 1;:3 u) to t&e #ate of e?e%ution o" satisfa%tion of ,u#*(ent$ as
a%tua #a(a*es o" in "esto"ation of )aintiffs ost #oa" savin*sD
-. T&e sa(e a(ount in .10 a+ove as (o"a #a(a*esD
2. Atto"ne'Hs fees in t&e a(ount e1uivaent to TWENTY FIVE !ER CENT .-6Q0 of .10 an# .-0
a+oveD
3. Liti*ation e?)enses in t&e a(ount e1uivaent to TEN !ER CENT .1<Q0 of t&e a(ount in .10
a+oveD an#
6. Fo" su%& ot&e" "eiefs as a"e ,ust an# e1uita+e un#e" t&e %i"%u(stan%es.
3-

On A)"i -:$ 1;:7$ t&e RTC of Nue5on Cit' "en#e"e# its #e%ision in Civi Case No. N93726<$ in favo" of
Af"e#$ t&e #e%"eta )o"tion of w&i%& "ea#s as foowsC
WHEREFORE$ )"e(ises %onsi#e"e#$ ,u#*(ent is &e"e+' "en#e"e# o"#e"in* t&e #efen#ant to
)e"fo"( t&e foowin*C
.10 To e?e%ute a #o%u(ent waivin* &e" %ai( to t&e &ouse an# ot in No. 13 Fe"nan#e5 St.$ San
F"an%is%o De Eonte$ Nue5on Cit' in favo" of )aintiff o" to "etu"n to t&e )aintiff t&e a%1uisition %ost
51
of t&e sa(e in t&e a(ount of S-<$<<<.<<$ o" to se t&e sai# )"o)e"t' an# tu"n ove" t&e )"o%ee#s
t&e"eof to t&e )aintiffD
.-0 To #eive" to t&e )aintiff t&e "i*&ts of owne"s&i) an# (ana*e(ent of t&e +eaut' )a"o" o%ate# at
333 A"1ui5a St.$ E"(ita$ Eania$ in%u#in* t&e e1ui)(ent an# fi?tu"es t&e"einD
.20 To a%%ount fo" t&e ea"nin*s of "enta of t&e &ouse an# ot in No. 13 Fe"nan#e5 St.$ San
F"an%is%o De Eonte$ Nue5on Cit'$ as we as t&e ea"nin*s in t&e +eaut' )a"o" at 333 A"1ui5a St.$
E"(ita$ Eania an# tu"n ove" one9&af of t&e net ea"nin*s of +ot& )"o)e"ties to t&e )aintiffD
.30 To su""en#e" o" "etu"n to t&e )aintiff t&e )e"sona )"o)e"ties of t&e atte" eft in t&e &ouse at San
F"an%is%o De Eonte$ to witC
G.10 Ea('a auto(ati% %a(e"a
.10 1- in%& GSonn'G T.V. set$ %oo"e# wit& "e(ote %ont"o.
.10 Ei%"o oven
.10 Ee%t"i% fan .ta$ a#,usta+e stan#0
.10 Offi%e safe wit& .-0 #"awe"s an# safe
.10 Ee%t"i% Was&in* Ea%&ine
.10 Offi%e #es= an# %&ai"
.10 Dou+e +e# suits
.10 Ei""o"K#"esse"
.10 Heav' #ut' voi%eKwo"=in* (e%&ani%
.10 GSon'G >eta9Eovie %a(e"a
.10 Suit%ase wit& )e"sona +eon*in*s
.10 Ca"#+oa"# +o? wit& +eon*in*s
.10 4uita" A()ifie"
.10 Han*e" wit& (enHs suit .w&ite0.G
To "etu"n to t&e )aintiff$ .10 Hi9Fi Ste"eo e1ui)(ent eft at 333 A"1ui5a St"eet$ E"(ita$ Eania$ as
we as t&e F"onte Su5u=i %a".
.30 To a%%ount fo" t&e (onies .si%0 #e)osite# wit& t&e ,oint a%%ount of t&e )aintiff an# #efen#ant
.A%%ount No. <1:9<9:<8;6<0D an# to "esto"e to t&e )aintiff a t&e (onies .si%0 s)ent +' t&e
#efen#ant wit&out )"o)e" aut&o"it'D
.60 To )a' t&e a(ount of !6$<<<.<< +' wa' of atto"ne'Hs fees$ an# t&e %osts of suit.
SO ORDERED.
32

52
Howeve"$ afte" #ue )"o%ee#in*s in t&e RTC of Davao Cit'$ in Civi Case No. 18$:18$ t&e t"ia %ou"t "en#e"e#
,u#*(ent on Se)te(+e" -:$ 1;;6 in favo" of E#e"ina$ t&e #is)ositive )o"tion of w&i%& "ea#sC
WHEREFORE$ t&e Cou"t %annot *ive #ue %ou"se to t&e %o()aint an# &e"e+' o"#e"s its #is(issa.
T&e %ounte"%ai(s of t&e #efen#ant a"e i=ewise #is(isse#.
SO ORDERED.
33

T&e t"ia %ou"t "ue# t&at +ase# on #o%u(enta"' evi#en%e$ t&e )u"%&ase" of t&e t&"ee )a"%es of an# su+,e%t
of t&e %o()aint was E#e"ina. T&e %ou"t fu"t&e" state# t&at even if Af"e# was t&e +u'e" of t&e )"o)e"tiesD &e
&a# no %ause of a%tion a*ainst E#e"ina fo" t&e "e%ove"' of t&e sa(e +e%ause as an aien$ &e was
#is1uaifie# f"o( a%1ui"in* an# ownin* an#s in t&e !&ii))ines. T&e sae of t&e t&"ee )a"%es of an# to t&e
)etitione" was nu an# voi# a+ initio. A))'in* t&e )a"i #ei%to #o%t"ine$ t&e )etitione" was )"e%u#e# f"o(
"e%ove"in* t&e )"o)e"ties f"o( t&e "es)on#ent.
Af"e# a))eae# t&e #e%ision to t&e Cou"t of A))eas
36
in w&i%& t&e )etitione" )osite# t&e view t&at at&ou*&
&e )"a'e# in &is %o()aint in t&e %ou"t a 1uo t&at &e +e #e%a"e# t&e owne" of t&e t&"ee )a"%es of an#$ &e
&a# no intention of ownin* t&e sa(e )e"(anent'. His )"in%i)a intention t&e"ein was to +e #e%a"e# t&e
t"ansient owne" fo" t&e )u")ose of sein* t&e )"o)e"ties at )u+i% au%tion$ uti(ate' ena+in* &i( to "e%ove"
t&e (one' &e &a# s)ent fo" t&e )u"%&ase t&e"eof.
On Ea"%& :$ -<<<$ t&e CA "en#e"e# a #e%ision affi"(in* in toto t&e #e%ision of t&e RTC. T&e a))eate %ou"t
"ue# t&at t&e )etitione" =nowin*' vioate# t&e ConstitutionD &en%e$ was +a""e# f"o( "e%ove"in* t&e (one'
use# in t&e )u"%&ase of t&e t&"ee )a"%es of an#. It &e# t&at to aow t&e )etitione" to "e%ove" t&e (one'
use# fo" t&e )u"%&ase of t&e )"o)e"ties wou# e(+o#en aiens to vioate t&e Constitution$ an# #efeat$ "at&e"
t&an en&an%e$ t&e )u+i% )oi%'.
37

Hen%e$ t&e )etition at +a".
T&e )etitione" assais t&e #e%ision of t&e %ou"t %onten#in* t&atC
THE HONORA>LE COURT OF A!!EALS ERRED IN A!!LYIN4 THE RULE OF IN !ARI
DELICTO IN THE INSTANT CASE >ECAUSE >Y THE FACTS AS NARRATED IN THE DECISION
IT IS A!!ARENT THAT THE !ARTIES ARE NOT ENUALLY 4UILTY >UT RATHER IT WAS THE
RES!ONDENT WHO EE!LOYED FRAUD AS WHEN SHE DID NOT INFORE !ETITIONER
THAT SHE WAS ALREADY EARRIED TO ANOTHER 4EREAN NATIONAL AND WITHOUT
SUCH FRAUDULENT DESI4N !ETITIONER COULD NOT HAVE !ARTED WITH HIS EONEY
FOR THE !URCHASE OF THE !RO!ERTIES.
38

an#
THE HONORA>LE COURT OF A!!EALS ERRED IN NOT HOLDIN4 THAT THE INTENTION OF
THE !ETITIONER IS NOT TO OWN REAL !RO!ERTIES IN THE !HILI!!INES >UT TO SELL
THEE AT !U>LIC AUCTION TO >E A>LE TO RECOVER HIS EONEY USED IN !URCHASIN4
THEE.
3:

Sin%e t&e assi*n(ent of e""o"s a"e inte"twine# wit& ea%& ot&e"$ t&e Cou"t s&a "esove t&e sa(e
si(utaneous'.
T&e )etitione" %onten#s t&at &e )u"%&ase# t&e t&"ee )a"%es of an# su+,e%t of &is %o()aint +e%ause of &is
#esi"e to (a""' t&e "es)on#ent$ an# not to vioate t&e !&ii))ine Constitution. He was$ &oweve"$ #e%eive# +'
t&e "es)on#ent w&en t&e atte" faie# to #is%ose &e" )"evious (a""ia*e to Maus Eue". It %annot$ t&us$ +e
sai# t&at &e an# t&e "es)on#ent a"e Ge1ua' *uit'DG as su%&$ t&e )a"i #ei%to #o%t"ine is not a))i%a+e to
&i(. He a%te# in *oo# fait&$ on t&e a#vi%e of t&e "es)on#entHs un%e$ Att'. Ea"#oe%&eo Ca()o"e#on#o.
T&e"e is no evi#en%e on "e%o"# t&at &e was awa"e of t&e %onstitutiona )"o&i+ition a*ainst aiens a%1ui"in*
"ea )"o)e"t' in t&e !&ii))ines w&en &e )u"%&ase# t&e "ea )"o)e"ties su+,e%t of &is %o()aint wit& &is own
fun#s. T&e t"ansa%tions we"e not ie*a )e" se +ut (e"e' )"o&i+ite#$ an# un#e" A"ti%e 1317 of t&e New Civi
Co#e$ &e is entite# to "e%ove" t&e (one' use# fo" t&e )u"%&ase of t&e )"o)e"ties. At an' "ate$ t&e )etitione"
53
ave"s$ &e fie# &is %o()aint in t&e %ou"t a 1uo (e"e' fo" t&e )u")ose of &avin* &i( #e%a"e# as t&e owne"
of t&e )"o)e"ties$ to ena+e &i( to se t&e sa(e at )u+i% au%tion. A))'in* +' anao*' Re)u+i% A%t No.
122
3;
as a(en#e# +' Re). A%t No. 32:1 an# Re). A%t No. 3::-$ t&e )"o%ee#s of t&e sae wou# +e "e(itte#
to &i($ +' wa' of "efun# fo" t&e (one' &e use# to )u"%&ase t&e sai# )"o)e"ties. To +a" t&e )etitione" f"o(
"e%ove"in* t&e su+,e%t )"o)e"ties$ o" at t&e ve"' east$ t&e (one' use# fo" t&e )u"%&ase t&e"eof$ is to aow
t&e "es)on#ent to en"i%& &e"sef at t&e e?)ense of t&e )etitione" in vioation of A"ti%e -- of t&e New Civi
Co#e.
T&e )etition is +e"eft of (e"it.
Se%tion 13$ A"ti%e FIV of t&e 1;82 Constitution )"ovi#es$ as foowsC
Save in %ases of &e"e#ita"' su%%ession$ no )"ivate an# s&a +e t"ansfe""e# o" %onve'e# e?%e)t to
in#ivi#uas$ %o")o"ations$ o" asso%iations 1uaifie# to a%1ui"e o" &o# an#s in t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
6<

Lan#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ w&i%& in%u#e )"ivate an#s$ (a' +e t"ansfe""e# o" %onve'e# on' to in#ivi#uas
o" entities 1uaifie# to a%1ui"e o" &o# )"ivate an#s o" an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Aiens$ w&et&e" in#ivi#uas
o" %o")o"ations$ &ave +een #is1uaifie# f"o( a%1ui"in* an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. Hen%e$ t&e' &ave aso
+een #is1uaifie# f"o( a%1ui"in* )"ivate an#s.
61

Even if$ as %ai(e# +' t&e )etitione"$ t&e saes in 1uestion we"e ente"e# into +' &i( as t&e "ea ven#ee$ t&e
sai# t"ansa%tions a"e in vioation of t&e ConstitutionD &en%e$ a"e nu an# voi# a+ initio.
6-
A %ont"a%t t&at
vioates t&e Constitution an# t&e aw$ is nu an# voi# an# vests no "i*&ts an# %"eates no o+i*ations. It
)"o#u%es no e*a effe%t at a.
62
T&e )etitione"$ +ein* a )a"t' to an ie*a %ont"a%t$ %annot %o(e into a %ou"t
of aw an# as= to &ave &is ie*a o+,e%tive %a""ie# out. One w&o oses &is (one' o" )"o)e"t' +' =nowin*'
en*a*in* in a %ont"a%t o" t"ansa%tion w&i%& invoves &is own (o"a tu")itu#e (a' not (aintain an a%tion fo"
&is osses. To &i( w&o (oves in #ei+e"ation an# )"e(e#itation$ t&e aw is un'ie#in*.
63
T&e aw wi not ai#
eit&e" )a"t' to an ie*a %ont"a%t o" a*"ee(entD it eaves t&e )a"ties w&e"e it fin#s t&e(.
66
Un#e" A"ti%e 131-
of t&e New Civi Co#e$ t&e )etitione" %annot &ave t&e su+,e%t )"o)e"ties #ee#e# to &i( o" aow &i( to
"e%ove" t&e (one' &e &a# s)ent fo" t&e )u"%&ase t&e"eof.
67
E1uit' as a "ue wi foow t&e aw an# wi not
)e"(it t&at to +e #one in#i"e%t' w&i%&$ +e%ause of )u+i% )oi%'$ %annot +e #one #i"e%t'.
68
W&e"e t&e w"on*
of one )a"t' e1uas t&at of t&e ot&e"$ t&e #efen#ant is in t&e st"on*e" )osition . . . it si*nifies t&at in su%& a
situation$ neit&e" a %ou"t of e1uit' no" a %ou"t of aw wi a#(iniste" a "e(e#'.
6:
T&e "ue is e?)"esse#. in t&e
(a?i(sC EF DOLO ORITUR ACTIO an# IN !ARI DELICTO !OTIOR EST CONDITIO DEFENDENTIS.
6;

T&e )etitione" %annot fei*n i*no"an%e of t&e %onstitutiona )"os%"i)tion$ no" %ai( t&at &e a%te# in *oo# fait&$
et aone asse"t t&at &e is ess *uit' t&an t&e "es)on#ent. T&e )etitione" is %&a"*e# wit& =nowe#*e of t&e
%onstitutiona )"o&i+ition.
7<
As %an +e *eane# f"o( t&e #e%ision of t&e t"ia %ou"t$ t&e )etitione" was fu'
awa"e t&at &e was #is1uaifie# f"o( a%1ui"in* an# ownin* an#s un#e" !&ii))ine aw even +efo"e &e
)u"%&ase# t&e )"o)e"ties in 1uestionD an#$ to s=i"t t&e %onstitutiona )"o&i+ition$ t&e )etitione" &a# t&e #ee#
of sae )a%e# un#e" t&e "es)on#entHs na(e as t&e soe ven#ee t&e"eofC
Su%& +ein* t&e %ase$ t&e )aintiff is su+,e%t to t&e %onstitutiona "est"i%tions *ove"nin* t&e
a%1uisition of "ea )"o)e"ties in t&e !&ii))ines +' aiens.
F"o( t&e )aintiffHs %o()aint +efo"e t&e Re*iona T"ia Cou"t$ Nationa Ca)ita /u#i%ia Re*ion$
>"an%& :3$ Nue5on Cit' in Civi Case No. N93726< &e ae*e#C
? ? ? GT&at on a%%ount t&at fo"ei*ne"s a"e not aowe# +' t&e !&ii))ine aws to a%1ui"e
"ea )"o)e"ties in t&ei" na(e as in t&e %ase of (' ven#o" Eiss Vi%to"ia Vinu'a .si%0
at&ou*& (a""ie# to a fo"ei*ne"$ we a*"ee# an# I %onsente# in &avin* t&e tite to su+,e%t
)"o)e"t' )a%e# in #efen#antHs na(e aone at&ou*& I )ai# fo" t&e w&oe )"i%e out of ('
own e?%usive fun#s.G .)a"a*"a)& IV$ E?&i+it GW.G0
an# &is testi(on' +efo"e t&is Cou"t w&i%& is &e"e+' 1uote#C
ATTY. A>ARNUEBC
54
N. In w&ose na(e t&e sai# &ouse an# ot )a%e#$ +' t&e wa'$ w&e"e is &is &ouse an# ot
o%ate#O
A. In 13 Fe"nan#e5 St.$ San F"an%is%o$ #e Eonte$ Eania.
N. In w&ose na(e was t&e &ouse )a%e#O
A. E#e"ina Catito +e%ause I was info"(e# +ein* not a Fii)ino$ I %annot own t&e )"o)e"t'. .tsn$
). 11$ Au*ust -8$ 1;:70.
??? ??? ???
COURTC
N. So 'ou un#e"stan# t&at 'ou a"e a fo"ei*ne" t&at 'ou %annot +u' an# in t&e !&ii))inesO
A. T&at is %o""e%t +ut as s&e wou# eventua' +e (' wife t&at wou# +e owne# +' us ate" on.
.tsn$ ). 6$ Se)te(+e" 2$ 1;:70
??? ??? ???
N. W&at &a))ene# afte" t&atO
A. S&e sai# 'ou fo"ei*ne" 'ou a"e usin* Fii)inos to +u' )"o)e"t'.
N. An# w&at #i# 'ou answe"O
AC I sai# t&an= 'ou ve"' (u%& fo" t&e )"o)e"t' I +ou*&t +e%ause I *ave 'ou a ot of (one'
.tsn.$ ). 13$ i+i#0.
It is evi#ent t&at t&e )aintiff was fu' awa"e t&at as a non9%iti5en of t&e !&ii))ines$ &e was #is1uaifie# f"o(
vai#' )u"%&asin* an' an# wit&in t&e %ount"'.
71

T&e )etitione"Hs %ai( t&at &e a%1ui"e# t&e su+,e%t )"o)e"ties +e%ause of &is #esi"e to (a""' t&e "es)on#ent$
+eievin* t&at +ot& of t&e( wou# t&e"eafte" ,oint' own t&e sai# )"o)e"ties$ is +eie# +' &is own evi#en%e. It
is (e"e' an afte"t&ou*&t to sava*e a ost %ause. T&e )etitione" a#(itte# on %"oss9e?a(ination t&at &e was
a aon* e*a' (a""ie# to Te"esita Santos F"en5e$ w&ie &e was &avin* an a(o"ous "eations&i) wit& t&e
"es)on#entC
ATTY. YA!C
N W&en 'ou we"e as=e# to i#entif' 'ou"sef on #i"e%t e?a(ination 'ou %ai(e# +efo"e t&is
Hono"a+e Cou"t t&at 'ou" status is t&at of +ein* (a""ie#$ #o 'ou %onfi"( t&atO
A Yes$ si".
N To w&o( a"e 'ou (a""ie#O
A To a Fii)ina$ sin%e 1;87.
N Wou# 'ou te us w&o is t&at )a"ti%ua" )e"son 'ou a"e (a""ie# sin%e 1;87O
A Te"esita Santos F"en5e.
55
N W&e"e is s&e nowO
A In Aust"aia.
N Is t&is not t&e )e"son of Te"esita F"en5e w&o +e%a(e an Aust"aian %iti5enO
A I a( not su"e$ sin%e 1;:1 we we"e se)a"ate#.
N You we"e on' se)a"ate#$ in fa%t$ +ut not e*a' se)a"ate#O
A T&"u (' %ounse in Aust"aia I fie# a se)a"ation %ase.
N As of t&e )"esent 'ou a"e not e*a' #ivo"%eI#JO
A I a( sti e*a' (a""ie#.
7-

T&e "es)on#ent was &e"sef (a""ie# to Maus Eue"$ a 4e"(an %iti5en. T&us$ t&e )etitione" an# t&e
"es)on#ent %ou# not awfu' ,oin in we#o%=. T&e evi#en%e on "e%o"# s&ows t&at t&e )etitione" in fa%t =new
of t&e "es)on#entHs (a""ia*e to anot&e" (an$ +ut nonet&eess )u"%&ase# t&e su+,e%t )"o)e"ties un#e" t&e
na(e of t&e "es)on#ent an# )ai# t&e )u"%&ase )"i%es t&e"efo". Even if it is assu(e# *"atia a"*uen#i t&at t&e
"es)on#ent an# t&e )etitione" we"e %a)a%itate# to (a""'$ t&e )etitione" is sti #is1uaifie# to own t&e
)"o)e"ties in tan#e( wit& t&e "es)on#ent.
72

T&e )etitione" %annot fin# soa%e in A"ti%e 1317 of t&e New Civi Co#e w&i%& "ea#sC
A"t. 1317. W&en t&e a*"ee(ent is not ie*a )e" se +ut is (e"e' )"o&i+ite#$ an# t&e )"o&i+ition +'
t&e aw is #esi*ne# fo" t&e )"ote%tion of t&e )aintiff$ &e (a'$ if )u+i% )oi%' is t&e"e+' en&an%e#$
"e%ove" w&at &e &as )ai# o" #eive"e#.
73

T&e )"ovision a))ies on' to t&ose %ont"a%ts w&i%& a"e (e"e' )"o&i+ite#$ in o"#e" to +enefit )"ivate
inte"ests. It #oes not a))' to %ont"a%ts voi# a+ initio. T&e saes of t&"ee )a"%es of an# in favo" of t&e
)etitione" w&o is a fo"ei*ne" is ie*a )e" se. T&e t"ansa%tions a"e voi# a+ initio +e%ause t&e' we"e ente"e#
into in vioation of t&e Constitution. T&us$ to aow t&e )etitione" to "e%ove" t&e )"o)e"ties o" t&e (one' use#
in t&e )u"%&ase of t&e )a"%es of an# wou# +e su+ve"sive of )u+i% )oi%'.
Neit&e" (a' t&e )etitione" fin# soa%e in Re). A%t No. 122$ as a(en#e# +' Re). A%t No. 3::-$ w&i%& "ea#sC
SEC. 1. An' )"ovision of aw to t&e %ont"a"' notwit&stan#in*$ )"ivate "ea )"o)e"t' (a' +e
(o"t*a*e# in favo" of an' in#ivi#ua$ %o")o"ation$ o" asso%iation$ +ut t&e (o"t*a*ee o" &is
su%%esso"9in9inte"est$ if #is1uaifie# to a%1ui"e o" &o# an#s of t&e )u+i% #o(ain in t&e !&ii))ines$
s&a not ta=e )ossession of t&e (o"t*a*e# )"o)e"t' #u"in* t&e e?isten%e of t&e (o"t*a*e an# s&a
not ta=e )ossession of (o"t*a*e# )"o)e"t' e?%e)t afte" #efaut an# fo" t&e soe )u")ose of
fo"e%osu"e$ "e%eive"s&i)$ enfo"%e(ent o" ot&e" )"o%ee#in*s an# in no %ase fo" a )e"io# of (o"e
t&an five 'ea"s f"o( a%tua )ossession an# s&a not +i# o" ta=e )a"t in an' sae of su%& "ea
)"o)e"t' in %ase of fo"e%osu"eC !"ovi#e#$ T&at sai# (o"t*a*ee o" su%%esso"9in9inte"est (a' ta=e
)ossession of sai# )"o)e"t' afte" #efaut in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e )"es%"i+e# ,u#i%ia )"o%e#u"es fo"
fo"e%osu"e an# "e%eive"s&i) an# in no %ase e?%ee#in* five 'ea"s f"o( a%tua )ossession.
76

