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ru JACOBS GIBB
OSD TRAINING MANUAL
JacobsGIBB PROJECT NO XX104
REVISION 0.0
DATE: 17/08/2001
JacobsGIBB Ltd
Suites 29-31, Beaufort Street Business Centre
Beaufort Street
DERBY
DE21 SAX
OSD Training Manual Rev 0.0 Issued 17/08/01 JacobsGIBB Ltd
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GIBB
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET
PROJECT: JOB NO: XX104
TITLE: OSD TRAINING MANUAL
IY Pre ared b vtew 'IY_ Re' edb cpprov
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ORIGINAL
NAME NAME NAME
L Tompkins C. Pearson S. Limbert
DATE SIGNA TIJliE SIGNA TIJliE SIGNA TIJliE
REVISION
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!lAME two!!
DAlE SICIHAruRB SIONAlVRB SI<INA nJRII
REVISION
NAMil
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NAME
DILlE SIGNAnJRII SIONA'I\IIt SIONAlVRB
REVISION
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D.l'IE SIGNA TIJliE SIGHATIJliE SIGNATIJliE
This rqxxt. ..t Of ..Svice wbicb il COII<Iilu, is po>lclcd by GIBB solely for llmmol1110 ODd relialll:e by lis Oiellt in porfOnnoncc of G!BB'I d\ldos ODd lllobilili:s lllld<:r il.a...,.... widl
the OieliL Any advice, or wilbiol tlU report should be .-1 llld ,.lied 11po<1 ooly ill the colllelCI of the report u a wbole. Tho odvice ood opnioos iD lhio rqxm on bucd
upoo the infonnolloa lnllde available 10 GIBB 11 tho doze of tlU rqxm a on cum:a& UK SUIDdards, codea, U>Chnolo&Y 01111 coiiJUU<tion p<a<:tices u 11 the dolE of llUs repo<L Followiaa 1\aai
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report. This report Nl been IRJllll'd by G!BB In their pofUslollal oapaclly u CaatultlQa Tho COIIWIIS of the report do DDt, in Y way, pll'pOit 10 ll:ll:kodo any......,... of ltpl advk:o
or opiDion. This repon Is pre:pond iD occortiiDce with lhc lmiiS a! conditions of OIBB'1 wilh the OieiiL Rqonl should be bod 10 th:l,. laDlS IIIII oondiciooo wben a>DSidetiQa llld.W
placiDa anytdlllloe oa thlorepon. SlrJuld theC&DI wilh 10 roleuo this report lO Third Party ilrthllpmy's roliaoce. G!BB 1111y, 1tilsdiscrebon. ape<: 10-...-po>lclcd dial:
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assume no duties. latililies ot oblgalicns co 11\at llird Pany, and
(c) GIBB IICCqlCS oo lOr Cl,)' lou 0< im:umd by the Clio<ar li>rCI,)' ma!litt ofGIIIB'a lolaossarisiaa ow oftbe Cliall's rdtucofthis repart lO tbe Tbird
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INDEX OF CONTENTS
1.0 OVERHEAD SYSTEM DESIGN .(O.S.D) ......................................................... 8
1.1
What is O.S.D ------8
1.1.1 Feasibility design ............................................................................................................................ 8
1. 1.2 Outline Design ................................................................................................................................ 8
1.1.3 Detailed design ................................................................................................................................ 9
2. STANDARDS AND DESIGN DRAWINGS .......................................................... 9
2.1 Railtrack Group and Line Standards ................................................................................................. 9
2.2 Railtrack OLEMI Design Drawings (Basic design). _ .......... - ....................................... - ........... 10
2.3 Producing new designs . ...................................................................................................................... 10
2.4 Electrification Specifications. Standards, Procedures, Instructions and Codes ofPradice ......... ll
3. TERMINOLOGY ...................................... 11
4.1 Section Diagra.DI.S - ............ _ . - ............ - ............ - . _ ...... - .................. ._ _ - ---... -13
4.2 Section Numbering ............................................................................................................ _ ..................... 14
4.3 Return Conductors (RCs) and Booster Transformers and Midpoint connections ........ _ ............ 14
Interference Suppression using RC 's ............................................................................................................... 1S
4.4 The Pantograph and Overhead line. ...... - .................................. - ................................ - ............ 16
4.5 Layout Plan.. ----,- ... 17
5.0 DESIGN INPUT OAT A ........... 17
5.1 Survey. ------------17
5.2 Wind Speed Survey .............. _ ................................... - .................. - ................................................. 18
5.3 Pway I Track plans .................. _ ............................ ,_ .................... _. ................................. _ ...................... IS
5.4 Longitudinal Se.ction.s ............................ _, ..... - ..... - ...... ._ ... - ............. -- .... -18
S.S Bridge Schedule. (See Group Standard G!\.'1/TT/0101 Latest Issue) ......... - ................................... 19
5.6 Level Crossing Schedule. See GM/IT/0101 and EHQ/IN/0/006 .................... - ............................. 19
5.7 Signalling Plan .. ,_ ............................ , . _ ..................... - ............. - ..................... _ .. , .... 19
6.0 THE OVERHEAD LINE EQUIPMENT ............................................................ 20
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6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
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Fixed Simple Equipment. Fr.(IJ14/116) ........................................................................... - . 21
Auto Tensioned Equipment. AT (1/14/115) . ................................................................. .................... 21
Simple catenary with presag in the contact wire (1114/104) ......................................................... 21
Simple catenary with Level Contact wire ..................................................................................... 22
Compound Catenary ..................................................................................................................... 23
Stitched Catenary .......................................................................................................................... 23
7.0 THE TENSION LENGTH. T/'L ......................................................................... 30
7.1
7.1.1
7. 1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.6
7.1.7
7.1.8
7.2
Span le-ngt:bs--------- ------ -----------------------30
Stagger .......................................................................................................................................... 30
Versine (Also known as String line ) ............................................................................................ 30
Blowoff ........................................................................................................................................ 30
Stagger Effect. ............................................................................................................................... 30
Max Deviation .............................................................................................................................. 31
Midspan offset. MS0 .................................................................................................................... 31
Sweep ............................................................................................................................................ 31
Sign convention ............................................................................................................................ 31
I.n Span Jumpers -a----------- 32
7.3 Midpoint Anchors --- ------------------ .... ------32
7.4 Overlaps and Balance Weight Anchors .......................................... - .......................... - ............ 32
8.0 OVERHEAD LINE FEATURES ...................................................................... 34
8.1
8.1.1.
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.1.4
8.1.5
8.4
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.5.4
8.5.5
8.5.6
8.5.7
8.5.8
8.5.9
8.6
8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.6.6
Over Bridges and Adjacent spans. Contact wire gradient. .............................................................. 34
Free Running Bridges ................................................................................................................... 34
Twin Contact Wire Bridges. Reduced and Normal Clearance ...................................................... 34
Through Contenary Bridges , Nonnal Clearance .......................................................................... 34
Designing Bridge Arrangements ................................................................................................... 35
Tunnels (Drg 1/9/101) ................................................................................................................... 35
Neutral Sections ....... ___ ....... _. ... .-. .. ---------------------- --..-36
Arms and Registration Assemblies ................. - ................................................ _ ... _ ..... 37
Different types .............................................................................................................................. 37
When to use each type .................................................................................................................. 37
Radial Load .(1114/109 to 1114/111 ) ........................................................................................... 38
Uplift .(1 No Slide. 1/14/801) ...................................................................................................... 38
Minimum Stagger for registration arms .(199/66o series) ............................................................ 38
Base information required ............................................................................................................. 39
Procedure ...................................................................................................................................... 39
Choosing an ann ........................................................................................................................... 39
Windstays ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Krluckles. ................................................................................................... ---- -- ----41
Why are they used? ....................................................................................................................... 41
Different types .............................................................................................................................. 42
Base infonnationrequired ............................................................................................................. 42
Procedure ...................................................................................................................................... 42
Reference to other sheets ................................................................................................ .............. 43
Drawing numbers .......................................................................................................................... 43
8.7 Droppers---- - ------- ...... ------ ..... - --- ------ --- ... -44
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8.7.1
8.7.2
8.7.3
8.7.4
8.7.5
8.7.6
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What are they? .............................................................................................................................. 44
Why are they used? ....................................................................................................................... 44
Different types .............................................................................................................................. 44
Base information required ............................................................................................................. 44
Procedure ...................................................................................................................................... 44
Drawings used ............................................................................................................................... 45
8 .. 8 Jumpers ........................................................................................................ .._ ......................................... 46
8.9 Lineside Switch.es .............. .._ ........................................ - ......................... - ............................... - .... 46
9.0 SUPPORTJNG STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 47
9.1 Ca.ntilever Masts ...................................................... ,_ ................................................................ , ............... 47
9.2 Twin ca.ntilevers ----- ... oe. .... - , .. ------ -48
9.3 Headspans .............................................. ----- ................... ------ ............. 48
9.3.1 Switching Arrangements on Headspan Structures ....................................................................... 49
9.4 PortaJs ----- -- ... --,-50
9.5 Two Track Cantilever I TTC ............... _ ............................... - ..................................................... 51
9.6
9.7
9.7.1
9.7.2
9.7.3
9.7.4
Supports at Tunnels and Overbridges ........ - ........... - .. - ........................... __. .... .._. .. 51
Anchors ....................................................... , ...... , __ ................. ............ _ ........ - ........... - ................ _.,_,_,, .. ,_ ...... 52
Tie Rods ........................................................................................................................................ 52
Self Supporting Anchors ............................................................................................................... 53
Portal anchors ................................................................. , ............................................................. 53
Bow wire Anchors ........................................................................................................................ 53
9.8 Predrilled Masts ................... - ........................................................... - ........................................ 53
10. Structure and Foundation Loading. (EHQ/ST/0/009 & Wind Code of Practice ECP34.) .......... 54
10.1 Cantilever Structure Bending Moment Calculations .............. - .. - ............................................... 55
10.1.1 Load Cases .................................................................................................................................... 56
10.1.2 Wind Load ......................................................................... , .......................................................... 56
10.1.3 Conductor loads .................................................................................... , ....................................... 56
10.1.4 Structure loads .............................................................................................................................. 51
10.1.5 Radial Loads ................................................................................................................................. 51
1 0.1.6 Weight of Components ................................................................................................................. 57
10.1.7 Conductor weights ................................ , ....................................................................................... 57
Weight x Ltn + Weigh_t x Lm .. ----........... - ................ - ..... ,- .......................... - .......... - .... ----_. ..... 58
10.1.8 Frame weight ........................................... , .................................................................................... 58
10.1.9 Additional Weight ......................................................................................................................... 58
10.1.10 Ice Loads ................................................................................................................................... 58
11.0 FOUNDAT:IONS ............................................................ --. .............................. 59
11.1 Foun.da tion types.. ................................................ __ ,.__ . -........... - .. , .......... --- ... ----- 59
11.1.1 Concrete side bearing ( 1180/202 & 1180/253) ............................................................................... 59
11.1.2 Circular tubular steel pile .(1/83/801) ............................ , .............................................................. 59
11.1.3 Concrete gravity type (1/821877) ..................................................................... , ............................ 59
11.1.4 Tie Foundations. (1/81/206) ......................................... : ................................................................ 59
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11.2 Foundation Excavation (1/80 series.l/98/804 to 806 typically) - ............................................ 60
11.2.1 Grab .............................................................................................................................................. 60
11.2.2 Auger . ........................................................................................................................................... 60
11.2.3 Manual/Hand. .............................................................................................................................. 60
12.0 EARTHING AND BONDING .......................................................................... 61
12.1 Why Bond -e----- --- - ..- --- .. -- 61
12.2. - -------- -,.----- - --- .. -- ------- .-..--- .. 61
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.2.4
12.2.5
12.2.6
12.2.7
12.2.8
12.2.9
