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GUIDELINE 7

AACRA STREET LIGHTING MANUAL

FORWARD
This is the first comprehensive Street Lighting Manual prepared for the use and technical guidance
for design personnel of the Addis Ababa City Roads Authority (AACRA) and consultants doing
urban road design for the Authority. However, it may also be used as a guide by other agencies
undertaking relevant work in the road sector.
The Addis Ababa City Roads Authority has prepared this Manual in order to standardize design
practices in all AACRA road design works.
The design standards set out in this Manual shall be adhered to unless otherwise directed by the
concerned bodies within AACRA. However, I would like to emphasis that careful consideration to
sound engineering practice shall be observed in the use of the Manual and under no circumstances
shall the Manual waive professional judgment in applied engineering. For simplification in
reference this Manual may be cited as AACRA Street Lighting Manual 2004.
It is my sincere hope that this Manual will provide all users with both a standard reference and a
ready source of good practice for the design of urban roads and will assist in a cost effective
operation and environmentally sustainable development of the citys road network.
I look forward to the practices contained in this Manual being quickly adopted into our operations,
thereby making a sustainable contribution to the improved infrastructure of our City.
As this Manual, due to technological development and change, requires periodic updating,
comments and suggestions on all aspects from any concerned body, group or individual as a
feedback during its implementation is expected and that will be highly appreciated.

Fekadu Haile
General Manager

Addis Ababa City Roads Authority

FINAL November 2004

Forward
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GUIDELINE 7
AACRA STREET LIGHTING MANUAL

PREFACE
This AACRA Street Lighting Design Manual 2004 is one of the series of AACRAs Design
Manuals, Standard Contract Documents and Specifications. The Manual was developed by
SMEC International in association with Metaferia Consulting Engineers (MCE).
This manual has been developed from current international practice appropriately modified to take
into account the local experience and conditions and is written for the practicing Engineer.
AACRA formed a project Working Group charged with evaluating and commenting upon the draft
Manuals and guiding the Consultant on the preparation of the final Manuals. Members of the
Working Group, the SMEC International and Metaferia Consulting Engineers (MCE) for this Manual
consists of the following:
Ato Ahadu Ably

AACRA

Ato Zewdu Bayeh

AACRA

Ato Binyam Bedelu

AACRA

Ato Belayneh W/Selassie

SMEC

Mr John Fooks

SMEC

Mr. Jim Appleby

SMEC

Mr. Solomon Retta

MCE

Manuals and Documents prepared under these services are the following:
1. AACRA Traffic and Axle Load Study Manual
2. AACRA Pavement Design Manual
3. AACRA Geometric Design Manual
4. AACRA Bridge Design Manual and Standard Bridge Drawings
5. AACRA Soils and Materials Manual
6. AACRA Drainage Design Manual
7. AACRA Street Lighting Manual (this Manual)
8. AACRA Technical Specification and Standard Drawings for Urban Infrastructure
9. AACRA Bidding Documents and Conditions of Contract
This Manual has been set up in accordance with the following format:

Chapter

Major Heading (Level One)

Subchapter within the major heading (Level Two)

Sub-subchapter within the second level subject matter (Level Three)

All tables are described by numbers beginning with one (1) at the first of each section. Figures are
described in a similar manner.
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The Manual will be updated and revised on a periodic basis, as deemed appropriate. Significant
changes to criteria or procedures, which represent new policies of AACRA, or that are mandated
by the City Government, Federal Government Ministry or Agency, should be issued as soon as
possible. Other minor changes, not affecting design, can be accumulated and made periodically.
When a change is approved, new page(s) instituting the revisions, together with the revision date,
will be issued and inserted into the relevant sections.
All revisions to the Manual will be made strictly in accordance with the following procedures:
Any proposed change will be submitted by or through the head of the Design Department of
AACRA.
The proposed change, addition or deletion will be submitted on a Manual Change Form 1-1 (see
the attached form) and forwarded with an explanation of its need and purpose.
If the change is approved, the General Manager will sign the Manual Change form and return a
copy to the initiating Design Department Head. The original will be incorporated into the Manual by
the concerned Department.
The concerned Department will incorporate the changes into the Manual and re-issue all effected
pages showing the proper revision date as shown on the Manual Change Form 1.1.

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ADDIS ABABA CITY ROADS AUTHORITY


STREET LIGHTING MANUAL

MANUAL CHANGE

This area to be completed by the head of the


Design Division
Change No.
(Chapter No.