F"o( t&e evi#en%e on "e%o"#$ t&e t&"ee )a"%es of an# su+,e%t of t&e %o()aint we"e not (o"t*a*e# to t&e
)etitione" +' t&e owne"s t&e"eof +ut we"e so# to t&e "es)on#ent as t&e ven#ee$ a+eit wit& t&e use of t&e
)etitione"Hs )e"sona fun#s.
Futie$ too$ is )etitione"Hs "eian%e on A"ti%e -- of t&e New Civi Co#e w&i%& "ea#sC
56
A"t. --. Eve"' )e"son w&o t&"ou*& an a%t of )e"fo"(an%e +' anot&e"$ o" an' ot&e" (eans$ a%1ui"es
o" %o(es into )ossession of so(et&in* at t&e e?)ense of t&e atte" wit&out ,ust o" e*a *"oun#$
s&a "etu"n t&e sa(e to &i(.
77

T&e )"ovision is e?)"esse# in t&e (a?i(C GEEEO CUE ALTERIUS DETER DETREEENTO !ROTESTG .No
)e"son s&ou# un,ust' en"i%& &i(sef at t&e e?)ense of anot&e"0. An a%tion fo" "e%ove"' of w&at &as +een
)ai# wit&out ,ust %ause &as +een #esi*nate# as an a%%ion in "e( ve"so.
78
T&is )"ovision #oes not a))' if$ as
in t&is %ase$ t&e a%tion is )"os%"i+e# +' t&e Constitution o" +' t&e a))i%ation of t&e )a"i #ei%to #o%t"ine. 7: It
(a' +e unfai" an# un,ust to +a" t&e )etitione" f"o( fiin* an a%%ion in "e( ve"so ove" t&e su+,e%t )"o)e"ties$
o" f"o( "e%ove"in* t&e (one' &e )ai# fo" t&e sai# )"o)e"ties$ +ut$ as Lo"# Eansfie# state# in t&e ea"' %ase
of Ho(an vs. /o&nsonC
7;
GT&e o+,e%tion t&at a %ont"a%t is i((o"a o" ie*a as +etween t&e )aintiff an# t&e
#efen#ant$ soun#s at a ti(es ve"' i in t&e (out& of t&e #efen#ant. It is not fo" &is sa=e$ &oweve"$ t&at t&e
o+,e%tion is eve" aowe#D +ut it is foun#e# in *ene"a )"in%i)es of )oi%'$ w&i%& t&e #efen#ant &as t&e
a#vanta*e of$ %ont"a"' to t&e "ea ,usti%e$ as +etween &i( an# t&e )aintiff.G
IN LI4HT OF ALL THE FORE4OIN4$ t&e )etition is DISEISSED. T&e #e%ision of t&e Cou"t of A))eas is
AFFIREED in toto.
Costs a*ainst t&e )etitione".
SO ORDERED.
>eosio$ Aust"ia9Ea"tine5 an# Tin*a$ // .$ %on%u".
Nuisu(+in*$ / .$ is on eave.
Footnotes
1
!enne# +' /usti%e Ea"tin Via"a(a$ /".$ wit& !"esi#in* /usti%e Can%io C. 4a"%ia an# /usti%e
An#"es >. Re'es$ /". %on%u""in*.
-
!enne# +' /u#*e Wiia( E. La'a*ue.
2
T&e )etitione" a##u%e# testi(onia an# #o%u(enta"' evi#en%e. T&e "es)on#ent #i# not a##u%e
an' testi(onia evi#en%e$ +ut a##u%e# as E?&i+it G6$G t&e )etitione"Hs %o()aint in Civi Case No.
1:$86<9:8 fie# wit& t&e RTC of Davao Cit'.
3
E?&i+its GAG to GD93.G
6
E?&i+its G>G an# G>91.G
7
E?&i+it GC.G
8
E?&i+it GE.G
:
E?&i+it GD.G
;
E?&i+it GF.G
1<
E?&i+it G4.G
11
E?&i+its GHG to GH91-.G
1-
E?&i+it G/.G
57
12
E?&i+its GMG to GM96.G
13
E?&i+it GL.G
16
E?&i+it GE.G
17
E?&i+it GV.G
18
E?&i+it GN.G
1:
E?&i+its GOG to GO93.G
1;
E?&i+it G!93.G
-<
E?&i+it G!G R G!91.G
-1
E?&i+it GNG R GN91.G
--
E?&i+its GN93G to GN97.G
-2
E?&i+it GN9-<.G
-3
E?&i+its GV93GGV91<.G
-6
E?&i+it GR96.G
-7
E?&i+it GR912.G
-8
E?&i+it G>>.G
-:
E?&i+its GSG an# GT.G
-;
E?&i+it G>>.G
2<
E?&i+its GCCG to GCC93.G
21
E?&i+it GUDG Entite# an# #o%=ete# as Af"e# F"it5 F"en5e vs. E#e"ina !. Catito$ Civi Case No.
3726<.
2-
E?&i+it G44.G
22
Entite# an# #o%=ete# as Af"e# F"it5 F"en5e vs. E#e"ina !. Catito$ Civi Case No. N93726<.
23
E?&i+it GW.G
26
Entite# an# #o%=ete# as Af"e# F"en5e vs. E#e"ina !. Catito$ Civi Case No. 18$:18.
27
Re%o"#s$ ). -.
28
Re%o"#s$ )). 36.
2:
E?&i+it G6.G
58
2;
Re%o"#s$ )). 1217.
3<
Do%=ete# as Civi Case No. 1:$86<9:8.
31
E?&i+it G6DG Re%o"#s$ )). 1;31;:.
3-
E?&i+it G69DDG Re%o"#s$ )). 1;81;:.
32
E?&i+it GF9-GGF92.G
33
Re%o"#s$ ). -2-.
36
Do%=ete# as CA94.R. CV. No. 623:6.
37
Roo$ ). 2<.
38
I#.$ at 17.
3:
I#.$ at 1;.
3;
An a%t to aut&o"i5e t&e (o"t*a*e of )"ivate "ea )"o)e"t' in favo" of an' in#ivi#ua$ %o")o"ation o"
asso%iation su+,e%t to %e"tain %on#itions.
6<
Su)"a. T&e %onve'an%es su+,e%t of t&e %ase we"e e?e%ute# w&en t&e 1;82 Constitution was in
effe%t.
61
On* C&in* !o vs. Cou"t of A))eas$ -2; SCRA 231 I1;;3J.
6-
Ae?an#e" M"iven=o$ vs. Re*iste" of Dee#s$ et a.$ 8; !&i. 371 I1;38JD Reosa vs. Hun$ ;2 !&i.
:-8 I1;62JD Caoie vs. !en*$ ;2 !&i. :71 I1;62JD On* C&in* !o vs. Cou"t of A))eas$ su)"a.
62
F"an%is%o C&ave5 vs. !"esi#entia Co((ission on 4oo# 4ove"n(ent$ et a.$ 2<8 SCRA 2;3
I1;;;J.
63
Ai=(an vs. Cit' of W&eein*$ Sout&easte"n Re)o"te"$ 778 I1;2:J.
66
Reosa vs. Hun$ su)"a.
67
ART. 131-. If t&e a%t in w&i%& t&e unawfu o" fo"+i##en %ause %onsists #oes not %onstitute a
%"i(ina offense$ t&e foowin* "ues s&a +e o+se"ve#C
.10 W&en t&e faut is on t&e )a"t of +ot& %ont"a%tin* )a"ties$ neit&e" (a' "e%ove" w&at &e
&as *iven +' vi"tue of t&e %ont"a%t$ o" #e(an# t&e )e"fo"(an%e of t&e ot&e"Hs
un#e"ta=in*. . .
68
Co"=ins vs. Ritte"$ 3< N.W.$ Re)o"te"$ -# 8-7 I1;6<J$ Dae' vs. Cit' of Eevin#ae$ -7< N.W.
Re)o"te"$ :;: I1;26J.
6:
1; A(. /u".$ E1uit'$ Se%tion 38:.
6;
>ou*& R >ou*& vs. Cantive"os an# Hano)o$ 3< !&i. -<; I1;1;J$ Re)o"te".
7<
C&ees(an vs. Inte"(e#iate A))eate Cou"t$ et a.$ 1;2 SCRA ;2 I1;;1J.
59
71
Re%o"#s$ )). -2<-21.
7-
TSN$ 8 A)"i 1;:8$ )). -2 .F"en5e0.
72
See note 68.
73
Su)"a.
76
Su)"a.
77
Su)"a.
78
I#.$ at :6.
7:
Toentino$ Civi Co#e of t&e !&ii))ines$ 1;;< e#.$ Vo. I$ ). :6.
7;
Cite# in Ea"isse' vs. >oo*na$ 1-2 So. -# 628 I1;7<J.
ARTICLE FIII
SOCIAL /USTICE AND HUEAN RI4HTS
A4RARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES REFORE
Se%tion 3. T&e State s&a$ +' aw$ un#e"ta=e an a*"a"ian "efo"( )"o*"a( foun#e# on t&e "i*&t of fa"(e"s
an# "e*ua" fa"(wo"=e"s w&o a"e an#ess$ to own #i"e%t' o" %oe%tive' t&e an#s t&e' ti o"$ in t&e %ase of
ot&e" fa"(wo"=e"s$ to "e%eive a ,ust s&a"e of t&e f"uits t&e"eof. To t&is en#$ t&e State s&a en%ou"a*e an#
un#e"ta=e t&e ,ust #ist"i+ution of a a*"i%utu"a an#s$ su+,e%t to su%& )"io"ities an# "easona+e "etention
i(its as t&e Con*"ess (a' )"es%"i+e$ ta=in* into a%%ount e%oo*i%a$ #eveo)(enta$ o" e1uit'
%onsi#e"ations$ an# su+,e%t to t&e )a'(ent of ,ust %o()ensation. In #ete"(inin* "etention i(its$ t&e State
s&a "es)e%t t&e "i*&t of s(a an#owne"s. T&e State s&a fu"t&e" )"ovi#e in%entives fo" vounta"' an#9
s&a"in*.
Se%tion 7. T&e State s&a a))' t&e )"in%i)es of a*"a"ian "efo"( o" stewa"#s&i)$ w&eneve" a))i%a+e in
a%%o"#an%e wit& aw$ in t&e #is)osition o" utii5ation of ot&e" natu"a "esou"%es$ in%u#in* an#s of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain un#e" ease o" %on%ession suita+e to a*"i%utu"e$ su+,e%t to )"io" "i*&ts$ &o(estea# "i*&ts of s(a
sette"s$ an# t&e "i*&ts of in#i*enous %o((unities to t&ei" an%est"a an#s. T&e State (a' "esette an#ess
fa"(e"s an# fa"(wo"=e"s in its own a*"i%utu"a estates w&i%& s&a +e #ist"i+ute# to t&e( in t&e (anne"
)"ovi#e# +' aw.
UR>AN LAND REFORE AND HOUSIN4
Se%tion ;. T&e State s&a$ +' aw$ an# fo" t&e %o((on *oo#$ un#e"ta=e$ in %oo)e"ation wit& t&e )"ivate
se%to"$ a %ontinuin* )"o*"a( of u"+an an# "efo"( an# &ousin* w&i%& wi (a=e avaia+e at affo"#a+e %ost$
#e%ent &ousin* an# +asi% se"vi%es to un#e"9)"ivie*e# an# &o(eess %iti5ens in u"+an %ente"s an#
"esette(ent a"eas. It s&a aso )"o(ote a#e1uate e()o'(ent o))o"tunities to su%& %iti5ens. In t&e
i()e(entation of su%& )"o*"a( t&e State s&a "es)e%t t&e "i*&ts of s(a )"o)e"t' owne"s.
Se%tion 1<. U"+an o" "u"a )oo" #wee"s s&a not +e evi%te# no" t&ei" #wein* #e(ois&e#$ e?%e)t in
a%%o"#an%e wit& aw an# in a ,ust an# &u(ane (anne".
No "esette(ent of u"+an o" "u"a #wee"s s&a +e un#e"ta=en wit&out a#e1uate %onsutation wit& t&e( an#
t&e %o((unities w&e"e t&e' a"e to +e "eo%ate#.
II. Review of +asi% %on%e)ts an# )"i%i)es in )"o)e"t' aw.
60
A"ti%e 313. A t&in*s w&i%& a"e o" (a' +e t&e o+,e%t of a))"o)"iation a"e %onsi#e"e# eit&e"C
.10 I((ova+e o" "ea )"o)e"t'D o"
.-0 Eova+e o" )e"sona )"o)e"t'. .2220
A"ti%e 3-:. T&e owne" &as t&e "i*&t to en,o' an# #is)ose of a t&in*$ wit&out ot&e" i(itations t&an t&ose
esta+is&e# +' aw.
T&e owne" &as aso a "i*&t of a%tion a*ainst t&e &o#e" an# )ossesso" of t&e t&in* in o"#e" to "e%ove" it.
.23:a0
A"ti%e 6-2. !ossession is t&e &o#in* of a t&in* o" t&e en,o'(ent of a "i*&t. .32<a0
A"ti%e 6-7. He is #ee(e# a )ossesso" in *oo# fait& w&o is not awa"e t&at t&e"e e?ists in &is tite o" (o#e of
a%1uisition an' faw w&i%& invai#ates it.
He is #ee(e# a )ossesso" in +a# fait& w&o )ossesses in an' %ase %ont"a"' to t&e fo"e*oin*.
Eista=e u)on a #ou+tfu o" #iffi%ut 1uestion of aw (a' +e t&e +asis of *oo# fait&. .322a0
A"ti%e 31;. !"o)e"t' is eit&e" of )u+i% #o(inion o" of )"ivate owne"s&i). .22:0
A"ti%e 3-<. T&e foowin* t&in*s a"e )"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inionC
.10 T&ose inten#e# fo" )u+i% use$ su%& as "oa#s$ %anas$ "ive"s$ to""ents$ )o"ts an# +"i#*es
%onst"u%te# +' t&e State$ +an=s$ s&o"es$ "oa#stea#s$ an# ot&e"s of si(ia" %&a"a%te"D
.-0 T&ose w&i%& +eon* to t&e State$ wit&out +ein* fo" )u+i% use$ an# a"e inten#e# fo" so(e )u+i%
se"vi%e o" fo" t&e #eveo)(ent of t&e nationa weat&. .22;a0
CasesC
4.R. No. L9-23:1 /une -;$ 1;8-
>ISHO! OF CAL>AYO4$ Eons. Ei*ue F. A%e+e#o$ a))i%ant9a))eant$
vs.
THE DIRECTOR OF LANDS an# THE EUNICI!ALITY OF CATAREAN$ SAEAR$ o))osito"s9a))eees.
!a#ia Law Offi%e fo" a))i%ant9a))eant.
!"ovin%ia Fis%a Eiseo #e Ve'"a an# Assistant !"ovin%ia Fis%a Es)i"i#ion R. Li( of Sa(a" fo" o))osito"s9
a))eees.
EAMALINTAL$ /.C)
T&is is an a))ea f"o( t&e #e%ision of t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Sa(a" in Lan# Re*ist"ation Case No.
233: invovin* t&"ee )a"%es of an# o%ate# in Cata"(an$ Sa(a" .#eno(inate# as Lots 1$ - an# 20$ tites to
w&i%& we"e sou*&t to +e %onfi"(e# an# "e*iste"e# in favo" of t&e >is&o) of Ca+a'o*. T&e owe" %ou"t
a#,u#i%ate# Lot - in favo" of t&e Euni%i)ait' of Cata"(an an# #e%a"e# t&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1$ an# t&e
)o"tions of Naa5on st"eet an# Anun%ia%ion st"eet t"ave"sin* sai# Lot 1 an# Lot -$ as )u+i% )a5a an# )u+i%
t&o"ou*&fa"es$ "es)e%tive'$ an# &en%e not su+,e%t to "e*ist"ation.
T&e )etition fo" "e*ist"ation was fie# +' t&e >is&o) of Ca+a'o*$ as a %o")o"ation soe$ on Ea"%& -8$ 1;62$
ae*in* o)en$ %ontinuous$ e?%usive an# noto"ious )ossession$ sin%e t&e S)anis& "e*i(e$ of t&"ee )a"%es of
61
an# =nown as Lot 1 an# - in t&e su"ve' )an E?&i+it D$ #ate# Se)te(+e" 13916$ 1;61$ an# Lot 2 in t&e
su"ve' )an E?&i+it E$ t&e fi"st two ots situate# in t&e )o+a%ion of Cata"(an$ Sa(a"$ an# t&e t&i"# in +a""io
Cawa'an.
O))osition to t&e a))i%ation was fie# +' t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s wit& "es)e%t to t&e t&"ee ots on O%to+e" 1$
1;62$ an# +' t&e Euni%i)ait' of Cata"(an wit& "es)e%t to Lot - #u"in* t&e su"ve' t&e"eof.
On O%to+e" 16$ 1;66 t&e owe" %ou"t issue# an o"#e" of *ene"a #efaut e?%e)t as a*ainst t&e
afo"e(entione# o))osito"s. In t&e sa(e o"#e" t&e Euni%i)ait' of Cata"(an was *iven 6 #a's f"o( noti%e
wit&in w&i%& to su+(it in )"o)e" fo"( its o))osition wit& "es)e%t to Lot -. Co)' of t&e o"#e" of *ene"a #efaut
was "e%eive# +' t&e (uni%i)a se%"eta"' on O%to+e" 1:$ 1;66$ an# on O%to+e" -1 t&e Euni%i)ait' of
Cata"(an fie# its fo"(a o))osition as o"#e"e#. On Nove(+e" -:$ 1;67 it fie# an a(en#e# o))osition$
in%u#in* t&e"ein t&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1 an# )o"tions of Naa5on st"eet an# Anun%ia%ion st"eet
t"ave"sin* sai# Lot 1. A se%on# a(en#e# o))osition was fie# on /une 16$ 1;68$ )a"ti%ua"' #es%"i+in* Lot 1
an# Lot - an# ae*in* t&at t&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1$ +ein* a (uni%i)a )a5a$ was "e*ist"a+e in favo" of
t&e (uni%i)ait'.
Afte" initia &ea"in* t&e owe" %ou"t$ in an o"#e" #ate# /une 16$ 1;68$ #enie# t&e a(en#(ent on t&e *"oun#
t&at t&e )"o)e" )"o%e#u"e$ w&i%& was +' (eans of )etition fo" "eief f"o( t&e o"#e" of *ene"a #efaut$ &a#
not +een "eso"te# to.
Afte" t"ia on t&e (e"its t&e owe" %ou"t "en#e"e# its #e%ision on A)"i 1:$ 1;73 .10 o"#e"in* t&e a))i%ant to
se*"e*ate f"o( Lot I Naa5on st"eet an# Anun%ia%ion st"eet as )u+i% t&o"ou*&fa"es an# t&e easte"n )o"tion
of Lot 1$ +e*innin* f"o( Naa5on st"eet u) to Een#ioa st"eet$ as )u+i% )a5a of t&e Euni%i)ait' of
Cata"(anD .-0 %onfi"(in* t&e i()e"fe%t tite of t&e a))i%ant ove" t&e "e(ainin* )o"tion of Lot 1$ wit& a t&e
i()"ove(ents e?istin* t&e"eon$ an# o"#e"in* t&at t&e sa(e +e "e*iste"e# in t&e na(e of t&e >is&o) of
Ca+a'o* as a %o")o"ation soeD .20 a#,u#i%atin* Lot -$ to*et&e" wit& a t&e i()"ove(ents e?istin* t&e"eon$
e?%e)t t&e )o"tion of Naa5on st"eet aon* t&e easte"n +oun#a"' of t&e ot$ in favo" of t&e Euni%i)ait' of
Cata"(anD an# .30 %onfi"(in* t&e a))i%antHs tite ove" Lot 2 an# o"#e"in* t&at t&e sa(e +e "e*iste"e# in t&e
na(e of t&e >is&o) of Ca+a'o*.
T&e >is&o) of Ca+a'o* a))eae#.
T&e evi#en%e #is%oses t&e foowin* )e"tinent fa%tsC T&e su"ve' )an )"esente# +' t&e a))i%ant as E?&i+it
D$ w&i%& was e?e%ute# on Se)te(+e" 13916$ 1;61$ s&ows t&at t&e enti"e a"ea of Lot 1 is 18$681 s1ua"e
(ete"s$ (o"e o ess. It is +oun#e# on t&e no"t& +' a )"ovin%ia "oa# .now Ri5a St.0$ on t&e east +' Een#ioa
St.$ on t&e sout& +' >onifa%io St.$ an# on t&e west +' a nationa "oa# .T"e%e Ea"ti"es #e 1;<< St.0. O))osite
Lot 1 to t&e no"t&west is Lot -$ w&i%& &as an a"ea of a))"o?i(ate' 3$8<8 s1ua"e (ete"s. It is +oun#e# +'
t&e )"ovin%ia "oa# .Ri5a St.0 on t&e sout&$ on t&e west +' t&e nationa "oa# .T"e%e Ea"ti"es #e 1;<< St.0$
on t&e no"t& +' >u(ent"it St. an# on t&e east +' a (uni%i)a ot.
T&e su"ve' )an #oes not %ontain an' ot&e" info"(ation o" (a"=in*s. >ut f"o( t&e un#is)ute# a%tua
o+se"vation +' t&e owe" %ou"t as we as f"o( t&e #es%"i)tion *iven +' t&e witnesses fo" +ot& )a"ties$
Naa5on St.$ w&i%& t"ave"ses t&e enti"e en*t& of t&e )o+a%ion f"o( sout& to no"t&$ %"osses /a%into an# Rea
st"eets an# %uts a%"oss Lot 1 f"o( >onifa%io St. to Ri5a St.$ )assin* i((e#iate' in f"ont of t&e %&u"%& an#
t&e %onvent. It e?ten#s a%"oss Lot - aon* its easte"n +oun#a"' f"o( Ri5a St. to >u(ent"it St. T&us$ f"o(
a%tua o+se"vation Lot - a))ea"s +oun#e# on t&e east +' Naa5on St. an# not +' t&e (uni%i)a ot as
#es%"i+e# in t&e su"ve' )an. Wit& "es)e%t to Lot 1$ Naa5on St. #ivi#es t&e ot into t&e weste"n )o"tion$
w&i%& fo"(s a+out -K2 of t&e enti"e a"ea$ an# t&e easte"n )o"tion w&i%& %o()"ises t&e ot&e" 1K2. A t&e
)e"(anent i()"ove(ents on Lot 1$ w&i%& in%u#e t&e Ro(an Cat&oi% %&u"%&$ t&e +ef"' an# %onvent$ t&e St.
Ei%&ae A%a#e(' +ui#in* an# a nunHs "esi#en%e$ a"e foun# on t&e weste"n )o"tion. Lot - &as no )e"(anent
i()"ove(ents. T&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1$ t&e a"ea in %ontention$ is an e()t' s)a%e e?%e)t fo" %on%"ete
+en%&es aon* t&e )e"i(ete". A )a"t' %e(ente# )at& "uns a%"oss t&is ot f"o( east to west ea#in* u) to t&e
f"ont o" ent"an%e of t&e %&u"%& an# a))ea"s to +e an e?tension of Anun%ia%ion St.$ w&i%& "uns f"o( t&e +an=
of t&e Cata"(an "ive" u) to Een#ioa St. In t&e (i##e of t&is )at&$ &af9wa' +etween Een#ioa St. an# t&e
%&u"%&$ is a statue of t&e Sa%"e# Hea"t of /esus.
T&e Ro(an Cat&oi% C&u"%& "eies on t&e testi(on' of its witnesses to )"ove its owne"s&i). Ea"iano
Sin*5on$ 6; 'ea"s o# an# one9ti(e (uni%i)a %oun%io" of Cata"(an an# aso %ounse in t&is %ase fo" t&e
62
a))i%ant$ was t&e )"in%i)a witness. T&e foowin* is &is testi(on'C !"io" to 1;1< t&e )o"tions of Naa5on an#
Anun%ia%ion st"eets t"ave"sin* Lot 1 an# Lot - we"e (e"e' t"ais use# +' t&e )a"is&ione"s in *oin* to an#
f"o( t&e %&u"%&. A "et"a%in* .E?&i+it E0 of a su"ve' )an of t&e )o+a%ion of Cata"(an e?e%ute# in 1;<;
s&ows t&at Anun%ia%ion St. sto))e# at Cae 4a"fi .now Een#ioa St.0 an# t&at t&e"e was no ot&e" st"eet
t"ave"sin* Lot 1. A%%o"#in* to Att'. Sin*5on$ Naa5on St. was o)ene# an# i()"ove# +' t&e (uni%i)ait'
so(eti(e in 1;1< o" 1;11. Anun%ia%ion St. was o)ene# on' a+out - 'ea"s +efo"e t&e t"ia of t&e %ase. In
1;-<$ t&e (uni%i)ait' )ante# a%a%ia t"ees on +ot& si#es of Naa5on St. insi#e Lot 1 an# aon* Een#ioa St.
+o"#e"in* Lot 1 +ut t&ese t"ees we"e "e%ent' %ut #own u)on o"#e" of t&e )"iest$ F". Ri%a#e$ an# a t&at
"e(ain a"e stu()s. T&e statue of t&e Sa%"e# Hea"t foun# in t&e (i##e of Anun%ia%ion St. was )ut u) in
1;-8$ +ut t&e +ase of t&e statue &a# +een stan#in* on t&at site even +efo"e 1;<6. T&e Ro(an Cat&oi%
C&u"%& &a# (a#e no i()"ove(ents on t&is easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1$ w&i%& at )"esent is +ein* use# as a
)u+i% )a'*"oun#$ at&ou*& a +an#stan# stoo# t&e"e fo" a+out t&"ee 'ea"s afte" it was %onst"u%te# in 1;-7
+' t&e (e(+e"s of an o"%&est"a w&i%& was o"*ani5e# +' a F". Rane"a an# w&i%& use# to *ive (usi%a
)e"fo"(an%es on t&e +an#stan#. On t&e feast of Co")us C&"isti t&e )a"is&ione"s wou# %onst"u%t an ata" on
t&is ot an# &o# t&e )"o%ession t&e"e.
Wit& "es)e%t to Lot -$ at&ou*& t&e C&u"%& &a# (a#e no i()"ove(ents t&e"eon$ a"oun# t&e tu"n of t&e
%entu"' t&e"e we"e %a(a"ins on t&is ot w&i%& we"e use# as sta+es fo" t&e &o"ses an# %ows owne# +' a F".
T"o1uio. In 1;22 t&e (uni%i)a %oun%i )asse# a "esoution .E?&i+it 40 as=in* t&e >is&o) of Ca+a'o*$ t&en
Eons. Ha%+an*$ to #onate a s(a )o"tion of t&is ot fo" t&e %onst"u%tion of a (onu(ent in &ono" of t&e T"e%e
Ea"ti"es #e 1;<<$ +ut t&is "e1uest was #enie# +' t&e >is&o). 4on5ao O(e#o$ t&e (uni%i)a se%"eta"' of
Cata"(an in 1;22 w&ose si*natu"e a))ea"s on E?&i+it 4$ testifie# as to t&e aut&enti%it' of t&e "esoution an#
even )ointe# to t&e weste"n )o"tion of Lot - as t&e su+,e%t (atte" of t&e "e1uest. Eons. Desoo%$ w&o a%te#
as )"ivate se%"eta"' to t&e >is&o) at t&at ti(e$ testifie# t&at t&e w"itin* on t&e owe" "i*&t &an# %o"ne" of
E?&i+it 4$ w&i%& "ea#s G%ont. ne*ativG is t&e &an#w"itin* of t&e >is&o) an# was (eant to i()a"t an o"#e" t&at
t&e "e1uest %ontaine# in t&e "esoution +e #enie#. In 1;3; Ea'o" Euse+io Eoo"e of Cata"(an an# F".
O"te*a as=e# &i($ Att'. Sin*5on$ to #"aft a %ont"a%t of e?%&an*e +etween Lot - an# a ot owne# +' t&e
(uni%i)ait'$ +ut t&e e?%&an*e #i# not (ate"iai5e +e%ause t&e ot inten#e# to +e +a"te"e# +' t&e (uni%i)ait'
&a# no tite$ at&ou*& &e .t&e witness0 foun# a %o)' of a ta? #e%a"ation .E?&i+it F0 fo" Lot - #ate# Ea' :$
1;3: in t&e na(e of t&e Ro(an Cat&oi% C&u"%&. T&is ta? #e%a"ation #es%"i+es Lot - as +ein* +oun#e# +'
T"e%e Ea"ti"es #e 1;<< on t&e west$ Naa5on St. .instea# of t&e (uni%i)a ot as #es%"i+e# in E?&i+it D0 on
t&e east$ >u(ent"it St. on t&e no"t& an# Ri5a St. on t&e sout&.
T&e testi(on' of Att'. Sin*5on was %o""o+o"ate# +' Can#i#o F"an5uea$ a 72 'ea"9o# "esi#ent of Cata"(an
an# +"ot&e" of F". F"an5uea of t&e sa(e (uni%i)ait' as we as Sava#o"a O(e#o$ an :- 'ea"9o# o%a
"esi#ent$ w&o #ie# afte" *ivin* &e" #i"e%t testi(on'. F"an5uea %onfi"(e# t&e e?isten%e on Lot - of %a(a"ins
use# as sta+es fo" t&e %atte owne# +' t&e %&u"%&. He "e(e(+e"e# t&at so(eti(e in 1;-8 a *"ou) of
C&inese as=e# )e"(ission f"o( t&e )a"is& )"iest to use t&e ot as a foot+a *"oun#$ w&i%& t&e' #i# fo" -
'ea"s. On %"oss9e?a(ination &e a#(itte# t&at +efo"e Naa5on St. was e?ten#e# t&e"e was no visi+e
+oun#a"' +etween Lot - %ai(e# +' t&e C&u"%& an# t&e (uni%i)a ot on w&i%& a )u+i% s%&oo +ui#in* use#
to stan#. Sava#o"a O(e#o aso testifie# t&at w&en s&e was 'et s%&ooin* a %e"tain F". T"o1uio &a#
%a(a"ins on Lot - w&i%& &e use# as sta+es fo" &is %ows an# &o"ses an# t&at w&eneve" s&e an# &e"
%ass(ates wante# to *at&e" fowe"s on t&is ot t&e' as=e# )e"(ission f"o( t&e )"iest.
T&e %ase fo" o))osito"s was )"esente# +' t&e foowin* witnessesC
1. Ea"tin Evan*eista$ 76 'ea"s o# an# fo"(e" (uni%i)a t"easu"e" of Cata"(an$ #e%a"e# t&at as )"o)e"t'
%usto#ian of t&e (uni%i)ait' +efo"e &is "eti"e(ent$ &e =new t&at Lot - was owne# +' t&e (uni%i)ait'. T&is
ot was fen%e# +' t&e (uni%i)ait' fi"st wit& +a(+oos an# t&en wit& +a"+e# wi"e +e%ause t&e (uni%i)a
)"isone"s we"e )antin* %a(otes on t&is ot. On Fe+"ua"' -1$ 1;6- F". F"an1uea )e"sona' &an#e# to &i( a
ette" .E?&i+it 10 as=in* t&at &e +e aowe# to use a )o"tion of Lot - as )a'*"oun# fo" t&e stu#ents of St.
Ei%&ae A%a#e('. He en#o"se# t&e ette" to t&e (uni%i)a %oun%i of Cata"(an$ w&i%& )asse# Resoution
No. 1; .E?&i+it 20$ #e%a"in* Lot - as te()o"a"' )u+i% )a'*"oun# unti su%& ti(e t&at t&e (uni%i)ait' was
"ea#' to %onst"u%t a )e"(anent i()"ove(ent t&e"eon.
-. Euse+io Eoo"e$ 63$ (a'o" of Cata"(an sin%e 1;3:$ #e%a"e# t&at Lot - was owne# +' t&e (uni%i)ait'
+e%ause w&en &e was in t&e ee(enta"' *"a#es &e atten#e# %asses in a )u+i% s%&oo +ui#in* o%ate# on
t&e (uni%i)a ot ne?t to Lot - an# #i# s%&oo *a"#enin* on Lot -. W&en &e was in 4"a#e 7$ as ea#e" of t&e
s%&oo foot+a tea( &e invite# t&e C&inese tea( to )a' an# &e was t&e one w&o as=e# )e"(ission f"o( t&e
(uni%i)a )"esi#ent to use Lot - as t&ei" foot+a *"oun#. W&en &e assu(e# offi%e in 1;3: &e &a# t&e ot
63
fen%e# an# )ante# to f"uit t"ees an# #u"in* fiestas te()o"a"' s&e#s wou# +e )ut u) fo" "ent to itine"ant
(e"%&ants. It was F". O"te*a w&o went to see &i( in 1;3; "e*a"#in* t&e fen%in* of Lot - +' t&e (uni%i)ait'
an# to*et&e" t&e' #is%usse# t&e (atte" wit& Att'. Sin*5on$ t&e aw'e" fo" t&e C&u"%&$ an# t&e atte"
su**este# to &i( t&at Lot - +e e?%&an*e# wit& anot&e" ot owne# +' t&e (uni%i)ait' an# &e "e)ie# t&at it
was u) to t&e (uni%i)a %oun%i to #e%i#e. In 1;6< &e &a# t&e ot #e%a"e# fo" ta?ation )u")oses. T&e ta?
#e%a"ation .E?&i+it 60 %ove"s t&e enti"e a"ea of Lot - %ai(e# +' t&e a))i%ant as we as t&e un%onteste#
(uni%i)a ot$ f"o( T"e%e Ea"ti"es #e 1;<< on t&e west to Een#ioa St. on t&e east$ >u(ent"it St. on t&e
no"t& an# Ri5a St. on t&e sout&. T&is ta? #e%a"ation was (a"=e# on t&e "eve"se si#e as new' issue#
+e%ause a%%o"#in* to &i( t&e o# ta? #e%a"ation %ou# not +e o%ate# as t&e )u+i% "e%o"#s &a# +een
#est"o'e# #u"in* t&e wa". Ea'o" Eoo"e #enie# t&e aut&enti%it' of Resoution No. 1; .E?&. 40 sent +' t&e
(uni%i)a %oun%i to t&e >is&o) in 1;22 on t&e *"oun# t&at t&e #o%u(ent is in S)anis&$ an*ua*e not s)o=en
eit&e" +' t&e (uni%i)a se%"eta"' w&o %e"tifie# as to t&e %o""e%tness of t&e "esoution o" +' t&e (uni%i)a
)"esi#ent$ w&o su))ose#' #i%tate# its te?t. T&e witness )"o#u%e# t&e affi#avits of !ea'o Sa#o$ (uni%i)a
%oun%io" in 1;22 an# one of t&ose iste# as )"esent w&en t&e "esoution was ta=en u)$ to t&e effe%t t&at Lot
- is owne# +' t&e (uni%i)ait'. He aso )"o#u%e# a si(ia" affi#avit e?e%ute# +' Antonio Oa#ive$ a fo"(e"
(uni%i)a )"esi#ent of Cata"(an. To fu"t&e" +utt"ess t&e (uni%i)ait'Hs )osition t&e (a'o" )"o#u%e# a ette"
#ate# Fe+"ua"' -;$ 1;6- +' Eatias Ro#"i*ue5$ "e)"esentin* t&e No"t&e"n Sa(a" A%a#e('$ "e1uestin* t&at
Lot - +e use# as )a'*"oun# fo" t&e s%&oo. T&e (a'o" #is%ose# t&at &e$ t&e (a'o"$ &a# +een )"esi#ent of
t&e No"t&e"n Sa(a" A%a#e('. Naa5on St. an# Anun%ia%ion St.$ a%%o"#in* to Ea'o" Eoo"e$ a"e %eane# an#
(aintaine# +' t&e (uni%i)ait'. Wit& "es)e%t to t&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1 t&e sa(e &a# awa's +een
"e*a"#e# as owne# +' t&e (uni%i)ait' +e%ause t&e (uni%i)a +ui#in* use# to fa%e t&is ot$ at&ou*& w&en
&e assu(e# t&e offi%e of Ea'o" &e &a# t&e +a%='a"# of t&e (uni%i)a +ui#in* i()"ove# an# t&e stai"wa'
t"ansfe""e# t&e"e.
2. 4au#en%io Ca()osano$ a 86 'ea"9o# "esi#ent of Cata"(an$ testifie# t&at a +an#stan# was %onst"u%te#
on t&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1 in 1;<6 an# it was not on' t&e o"%&est"a o"*ani5e# +' F". Rane"a t&at use#
to )a' t&e"e +ut aso t&e (uni%i)a +an#. He aso testifie# t&at w&en &e was atten#in* s%&oo in 1;<6 t&e
s%&oo *a"#en was o%ate# insi#e Lot -$ w&i%& &e +eieve# to +e in t&e )ossession of t&e (uni%i)ait'
+e%ause no+o#' owne# it an# w&en &e +e%a(e a%tin* (a'o" &e "e1ui"e# t&e )"isone"s to %ea" Lot - an#
&a# it )ante# to %a(otes an# +ananas.
T&e %on%usion t&at (a' +e #"awn f"o( t&e evi#en%e on "e%o"# is t&at Lot -$ %ae# t&e Gtown )a5aG +'
o))osito"$ is a )u+i% )a5a an# t&at Naa5on St.$ t"ave"sin* Lot I an# Lot -$ is a )u+i% t&o"ou*&fa"e an#
s&ou# t&e"efo"e +e e?%u#e# f"o( t&e a))i%ation fo" "e*ist"ation fie# +' t&e C&u"%&.
A#(itte#' Naa5on St. was o"i*ina' (e"e' a t"ai use# +' t&e )a"is&ione"s in *oin* to an# f"o( t&e %&u"%&.
>ut sin%e 1;1<$ w&en it was o)ene# an# i()"ove# as a )u+i% t&o"ou*&fa"e +' t&e (uni%i)ait'$ it &a# +een
%ontinuous' use# as su%& +' t&e towns)eo)e of Cata"(an wit&out o+,e%tion f"o( t&e C&u"%& aut&o"ities.
T&e a%a%ia t"ees aon* +ot& si#es of t&e st"eet we"e )ante# +' t&e (uni%i)ait' in 1;-<$ at&ou*& t&ese
t"ees we"e %ut #own "e%ent' u)on o"#e" of t&e )"iest. T&e"e is no )"oof t&at t&e C&u"%& (e"e' toe"ate# an#
i(ite# t&e use of t&is st"eet fo" t&e +enefit of its )a"is&ione"s$ %onsi#e"in* t&at t&e st"eet t"ave"ses t&e enti"e
en*t& of t&e )o+a%ion f"o( sout& to no"t& an# t&at Lot 1$ on w&i%& t&e %&u"%& stan#s$ is o%ate# a(ost at
t&e %ente" of t&e )o+a%ion. T&e st"eet #oes not sto) on Lot I +ut e?ten#s no"t& towa"# t&e sea$ )assin*
aon* t&e ot o%%u)ie# +' t&e Cent"a Ee(enta"' S%&oo an# t&e No"t&e"n Sa(a" 4ene"a Hos)ita. T&us it
is %ea" t&at Naa5on St. insi#e Lot 1 is use# +' t&e "esi#ents not on' in *oin* to t&e %&u"%& +ut to t&e )u+i%
s%&oo an# t&e *ene"a &os)ita no"t& of Lot 1.
Wit& "es)e%t to Lot -$ t&e"e is no evi#en%e t&at eit&e" t&e C&u"%& o" t&e (uni%i)ait' e?e"%ise# %ea" a%ts of
owne"s&i) o" of e?%usive )ossession ove" t&is ot. It is t"ue t&at t&e"e we"e witnesses w&o testifie# t&at
a"oun# t&e tu"n of t&e %entu"' t&e"e we"e %a(a"ins insi#e t&is ot use# as sta+es fo" t&e &o"ses an# %ows
owne# +' a F". T"o1uio. >ut t&ese witnesses i=ewise testifie# t&at t&is ot &a# +een use# aso as a
)a'*"oun# as we as a s%&oo *a"#en +' t&e stu#ents of t&e )u+i% s%&oo o%ate# on t&e a#,oinin*
(uni%i)a ot. T&is ot sti se"ves as a )u+i% )a'*"oun# u) to t&e )"esent. T&e (uni%i)ait' aso (a=es use
of t&is ot #u"in* town fiestas +' %onst"u%tin* te()o"a"' s&e#s w&i%& a"e "ente# to itine"ant ven#o"s. In 1;3;
t&e (uni%i)ait' %onst"u%te# a fen%e a"oun# t&is ot +e%ause t&e )"isone"s )ante# it to %a(otes. T&e
C&u"%&$ &oweve"$ o+,e%te# to t&e )uttin* u) of t&e fen%e.
A t&ese fa%ts on' s&ow t&at neit&e" t&e C&u"%& no" t&e (uni%i)ait' )ossesse# Lot - e?%usive'. W&ie it
(a' +e t"ue t&at as ate as 1;22 t&e (uni%i)ait' a%=nowe#*e# t&e owne"s&i) of t&e C&u"%& ove" Lot - an#
in 1;3; t&e C&u"%& #e%a"e# t&is ot fo" ta? )u")oses$ t&e %ontinuous use t&e"eof en,o'e# +' t&e "esi#ents of
64
Cata"(an is a#(itte# +' a t&e witnesses. T&us$ even t&e witness fo" t&e a))i%ant testifie# t&at t&e C&u"%&
&a# (a#e no i()"ove(ents on Lot - an# t&at t&e sa(e &a# +een use# )"i(a"i' as )a'*"oun# fo"
s%&oo%&i#"en. T&e (uni%i)ait' stan#s on t&e sa(e footin* as t&e C&u"%&. T&e ta? #e%a"ation in its na(e
was issue# on' in 1;6<$ w&en t&e )"esent #is)ute was a"ea#' i((inent. T&e ette"s of F". F"an5uea an#
E". Eatias Ro#"i*ue5 as=in* )e"(ission to use t&is ot as a )a'*"oun# a"e not )"oof of (uni%i)a owne"s&i)$
sin%e afte" a t&e (uni%i)a *ove"n(ent (a' +e %onsi#e"e# t&e a#(inist"ato" of )u+i% )"o)e"t'$ t&at is$
)"o)e"t' fo" )u+i% use.
In t&e %ase of Ha"t' vs. Euni%i)ait' of Vi%to"ia$ 12 !&i. 16-$ invovin* t&e 1uestion as to t&e owne"s&i) of a
)a"%e of an# w&i%& su""oun#e# t&e )a"is& %&u"%& of t&e town$ t&is Cou"t sai#C
Even t&ou*& a t&e "e(ainin* s)a%e of an# w&i%& now fo"(s t&e *"eat )a5a of t&e town
of Vi%to"ia &a# +een owne# +' t&e sai# TaLe#o$ it (ust +e )"esu(e# t&at &e waive# &is
"i*&t t&e"eto fo" t&e +enefit of t&e towns)eo)e$ sin%e f"o( t&e %"eation o" esta+is&(ent of
t&e town$ #own to t&e )"esent #a'$ a t&e "esi#ents$ in%u#in* t&e %u"ate of sai# town$
&ave en,o'e# t&e f"ee use of sai# )a5a.
??? ??? ???
T&at +ot& t&e %u"ates an# t&e *o+e"na#o"%ios of sai# town )"o%u"e# f"uit t"ees an# )ants
to +e set out in t&e )a5a$ #oes not %onstitute an a%t of )"ivate owne"s&i)$ +ut evi#en%es
t&e )u+i% use t&e"eof$ o" )e"&a)s t&e intention to i()"ove o" e(+eis& t&e sai# )a5a fo"
t&e +enefit of t&e towns)eo)e.
??? ??? ???
Ce"tain it is t&at t&e )aintiff &as not )"oven t&at t&e Cat&oi% C&u"%& o" t&e )a"is& of
Vi%to"ia was t&e owne" o" )"o)"ieto" of t&e sai# e?tensive )ie%e of an# w&i%& now fo"(s
t&e )u+i% )a5a of sai# town$ no" t&at it was in )ossession t&e"eof un#e" t&e fo"( an#
%on#itions "e1ui"e# +' aw$ inas(u%& as it &as +een fu' )"oven t&at sai# )a5a &as +een
use# wit&out et o" &in#"an%e +' t&e )u+i% an# t&e "esi#ents of t&e town of Vi%to"ia eve"
sin%e its %"eation.
Sin%e neit&e" t&e C&u"%& no" t&e (uni%i)ait' %ou# )"esent )ositive )"oof of owne"s&i) o" e?%usive
)ossession fo" an a))"e%ia+e )e"io# of ti(e an# t&e on' in#u+ita+e fa%t is t&e f"ee an# %ontinuous use of
Lot - +' t&e "esi#ents of Cata"(an$ %ou)e# wit& t&e fa%t t&at t&e town &as no )u+i% )a5a to s)ea= of ot&e"
t&an t&is #is)ute# )a"%e of an#$ t&e"e is a st"on* )"esu()tion t&at t&e sa(e was se*"e*ate# as a )u+i%
)a5a u)on t&e foun#in* of t&e (uni%i)ait' of Cata"(an.
T&e (uni%i)ait'$ as &as +een &e"etofo"e note#$ was #e%a"e# in #efaut wit& "es)e%t to Lot 1$ an# t&e #efaut
was neve" ifte#. In#ee# t&e a(en#e# o))osition of t&e (uni%i)ait' w&i%& )u")o"te# to in%u#e t&e easte"n
)o"tion of sai# ot$ was #enie# +' t&e owe" %ou"t. In an' event$ t&e (uni%i)ait' faie# to esta+is& its
ae*ation wit& "es)e%t to t&e sai# )o"tion of Lot 1 an# to t&e )o"tion of Anun%ia%ion St. wit&in t&is ot. T&is
)o"tion is on' a )at& w&i%& is %e(ente# f"o( t&e %o"ne" of Een#ioa St. to t&e (onu(ent of t&e Sa%"e#
Hea"t$ an# as)&ate# f"o( t&e (onu(ent to t&e f"ont of t&e %&u"%&. T&e"e is no evi#en%e t&at t&is )at& was
)ante# to a%a%ia t"ees$ uni=e Naa5o St. an# Een#ioa St.$ w&e"e a%a%ia stu()s we"e o+se"ve# +' t&e
owe" %ou"t. T&e e?)anation offe"e# +' Ea'o" Eoo"e as to t&e )"esen%e of t&is "ei*ious (onu(ent in t&e
(i##e of a )u+i% t&o"ou*&fa"e t&at t&e "esi#ents of Cata"(an a"e "ei*ious is not %onvin%in*. T&e
statue was ent&"one# on' in 1;-8$ w&en t&e se)a"ation of %&u"%& an# state was a"ea#' a %onfi"(e# e*a
)"in%i)e. T&e statue was even "e%ent' i()"ove# wit& t&e %onst"u%tion of a )atfo"( +eneat& it. Its o%ation
s&ows t&at t&e )at& ea#in* to it an# to t&e f"ont of t&e %&u"%& is not an e?tension of Anun%ia%ion St. +ut was
o)ene# (ain' fo" t&e +enefit of t&e )a"is&ione"s. T&e easte"n )o"tion of Lot 1 itsef is use# fo" "ei*ious
fun%tions$ su%& as t&e feast of Co")us C&"isti an# t&e )"o%ession &e# on t&e o%%asion. It is a#(itte# +' t&e
(uni%i)ait' t&at t&e C&u"%& #oes not as= fo" a )e"(it w&eneve" it uses t&is ot fo" su%& a%tivities.
On t&e ot&e" &an#$ t&e"e is no evi#en%e t&at t&e (uni%i)ait' uses t&is ot fo" its offi%ia a%tivities to su))o"t
its %ai( t&at t&is ot is a (uni%i)a )a5a. T&e %i"%u(stan%e t&at t&e (uni%i)a +an# use# to )e"fo"( wee='
on t&e G=ios=oG foun# on t&is ot so(eti(e in 1;-8 #oes not %onstitute an a%t of e?%usive )ossession w&i%&
65
%ou# +e t&e +asis of a tite. Eo"eove"$ t&e G=ios=oG stoo# on' fo" t&"ee 'ea"s an# t&e (uni%i)ait' &as not
a##u%e# an' evi#en%e t&at it %ontinue# to use t&e ot afte" t&e G=ios=oG was #e(ois&e#.
Fo" t&e fo"e*oin* "easons$ t&e a))eae# #e%ision is &e"e+' (o#ifie# in t&e sense t&at Lot -$ +ein* a )u+i%
)a5a$ an# Naa5on St.$ t"ave"sin* Lot 1 an# Lot -$ +ein* a )u+i% t&o"ou*&fa"e$ a"e not su+,e%t to
"e*ist"ationD an# t&at t&e tite of t&e >is&o) of Ca+a'o* wit& "es)e%t to t&e enti"e a"ea of Lot 1$ e?%e)t t&e
)o"tion %ove"e# +' Naa5on St.$ an# to Lot 2$ is %onfi"(e# an# o"#e"e# "e*iste"e# in &is na(e$ as
%o")o"ation soe. In a ot&e" "es)e%ts t&e #e%ision a))eae# f"o( is affi"(e#. No )"onoun%e(ent as to %osts.
Con%e)%ion$ C./.$ Re'es$ /.>.L.$ Ba#iva"$ Cast"o$ Fe"nan#o$ Tee&an=ee$ >a""e#o$ Ea=asia" an# Antonio$
//.$ %on%u".