12.2.10
12.2. 11
12.2.12
12.2.13
12.2.14
12.2.15
12.2.16
12.2.17
12.2. 18
12.2. 19
12.2.20
12.2.21
12.2.22
12.2.23
12.2.24
12.2.25
Bonding plan ................................................................................................................................. 61
Bonding ......................................................................................................................................... 61
Bond .............................................................................................................................................. 61
Continuity bond ............................................................................................................................ 61
Structure to Rail . ........................................................................................................................... 61
Impedance bond ............................................................................................................................ 62
Rail joint bond .............................................................................................................................. 62
Rail to rail bond ............................................................................................................................ 62
RedBond ...................................................................................................................................... 62
Track to track cross bond ............................................................................................... ........... 62
Yellow bond .............................................................................................................................. 62
Return Conductor to rail bond .................................................................................................. 62
Earth .......................................................................................................................................... 62
Earth wire .................................................................................................................................. 62
Earthing ..................................................................................................................................... 62
Earth electrode .......................................................................................................................... 63
Traction earth ............................................................................................................................ 63
Traction return rail .................................................................................................................... 63
Traction return current .............................................................................................................. 63
Traction return system .............................................................................................................. 63
Rail Potential ............................................................................................................................. 63
Potential difference ................................................................................................................... 63
Simultaneous touching distance ................................................................................................ 63
Return conductor ....................................................................................................................... 64
Spider Plate ............................................................................................................................... 64
13.0 SMOS .............................................................................................................. 65
14.0 OVERHEAD SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURE ........................................... 66
14.1
Proced.ure and Documents. - .. .. ------66
14.2
Layout Plan ..................... --.......................... - .. ------- -------------- 66
14.3
Walk.out ----... ------- ---.,.--................... ,- .. ------67
14.4 Bridge and OLE Structure Cross sections ........................................................................................ 67
14.5
Const:r'u.ctability. --------.... ------ .. - ... .. ---------- .... 67
14.6
Bonding Plans. ................... ---,--- ---------------------68
14.7 Wire Run Sched'Uies. ......... __ , .................. _ ..... ._ ........................................... __ ,_ ,,,_,, ................................... 68
14.8 Design, Checking and Approval Procedure ...................................................................................... 68
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15.0 DESIGN CHANGES ...................................... 69
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16.0 BILL OF QUANTITIES ........ 69
17.0 AS FITIED ............................................. 69
18.0 G LOSSARY 0 F TERMS ........ 7 0
19.0 SOME TYPICAL LAYOUT SYMBOLS ........................................................... 7 4
20.0 EXERCISE MODULES ................... 76
EXERCISE 1: CANTILEVER BENDING MOMENT CALCULATION (REFER TO
SECTION 10.1 OF TRAINING MANUAL) ............................................................... 77
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EXERCISE 2: BRIDGE ARRANGEMENT EXERCISE (REFER TO SECTION 8.1
OF TRAINING MANUAL) .............................................. 78
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EXERCISE 3: LAYOUT ARRANGEMENT EXERCISE ........................................... 80
To be determined ............... . ; t o ~ 80
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EXERCISE 4: CROSS SECTION EXERCISES ................................. 81
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Stage 1
FOUNDATION CONSIDERATIONS ------- ... - - ----------82
Stage 2
STEEL WORK .............. ~ ~ ~ ~ 83
Stage3 BONDING ............................. - ................................................................................................................. 85
Stage4
A.LONG TRACK -- - -------------------................... _. --. --- ... - ....... 86
StageS
WIRING - --- -------- -- ---------------------- ... - - 92
EXERCISE 5: SWITCHING EXERCISE ................. 93
To be determined---------------------.._._ .. _ ._ ................. --------- 93
EXERCISE 6: ISOLATION DIAGRAM EXERCISE ................................................. 93
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To be determined ............... _ ................................................................................................................. - ... - ........... 93
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EXERCISE 7: BONDING EXERCISE . .............. 93
To be determined ----- ... ---- ------------93
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1.0 Overhead System Design .(O.S.D).
,... . This manual contains all the information necessary to complete the OSD training modules
which must be completed by prospective O.S.D allocation designers, in order to be classed as
competent to perform design duties to Railtrack standards. Notes provide an outline of the 25
kV Electrification System and basic information of the Overhead Line Equipment to assist
with the O.S.D process.
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1.1 What is O.S.D
O.S.D. is the preparation of a set of documentation which will allow a contractor to construct
the Overhead Line Equipment (OLE) on a designated Line to be Electrified or remodelled.
This principally involves allocating assemblies and components from an approved range of
designs.
90% of our design work is undertaken for Rail track on their infrastructure and our design
work is covered by a strict set of rules and regulations and "the approved design range". This
design range is known as the OLEMJ or Overhead line Master Index.
Gibb do not currently have their own 'cin house design" which could be used on private
enterprise I overseas projects, although this is planned for the future and may take the form of
an alliance with a European manufacturer.
There are normally three stages to the design process.
1.1.1 Feasibility design
The production of a report and line diagrams from which the client can view a number of
"options" and gain a rough estimate of costs (to 30% ).
Note:
View a typical Feasibility report in the AD3 Training folder under Admin on the local
Network.
1.1.2 Outline Design
The outline design takes the chosen feasibility option to the next stage. A design layout and
report detailing the design and construction methodology are produced. This is normally
used to get prospective tenders from construction companies and design consultants alike.
The report sets out the design standards, health and safety issues pertinent to the design and
an overview of the work required to complete the scheme .
Note:
View a typical Outline report in the AD3 Training folder under Admin on the local Network.
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1.1.3 Detailed design
Detailed design produces the documentation which ultimately provides a workable design
and a Bill of Quantities from which all materials right down to the last nut and bolt can be
ordered. This involves the production of a detailed layout plan on which all heights and
staggers are recorded and cross sections on which the construction contractor has all the
necessary information required to build the OLE design.
The design is prepared using a set of standard design arrangements that ensure uniformity of
design and construction.
There are several OSD teams of Engineers and technicians engaged in the preparation of
separate schemes or parts of schemes
2. Standards and Design Drawings ..
Reference is made throughout the following notes to various Standards, Design drawings and
or other documents containing information that are vital to or will assist in the Overhead
System Design.
2. 1 Railtrack Group and Line Standards.
These are a series of documents prepared and maintained by Railtrack that lay down the
requirements, parameters and tolerances for Railway Engineering.
Features such as electrical and mechanical clearances, minimum wire heights and track
tolerances appear here.
Line standards are currently available through the Gibb intranet by :
Going to the Library using the left tool bar
Select Internet retrieval system
Click the SUBMIT button.
Group standards are currently installed for viewing on the Derby server and can be accessed
from the programs bar within Windows. Compliance with all Railtrack standards is
mandatory and the designer should seek to familiarise him/herself with these standards as
soon as possible.
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2.2 Ralltrack OLEMI Design Drawings (Basic design).
The OLEMI design range supplies the building blocks for any design undenaken on Railtrack
infrastructure, down to the last nut and bolt. It originates from the British rail designs
developed by Balfour Beatty and British Rail. The current range of drawings is for Mk3A
& B auto and fixed tennination types of equipment and MkV (Dollands Moor) equipment.
Many other types of equipment exist on the Rail network but wherever possible these are
bought up to the new standards during modification works. However, certain works may be
undertaken in say a Mk1 area and reference then needs to be made to an older series of
drawings (3000 series)
An Index is available in the OSD library. This index lists all the Electrification Drawings in
a Numerical Order under various categories:
For example:
General arrangements. 1/100/-
Technical design parameters 1114/-
Steelwork 1/35/-
Foundations 1/80/-
Assembly drawings 1/199/-
A code is given for different Equipment types or variants.
Mk3A Code.
Mk3B Code?
(100 series)
(14 series)
(35 series etc)
Books are available to each of the O.S.D design teams, which contain most of the relevant
design drawings. Care must be exercised to ensure that a particular design is appropriate to
the task in hand. Quick reference sheets are attached to the office wall in Derby to assist
2.3 Producing new designs.
On Rail track projects, a procedure is in place whereby additional designs or modifications to
Basic Designs can be arranged. This is known generally as the "Form A" process. It is this
form that initiates the design process.
Note : It should not be confused with the Form A used in Overhead line isolation procedures.
If a new design is required on a scheme it must be prepared on Rai1track approved templates
(from NRG - National Records Group) and forwarded to Rail track for acceptance into the
range. It will need to be supported by calculations and material that assists the Railtrack
reviewer in coming to a decision on acceptance.
The process can be drawn out and wherever possible the designer is advised to use existing
designs wherever possible and not deviate from the OLEMI range.
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2.4 Electrification Specifications, Standards, Procedures, Instructions and
Codes of Practice.
Many of the standards still in use are old British Rail documents but these are gradually being
replaced by Railtrack issues. The most pertinent standards for O.S.D are
EHQ/SP/0/038 Standard for OSD documentation.
EHQ/ST/0/009 Instruction for design of Overhead line structures.
A list of the relevant documents for any scheme is usually provided in the outline design
This will also include the system design specification which gives all the
relevant parameters to be applied to the design.
3. Terminology.
Throughout these notes reference is made to various terms particular to the Overhead Line
system. In part much of the difficulty in learning OHLE allocation comes in familiarising
oneself with "nicknames" used for certain components and understanding the tenninology
used in OLE design.
A Glossary of these Terms is appended. See section 18.0
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to the 3 phase National grid system.
In normal operation all lines are parallel connected via a common busbar and "Normally
Closed" isolators .The isolators are fast operating vacuum interrupters housed either in
special line side cabins known as "Feeder Stations" or located on special structures called
SMOS .(Structure Mounted Operating Switchgear.). These isolators allow shut down of
portions of the system remotely from a central control point or automatically as a
consequence of overload or short circuit failure.
Distance between feeders is limited to between 40 and 60 km to ensure supply voltage to the
trains at no time falls below satisfactory limits.(about 17.5kV).
The Feeding sections are isolated one from another by means of Neutral sections
approximately midway between feeder points in order that the single phase supplies, which
may be from different phases of the 3 phase network , are not interconnected. Feeder stations
include switching facilities whereby lines may be isolated or the supply transformers isolated
and the power provided from adjacent feeder points during emergency or when required for
planned maintenance. The switches associated with this feature are ''Normally Open".
A Diagram is prepared for the route to be Electrified known as ' 'The Major Feeding Diagram.
This shows the position and rating of all new and existing feeder points.
4. 1 Section Diagrams
Line sectioning is provided at approx 12 km intervals where additional Vacuum circuit
breakers are situated so that reasonably short sections of line can be remotely isolated by the
Electric Controller or react to faults arising from short circuit current. These switches are
housed either in ''Track Sectioning Cabins "(TSCs) or on specially designed masts suitable
for SMOS.(Structure Mounted Operating Switchgear.).
A midpoint switching point usually occurs between feeding points and a further division
creates Intermediate sectioning switched across insulated overlap positions created in the
overhead line. These sectional overlap positions form the basis from which the position of
Booster overlaps and associated Midpoint connections are arranged .
The line is further broken down into still shorter manually operated switched sections for
maintenance purposes using where possible the natural overlap breaks in the line. Any part of
the line containing the manually switched portion is first isolated at the TSCs and/or SMOS
and then the manual switches are operated under no load conditions to allow isolation of as
small section of line.
A good example of the need for line sectioning is at crossovers where if a fault occurs on one
line the sectioning will allow isolation of the fault and the crossover to be used for alternative
routing of trains.
Set procedures with permits to work and for earthing of the equipment need to be obeyed to
ensure safety of work.
The section diagram shows the required positions of Booster transformers, switching
positions and much of the Feeder and TSC detail.
It is from this diagram that the positions of Overlaps and the Tension lengths can be
determined.
The Code of Practice for preparation of Section diagrams is EHQ/CP/P/209.
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4.2 Section Numbering.
These are necessary to provide identification in the Isolation procedure for routine operation.
A system of numbering is used so that Electric control rooms have control of electrical
sections within a given group that do not conflict with adjacent control room areas. This is
followed by identification of a subsection by lettering to identify sidings and or subsidiary
line having separate sectioning.
4.3 Return Conductors (RCs) and Booster Transformers and Midpoint
connections
The specification for Booster Transformers and Return Conductors is EHQ/SP/D/133
Interference with lineside cables can be reduced by using a return conductor situated at
approx the same level as the Catenary . The electromagnetic field created between forward
and return current is then centered outside the sphere of influence of ground located cables.