-Change No.)
-

Chapter
Table
Figure

Explanation

To be Deleted

Submitted by:

Approved by:

Title:

General Manager of:

Date:

Date:

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To be Inserted

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GUIDELINE 7
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STREET LIGHTING MANUAL


CONTENTS
1

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1

ADDIS ABABA CITY ROADS AUTHORITY .................................................................................. 1-1

1.2

CONTRACTORS TO AACRA................................................................................................... 1-1

1.3

LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK .................................................................................................... 1-1

1.4

OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................................... 1-1

INTERESTED PARTIES.......................................................................................................... 2-1


2.1

ETHIOPIAN ELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION (EEPCO)......................................................... 2-1

2.2

EEPCO HISTORIC ROLE IN STREET LIGHTING ....................................................................... 2-1

2.3

OTHER SERVICES IN THE ROAD RESERVE .............................................................................. 2-1

2.3.1

Stormwater by AACRA. ............................................................................................. 2-1

2.3.2

Telephone by Ethiopia Telecommunications Corporation (ETC). ............................. 2-1

2.3.3

Electrical distribution by EEPCO. .............................................................................. 2-2

2.3.4

Water and Sewerage by Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority (AAWSA).... 2-2

2.3.5

Traffic Signs by AACRA ............................................................................................ 2-2

2.3.6

Traffic Light Signals by AACRA................................................................................. 2-2

2.3.7

Sample Designs for Coordination of Service Locations ............................................ 2-2

2.4

ETHIOPIAN CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY .................................................................................. 2-3

2.4.1

Typical Requirements for Street Lighting near Airports............................................. 2-3

2.4.2

Luminaries near Airports ........................................................................................... 2-3

2.4.3

Coloured Lights near Airports.................................................................................... 2-3

2.5

CITY GOVERNMENT OF ADDIS ABABA .................................................................................... 2-4

2.6

QUALITY AND STANDARDS AUTHORITY OF ETHIOPIA (QASA).................................................. 2-4

2.7

INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICE ........................................................................................... 2-5

2.7.1

General ...................................................................................................................... 2-5

2.7.2

Priority Guidelines...................................................................................................... 2-6

CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT............................................................................................. 3-1


3.1

FOG ..................................................................................................................................... 3-1

3.2

RAINFALL AND INSECTS ......................................................................................................... 3-1

3.3

ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION .................................................................................................... 3-1

3.4

WIND ................................................................................................................................... 3-1

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3.5

TEMPERATURE ..................................................................................................................... 3-1

3.6

GENERAL CLIMATE ............................................................................................................... 3-2

3.7

SOLAR RADIATION ................................................................................................................ 3-2

REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHTING ......................................................................................... 4-1


4.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................................... 4-1

4.2

DESIGN ILLUMINATION LEVELS FOR DIFFERENT CLASSES OF ROADS .................................... 4-1

4.2.1

Hierarchy of Roads .................................................................................................... 4-2

4.2.2

Illumination Levels for each Class of Road ............................................................... 4-2

4.2.3

Light technical parameters for each category of lighting ........................................... 4-7

4.3

LIGHTING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................................... 4-11

4.3.1

Existing equipment .................................................................................................. 4-11

4.3.2

Lamps ......................................................................................................................4-12

4.3.3

Luminaires ............................................................................................................... 4-13

4.3.4

Photocells ................................................................................................................ 4-15

4.3.5

Circuit Breakers and Fuses ..................................................................................... 4-15

4.4

POLES ................................................................................................................................ 4-15

4.4.1

Existing Poles .......................................................................................................... 4-15

4.4.2

Selection of new poles............................................................................................. 4-16

4.4.3

Pole Setback............................................................................................................4-17

4.4.4

Pole Construction .................................................................................................... 4-20

4.4.5

Local construction of poles in Ethiopia .................................................................... 4-21

4.4.6

Outreach arms ......................................................................................................... 4-26

4.4.7

Computer Programs, Pole Spacing and Lighting Performance............................... 4-26

4.5

LIGHTING DESIGN SUBMISSION ............................................................................................ 4-27

4.6

INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................................... 4-28

4.6.1

Poles ........................................................................................................................ 4-28

4.6.2

Ducts and Pits.......................................................................................................... 4-28

4.6.3

Earthing.................................................................................................................... 4-30

4.6.4

Supply Pillar (Feeder Pillar) ..................................................................................... 4-31

4.7

CABLING AND DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................................ 4-33

4.7.1

Distribution ............................................................................................................... 4-33

4.7.2

Cable........................................................................................................................ 4-33

4.7.3

Cable Joints and Connections ................................................................................. 4-34

4.8

TESTING AND COMMISSIONING ............................................................................................ 4-36

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4.9

SWITCHING REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................ 4-36

4.10

COORDINATION WITH OTHER SERVICES............................................................................ 4-36

4.10.1

Sewerage, Drainage and Water Supply .................................................................. 4-37

4.10.2

Telecommunications................................................................................................ 4-37

4.10.3

Traffic Signal Lights ................................................................................................. 4-37

4.10.4

EEPCO Electrical Distribution ................................................................................. 4-37

4.10.5

Bridges..................................................................................................................... 4-38