4.R. No. L9287:- Ea"%& -;$ 1;83
RE!U>LIC OF THE !HILI!!INES$ Re)"esente# +' t&e DIRECTOR OF LANDS$ )etitione"$
vs.
HON. !EDRO SAESON ANIEAS$ in &is %a)a%it' as /u#*e of CFI Sout& Cota+ato$ >"an%& I$ 4ene"a
Santos Cit'$ ISA4ANI DU TIE>OL an# t&e RE4ISTER OF DEEDS OF 4ENERAL SANTOS CITY$
"es)on#ent.
Offi%e of t&e Soi%ito" 4ene"a Esteito !. Een#o5a$ Assistant Soi%ito" 4ene"a Santia*o E. Ma)unan an#
Soi%ito" !at"i%io E. !ata,o fo" )etitione".
Nuitain Law Offi%e fo" )"ivate "es)on#ent.
ES4UERRA$ /.C)
!etition to "eview t&e o"#e" of t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Sout& Cota+ato$ >"an%& I$ 4ene"a Santos Cit'$
#ate# /une --$ 1;82$ #is(issin* t&e %o()aint in its Civi Case No. 1-62$ entite# GRe)u+i% of t&e
!&ii))ines$ !aintiff$ vs. Isa*ani Du Ti(+o an# t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s of 4ene"a Santos Cit'$ Defen#antsG$
institute# +' t&e )aintiff to #e%a"e nu an# voi# F"ee !atent No. V93771<- an# O"i*ina Ce"tifi%ate of Tite
.O.C.T.0 No. !9-6<: +ase# t&e"eon issue# in t&e na(e of #efen#ant Isa*ani Du Ti(+oD to o"#e" t&e
afo"esai# #efen#ant to su""en#e" t&e owne"Hs #u)i%ate of O.C.T. No. !9-6<: an# t&e #efen#ant Re*iste" of
Dee#s to %an%e t&e sa(eD to #e%"ee t&e "eve"sion of t&e an# in 1uestion to t&e (ass of )u+i% #o(ain$ an#
*"antin* su%& fu"t&e" "eief as (a' +e ,ust an# e1uita+e in t&e )"e(ises.
T&e an# %ove"e# +' t&e f"ee )atent an# tite in 1uestion was o"i*ina' a))ie# fo" +' !"e%ia So"ia$ w&o on
Fe+"ua"' -2$ 1;77$ t"ansfe""e# &e" "i*&ts to t&e an# an# its i()"ove(ents to #efen#ant Isa*ani Du Ti(+o
w&o fie# &is a))i%ation t&e"efo" on Fe+"ua"' 2$ 1;7;$ as a t"ansfe"ee f"o( !"e%ia So"ia.
On De%e(+e" 1-$ 1;7;$ f"ee !atent No. V93771<- was issue# +' t&e !"esi#ent of t&e !&ii))ines fo" t&e
an# in 1uestion$ an# on /u' -<$ 1;8<$ afte" t"ans(itta of t&e )atent to t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s of 4ene"a
Santos Cit'$ O"i*ina Ce"tifi%ate of Tite .O.C.T.0 No. !9-6<: was issue# in t&e na(e of #efen#ant Isa*ani Du
Ti(+o.
On Au*ust 6$ 1;81$ t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines$ at t&e instan%e of t&e >u"eau of Fo"est"'$ fie# a
%o()aint in t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Cota+ato$ >"an%& I$ 4ene"a Santos Cit' .Civi Case No. 1-620$ to
#e%a"e f"ee )atent No. V93771<- an# O"i*ina Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. !9-6<: in t&e na(e of #efen#ant
Isa*ani Du Ti(+o nu an# voi# a+ initio an# to o"#e" t&e "eve"sion of t&e an# in 1uestion to t&e (ass of
)u+i% #o(ain. T&e a%tion is +ase# on t&e *"oun# t&at t&e an# %ove"e# t&e"e+' is a fo"est o" ti(+e" an#
w&i%& is not #is)osa+e un#e" t&e !u+i% Lan# A%tD t&at in a "e%assifi%ation of t&e )u+i% an#s in t&e vi%init'
w&e"e t&e an# in 1uestion is situate# (a#e +' t&e >u"eau of Fo"est"' on Ea"%& 8$ 1;6:$ t&e sai# an# was
)otte# on >u"eau of Fo"est"' (a) L.C. 8<< to +e insi#e t&e a"ea w&i%& was "eve"te# to t&e %ate*o"' of
)u+i% fo"est$ w&e"eas t&e a))i%ation fo" f"ee )atent +' Isa*ani Du Ti(+o was fie# on /une 2$ 1;7;$ o"
(o"e t&an eeven 'ea"s t&e"eafte"D t&at t&e sai# )atent an# tite we"e o+taine# f"au#uent' as )"ivate
"es)on#ent Isa*ani Du Ti(+o neve" o%%u)ie# an# %utivate# t&e an# a))ie# fo".
66
Invo=in* t&e %ase of Ra(i"e5 vs. Cou"t of A))eas .4.R. No. L9-:6;1$ 2< SCRA -<892<10$ &o#in* t&at a
%e"tifi%ate of tite f"au#uent' se%u"e# is not nu an# voi# a+ initio$ uness t&e f"au# %onsiste# in
(is"e)"esentin* t&at t&e an# %ove"e# +' t&e a))i%ation is )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain w&en it is not$ t&e
"es)on#ent %ou"t #is(isse# t&e %o()aint on t&e *"oun# t&at Ce"tifi%ate of Tite +ase# on t&e )atent &a#
+e%a(e in#efeasi+e in view of t&e a)se of t&e one9'ea" )e"io# )"es%"i+e# un#e" Se%tion 2: of t&e Lan#
Re*ist"ation A%t fo" "eview of a #e%"ee of tite on t&e *"oun# of f"au#. F"o( t&is o"#e" of /une --$ 1;82$
#is(issin* t&e %o()aint$ )aintiff Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines &as a))eae# to t&is Cou"t fo" "eview.
Afte" %a"efu #ei+e"ation$ t&is Cou"t *"ants t&e )etition on t&e *"oun# t&at t&e a"ea %ove"e# +' t&e )atent
an# tite is not #is)osa+e )u+i% an#$ it +ein* a )a"t of t&e fo"est 5one an#$ &en%e t&e )atent an# tite
t&e"eto a"e nu an# voi#.
T&e #efense of in#efeasi+iit' of a %e"tifi%ate of tite issue# )u"suant to a f"ee )atent #oes not ie a*ainst t&e
state in an a%tion fo" "eve"sion of t&e an# %ove"e# t&e"e+' w&en su%& an# is a )a"t of a )u+i% fo"est o" of a
fo"est "ese"vation. As a *ene"a "ue$ ti(+e" o" fo"est an#s a"e not aiena+e o" #is)osa+e un#e" eit&e" t&e
Constitution of 1;26 o" t&e Constitution of 1;82. At&ou*& t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s &as ,u"is#i%tion ove" )u+i%
an#s %assifie# as a*"i%utu"a un#e" t&e %onstitution$ o" aiena+e o" #is)osa+e un#e" t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t$
an# is %&a"*e# wit& t&e a#(inist"ation of a aws "eative t&e"eto$ (ine"a an# ti(+e" an#s a"e +e'on# &is
,u"is#i%tion. It is t&e >u"eau of Fo"est"' t&at &as ,u"is#i%tion an# aut&o"it' ove" t&e #e(a"%ation$ )"ote%tion$
(ana*e(ent$ "e)"o#u%tion$ o%%u)an%' an# use of a )u+i% fo"ests an# fo"est "ese"vations an# ove" t&e
*"antin* of i%enses fo" t&e ta=in* of )"o#u%ts t&e"ef"o($ in%u#in* stone an# ea"t& .Se%tion 1:17 of t&e
Revise# A#(inist"ative Co#e0. T&at t&e a"ea in 1uestion is a fo"est o" ti(+e" an# is %ea"' esta+is&e# +'
t&e %e"tifi%ation (a#e +' t&e >u"eau of Fo"est Deveo)(ent t&at it is wit&in t&e )o"tion of t&e a"ea w&i%& was
"eve"te# to t&e %ate*o"' of fo"est an#$ a))"ove# +' t&e !"esi#ent on Ea"%& 8$ 1;6:. W&en t&e #efen#ant
Isa*ani Du Ti(+o fie# &is a))i%ation fo" f"ee )atent ove" t&e an# in 1uestion on /une 2$ 1;7;$ t&e a"ea in
1uestion was not a #is)osa+e o" aiena+e )u+i% an# +ut a )u+i% fo"est. Tites issue# to )"ivate )a"ties +'
t&e >u"eau of Lan#s w&en t&e an# %ove"e# t&e"e+' is not #is)osa+e )u+i% an# +ut fo"est an# a"e voi# a+
initio. In 4at%&aian vs. !avien$ et a.$ L91871;$ O%t. 21$ 1;7-$ 7 SCRA ). 6<:$ 61-$ t&is Cou"t sai#C
An# if it +e t"ue t&at t&e >u"eau of Lan#s &a# no ,u"is#i%tion to issue a )atent +e%ause t&e
an# invove# was sti inaiena+e fo"est an# w&en *"ante#$ t&en it (a' +e )ausi+'
%onten#e# t&at t&e )atent tite wou# +e a+ initio voi#$ su+,e%t to atta%= at an' ti(e +' an'
)a"t' a#ve"se' affe%te#. .4at%&aian vs. !avien$ et a.$ L91871;$ O%t. 21$ 1;7-$ su)"a$
%itin* Civi Co#e A"ts. 13<; an# 13-1D VaLo vs. Insua" 4ovHt.$ 31 !&i. 171D A#e"a+e vs.
Di"e%to" of Fo"est"'$ L912772$ Ea"%& -6$ 1;7<0.
A )atent is voi# at aw if t&e offi%e" w&o issue# t&e )atent &a# no aut&o"it' to #o so .Mni*&t vs. Lan# Ass.$
13- U.S. 171$ 1- Su). Ct.$ -6:$ 26L ED. ;83D e()&asis su))ie#0. If a )e"son o+tains a tite un#e" t&e !u+i%
Lan# A%t w&i%& in%u#es$ +' (ista=e o" ove"si*&t$ an#s w&i%& %annot +e "e*iste"e# un#e" t&e To""ens
S'ste($ o" w&en t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s #i# not &ave ,u"is#i%tion ove" t&e sa(e +e%ause it is a )u+i% fo"est$
t&e *"antee #oes not$ +' vi"tue of sai# %e"tifi%ate of tite aone$ +e%o(e t&e owne" of t&e an# ie*a'
in%u#e#. .See Le#es(a vs. Euni%i)ait' of Ioio$ 3; !&i. 87;0
T&e %ase of Ra(i"e5 vs. Cou"t of A))eas$ 4. R. No. L9-:6;1$ O%t. 21$ 1;7;$ 2< SCRA -;8$ "eie# u)on +'
"es)on#ent Cou"t in #is(issin* t&is %ase$ is not %ont"oin*. In t&at %ase no fo"est an# was invove# +ut
a*"i%utu"a )u+i% an# w&i%& was fi"st %ove"e# +' a )atent issue# to one )a"t' an# ate" "e*iste"e# un#e" t&e
To""ens S'ste( +' t&e ot&e" )a"t'. T&e iti*ation was +etween )"ivate )a"ties w&e"e t&e )a"t' w&o "e*iste"e#
it un#e" A%t No. 3;7 sou*&t t&e nuit' of t&e tite of t&e )atentee un#e" t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t. In t&e %ase at
+a" t&e )a"t' see=in* t&e nuit' of t&e tite an# "eve"sion of t&e an# is t&e state itsef w&i%& is s)e%ifi%a'
aut&o"i5e# un#e" Se%tion 1<1 of t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t to initiate su%& )"o%ee#in*s as an att"i+ute of
sove"ei*nt'$ a "e(e#' not avaia+e to a )"ivate in#ivi#ua.
T&e %o()aint ae*es in its )a"a*"a)& : t&at a))i%ant Isa*ani Du Ti(+o was neve" in )ossession of t&e
)"o)e"t' )"io" to &is fiin* t&e a))i%ation$ %ont"a"' to t&e )"ovisions of aw t&at t&e a))i%ant (ust &ave +een
in )ossession o" %utivation t&e"eof fo" at east 2< 'ea"sD t&at t&e a))i%ant$ afte" #ii*ent sea"%& +' t&e A%tin*
C&ief of t&e Su"ve'9!a"t'$ F"an%is%o R. A%ones$ in Sout& Cota+ato$ %ou# not +e %onta%te# +e%ause &e is a
"esi#ent of Davao Cit'D t&at t&e"e a"e no e?istin* si*ns of i()"ove(ents foun# in t&e a"ea in 1uestion as it is
not un#e" %utivation +ut %ove"e# wit& *"asses$ +us&es an# s(a t"eesD t&at it is +ein* use# as "an%& fo"
*"a5in* %ows +' t&e &ei"s of He"(o*enes C&isotD t&at no (onu(ents we"e )a%e# on t&e a"ea su"ve'e#
w&i%& *oes to s&ow t&at t&e"e was no a%tua su"ve' t&e"eofD t&at t&e )"o)e"t' in 1uestion is insi#e t&e "an%&
67
of t&e &ei"s of He"(o*enes C&isot un#e" !astu"e Lease A*"ee(ent No. 1-33 an#$ t&e"efo"e$ insi#e t&e
fo"est 5oneD an# t&at sai# "an%& &as a fen%e a"oun# it to s&ow t&at ot&e" )e"sons %ou# not ente" an#
%utivate t&e sa(e$ an# t&at t&e si*natu"e of t&en A%tin* Dist"i%t Lan# Offi%e" Eias #e Cast"o of Sout&
Cota+ato &as +een fo"*e# to fa%iitate t&e issuan%e of )atent in favo" of Isa*ani Du Ti(+o.
T&e a+ove ae*e# %i"%u(stan%es a"e in#i%ative of f"au# in t&e fiin* of t&e a))i%ation an# o+tainin* tite to
t&e an#$ an# if )"oven wou# ove""i#e "es)on#ent /u#*eHs o"#e" #is(issin* t&e %ase wit&out &ea"in*. T&e
(is"e)"esentations of t&e a))i%ant t&at &e &a# +een o%%u)'in* an# %utivatin* t&e an# an# "esi#in* t&e"eon
a"e suffi%ient *"oun#s to nuif' t&e *"ant of t&e )atent an# tite un#e" Se%tion ;1 of t&e !u+i% Lan# Law
w&i%& )"ovi#es as foowsC
T&at state(ents (a#e in t&e a))i%ation s&a +e %onsi#e"e# as essentia %on#itions o"
)a"ts of an' %on%ession$ tite o" )e"(it issue# on t&e +asis of su%& a))i%ation$ an# an'
fase state(ent t&e"eon o" o(ission of fa%ts$ %&an*in*$ o" (o#if'in* t&e %onsi#e"ation of
t&e fa%ts set fo"t& in su%& state(ent$ an# an' su+se1uent (o#ifi%ation$ ate"ation$ o"
%&an*e of t&e (ate"ia fa%ts set fo"t& in t&e a))i%ation s&a i)so fa%to )"o#u%e t&e
%an%eation of t&e %on%ession$ tite o" )e"(it *"ante#. ...
A %e"tifi%ate of tite t&at is voi# (a' +e o"#e"e# %an%ee#. A tite wi +e %onsi#e"e# voi# if it is )"o%u"e#
t&"ou*& f"au#$ as w&en a )e"son a))ies fo" "e*ist"ation of t&e an# un#e" &is na(e at&ou*& t&e )"o)e"t'
+eon*s to anot&e". In t&e %ase of #is)osa+e )u+i% an#s$ faiu"e on t&e )a"t of t&e *"antee to %o()' wit&
t&e %on#itions i()ose# +' aw is a *"oun# fo" &o#in* su%& tite voi# .Di"e%to" of Lan#s vs. Cou"t of A))eas$
et a.$ 4.R. No. L9187;7$ Ea' 1;$ 1;77$ 18 SCRA$ 81$ 8;9:<D e()&asis su))ie#0. T&e a)se of t&e one 'ea"
)e"io# wit&in w&i%& a #e%"ee of tite (a' +e "eo)ene# fo" f"au# wou# not )"event t&e %an%eation t&e"eof$
fo" to &o# t&at a tite (a' +e%o(e in#efeasi+e +' "e*ist"ation$ even if su%& tite &a# +een se%u"e# t&"ou*&
f"au# o" in vioation of t&e aw$ wou# +e t&e &ei*&t of a+su"#it'. Re*ist"ation s&ou# not +e a s&ie# of f"au#
in se%u"in* tite. ./. E. Tuason R Co.$ In%. vs. Ea%ain#o*$ L9162;:$ De%e(+e" -;$ 1;7-$ 7 SCRA ;2:$ )a*e
2:0.
Consi#e"in* t&at it is t&e state is see=in* t&e %an%eation of t&e tite of "es)on#ent Isa*ani Du Ti(+o$ sai#
tite &as not +e%o(e in#efeasi+e fo" )"es%"i)tion %annot +e invo=e# a*ainst t&e state. A tite foun#e# on
f"au# (a' +e %an%ee#$ notwit&stan#in* t&e a)se of one 'ea" f"o( t&e issuan%e t&e"eof$ t&"ou*& a )etition
fie# in %ou"t +' t&e Soi%ito" 4ene"a$ .Su(ai vs. Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Cota+ato$ 61 O.4. ). -313 !&i.
L9:-8:. ;7 !&i. ;37C Eu*enio$ et a.$ vs. !e"#i#o$ et a.$ 4. R. No. L98<:2$ Ea' 1;$ 1;66D De os Santos vs.
Ro(an Cat&oi% C&u"%& of Ei#sa'a) 4.R. No. L97<::$ Fe+. -3$ 1;63$ ;3 !&i. 3<60.
!u+i% an# f"au#uent' in%u#e# in )atents o" %e"tifi%ates of tite (a' +e "e%ove"e# o" "eve"te# to t&e state in
a%%o"#an%e wit& Se%tion 1<1 of t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t .Di"e%to" of Lan#s vs. /u*a#o et a.$ 4.R. No. L9138<8$
Ea' -2$ 1;710. !"es%"i)tion #oes not ie a*ainst t&e state in su%& %ases fo" t&e Statute of Li(itations #oes
not "un a*ainst t&e state .A"ti%e 11<:$ )a"a*"a)& 3 of t&e New Civi Co#e0. T&e "i*&t of "eve"sion o"
"e%onve'an%e to t&e state is not +a""e# )"es%"i)tion .Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines vs. Ra(ona Rui5$ et a.$
4.R. No. L9-281-$ A)"i -;$ 1;7:$ -2 SCRA 23:. !eo)e vs. Ra(os$ 4.R. No. L9163:3$ /an. 21$ 1;72$ 38
SCRA 1-D 4ove"n(ent of t&e !&ii))ines vs. Eonte #e !ie#a# 26 !&i. 8-:D 86198620.
Even *"antin* t&at t&e tite of )"ivate "es)on#ent Isa*ani Du Ti(+o %an no on*e" +e "eo)ene# un#e" t&e
Lan# Re*ist"ation A%t$ t&e an# %ove"e# t&e"e+' (a' +e "e%onve'e# to t&e state in an a%tion fo"
"e%onve'an%e un#e" Se%tion 1<1 of Co((onweat& A%t 131 .!u+i% Lan# A%t0$ fo" t&e "e(e#' of
"e%onve'an%e is a#e1uate' %ove"e# +' t&e )"a'e" of t&e %o()aint fo" t&e *"ant of su%& ot&e" "eief as (a'
+e ,ust an# e1uita+e in t&e )"e(ises.
FOR ALL THE FORE4OIN4$ t&e o"#e" of t&e "es)on#ent %ou"t$ #ate# /une --$ 1;82$ #is(issin* t&e
%o()aint$ an# t&at of Se)te(+e" -;$ 1;82$ #en'in* t&e (otion fo" its "e%onsi#e"ation$ +ot& issue# in Civi
Case No. 1-62 of t&e "es)on#ent %ou"t$ a"e &e"e+' annue# an# set asi#e. T&e "es)on#ent %ou"t s&a
)"o%ee# to &ea" sai# Civi Case an# "en#e" ,u#*(ent t&e"eon a%%o"#in*'.
Costs a*ainst "es)on#ent Isa*ani Du Ti(+o.
Ea=ainta$ C./.$ Cast"o$ Ea=asia"$ EuLo5 !a(a$ //.$ %on%u".
68
Se)a"ate O)inions
TEEHANMEE$ /.$ %on%u""in*C
I %on%u" in t&e ,u#*(ent settin* asi#e "es)on#ent %ou"tHs o"#e"s w&i%& e""oneous' #is(isse# )etitione"Hs
%o()aint on t&e *"oun# of )u")o"te# in#efeasi+iit' of )"ivate "es)on#entHs to""ens %e"tifi%ate of tite un#e"
se%tion 2: of A%t 3;7 an# o"#e"in* t&e "e(an# of t&e %ase fo" t"ia an# #is)osition on t&e (e"its. !etitione"Hs
%o()aint is not +a""e# +' t&e %ite# A%t sin%e it #u' ae*es t&at "es)on#entHs to""ens tite was issue#
)u"suant to a f"ee )atent %ove"in* fo"est o" ti(+e" an# w&i%& is not #is)osa+e un#e" t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t
an# if t&ese fa%tua ae*ations a"e #u' esta+is&e# at t&e t"ia$ )etitione" wou# +e entite# to a ,u#*(ent
t&at t&e )atent an# tite of "es)on#ent$ +ein* )a"t of t&e fo"est 5one$ a"e nu an# voi#.
Se)a"ate O)inions
TEEHANMEE$ /.$ %on%u""in*C
I %on%u" in t&e ,u#*(ent settin* asi#e "es)on#ent %ou"tHs o"#e"s w&i%& e""oneous' #is(isse# )etitione"Hs
%o()aint on t&e *"oun# of )u")o"te# in#efeasi+iit' of )"ivate "es)on#entHs to""ens %e"tifi%ate of tite un#e"
se%tion 2: of A%t 3;7 an# o"#e"in* t&e "e(an# of t&e %ase fo" t"ia an# #is)osition on t&e (e"its. !etitione"Hs
%o()aint is not +a""e# +' t&e %ite# A%t sin%e it #u' ae*es t&at "es)on#entHs to""ens tite was issue#
)u"suant to a f"ee )atent %ove"in* fo"est o" ti(+e" an# w&i%& is not #is)osa+e un#e" t&e !u+i% Lan# A%t
an# if t&ese fa%tua ae*ations a"e #u' esta+is&e# at t&e t"ia$ )etitione" wou# +e entite# to a ,u#*(ent
t&at t&e )atent an# tite of "es)on#ent$ +ein* )a"t of t&e fo"est 5one$ a"e nu an# voi#.
4.R. No. L91-;6: Ea' 2<$ 1;7<
FAUSTINO I4NACIO$ a))i%ant9a))eant$
vs.
THE DIRECTOR OF LANDS an# LAUREANO VALERIANO$ o))osito"s9a))eees.
A%tin* Assistant Soi%ito" 4ene"a !a%ifi%o !. #e Cast"o an# Soi%ito" C"is)in V. >autista fo" a))eee Di"e%to"
of Lan#s.
>en,a(in H. A1uino fo" a))eee Lau"eano Vee"iano.
EONTEEAYOR$ /.C
Faustino I*na%io is a))eain* t&e #e%ision of t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Ri5a$ #is(issin* &is a))i%ation
fo" t&e "e*ist"ation of a )a"%e of an#.
On /anua"' -6$ 1;6<$ I*na%io fie# an a))i%ation fo" t&e "e*ist"ation of a )a"%e of an# .(an*"ove0$ situate#
in +a""io 4asa%$ Navotas$ Ri5a$ wit& an a"ea of 28$:88 s1ua"e (ete"s. Late"$ &e a(en#e# &is a))i%ation +'
ae*in* a(on* ot&e"s t&at &e owne# t&e )a"%e a))ie# fo" +' "i*&t of a%%"etion. To t&e a))i%ation$ t&e
Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ Lau"eano Vae"iano an# Do(in*o 4utie""e5 fie# o))ositions. 4utie""e5 ate" wit&#"ew &is
o))osition. T&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s %ai(e# t&e )a"%e a))ie# fo" as a )o"tion of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ fo" t&e
"eason t&at neit&e" t&e a))i%ant no" &is )"e#e%esso"9in9inte"est )ossesse# suffi%ient tite t&e"eto$ not &avin*
a%1ui"e# it eit&e" +' %o()osition tite f"o( t&e S)anis& *ove"n(ent o" +' )ossesso"' info"(ation tite un#e"
t&e Ro'a De%"ee of Fe+"ua"' 12$ 1:;3$ an# t&at &e &a# not )ossesse# t&e sa(e o)en'$ %ontinuous' an#
a#ve"se' un#e" a +ona fi#e %ai( of owne"s&i) sin%e /u' -7$ 1:;3. In &is tu"n$ Vae"iano ae*e# &e was
&o#in* t&e an# +' vi"tue of a )e"(it *"ante# &i( +' t&e >u"eau of Fis&e"ies$ issue# on /anua"' 12$ 1;38$
an# a))"ove# +' t&e !"esi#ent.
It is not #is)ute# t&at t&e an# a))ie# fo" a#,oins a )a"%e owne# +' t&e a))i%ant w&i%& &e &a# a%1ui"e#
f"o( t&e 4ove"n(ent +' vi"tue of a f"ee )atent tite in 1;27. It &as aso +een esta+is&e# t&at t&e )a"%e in
1uestion was fo"(e# +' a%%"etion an# auvia #e)osits %ause# +' t&e a%tion of t&e Eania >a' w&i%&
+oa"#e"s it on t&e sout&west. A))i%ant I*na%io %ai(s t&at &e &a# o%%u)ie# t&e an# sin%e 1;26$ )antin* it
wit& a)i9a)i t"ees$ an# t&at &is )ossession t&e"eof &a# +een %ontinuous$ a#ve"se an# )u+i% fo" a )e"io# of
twent' 'ea"s unti sai# )ossession was #ist"i+ute# +' o))osito" Vae"iano.
69
On t&e ot&e" &an#$ t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s sou*&t to )"ove t&at t&e )a"%e is fo"es&o"e an#$ %ove"e# +' t&e
e++ an# fow of t&e ti#e an#$ t&e"efo"e$ fo"(e# )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
Afte" &ea"in*$ t&e t"ia %ou"t #is(isse# t&e a))i%ation$ &o#in* t&at t&e )a"%e fo"(e# )a"t of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain. In &is a))ea$ I*na%io assi*ns t&e foowin* e""o"sC
I. T&e owe" %ou"t e""e# in &o#in* t&at t&e an# in 1uestion$ at&o an a%%"etion to t&e an# of t&e