Booster transformers are included in the circuit to ensure the majority of return current is
forced to take the Return Conductor route rather than aUow it to return via traction return rail
The Booster transformers are I: 1 current transformers .The primary winding is connected
across the gap created at an insulated overlap break in the overhead line and the secondary
winding connected across a break in the RC. A connection between rail and RC is made
midway between and is known as a Midpoint Connection .. By this means current in the
return conductor is forced to be approx the same as in the overhead line.
Only whilst a train is in the immediate locality is return current present in the return rail.
Current on the Return conductor, although earthed at the MP and the feeder points, can reach
up to 600A elsewhere and is therefore treated as live. The RCs are bare except at certain
places where they are PVC covered (ie Station platforms and at level crossings and adjacent
tosignals). r ~
Booster
R.C's
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4.4 The Pantograph and Overhead line.
This device is the trains current collector.
The main frame portion is designed to foJlow the contact wire over a nmge of contact wire
heights extending from lowest bridge to level crossing and to apply a near constant contact
force throughout the range of vertical travel. This frame also allows the collector to follow
the vertical height changes made in passing from span to span.
The frame is fitted with dampers to reduce the tendency of the system to oscillate between
spans. The constant rate springs, that provide the upward contact force(nominally 90N) are
held down by a pneumatic device, when the pantograph is in the stowed position.
A pair of carbons strip or even three carbons form the contact surface with the contact wire
and are mounted on the pantograph head .. The width of the carbon track allows the contact
wire to make excursions across the carbons as the wire varies position laterally due to wind .
track curvature and stagger.
The carbon strips are joined at the ends by curved portions known as the pantograph horns.
These ensure incoming wires from the side do not hook under the carbon portion. The whole
assembly is known as the pantograph head and it is attached to the main frame via a
secondary spring arrangement. This provides a cushioning for minor variations in the
pantograph trajectory when passing droppers or small deviations in the contact wire profile.
Some pantographs allow the contact force to increase significantly with air flow due to
forward train speed in order to compensate the dynamic variations in contact force that occur
as speed increases and loss of contact becomes more likely. The Overhead line equipment
(OLE) design needs to allow for any increased uplift due to increased pantograph force. The
system is not reliable when regular contact loss occurs. 1% contact loss once considered
acceptable is now considered too high by some on account of electomagnetic interference to
modern trains.
Pantograph
Sophistication's to the system include an automatic pantograph dropping device (A.D.D) that
senses when carbons become damaged Aerolons are fitted to some designs of pantograph
head to regulate the upward force when the system is subjected to head and crosswinds.
Servo systems have been used but are limited in response mainly due to the mass of
pantograph assemblies.
Where more than one pantograph is fitted to a train, care is exercised to ensure the spacing
does not cause sympathetic oscmation of the OLE spans. Double heading of trains with two
pantographs raised is avoided and the current collection of a trailing pantograph is always
less good as it travels in the wake of a leading pantograph.
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4.5 Layout Plan.
This is essentially a map of a portion of the route being electrified .It shows the position of all
the overhead line supporting masts .the track layout and the wiring arrangements. The layout
plan is the leading OSD document to which all others are associated.
It usually gives the detail for a whole Track Unit. A Track Unit provides the detail from one
overlap to the start of the next. Not to be confused with a Tension Length which is the
distance between anchoring points.
Suitable scales are chosen depending on route complexity. Typically 1:2500 and 1:500.
It includes all the detail listed below
Survey Detail. (All detail is identified by reference to positional chaineage).
Wind Speed detail
Track Layout/Curvature Detail
Bridge Schedule Detail. Under and Overbridges and viaducts.
Level crossing Detail. Public or occupational.
Signalling Detail. Existing or Future.
OLE Detail including the type of equipment to be installed ,switching, boosters, Return
conductors and Earth wires.
DEP' s (Designated Earthing Points
In general a newly updated layout would show "green" and changes. The Red elements
represent new additional equipment and the green elements represent redundant equipment.
Hints and Tips
The simple rule to remember is RED to STOP and GREEN to GO
5.0 DESIGN INPUT DATA
5.1 Survey.
Before the position of supporting masts can be decided, it is necessary to locate all the
features along the route to be electrified.
The line is first marked out along its length in kilometres from a known start point.
There is then a further division into 10m intervals.
Information is then collated of all features that may influence the overhead line design.
Typically:
Bridges,
Viaducts,
Track curvature,
Embankments,
Cuttings,
Signal positions,
Crossovers
Obstructions,
Station details such as awning positions and ends of platforms,
Position of powerline crossings etc .
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5.2 Wind Speed Survey
A schedule of wind speeds applying to the route has to be detennined before the maximum
mast spacing can be decided.
The ability of the conductors to remain on the pantograph collector head depends on
sideways deflection of the conductor in wind. The deflection of and size of supporting masts
also depends on likely wind force.
A Code of Practice (ECP34) exists which allows a scientific approach to detennine design
wind speed from which the wind force is derived..
Consideration is given to ground surface roughness, topography exposure and height above
surrounding ground. Base wind speeds are determined by taking into account risk factors and
using values of extreme mean hourly wind speeds that will be exceeded on average only once
in 50 years.
Information is given on how to assess wind force across and along track for a variety of
section of conductors and masts making appropriate allowance by factoring for risks of
failure.
Hints and Tips
Spreedsheets exist within the OSD suite of programs to assist in calculating wind loads to
ECP34.
P 5.3 Pway I Track plans
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In areas of remodelling a Railway Civil Engineering Contractor will be required to supply
detail plans showing trackwork in the existing and proposed positions.
These plans are usually of sufficiently large scale to accurately scale (1/200) across and along
track. These plans are usually available for CAD use.
Tables described by Railway Civil Engineers as Hallade schemes list the position and
magnitude of proposed track slues and curvature where plans are not available or necessary.
Radii information is included from which Versines (String Lines) between structure positions
can be determined.
Where tracks are to remain as existing relevant information is gathered at time of survey. The
chaineage used by the Civil Engineering departments does not always accord with
Electrification chaineage
Hints and tips
( 1 chain = 22 yards, 10 chains = 1 furlong, 8 furlongs = 1 mile)
5.4 Longitudinal Sections
These drawings are prepared by Civil Engineering authorities to show the track gradients,
track vertical curvature and the track levels and cants at various intervals.
From these it is possible to calculate the track height at all the Overhead line structure
positions.
The information is important to establish foundation levels and in designs at bridges where
clearances or grading of wiring may be affected by the amount of vertical track curvature.
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'"' 5.5 Bridge Schedule. (See Group Standard GMJTT/0101 Latest Issue)
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This schedule lists all the bridges on the scheme and is prepared in conjunction with the
Electrical Engineers requirements and Department of Transport stipulations and civil
engineering requirements.
It gives brief details of the height and width limitations and usually the intended works to
make a bridge or tunnel suitable for AC. Electrification. (ie Lift, Reconstruct or As exists).
The above group standard give details of the bridge soffit height necessary to achieve various
categories of electrical clearance.
Costs of construction, intensity of service and consequence of failure should all be
considerations in deciding the clearance category to be allocated for any particular bridge.
Currently these are based on a Normal Electrical clearance of 200mm, 150mm passing and
Reduced Electrical clearance of 150mm, 125mm passing.
The Minimum bridge height depends on whether the bridge is a new construction, an existing
construction where tight control on tolerances can be arranged or speeds are so low that only
minimal pantograph uplift will occur.
Overhead line conductors pass through bridges and tunnels at a lower height than in adjacent
open route. Spacing between supporting structures are consequently short.
Special insulated supports are necessary and usually fixed to soffits of bridges in order to
control the amount of pantograph uplift and the position of the wires vertically and laterally.
Conductors are graded up to normal level in open route at a rate that ensures the pantograph
remains in good contact and to ensure that iced conductors do not infringe allowable
clearances.
Arch bridges and tunnels present additional problems of clearance to the pantograph horn
where sway of the vehicle also has to be taken into account. and there are special categories
of pantograph clearance which can be used.
5.6 Level Crossing Schedule. See GMITT/0101 and EHQ/IN/0/006
This gives brief detail of status of the level crossings, stating whether the crossing is public or
occupational or to be closed.
At public road level crossings a Minimum Contact wire height of 5.6m is required. This
contrasts with a lowest contact wire height of 4.165m at bridges.
Height of the contact wire, at midspan on the crossing, must allow for ice loading on
conductors and any midspan presag in the contact wire.
,..-4 Grading of the contact wire especially from bridges and control of the wire, laterally, are
especially important as the pantograph reaches its limit of travel and suffers maximum sway.
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5. 7 Signalling Plan.
A signalling diagram provides the position, direction applicable, and the nomenclature of all
the signals on the route. The chaineage of these does not necessarily accord with
Electrification chaineage and is often given in miles and yards.
Hints and tips
( 1 chain = 22 yards, 10 chains = 1 furlong, 8 furlongs = 1 mile)
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S.O The Overhead Line Equipment.
Several Types of equipment and designs have been used in Britain and throughout the world.
Background and principles of some of these follows before a more in depth discussion of
design parameters are considered in the OSD.
6. 1 Tramway Equipment.
The simplest form of overhead line consists of a single contact wire, fixed at each end.
Tension varies with temperature and is determined by considerations of safe stress on the
wire at lowest temperature. Maximum spans are determined by considerations of sag and
wind deflection (Blowoff) and are not normally more than 40m. Speed capability is limited
to 40mph and current rating is minimal
The equipment is deemed suitable for use only in sidings. It i s useful for wiring in areas of
congested trackwork and is often used for Light Rail applications in towns and Cities.

/
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Tramway
Mid Fixed
Simple
_IRAM\.JA Y f QlJIPt:iENT FlXEO TERMINATION.
span 45m 107mm"'1 [_Ot acl
1 --....__ I
U5ed lfl sid ngs cr where speeds are le$S thar liOmileslh
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6.2 Fixed Simple Equipment. FT.(1/ 14/116).
This is a two wire system comprising a catenary wire supporting a contact wire by means of
droppers spaced at regular intervals. The wires are fixed terminated so that tension and
contact wire height rise and fall with temperature. An allowance of 9.5mm of radial ice is
made on the catenary and the design range of temperature is from -18 deg C to 38 deg C .The
contact wire is arranged level at 10 deg C. Older Mk1 system used a temperature range of
22degF to 122deg F.
Tension calculation involves estimation of an equivalent span for the tension length. FT
equipment requires wires with good mechanical strength and creep properties. Conductors
containing 0.7% Cadmium are used.
Wear of the Contact wire is restricted to 33% of cross sectional area.
Max speed for this equipment is 75 mph mainly because tensions are low at highest
temperature. Spans up to 73m are allowed in design.
It is useful in complex slow speed areas and sidings due to its simplicity.
I 6.3 Auto Tensi oned Equipment. AT (1/141115).
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These are equipments having either 2 (simple), 3 wires (compound) or 2 wires with a
supplementary stitch.(stitched) The wires are tensioned by means of weights (Balance
weights) which provide a near constant tension throughout a temperature range of -18deg C
to 38 deg C. Occasionally in cases of difficulty in accommodating the weights a hydraulic
tensioning device is used.
The equipment types have different static stiffness characteristics which can appreciably
affect the current collection performance. High contact wire tension (usually in the range of
llkN) is essential for best pe.rformance.
Hints and tips
kN = kg x 9.81 - As a guide 1000 kG is approx 10 kN and therefore the tension in the wire is
roughly equivalent to suspending a small car from a single wire. This should help you to
remember the sort of forces applied.
9.5mm of radial ice is allowed on the catenary in sag and loading calculations. Span lengths
of up to 73m are allowed in design.
6.3.1 Simple catenary with presag in the contact wire (1114/104).
The Mk3B version of this equipment is the present basic standard used for all new
electrification on Britains Railways.