4.10.6

Trees........................................................................................................................ 4-38

RECORDING AND SURVEY................................................................................................... 5-1


5.1

LOCATION AND DETAILS OF STREET LIGHTS ........................................................................... 5-1

5.2

RECORD OF OTHER SERVICES .............................................................................................. 5-2

5.3

PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDS .................................................................................................... 5-2

MAINTENANCE....................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1

ACCESS TELEPHONE NUMBER ............................................................................................... 6-1

6.2

MAINTENANCE PRACTICES .................................................................................................... 6-1

6.2.1

Spot replacement of lamps: -..................................................................................... 6-2

6.2.2

Bulk lamp replacement: -........................................................................................... 6-2

6.3

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS ...................................................................... 6-3

STANDARD DRAWINGS ........................................................................................................ 7-1

REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1

AACRA ROAD DESIGN MANUALS.......................................................................................... 8-1

8.2

AACRA TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................... 8-1

8.3

AACRA PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE AND BRIDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ................................. 8-1

8.4

AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS ........................................................................ 8-1

8.5

PUBLICATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ILLUMINATION (CIE) .......................... 8-3

8.6

LOCATION OF STREET LIGHTING POLES AND OF UNDERGROUND SERVICES ............................... 8-4

8.6.1

NS167 Positioning of Poles and Lighting Columns, July 2001 ................................. 8-4

8.6.2

Guide to Codes and Practices for streets Opening 2002 .......................................... 8-4

8.7

OTHER REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 8-4

8.7.1

Road Lighting in Developing Countries ..................................................................... 8-4

8.7.2

Lighting of Pedestrian Crossings (1997) ................................................................... 8-4

8.7.3

Lighting columns and signposts: planned inspection regime .................................... 8-4

8.7.4

A Practical Guide to the Development of a Public Lighting Policy ............................ 8-4

8.7.5

Cost Effectiveness of Night Time Patrolling (1984)................................................... 8-4

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8.7.6

BS5489 Road Lighting............................................................................................... 8-4

8.7.7

Perfect Lite Software ................................................................................................. 8-4

8.7.8

REALity Real time lighting Design Software.............................................................. 8-5

8.7.9

Fael Luce lighting Design Software ........................................................................... 8-5

8.7.10

Civil Aviation Safety Authority Australia.................................................................. 8-5

8.7.11

Illuminated Signs ....................................................................................................... 8-5

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1 Climate and Environment Requirements ........................................................................ 3-2
Table 4-1:- Conceptual widths of Principal Arterial Streets (April 2002 Master Plan)..................... 4-3
Table 4-2:- Conceptual widths of Sub-arterial Streets (April 2002 Master Plan) ............................ 4-4
Table 4-3:- Conceptual widths of Collector Roads (April 2002 Master Plan).................................. 4-5
Table 4-4:- Conceptual widths of Local Streets (April 2002 Master Plan) ...................................... 4-6
Table 4-5.......................................................................................................................................... 4-8
Table 4-6.......................................................................................................................................... 4-9
Table 4-7:- Category V4 ................................................................................................................ 4-10
Table 4-8........................................................................................................................................ 4-10
Table 4-9 - Category P4 ................................................................................................................ 4-10
Table 4-10 - Category P10 ............................................................................................................ 4-10
Table 4-11 - Category P11 ............................................................................................................ 4-11
Table 4-12:- Category P12 ............................................................................................................ 4-11
Table 4-13 - Setback Requirement for Roads with Kerbs............................................................. 4-18
Table 4-14:-Setback Requirement for Roads without Kerbs......................................................... 4-18
Table 4-15:- Recommended planting depths for rigid poles and pole foundations....................... 4-22
Table 4-16:-Recommended minimum internal dimensions of pits (metre) ................................... 4-29

TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1: Lighting within 6km of Airport........................................................................................ 2-4
Figure 4-1 - Typical Horizontal Illumination Distribution................................................................ 4-13
Figure 4-2 - Frangible Poles .......................................................................................................... 4-17
Figure 4-3 - Poles Setback with Respect to Edge of Traffic Lane................................................. 4-19
Figure 4-4 - Local Street in Addis Ababa ...................................................................................... 4-20
Figure 4-5 - Pole with Integral Outreach Arm................................................................................ 4-23

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Figure 4-6 - Reinforced Spun Concrete Poles Used for Street Lighting ....................................... 4-24
Figure 4-7: Standard Pole Details ................................................................................................. 4-25
Figure 4-8: Opening & Entry Details ............................................................................................. 4-26
Figure 4-9 - Components of Effective Resistance......................................................................... 4-30
Figure 4-10: Standard Supply Pillar .............................................................................................. 4-32
Figure 4-11: Connection Assembly ............................................................................................... 4-35
Figure 7-1: EEPCO Standard Drawing ........................................................................................... 7-2

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