a))i%ant9a))eant$ #oes not +eon* to &i( +ut fo"(s )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
II. 4"antin* t&at t&e an# in 1uestion fo"(s )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ t&e owe" %ou"t neve"t&eess
e""e# in not #e%a"in* t&e sa(e to +e t&e ne%essa"' fo" an' )u+i% use o" )u")ose an# in not
o"#e"in* in t&e )"esent "e*ist"ation )"o%ee#in*s.
III. T&e owe" %ou"t e""e# in not &o#in* t&at t&e an# in 1uestion now +eon*s to t&e a))i%ant9
a))eant +' vi"tue of a%1uisitive )"es%"i)tion$ t&e sai# an# &avin* %ease# to +e of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain an# +e%a(e t&e )"ivate o" )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e State.
IV. T&e owe" %ou"t e""e# in not &o#in* t&at t&e o))osito" Di"e%to" of Lan#s is now in esto))e f"o(
%ai(in* t&e an# in 1uestion as a an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain.
A))eant %onten#s t&at t&e )a"%e +eon*s to &i( +' t&e aw of a%%"etion$ &avin* +een fo"(e# +' *"a#ua
#e)osit +' a%tion of t&e Eania >a'$ an# &e %ites A"ti%e 368 of t&e New Civi Co#e .A"ti%e 277$ O# Civi
Co#e0$ w&i%& )"ovi#es t&atC
To t&e owne"s of an#s a#,oinin* t&e +an=s of "ive"s +eon* t&e a%%"etion w&i%& t&e' *"a#ua'
"e%eive f"o( t&e effe%ts of t&e %u""ent of t&e wate"s.
T&e a"ti%e %ite# is %ea"' ina))i%a+e +e%ause it "efe"s to a%%"etion o" #e)osits on t&e +an=s of "ive"s$ w&ie
t&e a%%"etion in t&e )"esent %ase was %ause# +' a%tion of t&e Eania >a'.
A))eant ne?t %onten#s t&at A"ti%es 1$ 3 an# 6 of t&e Law of Wate"s a"e not a))i%a+e +e%ause t&e' "efe"
to a%%"etions fo"(e# +' t&e sea$ an# t&at Eania >a' %annot +e %onsi#e"e# as a sea. We fin# sai#
%ontention untena+e. A +a' is a )a"t of t&e sea$ +ein* a (e"e in#entation of t&e sa(eC
>a'. An o)enin* into t&e an# w&e"e t&e wate" is s&ut in on a si#es e?%e)t at t&e ent"an%eD an
inet of t&e seaD an a"( of t&e sea$ #istin%t f"o( a "ive"$ a +en#in* o" %u"+in* of t&e s&o"e of t&e sea
o" of a a=e. 8 C./. 1<1291<13 .Cite# in F"an%is%o$ !&ii))ine Law of Wate"s an# Wate" Ri*&ts ). 70
Eo"eove"$ t&is T"i+una &as so(e %ases a))ie# t&e Law of Wate"s on Lan#s +o"#e"in* Eania >a'. .See t&e
%ases of Me" R Co. vs. Cau#en$ 7 !&i.$ 82-$ invovin* a )a"%e of an# +oun#e# on t&e si#es +' Eania >a'$
w&e"e it was &e# t&at su%& an# fo"(e# +' t&e a%tion of t&e sea is )"o)e"t' of t&e StateD F"an%is%o vs.
4ove"n(ent of t&e !.I.$ -: !&i.$ 6<6$ invovin* a an# %ai(e# +' a )"ivate )e"son an# su+,e%t to t&e e++
an# fow of t&e ti#es of t&e Eania >a'0.
T&en t&e a))i%ant a"*ues t&at *"antin* t&at t&e an# in 1uestion fo"(e# )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ &avin*
+een *aine# f"o( t&e sea$ t&e t"ia %ou"t s&ou# &ave #e%a"e# t&e sa(e no on*e" ne%essa"' fo" an' )u+i%
use o" )u")ose$ an# t&e"efo"e$ +e%a(e #is)osa+e an# avaia+e fo" )"ivate owne"s&i). A"ti%e 3 of t&e Law
of Wate"s of 1:77 "ea#s t&usC
ART. 3. Lan#s a##e# to t&e s&o"es +' a%%"etions an# auvia #e)osits %ause# +' t&e a%tion of t&e
sea$ fo"( )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain. W&en t&e' a"e no on*e" was&e# +' t&e wate"s of t&e sea an#
a"e not ne%essa"' fo" )u")oses of )u+i% utiit'$ o" fo" t&e esta+is&(ent of s)e%ia in#ust"ies$ o" fo"
t&e %oast*ua"# se"vi%e$ t&e 4ove"n(ent s&a #e%a"e t&e( to +e t&e )"o)e"t' of t&e owne"s of t&e
estates a#,a%ent t&e"eto an# as in%"e(ent t&e"eof.
Inte")"etin* A"ti%e 3 of t&e Law of Wate"s of 1:77$ in t&e %ase of Nativi#a# vs. Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ .CA0 28
Off. 4a5.$ -;<6$ it was t&e"e &e# t&atC
70
A"ti%e 3 of t&e Law of Wate"s of 1:77 )"ovi#es t&at w&en a )o"tion of t&e s&o"e is no on*e"
was&e# +' t&e wate"s of t&e sea an# is not ne%essa"' fo" )u")oses of )u+i% utiit'$ o" fo" t&e
esta+is&(ent of s)e%ia in#ust"ies$ o" fo" %oast*ua"# se"vi%e$ t&e *ove"n(ent s&a #e%a"e it to +e
t&e )"o)e"t' of t&e owne"s of t&e estates a#,a%ent t&e"eto an# as an in%"e(ent t&e"eof. We +eieve
t&at on' t&e e?e%utive an# )ossi+' t&e e*isative #e)a"t(ents &ave t&e aut&o"it' an# t&e )owe" to
(a=e t&e #e%a"ation t&at an' an# so *aine# +' t&e sea$ is not ne%essa"' fo" )u")oses of )u+i%
utiit'$ o" fo" t&e esta+is&(ent of s)e%ia in#ust"ies$ on fo" %oast9*ua"# se"vi%e. If no su%&
#e%a"ation &as +een (a#e +' sai# #e)a"t(ents$ t&e ot in 1uestion fo"(s )a"t of t&e )u+i%
#o(ain. .Nativi#a# vs. Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ su)"a.0
T&e "eason fo" t&is )"onoun%e(ent$ a%%o"#in* to t&is T"i+una in t&e %ase of Vi%ente /oven ' Eonteve"#e vs.
Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ ;2 !&i.$ 123$ .%ite# in Vea'oHs Di*est$ VI. I$ ). 6-0.
. . . is un#ou+te#' t&at t&e %ou"ts a"e neit&e" )"i(a"i' %ae# u)on$ no" in#ee# in a )osition to
#ete"(ine w&et&e" an' )u+i% an# a"e to +e use# fo" t&e )u")oses s)e%ifie# in A"ti%e 3 of t&e Law
of Wate"s.
Conse1uent'$ unti a fo"(a #e%a"ation on t&e )a"t of t&e 4ove"n(ent$ t&"ou*& t&e e?e%utive #e)a"t(ent o"
t&e Le*isatu"e$ to t&e effe%t t&at t&e an# in 1uestion is no on*e" nee#e# fo" %oast *ua"# se"vi%e$ fo" )u+i%
use o" fo" s)e%ia in#ust"ies$ t&e' %ontinue to +e )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain$ not avaia+e fo" )"ivate
a))"o)"iation o" owne"s&i).
A))eant ne?t %onten#s t&at &e &a# a%1ui"e# t&e )a"%e in 1uestion t&"ou*& a%1uisitive )"es%"i)tion$ &avin*
)ossesse# t&e sa(e fo" ove" ten 'ea"s. In answe"$ suffi%e it to sa' t&at an# of t&e )u+i% #o(ain is not
su+,e%t to o"#ina"' )"es%"i)tion. In t&e %ase of Insua" 4ove"n(ent vs. A#e%oa R Co.$ 1; !&i.$ 6<6 t&is
Cou"t sai#C
T&e o%%u)ation o" (ate"ia )ossession of an' an# fo"(e# u)on t&e s&o"e +' a%%"etion$ wit&out
)"evious )e"(ission f"o( t&e )"o)e" aut&o"ities$ at&ou*& t&e o%%u)ant (a' &ave &e# t&e sa(e as
owne" fo" seventeen 'ea"s an# %onst"u%te# a w&a"f on t&e an#$ is ie*a an# is a (e"e #etaine"$
inas(u%& as su%& an# is outsi#e of t&e s)&e"e of %o((e"%eD it )e"tains to t&e nationa #o(ainD it is
inten#e# fo" )u+i% uses an# fo" t&e +enefit of t&ose w&o ive nea"+'.
We #ee( it unne%essa"' to #is%uss t&e ot&e" )oints "aise# in t&e a))ea.
In view of t&e fo"e*oin*$ t&e a))eae# #e%ision is &e"e+' affi"(e#$ wit& %osts.
!a"as$ C./.$ >en*5on$ !a#ia$ >autista An*eo$ La+"a#o"$ Con%e)%ion$ >a""e"a$ an# 4utie""e5 Davi#$ //.$
%on%u".
A"ti%e 3-1. A ot&e" )"o)e"t' of t&e State$ w&i%& is not of t&e %&a"a%te" state# in t&e )"e%e#in* a"ti%e$ is
)at"i(onia )"o)e"t'. .23<a0
A"ti%e 3--. !"o)e"t' of )u+i% #o(inion$ w&en no on*e" inten#e# fo" )u+i% use o" fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$ s&a
fo"( )a"t of t&e )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e State. .231a0
CasesC
4.R. No. 11<;6 De%e(+e" 17$ 1;17
THE EUNICI!ALITY OF TI4>AUAN$ )etitione"9a))eee$
vs.
THE DIRECTOR OF LANDS$ o+,e%to"9a))eant.
Atto"ne'94ene"a Avan%eLa fo" a))eant.
!"ovin%ia Fis%a Ena,e fo" a))eee.
71
ARAULLO$ /.C
In "e)"esentation of t&e (uni%i)a %o")o"ation of Ti*+auan$ !"ovin%e of Ioio$ t&e )"esi#ent of sai#
(uni%i)ait' a))ie# fo" t&e "e*ist"ation in t&e )"o)e"t' "e*ist"' of a t"a%t of an# situate wit&in sai# town$
+a""io of Su)a$ an# %o()ose# of seven )a"%es #es%"i+e# in t&e a))i%ation an# t&e )ans )"esente#
t&e"ewit&. T&e a))i%ation was +ase# on t&e %ai( t&at t&e (uni%i)ait' &a# a%1ui"e# t&e an# +' %ontinuous
)ossession sin%e ti(e i((e(o"ia$ an# was o))ose# +' t&e Di"e%to" of t&e >u"eau of Lan#s$ t&"ou*& t&e
Atto"ne'94ene"a in "e)"esentation of t&e 4ove"n(ent of t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s$ in so fa" as %on%e"ne# t&e
"e*ist"ation of t&e )a"%es Nos. 1$ 7$ an# 8$ on t&e *"oun# t&at t&e fi"st of t&ese was a )u+i% s1ua"e in t&e
)u+i% use of sai# (uni%i)ait'$ an# t&at t&e ot&e" two we"e )"o)e"t' of t&e 4ove"n(ent of t&e Unite# States
un#e" t&e %ont"o an# a#(inist"ation of t&e 4ove"n(ent of t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s.
T&e a))i%ant wit&#"ew in favo" of t&e Insua" 4ove"n(ent its a))i%ation fo" t&e "e*ist"ation of t&e )a"%e No.
1$ as +ein* a )u+i% s1ua"e of t&e (uni%i)ait' of Ti*+auan$ +ut (aintaine# its %ai( wit& "es)e%t to t&e ot&e"
two )a"%es$ Nos. 7 an# 8. T&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ in "e)"esentation of t&e 4ove"n(ent$ (aintaine# &is aso.
Afte" t"ia an# t&e int"o#u%tion of evi#en%e +' +ot& )a"ties$ t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Ioio on A)"i 13$
1;16$ "en#e"e# ,u#*(ent .su+se1uent' su))e(ente# +' an o"#e" of t&e 17t& of t&e sa(e (ont&0 in w&i%&
&e &e# t&at t&e a))i%ation was entite# to t&e a#,u#i%ation an# "e*ist"ation of t&e )a"%es Nos. 7 an# 8$
to*et&e" wit& t&ei" "es)e%tive i()"ove(ents$ an# #isaowe# t&e a#ve"se %ai( of t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s$
"e)"esente# +' t&e Atto"ne'94ene"a$ in "es)e%t to t&ese sa(e )a"%es. T&e o+,e%to" e?%e)te# to t&is
,u#*(ent an# as=e# fo" its annu(ent an# a new t"ia on t&e *"oun#s t&at t&e ,u#*(ent an# o"#e" we"e
%ont"a"' to aw an# to t&e "ue ai# #own +' t&is Su)"e(e Cou"t in t&e %ase of Euni%i)ait' of Ta%o+an vs.
Di"e%to" of Lan#s .1: !&i. Re).$ -<10$ an# we"e unsu))o"te# +' t&e evi#en%e.
T&is (otion fo" a new t"ia was ove""ue#$ t&e %ou"t &o#in* t&at$ in a#,u#i%atin* t&e )a"%es Nos. 7 an# 8 to
t&e a))i%ant (uni%i)ait'$ &e &a# ta=en into a%%ount se%tions 2: an# 31 of t&e Co#e of Civi !"o%e#u"e$
"eative to )"es%"i)tion. T&e o+,e%to" e?%e)te# to t&is "uin* an# a))eae# t&e %ase to us$ t&"ou*& t&e )"o)e"
+i of e?%e)tions. He ae*es t&at t&e t"ia %ou"t e""e# in a))'in* to sai# ots o" )a"%es Nos. 7 an# 8 t&e
)"ovisions of se%tions 2: an# 31 of t&e Co#e of Civi !"o%e#u"e$ w&i%& "e*uate )"es%"i)tion$ an# in #en'in*
on t&is a%%ount a new t"iaD an# t&at it i=ewise e""e# in #e%"eein* t&e a#,u#i%ation an# "e*ist"ation of sai#
)a"%es in favo" of t&e a))i%ant #isaowin* t&e a#ve"se %ai( fie# in "es)e%t t&e"eto.
In t&e a))i%antHs )an$ E?&i+it A ."e%o"#$ ). 270$ an# in t&e one %ontainin* a #"awin* of sai# two )a"%es$
Nos. 7 an# 8$ t&e"e is a note w&i%& "ea#s t&usC
T&e an#s a"oun# t&ese )a"%es a"e )u+i% an#s. T&e na(es of t&e )e"sons a))ea"in* on .t&e )an
of0 t&ese )a"%es a"e t&ose of t&e )"esent o%%u)ants of t&e sa(e.
F"o( t&e testi(on' of t&e (uni%i)a )"esi#ent of Ti*+auan$ Constantino >. >ene#i%to$ an# f"o( t&at of a
"esi#ent of t&is sa(e (uni%i)ait'$ F"an%is%o #e !aua Tina$ t&e fo"(e" 3- an# t&e atte" 67 'ea"s of a*e$ it
a))ea"s t&at$ sin%e t&e ti(e of t&e S)anis& 4ove"n(ent$ t&e (uni%i)ait' was wont to *at&e" %ane fo" its
own use f"o( t&e %ane+"ea=s *"owin* on sai# two )a"%es of an#D t&at it &a# su+se1uent' )ante# t&e"eon
%aLas es)inas$ w&i%& we"e a"ea#' 'ie#in* )"o#u%t at t&e ti(e t&is testi(on' was *iven .Ea"%&$ 1;160D an#
t&at t&ese witnesses &a# =nown of t&ese fa%ts eve" sin%e t&ei" ea"' %&i#&oo#. T&e' fu"t&e" testifie# t&at t&e
(uni%i)ait'Hs )ossession of t&e )a"%es of an# in 1uestion &a# +een %ontinuous$ an# t&at no one &a#
o))ose# t&e sa(e o" %ai(e# an' "i*&t$ tite o" inte"est in sai# an#. T&e fi"st of t&ese witnesses$ >ene#i%to$
#esi*nate# t&e +oun#a"ies of t&e )a"%e No. 7 as foowsC On t&e no"t&$ F"an%is%o 4ote"aD on t&e east$ !auo
Tota'D on t&e sout&$ I*na%io Tota'D an# on t&e west >enito Tota'. T&e +oun#a"ies of t&e )a"%e No. 8 as
+ein*C on t&e no"t&$ )u+i% an#sD on t&e sout&east$ I*na%io Tota'D on t&e sout&west$ Ni%oas 4ui(+a an#
)u+i% an#sD an# on t&e no"t&east$ F"an%is%o 4a"#a.
T&e"e is no )"oof t&at sai# )a"%es we"e )"ivate )"o)e"t' at an' ti(e )"io" to t&e )ossession (entione# +'
t&e two a+ove9na(e# witnesses. T&e' a"e su""oun#e# +' t&e )u+i% an#s$ as s&own +' t&e )an )"esente#
+' t&e a))i%ant$ an# t&e )e"sons w&o( one of t&ese witnesses #esi*nate# as a#,a%ent )"o)e"t' owne"s a"e
(e"e o%%u)ants of t&e an#s situate# a"oun# t&e )a"%es$ as aso so state# in t&e )an itsef.
Sai# )a"%es a"e )u+i% o" *ove"n(ent an#s$ as s&own +' t&e evi#en%e. It was neit&e" esta+is&e# in t&e
"e%o"# t&at t&is an# &a# +een *"ante# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent to t&e (uni%i)ait' of Ti*+auan to fo"( a )a"t of
its (uni%i)a assets o" estateD no" t&at t&e"e was e"e%te# t&e"eon an' +ui#in* +eon*in* to t&e (uni%i)ait'
72
an# inten#e# fo" )u+i% se"vi%e$ su%& as (i*&t in#u%e t&e )"esu()tion t&at t&e an# &a# +een *"ante# to t&e
(uni%i)ait'D no" t&at t&e atte" &a# use# t&ese )a"%es fo" "e%o*ni5e# )u+i% )u")oses. T&e"efo"e$ un#e" t&e
"ue ai# #own +' t&is Su)"e(e Cou"t in seve"a #e%isions$ a(on* ot&e"s t&e %ase of Euni%i)ait' of
Ta%o+an vs. Di"e%to" of Lan#s .1: !&i. Re).$ -<10$ it is evi#ent t&at t&e a))i%ant (uni%i)ait' %annot +e
&e# to +e t&e owne" of sai# two )a"%es of an# o" to +e entite# to ente" t&e( in its na(e in t&e )"o)e"t'
"e*ist"'.
In t&e #e%ision a+ove %ite# t&e foowin* %onsi#e"ations a))ea"sCit%Ta1f
T&e (e"e fa%t t&at a (uni%i)ait' %ontinue# to %oe%t "evenues o" "entas f"o( t&e "esi#ents w&o
o%%u)' an' )a"%e of an# %o()"ise# wit&in its #ist"i%t is not )"oof t&at t&e sai# (uni%i)ait' is t&e
)"o)"ieto" of su%& "eat'D at t&e (ost$ it (i*&t +e %onsi#e"e# to +e a usuf"u%tua"' of t&e an# in
1uestion$ +ut wit&out t&e "i*&t to ente" it in t&e )"o)e"t' "e*ist"'.
T&e +enefit *"ante# +' se%tion 63 of A%t No. ;-7$ fo" t&e )u")ose of foste"in* a*"i%utu"e an#
in%"easin* t&e weat& of t&e %ount"'$ %an not +e #ee(e# to +e *"ante#$ a%%o"#in* to e%ono(i%
)"in%i)es$ to (uni%i)a %o")o"ations w&i%&$ on a%%ount of t&ei" s)e%ia %on#itions$ t&e i#ios'n%"as'
an# %&a"a%te" of t&e fun%tions w&i%& t&e' e?e"%ise$ an#$ +e%ause of t&e a#(inist"ative (ission
w&i%& t&e' &ave to fufi in t&e na(e of t&e 4ove"n(ent an# in "e)"esentation of t&e )eo)e w&o
ee%te# t&e($ %an not en*a*e in a*"i%utu"e an# ot&e" in#ust"ies no" %an t&e' atten# to t&e
a#(inist"ation of a*"i%utu"a an# an# *ive )a"ti%ua" attention to st"i%t' )"ivate +usiness$ wit&out
se"ious #et"i(ent to t&e inte"ests of t&e %o((unit'.
In anot&e" #e%ision of t&is Su)"e(e Cou"t$ in t&e %ase of Euni%i)ait' of Lu5u"ia*a vs. Di"e%to" of Lan#s an#
Ro(an Cat&oi% >is&o) of /a"o .-3 !&i. Re).$ 1;20$ %ite# in t&e afo"e(entione# #e%ision$ an# aso in t&e
%ase of Euni%i)ait' of Cat+ao*an vs. Di"e%to" of Lan#s .18 !&i. Re).$ -170$ we sai#C
It is a))a"ent f"o( t&ese 1uotations t&at$ as we &ave sai# +efo"e$ in o"#e" t&at t&e (uni%i)ait' (a'
"e' u)on a )"esu(e *"ant f"o( t&e State in its favo"$ t&e an# %on%e"nin* w&i%& t&e *"ant is to +e
)"esu(e# (ust &ave +een use# +' t&e (uni%i)ait' fo" t&e )u")oses s)e%ifie# in sai# 1uotations$
na(e'$ to (eet a )u+i% ne%essit'$ an# t&e"efo"e (ust +e an# w&i%& wou# &ave +een o"i*ina'
*"ante# +' t&e State fo" su%& )u")oses. In ot&e" wo"#s$ t&e an#s sus%e)ti+e of t&is )"esu()tion
%annot +e a*"i%utu"a o" %o((una an#sD t&e' (ust +e an#s w&i%& t&e (uni%i)ait' itsef %an
e?%usive' own$ i. e.$ t&e' (ust +e an#s use# to (eet a )u+i% ne%essit'.
T&e (e"e fa%ts t&at #u"in* (an' 'ea"s t&e (uni%i)ait' of Ti*+auan &as +een %uttin* %an f"o( t&e %ane
+"a=es w&i%& &ave +een *"owin* on sai# two )a"%es an# f"o( t&e ti(e of t&e S)anis& 4ove"n(ent$ an#
t&e fu"t&e" fa%t t&at it is su+se1uent' )ante# t&e"eon %aLa es)ina t"ees now 'ie#in* )"o#u%t$ #o not )"ove
t&at t&e (uni%i)ait' is t&e owne" of t&ese )a"%es$ +ut on' t&at it &as +een en,o'in* t&ei" usuf"u%t$ w&i%&
#oes$ not *ive it t&e "i*&t to &ave t&e( ente"e# as its own in t&e )"o)e"t' "e*ist"'.
As t&e )"o)e"t' in 1uestion is a*"i%utu"a an#$ asi#e f"o( t&e )ossi+e )"esu()tion t&at t&e *ove"n(ent
(i*&t &ave *"ante# it to t&e a))i%ant (uni%i)ait' to ena+e t&is atte" to (eet )u+i% nee#s$ it %annot +e
un#e"stoo#$ in a%%o"#an%e wit& t&e &o#in* (a#e +' t&is %ou"t in t&e fi"st of t&e #e%isions afo"e%ite#$ t&at
t&is %o")o"ation was a%%o"#e# t&e +enefits aowe# +' A%t No. ;-7$ se%tion 63$ to wit$ t&ose of a))'in* to
t&e Cou"t of Lan# Re*ist"ation fo" t&e %onfi"(ation of its %ai( of ae*e# "i*&t is sai# )a"%es an# fo" t&e
issuan%e of a %e"tifi%ate of tite t&e"efo"eD an# %onse1uent' neit&e" (a' sai# (uni%i)ait'$ in o"#e" to o+tain
sai# tite$ ae*e t&e "i*&t of )"es%"i)tion )"ovi#e# fo" in se%tions 2: an# 31 of t&e Co#e of Civi !"o%e#u"e$ fo"
se%tion 66 of A%t No. ;-7 %ea"' )"es%"i+es t&at a )e"sons %ai(in* tite to *ove"n(ent an#s w&o #o %o(e
not wit&in t&e %asses s)e%ifie# in t&e se%tion 66 a"e e?%u#e# f"o( t&e +enefits of C&a)te" VI of sai# A%t
w&i%& %o()"ises t&ese two se%tions. On t&e ot&e" &an#$ )u"suant to A%t No. 73: of t&e !&ii))ine
Co((ission$ t&e 4ove"no"94ene"a is aut&o"i5e# to "ese"ve fo" )u+i% uses t&e )u+i% an#s %o()"ise#
wit&in %e"tain +oun#a"ies$ w&et&e" t&e' +eon* to t&e Insua" 4ove"n(ent o" to )"ovin%ia o" (uni%i)a
*ove"n(ents. T&is )"ovision un1uestiona+' s&ows t&at t&e (uni%i)aities o" (uni%i)a %o")o"ations of t&ese
Isan#s %annot a))"o)"iate to t&e(seves )u+i% o" 4ove"n(ent an#s wit&out a )"io" *"ant f"o( t&e
4ove"n(ent an# wit&out "ese"vation in t&e (anne" an# +' t&e )"o%e#u"e s)e%ifie# in sai# A%t No. 73: an#
in t&e A%t %ite#$ No. 7-8. It is aso evi#ent t&at (uni%i)aities %annot a%1ui"e t&e owne"s&i) of )u+i% an#s
t&"ou*& )"es%"i)tion$ as )"ovi#e# in t&e afo"e(entione# se%tions 2: an# 31 of t&e Co#e of Civi !"o%e#u"e$
no" #o t&e' nee# to avai t&e(seves of t&is (eans fo" a%1ui"in* t&e sa(e. T&e"efo"e$ t&e t"ia %ou"t e""e# in
73
ta=in* a%%ount of t&e )"ovisions of t&e two se%tions a+ove %ite# fo" t&e )u")ose of #e%"eein* t&e
a#,u#i%ation an# "e*ist"ation of sai# )a"%es of an# in t&e a))i%antHs +e&af.
Fo" t&e fo"e*oin* "easons we "eve"se t&e ,u#*(ent an# o"#e" a))eae# f"o( t&e atte" in t&e )a"t t&e"eof
t&at is %o()e(enta"' of t&e fo"(e" an# "eative to t&e two )a"%es of an# Nos. 7 an# 8 #es%"i+e# in t&e
a))i%ation an# &o# t&at t&e a#,u#i%ation an# "e*ist"ation of t&ese )a"%es in +e&af of t&e a))i%ant
(uni%i)ait' (ust +e #enie#$ w&e"e+' we sustain t&e a#ve"se %ai( fie# in %onne%tion t&e"ewit& +' t&e
Di"e%to" of Lan#s in "e)"esentation of t&e 4ove"n(ent of t&e !&ii))ine Isan#s. No s)e%ia fin#in* is (a#e
in "e*a"# to %osts. So o"#e"e#.
To""es$ /o&nson$ Ca"son an# T"ent$ //.$ %on%u".
Eo"ean# /.$ %on%u"s in t&e "esut.