It is a two wire system comprising an A WAC catenary supporting a 107mm
2
Hard Drawn
Copper (Hd.Cu) contact wire. A WAC (7/3.9Smm)is a proprietary conductor comprising 5
strands of aluminium with two outer wires of aluminium covered steel.
A presag is introduced into the Contact wire equal to approx 1/ 1000 of span to compensate
for the difference in vertical compliance throughout the spans and the consequential
difference in uplift under pantograph vertical force. Statically the presag ensures a near level
pantograph trajectory through the spans and is intended to reduce the dynamic effects at
speed .The optimum amount of presag has also been found to be speed dependent and some
compensation needed on curved track to offset the effects of track cant.
Dropper spacing is arranged to smooth the compliance and to ensure the droppers remain
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loaded during pantograph passage.
The system is used for speeds up to 200 kmlh with single pantographs. Advantages are that it
is light, minimal height and simple to construct system and therefor e probably the cheapest
form of moderately high speed equipment devised. Disadvantages with current collection and
conductor rating become apparent if speed requirements are raised still further. On the East
coast main line, allowance has been made in the design for inclusion of stitch wires and for
higher uplift in anticipation of higher operating speed requirements .
0.9 or
Encurnbr<ii'ICe.
Ci!l t!fl;lry
65m
Typically

llkN I )' plcally(HklBI
Satn wires
:1K 3 Used 19/2. T Hj.(u.Catenury.tmperlal
Htc '3A 51213.<15 A.W.A.C.Cat qr.ary.lrnpol"iill
HK 18 Uses 5{2/3.95 A.W.ALC'i!tena.ry.Herrk Fitftng!>.
X Uses ".9/2.1 Hd.W.J.Caten;,ry.lrnpcrlal.
Mk38 Ll'ied tor uo to 11'5 l"\itos/N200itph)
Max span 240' AT.
Ma!< span 200'FT.
r en.-slons
1838.lb!.
Col'lrad Wire 107mm'"'2
TWO WIRE CONTACT SYSTEM WliH LEVEL CONTACT W\RE.
MK 1 Und l?/2. 1
f-or up to 75
6.3.2 Simple catenary with Level Contact wire.
This is an earlier form of equipment installed in the 1960s and in many places has been
replaced by a sagged simple version ..
The original system is known as Mid Simple and of course is speed limited due to having no
sag compensation. The compliance variation is greater than with Mk3B discussed above.
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6.3.3 Compound Catenary.
This is an equipment that was the standard in the 1960s for Britains main lines and comprises
an all copper 3 wire system. All conductors are Cadmium copper (Cad Cu) . A main catenary
(19/2.1) is used to support an Auxiliary Catenary (7/2.1) which in turn supports the 107mrn
2
contact wire. Equipment compliance is fairly uniform over the span, even so the inclusion of
contact wire presag has been made in some areas and contact wire tension has also been
increased in some areas where excessive lateral wire deflection has resulted in pantograph
dewirement.
Dropper panels are only short and the auxiliary droppers allow contact wire uplift. The
inclusion of an auxiliary wire means droppers tend to remain loaded during pantograph
passage thus avoiding undue wear whilst allowing a smooth pantograph passage over the
dropper panels.
The system height is large (6' -6", (2.0m)) to encompass the catenary sag. The equipment is
used for speeds up to 110 mph (175lcmlh).
Advantages are that this equipment should be capable of significantly higher speed with only
minor alterations and the current rating is higher than with simple equipment.
Disadvantages are the equipment is now quite old, the auxiliary is a bit vulnerable and the
catenary pulley supporting arrangements produce catenary strand damage.
It has also been necessary to terminate the auxiliary to the catenary at many of the bridges to
avoid damage from flash over caused by birds.
uxlliar y (at
T P.nslons
1925 tbf.
675 l.bt.
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Max span 73m
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Contact Wire 107mtn"'2
fHREE \AliRE CONTACT SYSTEM WlfH LEVEL CONTACT WlRE.
MX 1 Used 19/2.1 [d.(u.Cat-enat'y 8. 7/2.1 Auxiliary.
Imperial fittings.
for spee.ds up to 12Smiles/h(Z00kph)
6.3.4 Stitched Catenary
This equipment was used in the 1960s for earlier schemes before resort was made to
compound equipment.
The stitch wire is effectively a shortened auxiliary wire and serves much the same purpose by
smoothing the compliance through the span.
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This system is used extensively throughout France and elsewhere on the continent for line
speeds significantly higher than on Britains railways.
It was abandoned in Britain in favour of full compound system when problems were
encountered with difficulty of stitch tension adjustment/maintenance and with installation in
the vicinity of bridges. Stitches were too long (18m)and were terminated at the first dropper
position rather than in mid dropper panel. Consequently small errors in stitch tension caused
significant errors in CW height/profile and dropper lengths.
The advantages of stitched equipment are in its use for high speed and the possibility of light
weight construction
Disadvantages are the increased system height necessary to accommodate the stitch and
difficulty in stitch provision in the vicinity of bridges. Unfortunately Britains Railway has
many bridges and level crossing situations to contend with.
10 51 itch
63m lypicully
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Proviscon is made in the enctJmbrance of Mk3B r ar 1ndusfon
of a st It ch when/if CJrises for very high speeds .
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7.0 The Tension Length. T/L
This is a convenient length of wiring for design and construction purposes. Overall length
between anchor extremes is limited to 1970m. The rules which limit tension length have been
established mainly on account of limiting balance weight and registration movement due to
temperature and to minimise drag on curves. Convenience for length of construction and
drum capacity are also considerations as are switching, feeding and booster spacings. The
rules for Headspans (HIS) are similar to cantilever construction except that for HIS's
allowance has to be made for the extra span required to take the wires to anchor off track and
that constraint rather than anchoring can be applied at the midpoint
7. 1 Span lengths
Max span lengths at design stage are 73m. 2m tolerance to span length is allowed at
construction to make 75m the absolute max. Max spans on curves are determined by the
amount of curvature and exposure to wind.
Some of the parameters that affect Maximum span lengths need to be discussed as follows:-.
7 .1.1 Stagger
The contact wire is purposely arranged to move from side to side across the track
from span to span in order to spread the wear across the carbons. Stagger at structures
is+/- 230mm on tangent track and 380mm max on curves.
On curves it is necessary to keep the wire near centre line of track at span middle so
the stagger at the support points is arranged to the same side of the track centre line .
Stagger on curves is usually made equal to the value of the calculated versine for the
span
7 .1.2 Versine (Also known as String line )
This is the measure of the chord offset at the middle of a span on a curve. On regular
curves it is calculated using the formula V=L
2
/ (8*R ).where Lis span length, R is
curve radius and V is the string line.
Transition curves grade one regular radius curve into another. Computer programs are
available to enable calculation and reference to a surveying handbook will provide
suitable manual methods.
7 .1.3 Blow off
This is the amount the wire is deflected by wind at span centre.
BO=w*L
2
/(8*T) where Tis the conductor tension (N) and w is the wind force.
(N/in.)
7 .1.4 Stagger Effect
The max lateral deflected position of a blown off wire having differential stagger does
not occur at midspan and the offset of the wire from track C/L is consequently greater
than the blow off value. The extra amount is known as stagger effect.
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7.1.5 Max Deviation
This is the max distance the contact wire is allowed to move from the centre line of
the track under all conditions and depends mainly on the pantograph type.
A value of 400 mm is normally stipulated for Mk 3B equipment but this can vary.
At midspan the deviation will be due to erection tolerance, wind, and midspan offset.
At structure position the deviation will be due to erection tolerance and stagger.
7.1.6 Midspan offset. MSO.
Acceptance parameters booklet BR1 2034/17.
This is the actual amount the contact wire is away from the centre line of track at
midspan without wind. The value of the midspan offset depends on the amount of
stagger difference and stringline. Using a sign convention to be described in 7.1.8 the
MS0=((52+S 1 )/2)+V where 51 & S2 are the respective staggers indirection of
increasing chaineage ,Vis the versine ..
A booklet titled "Railway Electrification Acceptance requirements" is available which
tabulates the maximum permissible offsets for different spans ,staggers and wind
speeds.
7.1.7 Sweep
This is the cumulative movement of the contact wire across the pantograph within a
span. It depends on stagger values and the versine.
Sweep is limited to a range of 2.5 mmlm to 20mm/m in order to ensure even wear
Too little can cause grooving of the carbons.
Tangent track Sweep .U((S 1 -S2)/2). Sweep on curves =U(2*V) .
7.1.8 Sign convention.
A sign convention is applied in OSD work to assist with computations. Proceeding in
a direction of increasing chaineage all parameters which occur to the right side of
track C/L are considered +ve .viz Stagger ,Versine due to right hand curve, Cant
throw at contact wire height due to right hand curve.
The same parameters occurring to Left hand side are considered -vc.
UNFORTUNATELY. in order to assist persons engaged in Electrification who are
not familiar with sign conventions. some design drawings have been deliberately
devised to negate the sign convention. Drawings concerned are 1114/171 to 1114/173.
A further sign convention is also applied to staggers for steady arm allocation which
will be discussed later .
Hints and Tips
Gibb have developed a spreadsheet to do many of the necessary design checks outlined
above. This spreadsheet is available on the local network. Speak to your Section Leader
about training on this.
Actual lengths of spans are decided mainly by considerations of wind and track curvature,
presence of overbridges,crossovers .neutral sections .and the need to avoid obstructions or
track features such as underbridges and level crossings.
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Spans are arranged not to differ by more than 22m in open route and 18m in vicinity of
bridges in order to ensure satisfactory span stiffness grading.
There is some sacrifice Lo stated maximum spans for contact wire height above normal level
due to increaSed pantograph sway and track cross level effects. Normal contact height for
:Mk.3B is 4.7m but for Mkl is 4.85m (16ft).
7.2 In Span Jumpers
These are required at intervals along the TIL to provide continuity for current sharing
between the catenary and the contact wire to ensure the droppers do not carry current.
7.3 Midpoint Anchors
On cantilever construction it is easy enough to anchor the midpoint of the catenary to masts
that are situated off track. For headspans on inner tracks it is more difficult and it is deemed
sufficient to secure the catenary to the upper cross span wire for at least 4 supports within +/-
300m of the nominal midpoint of the tension length. Elsewhere depending on the amount of
along track movement either hinge n s or support bridles over pulleys are used. Hence
clamps are used for the first 300m ,then links for the next 300m and then pulleys for the rest
of the tension length.
(i)Bridles
These are short lengths of stainless steel cable used over the pulley to by-pass the
A WAC catenary which would otherwise not be sufficiently hard wearing.
"" 7.4 Overlaps and Balance Weight Anchors
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Overlap positions occur at the end of tension lengths for constructional reasons and provide
convenient sites for feeding and switching stations and for Booster transformer positions. The
construction of these overlaps is designed to allow the pantograph to pass from one tension
length to the next without interruption to current collection or too much disturbance
mechanically.
Overlaps requiring Booster transformers or switches are insulated from each other with the
connection between tension lengths made via the booster transformer and associated switch.
Care is exercised to ensure overlaps are not sited adjacent to signals such that a stationary
pantograph in the overlap causes short circuit of the booster transformer windings. Overlaps
required for constructional purposes only are interconnected using full current jumpers.
(Typical arrangements for multi or two track straight and curved line situations are given in
Drgs 1/4/10 1 to 1/4/104).
The weight tensioning assemblies are situated off track. Normally these make use of balance
weights in one stack to tension all conductors. Tensioning is via a balance plate between
conductors and a 3:1 pulley arrangement which allows free movement of the conductors over
a temperature range -18 to +38 deg C.
In areas where location of a Balance weight stack proves difficult resort can be made to a
Hydraulic tensioning device although these are not preferred.
The overlap is normally made with the overlapping contact wires running parallel in a span of
nominally 50m. On very sharp curves shorter spans are used. The contact wires are spaced
460mm (300mm in uninsulated overlaps) to provide electrical separation.