4.R. No. L9-;8:: Au*ust 2<$ 1;8-
RAFAEL S. SALAS$ in &is %a)a%it' as E?e%utive Se%"eta"'D CONRADO F. ESTRELLA$ in &is %a)a%it' as
4ove"no" of t&e Lan# Aut&o"it'D an# LORENBO 4ELLA$ in &is %a)a%it' as Re*iste" of Dee#s of Eania$
)etitione"s9a))eants$
vs.
HON. HILARION U. /ARENCIO$ as !"esi#in* /u#*e of >"an%& FFIII$ Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of EaniaD
ANTONIO /. VILLE4AS$ in &is %a)a%it' as Ea'o" of t&e Cit' of EaniaD an# t&e CITY OF EANILA$
"es)on#ents9a))eees.
Offi%e of t&e Soi%ito" 4ene"a Fei? V. Ea=asia"$ Assistant Soi%ito"94ene"a Antonio A. To""es$ Soi%ito" Rau
I. 4o%o an# Ea*no >. !a+o R Ci)"iano A. Tan$ Le*a Staff$ Lan# Aut&o"it' fo" )etitione"s9a))eants.
4"e*o"io A. E,e"%ito an# Fei? C. C&ave5 fo" "es)on#ents9a))eees.
ES4UERRA$ /.C)
T&is is a )etition fo" "eview of t&e #e%ision of t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Eania$ >"an%& FFIII$ in Civi
Case No. 78;37$ #ate# Se)te(+e" -2$ 1;7:$ t&e #is)ositive )o"tion of w&i%& is as foowsC
WHEREFORE$ t&e Cou"t "en#e"s ,u#*(ent #e%a"in* Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:
un%onstitutiona an# invai# in t&at it #e)"ive# t&e Cit' of Eania of its )"o)e"t' wit&out #ue
)"o%ess an# )a'(ent of ,ust %o()ensation. Res)on#ent E?e%utive Se%"eta"' an#
4ove"no" of t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' a"e &e"e+' "est"aine# an# en,oine# f"o( i()e(entin* t&e
)"ovisions of sai# aw. Res)on#ent Re*iste" of Dee#s of t&e Cit' of Eania is o"#e"e# to
%an%e T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. :<:87 w&i%& &e &a# issue# in t&e na(e of t&e Lan#
Tenu"e A#(inist"ation an# "einstate T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. --638 in t&e na(e of
t&e Cit' of Eania w&i%& &e %an%ee#$ if t&at is feasi+e$ o" issue a new %e"tifi%ate of tite
fo" t&e sa(e )a"%e of an# in t&e na(e of t&e Cit' of Eania.
1

T&e fa%ts ne%essa"' fo" a %ea" un#e"stan#in* of t&is %ase a"e as foowsC
On Fe+"ua"' -3$ 1;1;$ t&e 3t& >"an%& of t&e Cou"t of Fi"st Instan%e of Eania$ a%tin* as a an# "e*ist"ation
%ou"t$ "en#e"e# ,u#*(ent in Case No. 1:$ 4.L.R.O. Re%o"# No. 111$ #e%a"in* t&e Cit' of Eania t&e owne"
in fee si()e of a )a"%e of an# =nown as Lot No. 1$ >o%= 668 of t&e Ca#ast"a Su"ve' of t&e Cit' of
Eani1a$ %ontainin* an a"ea of ;$7:;.: s1ua"e (ete"s$ (o"e o" ess. !u"suant to sai# ,u#*(ent t&e Re*iste"
of Dee#s of Eania on Au*ust -1$ 1;-<$ issue# in favo" of t&e Cit' of Eania$ O"i*ina Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No.
32-; %ove"in* t&e afo"e(entione# )a"%e of an#. On va"ious #ates in 1;-3$ t&e Cit' of Eania so# )o"tions
of t&e afo"e(entione# )a"%e of an# in favo" of !u"a Vianueva. As a %onse1uen%e of t&e t"ansa%tions
O"i*ina Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. 32-; was %an%ee# an# t"ansfe" %e"tifi%ates of tite we"e issue# in favo" of
!u"a Vianueva fo" t&e )o"tions )u"%&ase# +' &e". W&en t&e ast sae to !u"a Vianueva was effe%te# on
Au*ust --$ 1;-3$ T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. -1;83 in t&e na(e of t&e Cit' of Eania was %an%ee# an#
74
in ieu t&e"eof T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite .TCT0 No. --638 %ove"in* t&e "esi#ue t&e"eof =nown as Lot 19>9-9
> of >o%= 668$ wit& an a"ea of 8$3;<.1< s1ua"e (ete"s$ was issue# in t&e na(e of t&e Cit' of Eania.
On Se)te(+e" -1$ 1;7<$ t&e Euni%i)a >oa"# of Eania$ )"esi#e# +' t&en Vi%e9Ea'o" Antono /. Vie*as$
a#o)te# a "esoution "e1uestin* His E?%een%'$ t&e !"esi#ent of t&e !&ii))ines to %onsi#e" t&e feasi+iit' of
#e%a"in* t&e Cit' )"o)e"t' +oun#e# +' Fo"i#a$ San An#"es$ an# Ne+"as=a St"eets$ un#e" T"ansfe"
Ce"tifi%ate of Tite Nos. -6636 an# --638$ %ontainin* a tota a"ea of 8$36< s1ua"e (ete"s as a )at"i(onia
)"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania fo" t&e )u")ose of "esein* t&ese ots to t&e a%tua o%%u)ants t&e"eof.
-

T&e sai# "esoution of t&e Euni%i)i >oa"# of t&e Cit' of Eania was offi%ia' t"ans(itte# to t&e !"esi#ent of
t&e !&ii))ines +' t&en Vi%e9Ea'o" Antonio /. Vie*as on Se)te(+e" -1$ 1;7<$ wit& t&e info"(ation t&at t&e
sa(e "esoution was$ on t&e sa(e #ate$ t"ans(itte# to t&e Senate an# House of Re)"esentatives of t&e
Con*"ess of t&e !&ii))ines.
2

Du"in* t&e Fi"st Session of t&e Fift& Con*"ess of t&e !&ii))ines$ House >i No. 1;1 was fie# in t&e House
of Re)"esentatives +' t&en Con*"ess(an >a"too(e Ca+an*+an* see=in* to #e%a"e t&e )"o)e"t' in
1uestion as )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania$ an# fo" ot&e" )u")oses. T&e e?)anato"' note of t&e
>i *ave t&e *"oun#s fo" its ena%t(ent$ to witC
In t&e )a"ti%ua" %ase of t&e )"o)e"t' su+,e%t of t&is +i$ t&e Cit' of Eania #oes not see(
to &ave use t&e"eof as a )u+i% %o((una )"o)e"t'. As a (atte" of fa%t$ a "esoution was
a#o)te# +' t&e Euni%i)a >oa"# of Eania at its "e*ua" session &e# on Se)te(+e" -1$
1;7<$ to "e1uest t&e feasi+iit' of #e%a"in* t&e %it' )"o)e"t' +oun#e# +' Fo"i#a$ San
An#"es an# Ne+"as=a St"eets as a )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania fo" t&e
)u")ose of "esein* t&ese ots to t&e a%tua o%%u)ants t&e"eof. T&e"efo"e$ it wi +e to t&e
+est inte"est of so%iet' t&at t&e sai# )"o)e"t' +e use# in one wa' o" anot&e". Sin%e t&is
)"o)e"t' &as +een o%%u)ie# fo" a on* ti(e +' t&e )"esent o%%u)ants t&e"eof an# sin%e
sai# o%%u)ants &ave e?)"esse# t&ei" wiin*ness to +u' t&e sai# )"o)e"t'$ it is +ut )"o)e"
t&at t&e sa(e +e so# to t&e(.
3

Su+se1uent'$ a "evise# ve"sion of t&e >i was int"o#u%e# in t&e House of Re)"esentatives +' Con*"ess(en
Eanue Cases$ Antonio Ra1ui5a an# Ni%ano" YLi*ue5 as House >i No. 1362$ wit& t&e foowin* e?)anato"'
noteC
T&e a%%o()an'in* +i see=s to %onve"t one .10 )a"%e of an# in t&e #ist"i%t of Eaate$
w&i%& is "ese"ve# as %o((una )"o)e"t' into a #is)osa+e o" aiena+e )"o)e"t' of t&e
State an# to )"ovi#e its su+#ivision an# sae to +ona fi#e o%%u)ants o" tenants.
T&is )a"%e of an# in 1uestion was o"i*ina' an a**"e*ate )a"t of a )ie%e of an# wit& an
a"ea of ;$7:;.: s1ua"e (ete"s$ (o"e o" ess. ... On Se)te(+e" -1$ 1;7<$ t&e Euni%i)a
>oa"# of Eania in its "e*ua" session unani(ous' a#o)te# a "esoution "e1uestin* t&e
!"esi#ent of t&e !&ii))ines an# Con*"ess of t&e !&ii))ines t&e feasi+iit' of #e%a"in* t&is
)"o)e"t' into #is)osa+e o" aiena+e )"o)e"t' of t&e State. T&e"e is t&e"efo"e a )"e%e#ent
t&at t&is )a"%e of an# %ou# +e su+#ivi#e# an# so# to +ona fi#e o%%u)ants. T&is )a"%e of
an# wi not se"ve an' usefu )u+i% )"o,e%t +e%ause it is +oun#e# on a si#es +' )"ivate
)"o)e"ties w&i%& we"e fo"(e"' )a"ts of t&is ot in 1uestion.
A))"ova of t&is +i wi i()e(ent t&e )oi%' of t&e A#(inist"ation of an# fo" t&e an#ess
an# t&e Fift& De%a"ation of !"in%i)es of t&e Constitution$ w&i%& states t&at t&e )"o(otion
of So%ia /usti%e to insu"e t&e we9+ein* an# e%ono(i% se%u"it' of a )eo)e s&ou# +e t&e
%on%e"n of t&e State. We a"e "ea#' an# wiin* to ena%t e*isation )"o(otin* t&e so%ia
an# e%ono(i% we9+ein* of t&e )eo)e w&eneve" an o))o"tunit' fo" ena%tin* su%& =in# of
e*isation a"ises.
In view of t&e fo"e*oin* %onsi#e"ation an# to insu"e fai"ness an# ,usti%e to t&e )"esent +ona fi#e o%%u)ants
t&e"eof$ a))"ova of t&is >i is st"on*' u"*e#.
6