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The Contact wire going "Out of Running -is raised slowly under natural sag to a position 25
Omm clear of pantograph before running out to anchor. The OOR insulator of insulated
overlaps is positioned where the OOR contact wire is lifted 250mm above the IR wire. At
Headspan overlaps certain arrangements of the registration assemblies will not allow 250mm
of free uplift. Layout configuration of the overlap should be arranged so that such assemblies
are only used at the exit end of the overlap where uplift will have been suppressed during
travel over the parallel running contact wires.
For slow speed applications point overlaps may be used.
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8.0 Overhead Line Features.
8.1 OverBridges and Adjacent spans. Contact wire gradient.
Some of the problems were outlined earlier in 5.5 but are discussed in more detail here.
There are three basic types of bridge arrangement depending on available clearance and line
speed.
8.1.1. Free Running Bridges
Where OLE equipment can pass through a bridge without attachment this is known as a "Free
Running arrangement. Usually short spans and a reduction of system depth, sometimes
described as encumbrance .is needed.
Where the live stranded catenary comes closer than 600mm to the bridge soffit this is
replaced by contact wire and is then known as "Contenary". Design should ensure adequate
electrical clearance under ice loading and uplift and that the rules for minimum dropper
lengths are adhered.
8.1.2 Twin Contact Wire Bridges. Reduced and Normal Clearance.
At bridges with small headroom a length of contact wire is spliced in place of the catenary
(Contenary) between the first structures each side of bridge and both Contenary and Contact
wire are allowed to come into contact with the pantograph under the bridge. Both wires are
supported under the bridge by means of "Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic" arm (s)(GFRP). The
arm is PTFE covered and provides the necessary insulation and resilience to grade the line
stiffness to that of the incoming spans and to reduce the contact wire uplift to 50mm. The
design is suitable for speeds up to 200kmTh.witb normal track and contact wire gradients.
Much development has gone into the design of the metallic live end of the GFRP arm to
reduce the electrical stress so that smallest clearances practical may be used. The arm is
known as a stress graded ann and contact wire heights down to 4.1 65m can be
accommodated Bridges using such clearance are known as "Reduced clearance bridges".
Where more clearance is available then "Normal Clearance "is possible. (4. 19m CW height
minimum.). The categories and requirements for clearance are laid down in Group Standard
GM!fTO 101.
8.1.3 Through Contenary Bridges .Normal Clearance.
On slow speed lines the vertical curve of the track can be severe and more headroom at the
bridge may be needed because the contact wire bas to rise more quickly and in such cases
bridge approach spans may need to be kept short .. None stress graded arms are used with the
Contenary held 85mm above the contact wire. This arrangement is more suited than twin
contact wire arrangement to steep vertical curve because dropper lengths and encumbrance
can be readily varied.
4.19m is the minimum Contact Wire height allowed.
With arch bridges sufficient clearance has to be made available to the pantograph hom for
uplift and sway and allowance made for track tolerances. (HP drg series give details.)
Bridge approach spans are graded for stiffness and slope and to satisfy clearance under ice
loading. It is accepted that difficulty in this area can arise if worst situations of track and OLE
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erection tolerance are included .Where wire gradients less than 11400 are required the contact
wire height and hence the Minimum bridge soffit height may need to be raised accordingly.
Contact wire gradient of 5 times line speed (mph) is the normal requirement wherever
possible but in situations where bridges cannot be raised without undue cost, particularly
those bridges situated adjacent to level crossings ,the wire gradient requirement may have to
be sacrificed at the Engineers I Clients discretion.
8.L4 Designing Bridge Arrangements
The following list details the steps to follow when designing bridges
Work back from the bridge face to obtain correct grading
Minimum wire height of 4.19m
Maintain 200 mm clearance to underside of bridge
Use cantilevers wherever possible (free running bridge)
Allocate splices for contenary I catenary interface. These will be located just beyond the
first structure either side of the bridge.
Drawing 14/145 gives grading for normal underbridge arms
Drawing 141143 gives grading for claw arms
Maximum span from a bridge arm is 30m (minimum of 20 m)
Try to get zero radial load on arms
Grading must be 11400 for 3 spans and then 11 5 x linespeed (mph) back to standard wire
height
12m max separation of bridge arms (claws)
9m max separation of bridge arms (twin contact)
8.1.5 Tunnels (Drg 1/9/101)
The problems are much the same as described for bridges. Spans are limited by the headroom
available and conductors are supported on insulated cantilever assemblies from roof mounted
drop tubes. Care with pantograph clearance to walls and cantilever assemblies is required also
the routing of return conductors and earth wires under sag conditions. Weight tensioning can
be a problem and mid point anchors within the tunnel are often necessary. The tension length
can however exceed that normally used elsewhere. Termination of the ancillary conductors is
usually arranged about 1 to 2 m from the tunnel face with fixings situated in the tunnel
crown. From here the ancillary wires are jumpered round the tunnel face using PVC sheathed
cables and join the mast-supported conductors outside. The lineside cables are themselves
usually terminated onto the wall side of the tunnel face.
8.2 Crossovers
It is normal practice to wire the crossover with a separately tensioned wire. It has been
practice to take this wire directly to anchor immediately from the structure situated near the
toes of points. However for high speed it is more desirable to keep the wire in running for a
further span. This gives smoother running and reduces the chances of pantograph hookover
also the direction of registration loading usually works out more conveniently. Insulation
between the two lines joined by the crossover is provided by a Section insulator which may
be switched.
Long crossovers are used for high speeds and very often the need arises to provide an
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additional support near the section insulator. A portal structure is often used and whilst this is
also for switching puposes it can prove troublesome in ensuring there is sufficient clearance
to register the contact wire laterally .
It has been found that the ideal position to place supporting and registration at the ends of the
crossover is where the crossover toe opening is 200mm. Guidance documents are available
which set out the appropriate dimensioning.
8.3 Section /nsulstors
SI 's are commonly used for sectioning at crossovers.
SI 's are suspended in the catenary I contact line and allow the pantograph to pass from one
electrical section to the another whilst still keeping the two parts of line insulated from each
other. The SI is under electrical stress only when the line is isolated to one side. Special
designs using ceramic beads on glass fibre rod to allow passage at high speed. The glass fibre
core provides the mechanical strength whilst the ceramic beads, sealed against moisture
ingress, provide the electrical tracking property. Two of these insulators are situated side by
side with overlapping skid bars, which allow the pantograph to slide from one electrical
section to the other without break in the traction supply current.
Other types use conventional porcelain insulation with skid bars suspended beneath and are
used for speeds up to 40mileslh ..
Sometimes it is convenient for switching purposes to use an SI in the main line rather than go
to the expense of a switched overlap.
The insulators of the SI are fitted with arcing horns at each end to divert any electrical arc
away from the proximity of the insulator. When an arc develops across the insulator under
fault .heat and electromagnetic effects cause the arc to rise quickly to transfer to the shorter
path between the arcing hom ends. Here the arc either extinguishes (blows out) or the
protection system senses the fault and the line breakers operate to shut off the supply
8.4 Neutral Sections
NS 's are devices included in the OLE contact line to separate one phase of an electrical feed
from another whilst allowing pantograph passage. In order to do this, two insulators are
separated by an earthed section and the pantograph coasts through the section with the trains
current load isolated from the supply. The pantographs circuit breakers are opened some
distance in advance of the NS by means of a switch operated by track located magnets. These
magnets are known as the APC Magnets. (Auto Power Control.)
The train driver has the necessary route training and the means to identify and correct for any
malfunctioning which may occur.
In the event of a malfunction a full current arc will be drawn between the live and earthed
sections.
Arcing horns are arranged to allow the arc to be quickly transferred away from the insulator
surlace to an earthed arc catcher where the arc either extinguishes or the system line circuit
breakers operate.
Clearly it is undesirable that trains stop in areas of neutral sections and the position of signals
are arranged to minimise this risk.
Installation of this type of NS is difficult without introducing minor discrepancies into the
contact line profile and extreme care needs to be taken in installation for high speed
applications.
Alternative arrangements may be needed for very high speeds.
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8.5 Arms and Registration Assemblies
The steady/registration arm is used to control the lateral position (stagger) of the contact wire
whilst allowing the contact wire to lift during passage of the pantograph.
Arms can differ in size depending on the space available, the speed of the trains and the radial
load it will be exposed to.
If the contact wire were always parallel to the track, and the pantograph ran along it in a
constant position it would wear a groove in it rapidly and it would need replacing. By moving
the wire relative lo the pantograph, wear is more constant and the pantograph will last longer.
Arms are attached to registration assemblies and pull or push the wire to its designated
stagger.
The curved design and heel setting of the arm ensure the pantograph is kept mechanically
clear at all times . The lighter the arm the better it is dynamically but this leads to problems of
strength.
8.5.1 Different types
The types of arms that are most commonly used are deep and shallow. In cantilever
construction the registration tube provides support of the steady arm to either side of the track
CIL so that the steady arm is never in compression from the "Radial load .. Steady arms are
arranged to "Pull" the contact wire rather than "Push" to ensure that the vertical component
of the lateral load lifts the contact wire rather than forces it downwards. This ensures stability
and best contact performance.
These types of axms should never be put in compression, i.e. they shouldn't push the wire, as
they could collapse.
For out of running wires and slow speed registrations, straight arms can be used. Some
straight arm registrations can be used in compression - see basic design drawings for details.
8.5.2 When to use each type
Deep curved anns are generally used for high-speed tracks, as they can withstand a higher
uplift (the amount the contact wire bounces up when the pantograph hits it). Shallow arms are
used for slower tracks, on bridge face structures and where there is a large radial load.
Different lengths are used depending on the staggers and the space available. llOOmm arms
are preferred, but 900mm can be used if space is limited, and 1300 (deep) or 1640 (shallow)
where a small or negative stagger is required. Where it is impossible to fit in a pull off arm,
then a compression type (push off) can be used, but this is the last resort.
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Heavily curved arms designed for large uplift have load limitations . Long arms give
problems with space for insulation in some cases. Hence there are a number of steady arm
design styles for different applications .
Wind stays and/or restraints prevent the registration tube lifting
Steady arms on Headspans are supported from registration tubes fixed between the upper and
lower cross span wires.
8.5.3 Radial Load .(1/14/109 to 1/14/111 )
Radial load is the tangential component of tension acting across track at the structure.
(Imagine the force generated in a bow when the wire is pulled from its normally
straight position. It is the tangential force which is used to fire the arrow). Radial
load may be calculated using the purpose developed computer program or from
tabulations which assess load against wire angle or versine.
8.5.4 Uplift .(1 No Slide. 1114/801).
Contact wire uplift is greater at midspan than at structure . Uplift tends to increase
with speed and a good margin is included in the design uplift values.
For speeds up to 160 mph the open route cantilever registration assembly allows
160mm of free uplift before the steady arm reaches its "stop" .Beyond this limit the
whole registration assembly is designed to lift to provide any additional uplift if
required. For higher speeds all cantilever open route registration assemblies allow
250mm of free uplift normally and 300 in the vicinity of level crossings.
All headspan steady arms for open route are deep curved without wind stays and
allow 300mm of free lift.
Some continental pantographs designed to give high contact force at high speed may
not always be suitable on all Britains railways .
8.5.5 Minimum Stagger for registration arms .(199/660 series)
The heel end of the steady arm must be clear of the pantograph under all conditions
including uplift and sway. A long arm can clearly accept a larger stagger than a short
one . In fact a very long arm may even reach to a contact wire situated beyond the
projected centre line of track. Tables in 199/660 series and the acceptance
requirements booklet 12034/17 describe the acceptable situations for different arm
length and types.
A sign convention is used whereby -ve describe a situation where a steady arm
reaches to a contact wire which is staggered on the opposite side to which the arm is
situated.
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8.5.6 Base information required
In order to allocate the correct arm you need to know:
- The size of the cant of the track (the slope of the track on a bend),
- The speed of the trains (fast or slow),
- The uplift of the wire,
- The stagger required,
- The height of the contact wire,
- The radial load due to equipment and wind.
These can be found on layout plans and cross sections.
8.5.7 Procedure
Drawing 199/457 shows the different types of arms that can be allocated. This is the code that
goes on the allocation sheet Drawings 199/671-674 show when each type should be
allocated.