75
T&e >i &avin* +een )asse# +' t&e House of Re)"esentatives$ t&e sa(e was t&e"eafte" sent to t&e Senate
w&e"e it was t&o"ou*&' #is%usse#$ as evi#en%e# +' t&e Con*"essiona Re%o"#s fo" Ea' -<$ 1;73$ )e"tinent
)o"tion of w&i%& is as foowsC
SENATOR FERNANDEBC E". !"esi#ent$ it wi +e "e %ae# t&at w&en t&e ate Ea'o"
La%son was sti aive$ we a))"ove# a si(ia" +i. >ut afte"wa"#s$ t&e ate Ea'o" La%son
%a(e &e"e an# )"oteste# a*ainst t&e a))"ova$ an# t&e a))"ova was "e%onsi#e"e#. Ea' I
=now w&et&e" t&e #efe%t in t&e +i w&i%& we a))"ove#$ &as a"ea#' +een ei(inate# in t&is
)"esent +iO
SENATOR TOLENTINOC I un#e"stan# E". !"esi#ent$ t&at t&at &as a"ea#' +een ei(inate#
an# t&at is w&' t&e Cit' of Eania &as no (o"e o+,e%tion to t&is +i.
SENATOR FERNANDEBC E". !"esi#ent$ in view of t&at (anifestation an# %onsi#e"in* t&at
Ea'o" Vie*as an# Con*"ess(an A+e"t of t&e Fou"t& Dist"i%t of Eania a"e in favo" of t&e
+i. I wou# not want to )"eten# to =now (o"e w&at is *oo# fo" t&e Cit' of Eania.
SENATOR TOLENTINOC E". !"esi#ent$ t&e"e +ein* no o+,e%tion$ I (ove t&at we a))"ove
t&is +i on se%on# "ea#in*.
!RESIDENT !RO9TEE!OREC T&e +iII is a))"ove# on se%on# "ea#in* afte" seve"a
Seneto"s sai# a'e an# no+o#' sai# na'.
T&e +i was )asse# +' t&e Senate$ a))"ove# +' t&e !"esi#ent on /une -<$ 1;73$ an# +e%a(e Re)u+i% A%t
No. 311:. It "ea#s as foowsC
Lot I9>9-9> of >o%= 668 of t&e %a#ast"a su"ve' of t&e Cit' of Eania$ situate# in t&e
Dist"i%t of Eaate$ Cit' of Eania$ w&i%& is "ese"ve# as %o((una )"o)e"t'$ is &e"e+'
%onve"te# into #is)osa o" aiena+e an# of t&e State$ to +e )a%e# un#e" t&e #is)osa of
t&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation. T&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation s&a su+#ivi#e t&e
)"o)e"t' into s(a ots$ none of w&i%& s&a e?%ee# one &un#"e# an# twent' s1ua"e
(ete"s in a"ea an# se t&e sa(e on insta(ent +asis to t&e tenants o" +ona fi#e
o%%u)ants t&e"eof an# to in#ivi#uas$ in t&e o"#e" (entione#C !"ovi#e#$ T&at no #own
)a'(ent s&a +e "e1ui"e# of tenants o" +ona fi#e o%%u)ants w&o %annot affo"# to )a'
su%& #own )a'(entC !"ovi#e#$ fu"t&e"$ T&at no )e"son %an )u"%&ase (o"e t&an one otC
!"ovi#e#$ fu"t&e"(o"e$ T&at if t&e tenant o" +ona fi#e o%%u)ant of an' *iven ot is not a+e
to )u"%&ase t&e sa(e$ &e s&a +e *iven a ease f"o( (ont& to (ont& unti su%& ti(e t&at
&e is a+e to )u"%&ase t&e otC !"ovi#e#$ sti fu"t&e"$ T&at in t&e event of ease t&e "entas
w&i%& (a' +e %&a"*e# s&a not e?%ee# ei*&t )e" %ent )e" annu( of t&e assesse# vaue of
t&e )"o)e"t' ease#C An# )"ovi#e#$ fina'$ T&at in fi?in* t&e )"i%e of ea%& ot$ w&i%& s&a
not e?%ee# twent' )esos )e" s1ua"e (ete"$ t&e %ost of su+#ivision an# su"ve' s&a not +e
in%u#e#.
Se%. -. U)on a))"ova of t&is A%t no e,e%t(ent )"o%ee#in*s a*ainst an' tenant o" +ona
fi#e o%%u)ant of t&e a+ove ots s&a +e institute# an# an' e,e%t(ent )"o%ee#in*s )en#in*
in %ou"t a*ainst an' su%& tenant o" +ona fi#e o%%u)ant s&a +e #is(isse# u)on (otion of
t&e #efen#antC !"ovi#e#$ T&at an' #e(oition o"#e" #i"e%te# a*ainst an' tenant o" +ona
fi#e o%%u)ant s&a +e ifte#.
Se%. 2. U)on a))"ova of t&is A%t$ if t&e tenant o" +ona fi#e o%%u)ant is in a""ea"s in t&e
)a'(ent of an' "entas$ t&e a(ount e*a' #ue s&a +e i1ui#ate# an# s&a +e )a'a+e in
twent'9fou" e1ua (ont&' insta(ents f"o( t&e #ate of i1ui#ation.
Se%. 3. No )"o)e"t' a%1ui"e# +' vi"tue of t&is A%t s&a +e t"ansfe""e#$ so#$ (o"t*a*e#$ o"
ot&e"wise #is)ose# of wit&in a )e"io# of five 'ea"s f"o( t&e #ate fu owne"s&i) t&e"eof &as
+een veste# in t&e )u"%&ase" wit&out t&e %onsent of t&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation.
76
Se%. 6. In t&e event of t&e #eat& of t&e )u"%&ase" )"io" to t&e %o()ete )a'(ent of t&e
)"i%e of t&e ot )u"%&ase# +' &i($ &is wi#ow an# %&i#"en s&a su%%ee# in a &is "i*&ts an#
o+i*ations wit& "es)e%t to &is ot.
Se%. 7. T&e C&ai"(an of t&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation s&a i()e(ent an# issue su%&
"ues an# "e*uations as (a' +e ne%essa"' to %a""' out t&e )"ovisions of t&is A%t.
Se%. 8. T&e su( of one &un#"e# fift' t&ousan# )esos is a))"o)"iate# out of an' fun#s in
t&e Nationa T"easu"' not ot&e"wise a))"o)"iate#$ to %a""' out t&e )u")oses of t&is A%t.
Se%. :. A aws o" )a"ts of aws in%onsistent wit& t&is A%t a"e "e)eae# o" (o#ifie#
a%%o"#in*'.
Se%. ;. T&is A%t s&a ta=e effe%t u)on its a))"ova.
A))"ove#$ /une -<$ 1;73.
To i()e(ent t&e )"ovisions of Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:$ an# )u"suant to t&e "e1uest of t&e o%%u)ants of t&e
)"o)e"t' invove#$ t&en De)ut' 4ove"no" /ose V. Ya) of t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' .w&i%& su%%ee#e# t&e Lan#
Tenu"e A#(inist"ation0 a##"esse# a ette"$ #ate# Fe+"ua"' 1:$ 1;76$ to Ea'o" Antonio Vie*as$ fu"nis&in*
&i( wit& a %o)' of t&e )"o)ose# su+#ivision )an of sai# ot as )"e)a"e# fo" t&e Re)u+i% of t&e !&ii))ines
fo" "esae of t&e su+#ivision ots +' t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' to +ona fi#e a))i%ants.
7

On Ea"%& -$ 1;76$ t&e Cit' Ea'o" of Eania$ t&"ou*& &is E?e%utive an# Te%&ni%a A#vise"$ a%=nowe#*e#
"e%ei)t of t&e )"o)ose# su+#ivision )an of t&e )"o)e"t' in 1uestion an# info"(e# t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' t&at &is
offi%e wou# inte")ose no o+,e%tion to t&e i()e(entation of sai# aw$ )"ovi#e# t&at its )"ovisions +e st"i%t'
%o()ie# wit&.
8

Wit& t&e a+ove9(entione# w"itten %onfo"(it' of t&e Cit' of Eania fo" t&e i()e(entation of Re)u+i% A%t No.
311:$ t&e Lan# Aut&o"it'$ t&"u t&en De)ut' 4ove"no" /ose V. Ya)$ "e1ueste# t&e Cit' T"easu"e" of Eania$
t&"u t&e Cit' Ea'o"$ fo" t&e su""en#e" an# #eive"' to t&e fo"(e" of t&e owne"Hs #u)i%ate of T"ansfe"
Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. --638 in o"#e" to o+tain tite t&e"eto in t&e na(e of t&e Lan# Aut&o"it'. T&e "e1uest
was #u' *"ante# wit& t&e =nowe#*e an# %onsent of t&e Offi%e of t&e Cit' Ea'o".
:

Wit& t&e )"esentation of T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. --638$ w&i%& &a# +een 'ie#e# as a+ove state# +'
t&e$ Cit' aut&o"ities to t&e Lan# Aut&o"it'$ T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite .T.C.T. No. --6380 was %an%ee# +'
t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s of Eania an# in ieu t&e"eof T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. :<:87 was issue# in t&e
na(e of t&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation .now Lan# Aut&o"it'0 )u"suant to t&e )"ovisions of Re)u+i% A%t No.
311:.
;