8.5.8 Choosing an arm
l.Go to the 199/671-674 drawings.
2. Choose the drawing you need according to the speed of the track and the uplift. *
* Finding uplift:
An uplift table is shown on drawing 14/801. This shows the uplift, of different span lengths,
for open track up to speeds of 160 kph. For allocating arms look at the "at structure" column .
Where there is non-open track e.g. at bridges the uplift is assumed to be half, due to the fact
that there are two wires in contact with the pantograph, exerting twice as much downwards
force. Where there are slower speeds uplift will also be less, so in general the graph required
could be ascertained from the speed of the track, which isn't marked on the graphs (only high
speed/not high speed)
3. Find the contact wire height on the vertical axis and follow across until you reach the
diagonal line corresponding to the cant of the track.
4. Read of the minimum pennissible stagger. *
*The sign of the stagger (+ve, -ve) may be different to that shown on the plans. On plans the
stagger is shown relative to the centre line of the track- i.e. it is positive if the wire is being
pulled to the right, and negative to the left. When allocating arms staggers are shown relative
to the position of the end of the arm and the centre line. If the arm is on the same side of the
centre line as the wire, it is positive, and if it has to reach over the centre line it is negative.
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Negative
If the stagger required is above this value, then allocate this arm. If it is smaller then continue
until you find one that fits.
-
5. If the design intended stagger is larger than that on the graph, then that size arm can be
used. If it is smaller, then continue along until you reach one that will fit.
In the example below, if the contact height were 5.3m and the stagger needed were 200, then
an 1100 arm should be allocated, as 900 would be too small, but if the stagger were 300 then
a 900 arm could be used.
6.1
5.7
Contact5.3
Wire
900 1100 1640
Height 4.9 -------------T -----------, ------------------
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Permissible Stagger
8.5.9 Windstays
Where there is a low radial load it is necessary to have a windstay. This prevents the arm
from collapsing if a strong gust of wind blows in the opposite direction to the radial load.
When a windstay is required depends on the type of registration assembly used. It is
generally where the radial load as a result of wind is larger than the radial load resulting from
the wire by 150N. This can be found out in the 100 drawings, but drawing 199/451 specifies
it itself.
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Radial load
From wind
8.6 Knuckles.
Radial load
from wire
Knuckles are used to hold two wires together where this cannot be achieved using structures.
Knuckles are used to control the lateral position of two or more equipments over track by
pulling equipments towards each other thus avoiding the need of a lineside structure.
Knuckles are commonly used with fixed termination equipment but are also used on Auto
tensioned equipment where relative temperature movements permit. With equal tensions in
each equipment both equipments will be displaced equal amounts by the knuckle. Insulated
knuckles may be found in older installations but are to be avoided if possible.
8.6.1 Why are they used?
They are used either in span, where wires need registering but a structure can't be put in, or at
structures, as a method of registering 2 wires at the same location.
.
Contact A
.
Contact B
The difficulty in using them is that (for A.T. equipment) the wires will expand and contract at
different rates, i.e. there is differential along track movement. The knuckle is solid and
doesn' t expand, so where the wires move the knuckle will pull them towards each other, and
also transfer tension to the wires. This should be minimal, so the guideline is that there can be
40mm of along track movement for every 300mm of knuckle. Fixed tension equipments
don't have differential movement so this rule does not apply.

1
Along track mo"iment
11kN 11+ kN
11kN 11+kN
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8.6..2 Different types
The catenary and contact have different types of knuckle. The contact knuckle is a solid piece
of metal and the catenary knuckle is a piece of steel wire.
8.6.3 Base information required
In order to find the length of knuckle required you need to know:
- The distance of the proposed knuckle from the fixed end or midpoint anchor of the wire,
- The along track movement of each wire at his position,
- The radial load.
The distance can be found on the layout plan, and the along track movement can be found on
drawing 14/121.
8.6.4 Procedure
For the contact knuckle:
1. Find the distance from the fixed point to the proposed knuckle.
2.Look at drawing 14/121 and find the maximum along track movement at this point (i.e. at
the extremes of temperature).
3.If the distance is between those given then the figures can be interpolated.*
* Take the value below away from the value above that required_. Divide by 50 and multiply
by the number of metres above the lower point
E.g. if the distance from the fixed point is 170 then do:
Value at 200 95.2
I 50
* 20 (170-150)
+Value 150
- Value at 150
=0.476
=9.52
=80.92
71.4 =23.8
So the along track movement 170m from the fixed point is 80.92 mm
4.Find the maximum differential movement. If the movement is in opposite directions then
add the two movement figures. If the movement is in the same direction then take the
values away.
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Along trabk
B I B

movement A-B
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5. As there is 40mm allowable movement per 300mm of knuckle, divide the differential
movement by 40 and multiply by 300. This is the knuckle size needed.
6.Allocatc the necessary contact knuckle using drawing 199/552 and 553.
For the catenary knuckle:
1. Find the radial load at the proposed position of the knuckle.
2. Using 199/554 choose the style applicable to the radial load and wire type.
8.6.5 Reference to other sheets
Radial Loacls
8.6.6 Drawing numbers
199/552-554- allocation drawings
14/ 121 - along track movement
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8.7 Droppers
8.7.1 What are they?
They are wire rods, which attach the contact wire to the catenary in order to keep it
horizontal. Different numbers of droppers are required depending on the span to be
droppered, and different types are used depending on the types of wire (catenary or
contenary).
Along Track
8.7.2 Why are they used?
To keep the contact wire as near to horizontal as possible, to reduce force acting on the
pantograph
8.7.3 Different types
The main differences in dropper allocation is the number required (dependant on the span
length) and their length (dependant on the encumbrance). Different droppers will be allocated
when the equipment is A.T. or F.T., anchor span, out of running, bridge span, overlap span or
open route, as the profile of the wires is different.
8.7 .4 Base information required
In order to allocate the correct droppers you need to know:
- Encumbrance at start and end of span
- Span Length
Wire types
-Type of span (bridge, anchor, overlap, open route)
These can be found on layout plans and cross sections.
8. 7 .S Procedure
Go to the drawings 199/621-631. These numbers are used to allocate the droppers or 199/511
for uplift droppers.
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Find the group of drawings relevant to the type of span (199/627 for anchor span, 199/622-
625 for bridges etc.)
The drawings should have a reference to 14 series drawings, which give the specification for
the number of droppers required.
Drawing 14/164 shows the number of droppers needed for different span lengths (for A.T.
equipment) at different encumbrances. The number of droppers determines the drawing
number, and the encumbrance and wire types determine the style.
Before and after a bridge the wires need profiling because they need to be lowered in order to
get under the bridge. This lowering should start several spans away, as rapid lowering can
increase the force on the pantograph and result in damage. Drawing 14/132 shows the
correction needed in dropper length for non-standard heights. In this case droppers may need
to be allocated separately (199/511-516), rather than in sets. 8/103 shows the standard bridge
arrangement, and references to the necessary droppers.
Please note uplift type droppers are used on all overlap spans, bridge approach spans where
min. dropper is less than 600mm and spans over level crossings where minimum dropper is
less than 600mm.
8.7.6 Drawings used
199/621-631 (Dropper sets)
199/511-515 (Individual droppers)
14/143 (Centenary at Overbridges A.T.)
14/144 (Centenary at Overbridges F.T.)
14/145 (Twin contact at Overbridges A.T.)
14/146 (Twin contact at Overbridges F.T.)
14/164 (Span length/number of droppers)
14/132 (Correction for dropper length)
8/103 (Bridge arrangement)
1/1061100 (Loop type dropper)
1/106/101 (Standard dropper4mrn)
11106/102 (Heavy load dropper)
11106/103 (Uplift dropper)
11106/104 (Loop type dropper)
1/106/105 (4mm adjustable loop dropper heavy type)
The long dropper panels of open route Mk 3B equipment are designed so that the droppers
remain loaded during pantograph passage and no provision is made for them to uplift.
Fatigue has occurred where droppers are short and/or dropper load is small; so uplift type are
used in the vicinity of bridges, overlap spans and level crossings.
Loop droppers are also used on other types of equipment such as the auxiliary droppers of
compound equipment and Mk1 simple.
There are minimum dropper length stipulations mainly to avoid aluminium catenaries coming
too close to copper contact wires where the aluminium would be sacrificial to
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electro/chemical attack. Pantograph passing at speed in wet conditions can disperse copper
salts onto the upper wire if too close.
8.8 Jumpers
Jumpers are used to interconnect equipments or conductors to equalise current and voltages
or to transfer current to another equipment.
(i)Line Jumpers are used between catenary and contact wire at intervals through the
tension length
(ii)Equalisingjumpers are used to connect a non current carrying tail to an associated
live equipment.
(iii) Full current jumpers are used at overlaps or crossovers to allow full train current
to pass to the new equipment.
8.9 Llneside Switches
These allow isolation of sub sections of the overhead line for maintenance purposes or for
alternative feed in emergency situations.
Switches can be motorised and remotely operated or manually operated. They are designed to
be operated under no load conditions under isolated conditions. Section diagrams indicate all
switches in an open position but those that are normally open (N/0) are indicated as such.
Wherever possible switches are mounted on structures adjacent to the line with which they
are associated with connection of the switch to the OLE by means of directly draped jumper
connection .. Connection to remote track positions is via feeder wires fixed between masts
which span the tracks with the jumper connection draped down onto the appropriate piece of
OLE. On portals the switch feeder wire to remote tracks are outrigged on insulators supported
from the boom ..
The clearance to rail and or the switch handle positions need to be arranged to ensure safety
of the operator
During isolation when line switches are opened the line is earthed locally using portable
earths from the DEP positions.
OSD documentation includes a" Switching Cross section" for each switching position. This
gives plan and elevation details of the structure, switch and line connections and a list of all
the parts allocated.
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9.0 Supporting Structures
There are several types of supporting structure used in a variety of circumstances depending
on track complexity, design strategy and need. A summary for each type is discussed below.
The clearance to supporting masts to be in accordance with Group Standard GC/RT/5204.
Centre line of masts is normally arranged at 2.0 to 3.0 m from running edge of nearest rail.
This is known as the "Walkout Clearance" and the dimension usually depends on whether
cable routes or drains are present.
Sometimes masts are needed where space is limited, for example between tracks.
Traditionally a minimum clearance of 1 .624m was allowed between mast face and running
edge of rail. This was further reduced to 1 .469m with Dept of Transport dispensation if no
alternative arrangement was possible without undue expense. New standards exist for
structure clearance but it is Gibb practice to work to the traditional values unless specific
restrictions need to be applied.
Single column masts are raked backward so that when loaded they stand vertical .. (eg Drg
1/98/807)
Rules for the design of structures are given in document EHQ/ST/0/009.
. GIBB
The rules allow for all manner of conditions and contingencies and manual calculation can be
complex. Fortunately, computer programs exist to assist with the calculations which have
been developed in Derby and are available on the local network.
9. 1 Cantilever Masts
These masts are usually set in side bearing foundations and have a cantilever frame or frames
attached to support the OLE equipment(s) of the track immediately adjacent.
Usual structure steel types include Universal column and battened or braced double channels.
Other types include Tubes and BFB (Broad Flanged Beams).
Masts may be fixed at the foundation by direct planting into concrete foundations or the mast
may be provided with a base for bolting onto the foundation or pile.
Mast height, top of foundations and the height of OLE equipments are referenced to the high
rail of the track served. This can cause difficulty when grading contact wire levels to adjacent
portals or headspans because they may not be referenced to the high rail of the same track.
Steelgrades are to BS 4360.
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9.1.2 Single cantilever Masts (113 5/series)
Plain masts are used for support of a single equipment
They are used in all single line or two track railway situations with a few exceptions such as
in station platforms. They are also used in many multitrack situations where track space
permits, usually on grounds of cost and ease of construction and for additional local support
in complex areas. Cantilever assemblies may also be used in back to back configuration on
masts placed centrally between tracks
Special cantilever frames are available for support in Platform areas. Here there is a DOT
stipulation that there shall be no live equipment situated over platforms and the centre of the
insulators has to be arranged over platform edge. The design is cumbersome and very often
preference is given to Headspan support arrangements particularly where there is also a need
to support Insulated RCs close to platform edge.
The RC is normally located on the back of masts in open route but on the inside, sometimes
outrigged, adjacent to bridges .The normal size of RC for two tracks is 19/4.22 aluminium
and 19/3.25 aluminium for multitrack where there is more current sharing between tracks.
Single column Universal columns have good strength to weight proportions for across track
and along track loads but account must be taken of the slenderness on account of poor
resistance to twisting and warping. Typical size of sections used are 157, 203, 254 mm.
9.2 Twin cantilevers
Twin cantilevers are used for support of two equipments at overlaps and crossovers. These
are supported on Battened Double Channels masts using channel spreaders to separate the
cantilevers .
..._ Typical section sizes used are 229,305 and 356 mm. Channels of the structure are arranged
toes out but earlier types used channels toes in.
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9.3 Headspans
This structure was normally used for straight forward multitrack route but is now the non-
preferred method. The structure does not provide mechanical independence for the
equipments supported and in complex multitrack areas the use of more costly Portal
construction should be considered
Open route masts are usually single universal column whilst masts supporting Booster
Transformers comprise two universal columns battened and braced together. Headspan masts
may be compound or may support a cantilever or even a two track cantilever off the back.
The Headspan comprises a stainless steel headspan wire (two for heavy loads) held between
universal column masts to support all the vertical loads applied by the OLE. Sag of the
headspan wire in normal designs is 118 th of span.
Support and registration assemblies are situated between the upper and lower span wire . The
span wires take all the lateral loads applied to the system and both wires are made of Hd Cu to
prevent damage in event of fault currents. Turnbuckles are arranged in the slack sides of the
spanwires to provide nominal tightening. Insulation between equipments is provided in the
lower spanwire and the registration tubes.
Common problems arising with headspan construction and needing consideration during
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layout preparation are:
Difficulties with large track level differences and contact wire level differences.
o Accommodating assemblies in tight track intervals.
Accommodating small encumbrance adjacent to bridges.
Dealing with heavy radial loads on tail wires at overlaps.
s Potentially overloaded span wire on heavy curves.
Special arrangements are available to deal with platform registration, overlaps, small
encumbrances and for differing system depths or track heights using stepped or sloping
span wires.
RCs (19.3.22 alum) for inner and outer tracks are normally located one above the other on the
inside of the mast. The lower RC is associated with the outer track equipment. At platforms
and signals positions the RCs are often insulated and supported on drop tubes suspended
from the spanwires.
9.3.1 Switching Arrangements on Headspan Structures
19/4.22 Aluminium Feeder wires are arranged to carry connections between the 25kV OLE
and booster transformers and switches. The feeder is connected to the line via a draped feeder
and full current jumper.
19/3.25 PVC covered Aluminium wires connect Return conductors to Booster transformers.
These wires are arranged above and well clear of the headspan wire and have a sag of 1/16 th
of span length. The 25 kV live feeder wires are located at a level that ensures live catenaries
beneath are not closer than 2. 75 m.
Where pairs of feeder wires are required these are normally run parallel on the same level
separated by 2.0m. Where spans exceed 10m a spreader insulator is fitted near the centre of
spans to prevent clashing. Where phase to phase voltages are involved the spreader has two
insulators.
Booster transformers are located on the back of a pair of braced U/Cs at a height not less than
3 m above track. Switches and operating gear are set on a frame to the rear side of masts.
Where ground is uneven or sloped a switch operating platform is provided.
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9.4 Portals
These structures were commonly used for all multitrack applications during the Mkl days of
the 1960 s. They were costly but provided both mechanical and electrical independence that
minimised risks from dewirements .
Common types include
o Welded rod -Legs and Boom are fabricated from 4 No angles spaced apart by rod
o bracings.
" Lattice Boom-4 Angled boom with double channel masts.
G U/C (Universal column)or BFB(Broad flanged Beam)
It was subsequently decided that portals were an over expensive safeguard for most
straightforward main line routes and they were abandoned in favour of Headspan
construction. They are now mostly used where difficulties occur in providing side bearing
foundations and in areas of complexity involving different track and wire levels.
They are also most useful in areas where remodelling is proposed and existing services must
be maintained. Equipment can be remodelled in stages using the facility to move equipments
supported on drop tubes across the boom as work progresses. Headspans are most unsuitable
in this respect.
For normal applications in new work spanwire registration is utilised.
Most viaducts use hinge base portals with strong kneebraces so that no bending moment is
applied to the masonry at base fixing level.
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9.5 Two Track Cantilever I TTC
These Structures span two tracks and are used where it is not possible to place a single
cantilever on the remote side due perhaps to physical restrictions or on curve to permit signal
sighting. A pair of two track cantilevers might be used to do the job of a heavily skewed
portal in a multitrack skewed bridge situation. Spanwire registration is now non-preferred.
Use drop tubes I cantilevers to give M.I.R registration.
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9.6 Supports at Tunnels and Overbridges
Wall mounted bracketry or roof mounted tubular members are normally used to support
cantilevers or Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic resilient arms. Preference is given to wall
fuings wherever possible and fixings to roof and wall is by means of resin bonded bolts.
Where bridges involve reconstruction it is a good plan to include any roof fixing bolts at time
of reconstruction and this aspect should be drawn to the clients attention early on so
contractual arrangements can be made. Soffits of older bridges are often constructed using
steel beams longitudinally or laterally and are sometimes encased in concrete. The Allocation
engineer needs to improvise to make best use of standard assemblies and to choose best
support locations taking stock of available clearance and arm loading. Bonding over 25 kV
conductors requires secure bolted fixings.
Where several supports are involved these are often connected together and bonded at one
place. Torque testing of bolts is employed to check security of fixings. The OSD Engineer is
nonnally required to supply details of loading and the positions of fixings to the authority
responsible for the TunneVBridge.
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9. 7 Anchors.
At the end of tension lengths it is necessary to terminate the equipment and substantial
anchoring arrangements are needed. On cantilever construction and multitrack headspan
construction the equipment is nonnally anchored onto lineside masts tied in the along track
direction.
Elsewhere a variety of anchoring arrangements exist, from self supporting A frames on older
portal equipment to bow wire anchors on terminal HIS equipment
Anchors placed in line with buffer block terminations need to be sufficiently far back from
the buffer to avoid overun damage. This is normally 15m or as agreed with the client and
such anchors are normally single column self supporting. Alternatively at buffer block
terminations anchoring onto a portal boom may be preferable.
9.7.1 Tie Rods
The most common anchor for terminating the catenary system is by means of a tied mast.
Here a rod tie is attached to the mast web through a bolted none slide fixing which is
anchored to an uplift tie block foundation. This tie foundation is normally placed in line with
and situated 4.5m behind the parent foundation. Some small adjustment is provided for tie
length but ties are allocated individually to suit the design application.
Tie wires are sometimes used for temporary anchoring. These use a piece of conductor wire
as the tie element and usually run to another strocture mast base. They are not used for
permanent installations but give the designer low cost anchoring options at the design stage
for temporary works.
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9.7.2 Self Supporting Anchors
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Where difficulties are found in siting ties a mast of sufficient strength to accept the bending
load may be used. This involves the allocation of larger than normal size U/Cs turned through
90 deg with the across track cantilever loads taken on the weaker plane of the mast.
9.7.3 Portal anchors
Older .Mkl systems anchor the equipment onto the structure boom. Auto tensioned equipment
weights are housed in the large "A" frame legs with tensioning transferred from the boom by
means of pulley arrangements.
9. 7.4 Bow wire Anchors.
Fixed equipment or the fixed ends of Auto tensioned equipment may be anchored onto a
horizontal headspan wire in some multitrack situations. These occur at terminations on
sidings or major stations. A good example can be seen at St Pancras station where more than
13 equipments are anchored onto a single Bow wire.
9.8 Predr/1/ed Masts
Masts may be predrilled at set intenals with hole patterns to suit requirements for ties,
anchors brackets, balance weight guide tubes or switching platforms etc. See Drg 1135/201
tables 1 to 8 for typical drilled masts.
Dimensioning of dril1ings is made from the top of masts and this requires some arithmetical
thought in allocation as wire heights are dimensioned from track level.
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1 o. Structure and Foundation Loading. (EHQ/ST/0/009 & Wind Code of
Practice ECP34.)
In order to allocate the size of structures and foundations an accurate assessment of all the
loads applied has to be made, using the requirements of the above specification and code of
practice, as well as National Specifications for structure design as far as they apply.
Computer spreadsheets exist where all the rules for structure design are included and all the
dimensional and physical characteristics that affect a structure may be input by the user. The
computer can then assess the mast size.
However, manual calculation is needed sometimes and it is important that the Allocation
Engineer understands all the principles involved so as to be aware of parameters that may
cause computer mis-interpretation or problems.
The assessments are made for a number of probable conditions, namely
(a) -18 deg C with or without Ice or Wind.
(b) 10 deg C with or without Wind and maintenance load (600N).
Bending moment at foundation level and deflection at contact wire height as well as top of
mast, due to Permanent and wind and ice loads, are assessed taking account of the following
(a) Weight of conductors with and without ice.
Note
An allowance of9.5 mm of radial ice is made on Catenaries .Ancillary conductors and
steelwork supporting members but not Contact wires.
(b)Loads caused by expansion /contraction of Span wires.
( c )Radial Loads on all conductors due to track curvature, stagger and track cant
(d) Wind Loads on conductors and structural steelwork with and without ice.
(e) Factors to permanent and wind loads .
Further allowances are made for tolerances in installation on:-
(a) Heights and position of wires and tracks.
(b) Position of masts relative to track.
Acceptable deflection due to wind at contact wire level is limited to 50mm max as this
contributes to the contact wire deflection and ensures the pantograph security. Bending
moment is calculated at the base of the mast and it is necessary to adjust for the level if a
foundation finish is above ground when calculating foundation depths.
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10.1 Cantilever Structure Bending Moment Calculations
Bending moments on cantilevers stem from four load factors. These are:
1 WindLoad
2 Radial Loads
3 Weight of components
4 Ice loads
A bending moment is effectively a Load force x distance. The distance is the perpendicular
distance from where the load is applied to the point at which you wish to calculate ihe
bending moment. In this case - the top of foundation.
Eg
Load 1
.J .
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Distance 2
Distance 1
l;
Load2
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10.1.1 Load Cases
6 Load cases are generally calculated
Wind across track left to right at 10 degrees C
Wind across track right to left at 10 degrees C
Wind across track left to right at -18 degrees C
Wind across track right to left at -18 degrees C
Wind along track at 10 degrees C
Wind along track at 10 degrees C
mJACOBS GIBB
In each case radial loads may increase (fixed termination equipment), ice loads need to be
added in low temperature cases and wind load must be reduced to 0.64 x the calculated value
in the - 18 degrees case.
10.1.2 Wind Load
Wind load has two components - wind load on conductors and wind load on the mast
The applicable code of practice which enables us to calculate wind loads is currently ECP 34.
Principally they are calculated as follows:
Determine ''Design wind speed" (usually on layout plan or derived from factors in
ECP34)
10.1.3 Conductor loads
Determine conductor size and drag factor. (drag factor= 0.63 for stranded conductors and
0.49 for contact wire I solid (PVC insulated) conductors taken from ECP34).
Conductor sizes are detailed on sheet 199/660/
Detennine length of spans either side of structure and use half of this length to calculate
load on conductors
Use the following formula to establish load:
1.25 x Drag factor x Wire diameter x (wind speed
2
x L1 + wind speed
2
x L2)
Example: Catenary , diameter 10.5 mm, wind speed = 27rnls, span lengths of 50m and 60m,
catenary height = 6.5 m above foundation
Load= 1.25 x 0.63 x 0.0105 x 2 7 ~ 50+ 27
2
x 60) = 663 N
(Remember to multiply this value by 0.64 if you are calculating for -18 degrees case)
The bending moment contribution is obtained by multiplying the Wind load by the height of
the conductor above foundation.
e.g
663 x 6.5 = 4309 Nm
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10.1.4 Structure loads
In much the same way the structure load is calculated.