>ut #ue to "easons w&i%& #o not a))ea" in t&e "e%o"#$ t&e Cit' of Eania (a#e a %o()ete tu"n9a+out$ fo" on
De%e(+e" -<$ 1;77$ Antonio /. Vie*as$ in &is %a)a%it' as t&e Cit' Ea'o" of Eania an# t&e Cit' of Eania
as a #u' o"*ani5e# )u+i% %o")o"ation$ +"ou*&t an a%tion fo" in,un%tion an#Ko" )"o&i+ition wit& )"ei(ina"'
in,un%tion to "est"ain$ )"o&i+it an# en,oin t&e &e"ein a))eants$ )a"ti%ua"' t&e 4ove"no" of t&e Lan#
Aut&o"it' an# t&e Re*iste" of Dee#s of Eania$ f"o( fu"t&e" i()e(entin* Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:$ an#
)"a'in* fo" t&e #e%a"ation of Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: as un%onstitutiona.
Wit& t&e fo"e*oin* ante%e#ent fa%ts$ w&i%& a"e a %ontaine# in t&e )a"tia sti)uation of fa%ts su+(itte# to t&e
t"ia %ou"t an# a))"ove# +' "es)on#ent /u#*e$ t&e )a"ties waive# t&e )"esentation of fu"t&e" evi#en%e an#
su+(itte# t&e %ase fo" #e%ision. On Se)te(+e" -2$ 1;7:$ ,u#*(ent was "en#e"e# +' t&e t"ia %ou"t #e%a"in*
Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: un%onstitutiona an# invai# on t&e *"oun# t&at it #e)"ive# t&e Cit' of Eania of its
)"o)e"t' wit&out #ue )"o%ess of aw an# )a'(ent of ,ust %o()ensation. T&e "es)on#ents we"e o"#e"e# to
un#o a t&at &a# +een #one to %a""' out t&e )"ovisions of sai# A%t an# we"e "est"aine# f"o( fu"t&e"
i()e(entin* t&e sa(e.
Two issues a"e )"esente# fo" #ete"(ination$ on t&e "esoution of w&i%& t&e #e%ision in t&is %ase &in*es$ to
witC
77
I. Is t&e )"o)e"t' invove# )"ivate o" )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of EaniaO
II. Is Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: vai# an# not "e)u*nant to t&e ConstitutionO
I.
As "e*a"#s t&e fi"st issue$ a))eants (aintain t&at t&e an# invove# is a %o((una an# o" Ge*ua %o(unaG
w&i%& is a )o"tion of t&e )u+i% #o(ain owne# +' t&e StateD t&at it %a(e into e?isten%e as su%& w&en t&e Cit'
of Eania$ o" an' )ue+o o" town in t&e !&ii))ines fo" t&at (atte"$ was foun#e# un#e" t&e aws of S)ain$ t&e
fo"(e" sove"ei*nD t&at u)on t&e esta+is&(ent of a )ue+o$ t&e a#(inist"ative aut&o"it' was "e1ui"e# to aot
an# set asi#e )o"tions of t&e )u+i% #o(ain fo" a )u+i% )a5a$ a %&u"%& site$ a site fo" )u+i% +ui#in*s$ an#s
to se"ve as %o((on )astu"es an# fo" st"eets an# "oa#sD t&at in assi*nin* t&ese an#s so(e ots we"e
ea"(a"=e# fo" st"i%t' )u+i% )u")oses$ an# owne"s&i) of t&ese ots .fo" )u+i% )u")oses0 i((e#iate' )asse#
to t&e new (uni%i)ait'D t&at in t&e %ase of %o((on an#s o" Ge*ua %o(unaG$ t&e"e was no su%& i((e#iate
a%1uisition of owne"s&i) +' t&e )ue+o$ an# t&e an# t&ou*& a#(iniste"e# t&e"e+'$ #i# not auto(ati%a'
+e%o(e its )"o)e"t' in t&e a+sen%e of an e?)"ess *"ant f"o( t&e Cent"a 4ove"n(ent$ an# t&at t&e "eason
fo" t&is a""an*e(ent is t&at t&is %ass of an# was not a+soute' nee#e# fo" t&e #is%&a"*e of t&e
(uni%i)ait'Hs *ove"n(enta fun%tions.
It is a"*ue# t&at t&e )a"%e of an# invove# &e"ein &as not +een use# +' t&e Cit' of Eania fo" an' )u+i%
)u")ose an# &a# not +een offi%ia' ea"(a"=e# as a site fo" t&e e"e%tion of so(e )u+i% +ui#in*sD t&at t&is
%i"%u(stan%e %onfi"(s t&e fa%t t&at it was o"i*ina' G%o((unaG an# aote# to t&e Cit' of Eania +' t&e
Cent"a 4ove"n(ent not +e%ause it was nee#e# in %onne%tion wit& its o"*ani5ation as a (uni%i)ait' +ut
si()' fo" t&e %o((on use of its in&a+itantsD t&at t&e )"esent Cit' of Eania as su%%esso" of t&e
A'unta(iento #e Eania un#e" t&e fo"(e" S)anis& sove"ei*n (e"e' en,o's t&e usuf"u%t ove" sai# an#$ an#
its e?e"%ise of a%ts of owne"s&i) +' sein* )a"ts t&e"eof #i# not ne%essa"i' %onve"t t&e an# into a
)at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania no" #ivest t&e State of its )a"a(ount tite.
A))eants fu"t&e" a"*ue t&at a (uni%i)a %o")o"ation$ i=e a %it' is a *ove"n(enta a*ent of t&e State wit&
aut&o"it' to *ove"n a i(ite# )o"tion of its te""ito"' o" to a#(iniste" )u"e' o%a affai"s in a *iven )oiti%a
su+#ivision$ an# t&e e?tent of its aut&o"it' is st"i%t' #ei(ite# +' t&e *"ant of )owe" %onfe""e# +' t&e StateD
t&at Con*"ess &as t&e e?%usive )owe" to %"eate$ %&an*e o" #est"o' (uni%i)a %o")o"ationsD t&at even if We
a#(it t&at e*isative %ont"o ove" (uni%i)a %o")o"ations is not a+soute an# even if it is t"ue t&at t&e Cit' of
Eania &as a "e*iste"e# tite ove" t&e )"o)e"t' in 1uestion$ t&e (e"e t"ansfe" of su%& an# +' an a%t of t&e
e*isatu"e f"o( one %ass of )u+i% an# to anot&e"$ wit&out %o()ensation$ #oes not inva#e t&e veste# "i*&ts
of t&e Cit'.
A))eants fina' a"*ue t&at Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: &as t"eate# t&e an# invove# as one "ese"ve# fo"
%o((una use$ an# t&is %assifi%ation is %on%usive u)on t&e %ou"tsD t&at if t&e Cit' of Eania fees t&at t&is is
w"on* an# its inte"ests &ave +een t&e"e+' )"e,u#i%e#$ t&e (atte" s&ou# +e +"ou*&t to t&e attention of
Con*"ess fo" %o""e%tionD an# t&at sin%e Con*"ess$ in t&e e?e"%ise of its wi#e #is%"etiona"' )owe"s &as seen
fit to %assif' t&e an# in 1uestion as %o((una$ t&e Cou"ts %e"tain' owe it to a %oo"#inate +"an%& of t&e
4ove"n(ent to "es)e%t su%& #ete"(ination an# s&ou# not inte"fe"e wit& t&e enfo"%e(ent of t&e aw.
U)on t&e ot&e" &an#$ a))eees a"*ue +' si()' 1uotin* )o"tions of t&e a))eae# #e%ision of t&e t"ia %ou"t$
w&i%& "ea# t&usC
T&e "es)on#ents .)etitione"s9a))eants &e"ein0 %onten#$ a(on* ot&e" #efenses$ t&at t&e
)"o)e"t' in 1uestion is %o((una )"o)e"t'. T&is %ontention is$ &oweve"$ #is)"ove# +'
O"i*ina Ce"tifi%ate of Tite No. 32-; issue# on Au*ust -1$ 1;-< in favo" of t&e Cit' of
Eania afte" t&e an# in 1uestion was "e*iste"e# in t&e Cit'Hs favo". T&e To""ens Tite
e?)"ess' states t&at t&e Cit' of Eania was t&e owne" in Hfee si()eH of t&e sai# an#.
Un#e" Se%. 2: of t&e Lan# Re*ist"ation A%t$ as a(en#e#$ t&e #e%"ee of %onfi"(ation an#
"e*ist"ation in favo" of t&e Cit' of Eania ... s&a +e %on%usive u)on an# a*ainst a
)e"sons in%u#in* t&e Insua" 4ove"n(ent an# a t&e +"an%&es t&e"e ... T&e"e is not&in* in
t&e sai# %e"tifi%ate of tite in#i%atin* t&at t&e an# was H%o((unaH an# as %onten#e# +'
t&e "es)on#ents. T&e e""oneous assu()tion +' t&e Euni%i)a >oa"# of Eania t&at t&e
an# in 1uestion was %o((una an# #i# not (a=e it so. T&e Euni%i)a >oa"# &a# no
aut&o"it' to #o t&at.
78
T&e "es)on#ents$ &oweve"$ %onten# t&at Con*"ess &a# t&e )owe" an# aut&o"it' to #e%a"e
t&at t&e an# in 1uestion was H%o((unaH an# an# t&e %ou"ts &ave no )owe" o" aut&o"it' to
(a=e a %ont"a"' fin#in*. T&is %ontention is not enti"e' %o""e%t o" a%%u"ate. Con*"ess &as
t&e )owe" to %assif' Han# of t&e )u+i% #o(ainH$ t"ansfe" t&e( f"o( one %assifi%ation to
anot&e" an# #e%a"e t&e( #is)osa+e o" not. Su%& )owe" #oes not$ &oweve"$ e?ten# to
)"o)e"ties w&i%& a"e owne# +' %ities$ )"ovin%es an# (uni%i)aities in t&ei" H)at"i(oniaH
%a)a%it'.
A"t. 2-3 of t&e Civi Co#e )"ovi#es t&at )"o)e"ties of )"ovin%es$ %ities an# (uni%i)aities
a"e #ivi#e# into )"o)e"ties fo" )u+i% use an# )at"i(onia )"o)e"t'. A"t. 3-3 of t&e sa(e
%o#e )"ovi#es t&at )"o)e"ties fo" )u+i% use %onsist of )"ovin%ia "oa#s$ %it' st"eets$
(uni%i)a st"eets$ t&e s1ua"es$ fountains$ )u+i% wate"s$ )"o(ena#es an# )u+i% wo"=s fo"
)u+i% se"vi%e )ai# fo" +' sai# )"ovin%e$ %ities o" (uni%i)aities. A ot&e" )"o)e"t'
)ossesse# +' an' of t&e( is )at"i(onia. Teste# +' t&is %"ite"ion t&e Cou"t fin#s an# &o#s
t&at t&e an# in 1uestion is )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania.
Res)on#ents %onten# t&at Con*"ess &as #e%a"e# t&e an# in 1uestion to +e H%o((unaH
an#$ t&e"efo"e$ su%& #esi*nation is %on%usive u)on t&e %ou"ts. T&e Cou"ts &o#s
ot&e"wise. W&en a statute is assaie# as un%onstitutiona t&e Cou"ts &ave t&e )owe" an#
aut&o"it' to in1ui"e into t&e 1uestion an# )ass u)on it. T&is &as on* a*o +een sette# in
Ea"+u"' vs. Ea#ison$ - L. e#. 7<$ w&en t&e Unite# States Su)"e(e Cou"t s)ea=in* t&"u
C&ief /usti%e Ea"s&a &e#C
... If an a%t of t&e e*isatu"e$ "e)u*nant to t&e %onstitution$ is voi#$ #oes
it$ notwit&stan#in* its vai#it'$ +in# t&e %ou"ts$ an# o+i*e t&e( to *ive
effe%tO It is e()&ati%a' t&e )"ovin%e an# #ut' of t&e ,u#i%ia #e)a"t(ent
to sa' w&at t&e aw is ... So if a aw +e in o))osition to t&e %onstitutionD if
+ot& t&e aw an# t&e %onstitution a))' to a )a"ti%ua" %ase$ so t&at t&e
%ou"t (ust eit&e" #e%i#e t&at %ase %onfo"(a+e to t&e %onstitution$
#is"e*a"#in* t&e aw$ t&e %ou"t (ust #ete"(ine w&i%& of t&ese %onfi%tin*
"ues *ove"ns t&e %ase. T&is is of t&e ve"' essen%e of un%onstitutiona
,u#i%ia #ut'.
A))eees fina' %on%u#e# t&at w&en t&e %ou"ts #e%a"e a aw un%onstitutiona it #oes not (ean t&at t&e
,u#i%ia )owe" is su)e"io" to t&e e*isative )owe". It si()' (eans t&at t&e )owe" of t&e )eo)e is su)e"io" to
+ot& an# t&at w&en t&e wi of t&e e*isatu"e$ #e%a"e# in statutes$ stan#s in o))osition to t&at of t&e )eo)e$
#e%a"e# in t&e Constitution$ t&e ,u#*es ou*&t to +e *ove"ne# +' t&e Constitution "at&e" t&an +' t&e statutes.
T&e"e is one outstan#in* fa%to" t&at s&ou# +e +o"ne in (in# in "esovin* t&e %&a"a%te" of t&e an# invove#$
an# it is t&at t&e Cit' of Eania$ at&ou*& #e%a"e# +' t&e Ca#ast"a Cou"t as owne" in fee si()e$ &as not
s&own +' an' s&"e# of evi#en%e in w&at (anne" it a%1ui"e# sai# an# as its )"ivate o" )at"i(onia )"o)e"t'. It
is t"ue t&at t&e Cit' of Eania as we as its )"e#e%esso"$ t&e A'unta(iento #e Eania$ %ou# vai#' a%1ui"e
)"o)e"t' in its %o")o"ate o" )"ivate %a)a%it'$ foowin* t&e a%%e)te# #o%t"ine on t&e #ua %&a"a%te" )u+i%
an# )"ivate of a (uni%i)a %o")o"ation. An# w&en it a%1ui"es )"o)e"t' in its )"ivate %a)a%it'$ it a%ts i=e an
o"#ina"' )e"son %a)a+e of ente"in* into %ont"a%ts o" (a=in* t"ansa%tions fo" t&e t"ans(ission of tite o" ot&e"
"ea "i*&ts. W&en it %o(es to a%1uisition of an#$ it (ust &ave #one so un#e" an' of t&e (o#es esta+is&e#
+' aw fo" t&e a%1uisition of owne"s&i) an# ot&e" "ea "i*&ts. In t&e a+sen%e of a tite #ee# to an' an#
%ai(e# +' t&e Cit' of Eania as its own$ s&owin* t&at it was a%1ui"e# wit& its )"ivate o" %o")o"ate fun#s$ t&e
)"esu()tion is t&at su%& an# %a(e f"o( t&e State u)on t&e %"eation of t&e (uni%i)ait' .Unson vs. La%son$
et a.$ 1<< !&i. 7;60. O"i*ina' t&e (uni%i)ait' owne# no )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' e?%e)t t&ose t&at we"e
*"ante# +' t&e State not fo" its )u+i% +ut fo" )"ivate use. Ot&e" )"o)e"ties it owns a"e a%1ui"e# in t&e %ou"se
of t&e e?e"%ise of its %o")o"ate )owe"s as a ,u"i#i%a entit' to w&i%& %ate*o"' a (uni%i)a %o")o"ation
)e"tains.
Co((una an#s o" Ge*ua %o(unaG %a(e into e?isten%e w&en a town o" )ue+o was esta+is&e# in t&is
%ount"' un#e" t&e aws of S)ain .Law VII$ Tite III$ >oo= VI$ Re%o)ia%ion #e as Le'es #e In#ios0. T&e
(uni%i)aities of t&e !&ii))ines we"e not entite#$ as a (atte" of "i*&t$ to an' )a"t of t&e )u+i% #o(ain fo"
use as %o((una an#s. T&e S)anis& aw )"ovi#e# t&at t&e usuf"u%t of a )o"tion of t&e )u+i% #o(ain
a#,oinin* (uni%i)a te""ito"' (i*&t +e *"ante# +' t&e 4ove"n(ent fo" %o((una )u")oses$ u)on )"o)e"
79
)etition$ +ut$ unti *"ante#$ no "i*&ts t&e"ein )asse# to t&e (uni%i)aities$ an#$ in an' event$ t&e uti(ate tite
"e(aine# in t&e sove"ei*n .Cit' of Eania vs. Insua" 4ove"n(ent$ 1< !&i. 2-80.
Fo" t&e esta+is&(ent$ t&en$ of new )ue+os t&e a#(inist"ative aut&o"it' of t&e )"ovin%e$ in
"e)"esentation of t&e 4ove"no" 4ene"a$ #esi*nate# t&e te""ito"' fo" t&ei" o%ation an#
e?tension an# t&e (etes an# +oun#s of t&e sa(eD an# +efo"e aotin* t&e an#s a(on*
t&e new sette"s$ a s)e%ia #e(a"%ation was (a#e of t&e )a%es w&i%& we"e to se"ve as
t&e )u+i% s1ua"e of t&e )ue+o$ fo" t&e e"e%tion of t&e %&u"%&$ an# as sites fo" t&e )u+i%
+ui#in*s$ a(on* ot&e"s$ t&e (uni%i)a +ui#in* o" t&e %asa "ea$ as we as of t&e an#s
w&i%= we"e to %onstitute t&e %o((on )astu"es$ an# )"o)ios of t&e (uni%i)ait' an# t&e
st"eets an# "oa#s w&i%& we"e to inte"se%t t&e new town we"e ai# out$ ... . .Euni%i)ait' of
Cat+ao*an vs. Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ 18 !&i. -17$ --<0 .E()&asis su))ie#0
It (a'$ t&e"efo"e$ +e ai# #own as a *ene"a "ue t&at "e*a"#ess of t&e sou"%e o" %assifi%ation of an# in t&e
)ossession of a (uni%i)ait'$ e?%e)tin* t&ose a%1ui"e# wit& its own fun#s in its )"ivate o" %o")o"ate %a)a%it'$
su%& )"o)e"t' is &e# in t"ust fo" t&e State fo" t&e +enefit of its in&a+itants$ w&et&e" it +e fo" *ove"n(enta o"
)"o)"ieta"' )u")oses. It &o#s su%& an#s su+,e%t to t&e )a"a(ount )owe" of t&e e*isatu"e to #is)ose of t&e
sa(e$ fo" afte" a it owes its %"eation to it as an a*ent fo" t&e )e"fo"(an%e of a )a"t of its )u+i% wo"=$ t&e
(uni%i)ait' +ein* +ut a su+#ivision o" inst"u(entait' t&e"eof fo" )u")oses of o%a a#(inist"ation.
A%%o"#in*'$ t&e e*a situation is t&e sa(e as if t&e State itsef &o#s t&e )"o)e"t' an# )uts it to a #iffe"ent
use .- E%Nuiin$Euni%i)a Co")o"ations$ 2"# E#.$ ). 1;8$ %itin* Eona*&a( vs. A"(ata*e$ -1: Einn. -8$ 16
N. W. -n# -310.
T"ue it is t&at t&e e*isative %ont"o ove" a (uni%i)a %o")o"ation is not a+soute even w&en it %o(es to its
)"o)e"t' #evote# to )u+i% use$ fo" su%& %ont"o (ust not +e e?e"%ise# to t&e e?tent of #e)"ivin* )e"sons of
t&ei" )"o)e"t' o" "i*&ts wit&out #ue )"o%ess of aw$ o" in a (anne" i()ai"in* t&e o+i*ations of %ont"a%ts.
Neve"t&eess$ w&en it %o(es to )"o)e"t' of t&e (uni%i)ait' w&i%& it #i# not a%1ui"e in its )"ivate o" %o")o"ate
%a)a%it' wit& its own fun#s$ t&e e*isatu"e %an t"ansfe" its a#(inist"ation an# #is)osition to an a*en%' of t&e
Nationa 4ove"n(ent to +e #is)ose# of a%%o"#in* to its #is%"etion. He"e it #i# so in o+e#ien%e to t&e
%onstitutiona (an#ate of )"o(otin* so%ia ,usti%e to insu"e t&e we9+ein* an# e%ono(i% se%u"it' of t&e
)eo)e.
It &as +een &e# t&at a statute aut&o"i5in* t&e t"ansfe" of a Euni%i)a ai")o"t to an Ai")o"t Co((ission
%"eate# +' t&e e*isatu"e$ even wit&out %o()ensation to t&e %it'$ was not vioative of t&e #ue )"o%ess %ause
of t&e A(e"i%an Fe#e"a Constitution. T&e Su)"e(e Cou"t of Einnessota in Eona*&a( vs. A"(ata*e$ su)"a$
sai#C
... T&e %ase is %ont"oe# +' t&e fu"t&e" "ue t&at t&e e*isatu"e$ &avin* )ena"' %ont"o of
t&e o%a (uni%i)ait'$ of its %"eation an# of a its affai"s$ &as t&e "i*&t to aut&o"i5e o" #i"e%t
t&e e?)en#itu"es of (one' in its t"easu"'$ t&ou*& "aise#$ fo" a )a"ti%ua" )u")ose$ fo" an'
e*iti(ate (uni%i)a )u")ose$ o" to o"#e" an# #i"e%t a #ist"i+ution t&e"eof u)on a #ivision of
t&e te""ito"' into se)a"ate (uni%i)aities ... . T&e o%a (uni%i)ait' &as no su%& veste#
"i*&t in o" to its )u+i% fun#s$ i=e t&at w&i%& t&e Constitution )"ote%ts in t&e in#ivi#ua as
)"e%u#es e*isative inte"fe"en%es. !eo)e vs. !owe"$ -6 I. 1:8D State >oa"# .of
E#u%ation0 vs. Cit'$ 67 Eiss. 61:. As "e(a"=e# +' t&e su)"e(e %ou"t of Ea"'an# in
Ea'o" vs. Se&ne"$ 28 E#. 1:<C GIt is of t&e essen%e of su%& a %o")o"ation$ t&at t&e
*ove"n(ent &as t&e soe "i*&t as t"ustee of t&e )u+i% inte"est$ at its own *oo# wi an#
)easu"e$ to ins)e%t$ "e*uate$ %ont"o$ an# #i"e%t t&e %o")o"ation$ its fun#s$ an#
f"an%&ises.G
We t&e"efo"e &o# t&at %.6<<$ in aut&o"i5in* t&e t"ansfe" of t&e use an# )ossession of t&e
(uni%i)a ai")o"t to t&e %o((ission wit&out %o()ensation to t&e %it' o" to t&e )a"= +oa"#$
#oes not vioate t&e Fou"teent& A(en#(ent to t&e Constitution of t&e Unite# States.
T&e Con*"ess &as #eat wit& t&e an# invove# as one "ese"ve# fo" %o((una use .te""eno %o(una0. T&e
a%t of %assif'in* State )"o)e"t' %as fo" t&e e?e"%ise of wi#e #is%"etiona"' e*isative )owe" an# it s&ou# not
+e inte"fe"e# wit& +' t&e %ou"ts.
80
T&is +"in*s Us to t&e se%on# 1uestion as "e*a"#s t&e vai#it' of Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:$ viewe# in t&e i*&t of
A"ti%e III$ Se%tions 1$ su+se%tion .10 an# .-0 of t&e Constitution w&i%& o"#ain t&at no )e"son s&a +e
#e)"ive# of &is )"o)e"t' wit&out #ue )"o%ess of aw an# t&at no )"ivate )"o)e"t' s&a +e ta=en fo" )u+i% use
wit&out ,ust %o()ensation.
II .
T&e t"ia %ou"t #e%a"e# Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: un%onstitutiona fo" ae*e#' #e)"ivin* t&e Cit' of Eania of its
)"o)e"t' wit&out #ue )"o%ess of aw an# wit&out )a'(ent of ,ust %o()ensation. It is now we esta+is&e#
t&at t&e )"esu()tion is awa's in favo" of t&e %onstitutionait' of a aw .U S. vs. Ten Yu$ -3 !&i. 1D 4o C&in*$
et a. vs. Din*asan$ et a.$ 36 O.4. No. -$ )). 8<2$ 8<60. To #e%a"e a aw un%onstitutiona$ t&e "e)u*nan%' of
t&at aw to t&e Constitution (ust +e %ea" an# une1uivo%a$ fo" even if a aw is ai(e# at t&e attain(ent of
so(e )u+i% *oo#$ no inf"in*e(ent of %onstitutiona "i*&ts is aowe#. To st"i=e #own a aw t&e"e (ust +e a
%ea" s&owin* t&at w&at t&e fun#a(enta aw %on#e(ns o" )"o&i+its$ t&e statute aows it to +e #one .Eo"fe
vs. Eutu%$ et a.$ 4.R. No. L9-<2:8$ /an. 21$ 1;7:D -- SCRA 3-30. T&at situation #oes not o+tain in t&is %ase
as t&e aw assaie# #oes not in an' (anne" t"en%& u)on t&e %onstitution as wi &e"eafte" +e s&own.
Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: was inten#e# to i()e(ent t&e so%ia ,usti%e )oi%' of t&e Constitution an# t&e
4ove"n(ent )"o*"a( of GLan# fo" t&e Lan#essG. T&e e?)anato"' note of House >i No. 1362 w&i%&
+e%a(e Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:$ "ea#s in )a"t as foowsC
A))"ova of t&is +i wi i()e(ent t&e )oi%' of t&e a#(inist"ation of Gan# fo" t&e an#essG
an# t&e Fift& De%a"ation of !"in%i)es of t&e Constitution w&i%& states t&at Gt&e )"o(otion
of so%ia ,usti%e to insu"e t&e we9+ein* an# e%ono(i% se%u"it' of a )eo)e s&ou# +e t&e
%on%e"n of t&e State.G We a"e "ea#' an# wiin* to ena%t e*isation )"o(otin* t&e so%ia
an# e%ono(i% we9+ein* of t&e )eo)e w&eneve" an o))o"tunit' fo" ena%tin* su%& =in# of
e*isation a"ises.
T&e "es)on#ent Cou"t &e# t&at Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:$ G+' %onve"tin* t&e an# in 1uestion w&i%& is t&e
)at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania into #is)osa+e aiena+e an# of t&e State an# )a%in* it un#e" t&e
#is)osa of t&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation vioates t&e )"ovisions of A"ti%e III .Se%s. 1 an# -0 of t&e
Constitution w&i%& o"#ain t&at G)"ivate )"o)e"t' s&a not +e ta=en fo" )u+i% use wit&out ,ust %o()ensation$
an# t&at no )e"son s&a +e #e)"ive# of ife$ i+e"t' o" )"o)e"t' wit&out #ue )"o%ess of awG. In su))o"t
t&e"eof "eian%e is )a%e# on t&e "uin* in !"ovin%e of Ba(+oan*a #e No"te vs. Cit' of Ba(+oan*a$ 4.R. No.
-33<$ Ea"%& -:$ 1;7:D -- SCRA 1223$ w&i%& &o#s t&at Con*"ess %annot #e)"ive a (uni%i)ait' of its
)"ivate o" )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' wit&out #ue )"o%ess of aw an# wit&out )a'(ent of ,ust %o()ensation sin%e it
&as no a+soute %ont"o t&e"eof. T&e"e is no 1ua""e ove" t&is "ue if it is un#is)ute# t&at t&e )"o)e"t' sou*&t
to +e ta=en is in "eait' a )"ivate o" )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e (uni%i)ait' o" %it'. >ut it wou# +e si()'
+e**in* t&e 1uestion to %assif' t&e an# in 1uestion as su%&. T&e )"o)e"t'$ as &as +een )"evious' s&own$
was not a%1ui"e# +' t&e Cit' of Eania wit& its own fun#s in its )"ivate o" )"o)"ieta"' %a)a%it'. T&at it &as in
its na(e a "e*iste"e# tite is not 1uestione#$ +ut t&is tite s&ou# +e #ee(e# to +e &e# in t"ust fo" t&e State
as t&e an# %ove"e# t&e"e+' was )a"t of t&e te""ito"' of t&e Cit' of Eania *"ante# +' t&e sove"ei*n u)on its
%"eation. T&at t&e Nationa 4ove"n(ent$ t&"ou*& t&e Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ "e)"esente# +' t&e Soi%ito" 4ene"a$
in t&e %a#ast"a )"o%ee#in*s #i# not %ontest t&e %ai( of t&e Cit' of Eania t&at t&e an# is its )"o)e"t'$ #oes
not #et"a%t f"o( its %&a"a%te" as State )"o)e"t' an# in no wa' #ivests t&e e*isatu"e of its )owe" to #ea wit&
it as su%&$ t&e state not +ein* +oun# +' t&e (ista=es an#Ko" ne*i*en%e of its offi%e"s.
One #e%isive fa%t t&at s&ou# +e note# is t&at t&e Cit' of Eania e?)"ess' "e%o*ni5e# t&e )a"a(ount tite of
t&e State ove" sai# an# w&en +' its "esoution of Se)te(+e" -<$ 1;7<$ t&e Euni%i)a >oa"#$ )"esi#e# +'
t&en Vi%e9Ea'o" Antonio Vie*as$ "e1ueste# GHis E?%een%' t&e !"esi#ent of t&e !&ii))ines to %onsi#e" t&e
feasi+iit' of #e%a"in* t&e %it' )"o)e"t' +oun#e# +' Fo"i#a$ San An#"es an# Ne+"as=a St"eets$ un#e"
T"ansfe" Ce"tifi%ate of Tite Nos. -6636 an# -6638$ %ontainin* an a"ea of 8$36< s1ua"e (ete"s$ as
)at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania fo" t&e )u")ose of "esein* t&ese ots to t&e a%tua o%%u)ants
t&e"eof.G .See Anne? E$ !a"tia Sti)uation of Fa%ts$ Civi Case No. 78;36$ CFI$ Eania$ ). 1-1$ Re%o"# of t&e
Case0 IE()&asis Su))ie#J
T&e ae*e# )at"i(onia %&a"a%te" of t&e an# un#e" t&e owne"s&i) of t&e Cit' of Eania is tota' +eie# +'
t&e Cit'Hs own offi%ia a%t$ w&i%& is fata to its %ai( sin%e t&e Con*"ess #i# not #o as +i##en. If it we"e its
)at"i(onia )"o)e"t' w&' s&ou# t&e Cit' of Eania +e "e1uestin* t&e !"esi#ent to (a=e "e)"esentation to t&e
e*isatu"e to #e%a"e it as su%& so it %an +e #is)ose# of in favo" of t&e a%tua o%%u)antsO T&e"e %ou# +e no
(o"e +atant "e%o*nition of t&e fa%t t&at sai# an# +eon*s to t&e State an# was si()' *"ante# in usuf"u%t to
81
t&e Cit' of Eania fo" (uni%i)a )u")oses. >ut sin%e t&e Cit' #i# not a%tua' use sai# an# fo" an'
"e%o*ni5e# )u+i% )u")ose an# aowe# it to "e(ain i#e an# uno%%u)ie# fo" a on* ti(e unti it was ove""un
+' s1uatte"s$ no )"esu()tion of State *"ant of owne"s&i) in favo" of t&e Cit' of Eania (a' +e a%1uies%e# in
to ,ustif' t&e %ai( t&at it is its own )"ivate o" )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' .Euni%i)ait' of Ti*+auan vs. Di"e%to" of
Lan#s$ 26 !&i. 8;:D Cit' of Eania vs. Insua" 4ove"n(ent$ 1< !&i. 2-8D Euni%i)ait' of Lu5u"ia*a vs.
Di"e%to" of Lan#s$ -3 !&i. 1;20. T&e %on%usion of t&e "es)on#ent %ou"t t&at Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:
%onve"te# a )at"i(onia )"o)e"t' of t&e Cit' of Eania into a )a"%e of #is)osa+e an# of t&e State an# too= it
awa' f"o( t&e Cit' wit&out %o()ensation is$ t&e"efo"e$ unfoun#e#. In t&e ast ana'sis t&e an# in 1uestion
)e"tains to t&e State an# t&e Cit' of Eania (e"e' a%te# as t"ustee fo" t&e +enefit of t&e )eo)e t&e"ein fo"
w&o( t&e State %an e*isate in t&e e?e"%ise of its e*iti(ate )owe"s.
Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: was neve" inten#e# to e?)"o)"iate t&e )"o)e"t' invove# +ut (e"e' to %onfi"( its
%&a"a%te" as %o((una an# of t&e State an# to (a=e it avaia+e fo" #is)osition +' t&e Nationa
4ove"n(entC An# t&is was #one at t&e instan%e o" u)on t&e "e1uest of t&e Cit' of Eania itsef. T&e
su+#ivision of t&e an# an# %onve'an%e of t&e "esutin* su+#ivision ots to t&e o%%u)ants +' Con*"essiona
aut&o"i5ation #oes not o)e"ate as an e?e"%ise of t&e )owe" of e(inent #o(ain wit&out ,ust %o()ensation in
vioation of Se%tion 1$ su+se%tion .-0$ A"ti%e III of t&e Constitution$ +ut si()' as a (anifestation of its "i*&t
an# )owe" to #ea wit& state )"o)e"t'.
It s&ou# +e e()&asi5e# t&at t&e aw assaie# was ena%te# u)on fo"(a w"itten )etition of t&e Euni%i)a
>oa"# of Eania in t&e fo"( of a e*a' a))"ove# "esoution. T&e %e"tifi%ate of tite ove" t&e )"o)e"t' in t&e
na(e of t&e Cit' of Eania was a%%o"#in*' %an%ee# an# anot&e" issue# to t&e Lan# Tenu"e A#(inist"ation
afte" t&e vounta"' su""en#e" of t&e Cit'Hs #u)i%ate %e"tifi%ate of tite +' t&e Cit' T"easu"e" wit& t&e
=nowe#*e an# %onsent of t&e Cit' Ea'o". To i()e(ent t&e )"ovisions of Re)u+i% A%t No. 311:$ t&e t&en
De)ut' 4ove"no" of t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' sent a ette"$ #ate# Fe+"ua"' 1:$ 1;76$ to t&e Cit' Ea'o" fu"nis&in*
&i( wit& a %o)' of t&e G)"o)ose# su+#ivision )an of t&e sai# ot as )"e)a"e# fo" t&e Re)u+i% of t&e
!&ii))ines fo" su+#ivision an# "esae +' t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' to +ona fi#e a))i%ants.G On Ea"%& -$ 1;76$ t&e
Ea'o" of Eania$ t&"ou*& &is E?e%utive an# Te%&ni%a A#vise"$ a%=nowe#*e# "e%ei)t of t&e su+#ivision )an
an# info"(e# t&e Lan# Aut&o"it' t&at &is Offi%e Gwi inte")ose no o+,e%tion to t&e i()e(entation of sai# aw
)"ovi#e# t&at its )"ovisions a"e st"i%t' %o()ie# wit&.G T&e fo"e*oin* se1uen%e of events$ %ea"' in#i%ate a
)atte"n of "e*ua"it' an# o+se"van%e of #ue )"o%ess in t&e "eve"sion of t&e )"o)e"t' to t&e Nationa
4ove"n(ent. A su%& a%ts we"e #one in "e%o*nition +' t&e Cit' of Eania of t&e "i*&t an# )owe" of t&e
Con*"ess to #is)ose of t&e an# invove#.
Conse1uent'$ t&e Cit' of Eania was not #e)"ive# of an't&in* it owns$ eit&e" un#e" t&e #ue )"o%ess %ause
o" un#e" t&e e(inent #o(ain )"ovisions of t&e Constitution. If it faie# to *et f"o( t&e Con*"ess t&e
%on%ession it sou*&t of &avin* t&e an# invove# *iven to it as its )at"i(onia )"o)e"t'$ t&e Cou"ts )ossess no
)owe" to *"ant t&at "eief. Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: #oes not$ t&e"efo"e$ suffe" f"o( an' %onstitutiona infi"(it'.
WHEREFORE$ t&e a))eae# #e%ision is &e"e+' "eve"se#$ an# )etitione"s s&a )"o%ee# wit& t&e f"ee an#
unt"a((ee# i()e(entation of Re)u+i% A%t No. 311: wit&out an' o+sta%e f"o( t&e "es)on#ents. Wit&out
%osts.
Con%e)%ion$ C./.$ Ea=ainta$ Ba#iva"$ Cast"o$ Fe"nan#o$ Tee&an=ee an# Antonio$ //.$ %on%u".
>a""e#o an# Ea=asia"$ //.$ too= no )a"t.
Footnotes
1 !a*es 8;9:<$ Roo.
- Anne? GEG to t&e !a"tia Sti)uation of Fa%ts$ )a*e 1-1$ Re%o"#s.
2 Anne? GE91G to t&e !a"tia Sti)uation of Fa%ts$ )a*e 1--$ Re%o"#s.
3 Anne? GFG to t&e !a"tia Sti)uation of Fa%ts$ )a*e -2$ Re%o"#s.
6 Anne? GF91G$ )a*e 1-:$ Re%o"#s.
82
7 Anne? G/G$ )a*e 13-$ Re%o"#s.
8 Anne? GMG$ )a*e 136$ Re%o"#s.
: Anne?es GLG an# GL91G$ )a*es 1369138$ Re%o"#s.
; Anne?es GAG an# GNG$ )a*es 13:916<$ Re%o"#s.
T&e !"o,e%t 9 A"eano Law Foun#ation
83

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