Determine structure size and drag factor
Determine length of mast above foundation top.
Use the following formula to establish load in N/m:
Drag factor x wind speed
2
x A x 2.5
(A is the cross sectional diameter eg for 203mast = 0.203m)
Example : 203 UC mast, square to track and 7m long.
Hence drag factor = 1.16 from ECP34
Load= 1.16 X 27
2
X 0.203 X 2.5 = 429.16 N/m
The bending moment contribution is obtained by multiplying the Wind load by the length of
mast squared divided by 2.
e.g
429.16 X 7 X 7/2 = 10514.42 Nm
10.1.5 Radial Loads
Radial loads should be calculated in accordance with the appropriate training module.
The bending moment contribution is obtained by multiplying the radial load by the height of
the conductor above foundation level
10.1.6 Weight of Components
The weight categories are again divided into components:
L Conductor weights
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Cantilever Frame I insulator weights
Additional weight- Boosters etc.
10.1.7 Conductor weights
Determine the weight of the individual wires from the 14 series of drawings (see sheets
1/ 14//101- 103) or obtain the system weight (Catenary+ contact+ droppers)
This value is in N/m. If you ever have the kglm value and not the N/m value multiply by
9.81 to obtain N/m. (9.81 is the acce]eration due to gravity value)
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Determine the span lengths either side of the mast and again use these values divided by 2 to
obtain the point load at the structure.
Use this formula:
Weight X L 1/2 + Weight X L2/2
Eg
Spans of 50m and 60m, Mk3B equipment
From 1/14/101 vertical loading including droppers= 12.877 N/m
Hence 12.877 x 5012 + 12.877 x 6012 = 708.23 N
The bending moment contribution is obtained by multiplying the conductor weight by the
horizontal distance from the conductor to the centre line of the foundation.
10.1.8 Frame weight
Determine the total weight of the frame by summing the weights of the tubes and insulators.
(As a guide the value does not normally exceed 1.5 kN)
Determine the distance to the conductors and multiply this by 0.4. (This is the distance from
the mast centre line to the assumed centre of gravity of the frame)
The bending moment contribution is obtained by multiplying the summed weight by the
horizontal distance from the conductor to the centre line of the foundation x 0.4
10.1.9 Additional Weight
If any additional items are applied to the mast, calculations should be made in a similar
fashion to the frame weight calculations.
Determine total weight applied
Find centre of gravity
The bending moment contribution is obtained by multiplying the summed weight by the
horizontal distance from the weight to the centre line of the foundation
10.1.10 Ice Loads
Ice must be applied to the catenary and all fittings at -18 degrees C. 9.5mm radial ice is to be
applied.
Determine the area over which ice is applied
Density of ice = 920 kg 1m cubed
Use this formula
Area x Density of ice x 9.81 x 0.0095 = N
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11.0 Foundations
A range of foundation designs exist from which suitable allocation may be made. Only
occasionally is it necessary to make purpose designs. Special design is usually only necessary
where space is restricted or where attachment to an engineering feature or masonry is
required. In such circumstances the Civil Engineer for the contract may be requested to
design suitable foundations to suit the loads applied. Any foundation that is flxed to or bears
onto a ci vii engineering feature requires the approval of the appropriate owner and detail
drawings showing the proposal and appropriate loadings need to be submitted.
Care must also be exercised where walkout clearance is small to ensure the edge of any
proposed foundation will not impinge on the area required for permanent way On Track Plant
tamping machinery. (This area is usually taken as 1.4m from rail at a depth of 1 .08m below
rail.)
11.1 Foundati on types.
The types of foundations normally encountered are:
11.1.1 Concrete side bearing {1/80/202 & 1/80/253).
This is the most common type and is the most suitable type for cantilever and headspan
masts which exert substantial bending moment. It relies on the side bearing property of a
deep excavation into reasonable good ground. Excavated depths down to 5.0m are possible.
Masts may be bolted or planted There is a minimum planting depth into the concrete for the
steelwork and the foundation is cast with a polystyrene core former which is removed to
allow installation of the mast. Masts are finally grouted in position after alignment and
raking. Foundations are reinforced with reinforcement bars (rebar) and where the load is
unidirectional reinforcement is only applied on the tension side and this applies in most cases.
The Overhead system design cross sections indicate the position of reinforcements by a
symbol "R" on the appropriate side.
11.1.2 Circular tubular steel pile .(1183/801)
This is also a side bearing type used at present for cantilever construction only . It is nonnally
restricted to open route line use where production line techniques can be employed to
steelwork and foundation installations using the same track possession. Special on track plant
machinery has been developed to vibrate the pile to the appropriate depth.
The pile is fitted with lugs to suit bolted base masts.
Tubular piles may also be used for Anchor Ties although in poor ground a piled Universal
column is used.(See 1188/ & 1/98 series.)
11.1.3 Concrete gravity type (1182/877)
These are used where ground is poor or where deep excavations are not possible due to
obstructions beneath ground or where hinge base structures are needed. The foundations
occupy large areas if large bending moments exist and the foundation is shallow.
Masts can be arranged eccentric to the centre of foundation and be planted or bolted.
11.L4 Tie Foundations. (11811206)
These are uplift resistance foundations which rely on dead weight of concrete plus resistance
from surrounding ground. -
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11.2 Foundation Excavation (1/80 series.1/98/804 to 806 typically)
Foundations are excavated using the following means
11.2.1 Grab
Grabbed foundations are square or rectangular in section and excavated using
GIBB
commercial excavating machines adapted for rail use and having special buckets for small
size holes. Normal sizes are approx 550mm square for cantilevers and 800mm square for
heads pan masts but sizes up to l.Om by 2.0m are used. Excavation to depths of 5.0m are
practical.
11.2.2 Auger.
These holes are circular in section. Machinery for the purpose is more specialised and not so
readily available and use of this type has declined. Most Mk1 used this foundation type.
11.2.3 Manual/ Hand
Plan area of hand excavated foundations are generally large. They are used where track
possession or access is difficult for a machine or where underground obstructions exist.
Manual excavation is also needed where special foundations are designed to suit restricted
areas.
A range of designs in various plan sizes and for the various excavation methods is available
for allocation.(l/80 series)
Bending moment (BM) resistance of a foundation is arranged at not less than 3/4 of strength
of the steel it supports or actual Bending moment where this is greater.(EHQ/ST/0/ 009
Fmish level is normally lOOmm above surrounding ground level.
In addition to consideration of BM the design must allow for
Distance the foundation is from edge of embankment or cutting or ditch.
Slope of embankment or cutting.
Direction of the load relative to the embankment or cutting.
Poor or built up ground. (None effective depth.,NED.)
Finish level above ground. (Out of ground .o.o.g). Viz platforms
The method for allocation of side bearing foundations is given in Design drawings 1/98/804
to
1198/806.
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12.0 Earthing and Bonding
12.1 Why Bond
An earthing and bonding system for 25kv electrified lines is installed to provide a continuous
return path for traction load and fault current and to ensure that unacceptable and accessible
levels of touch voltage do not arise.
12.2 Terminology
The following are common terms used to describe various aspects of an earthing and bonding
system.
12.2.1 Bonding plan
A bonding plan is a plan, which shows the necessary bonding for both signalling and
electrification purposes and is produced jointly by signal and electrification design engineers.
12.2.2 Bonding
Bonding is the electrical connection of two or more items of metalwork by a suitable
electrical conductor called a bond, to the traction return rail. This is done to ensure a
continuous path for electric current or to minimise the electrical potential between the
connected items.
12.2.3 Bond
A bond is a conductor designed to provide electrical continuity between two conductive
parts.
Various types of bond are in use throughout the system and these are listed below
12.2.4 Continuity bond
This is used to bond any non electrically continuous section of the traction return rail
12.2.5 Structure to Rail.
Most times an individual bond is connected from each structure to the rail (s) designated as
the traction return rail(s) but sometimes several structures are inter connected by means of an
earth wire which is then bonded to the traction return rail (s). (viz tunnels or masts in areas
involving DC lines.)
In double rail traction return areas with track circuits both rails are return rails to which
connection must be made via Impedence bonds.
An impedence bond is essentially a tuned choke that allows passage of a particular frequency
whilst impeding the passage of others thereby enabling the 50HZ AC system to operate
independently .
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12.2.6 Impedance bond
This is a device used in double rail track circuited areas which whilst allows track circuit
current to flow freely.
12.2.7 Rail joint bond
A bond installed across a joint in the running rail to ensure electrical continuity.
12.2.8 Rail to rail bond
A bond between the running rails of the same track
12.2.9 Red Bond
A bond, which if disconnected, could in itself or the equipment to which it is connected, rise
to a dangerous potential. Red coloured PVC sleeving or red paint at the rail end identifies
this bond.
12.2.10 Track to track cross bond
A bond which connects one running rail of one track to the running rail of another
12.2.11 Yellow bond
A bond which is required for track circuit integrity and which may also carry traction return
current. It is identified by yellow coloured tape at each of it's extremities.
12.2.12 Return Conductor to rall bond
A bond which connects the return conductor to the traction return rail.
12.2.13 Earth
Earth is the conductive mass of earth, which is conventionally taken as zero .
12.2.14 Earth wire
An earth wire is a conductor electrically connecting the steelwork of two or more overhead
line structures or small part steelwork together and to a traction return rail or to the centre of
an impedance bond
12.2.15 Earthing
Earthing means an effective connection to the conductive mass of earth by means of
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a suitable earth electrode. Connections shall be made to a traction return rail, earth_ wire or
overhead line structure as required.
12.2.16 Earth electrode
The foundations of the overhead structures connected in parallel by means of a traction return
rail or earth wire constitute an earth electrode for the traction return system used in overhead
line electrification
12.2.17 Traction earth
Traction earth is the earth system formed by the traction return rails being intentionally
connected to the general mass of earth by the overhead line structure foundations.
12.2.18 Traction return rail
The traction return rail is at least one rail of every wired track designated by the Signalling
Engineer and used to carry the traction return current.
12.2.19 Traction return current
Traction return current is the residual current that passes from the train wheels and axles into
the rails as part of the traction return system.
12.2.20 Traction return system
The traction return system is defined as either: -
Single rail traction return where one rail is available for traction return purposes
or,
Double rail traction return where both rails are available for traction return purposes.
In the case of double rail traction return areas these may or may not have track circuits.
Where no track circuits exist, any rail may be used for traction return purposes.
1
However, if track circuits exist, there is a special point provided to which the traction return
bond can be connected and this is known as an impedance bond.

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12.2.21 Rail Potential
The voltage that occurs between the traction return rails and earth under operating and fault
conditions.
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12.2.22 Potential difference
Potential difference is the difference in two electrical states, which tends to cause a current to
flow between them.
12.2.23 Simultaneous touching distance
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The distance, which can be bridged by a person and any metalwork associated with the
overhead line equipment In general this distance is a minimum of 2m horizontal.
12.2.24 Return conductor
Return conductor is a conductor specifically provided to carry traction return current back to
the feeder station.
There are two scenarios in which they are used, i.e. with or without booster transformers: -
Without Booster Transformers.
The return conductor is in electrical contact with the overhead line structure to which it is
attached and in this situation also fulfils the function of an earth wire. It is connected to the
traction return rail at certain intervals as detailed in specification EHQ/SP/D/133.
With Booster Transformers
The return conductor is not in electrical contact with the overhead line structure to which it is
attached. In this situation it is connected direct to rail at a point approximately midway
between boosters. This is known as a Mid Point Connection.
Connections to rail from this particular conductor are by means of so called 'Red bonds,
which are installed in duplicate.
12.2.25 Spider Plate
A metal plate used as a common connection point where a number of bonds require to be
commonly connected together.
Arrangements are needed to ensure that all normal traction current or fault currents is
returned to the supply point without raising the potential of the steelwork to dangerous levels.
Potential to earth of metal parts should not exceed 25 volts in normal use or 430 volts under
fault conditions.
Earthing means the effective connection to lhe general mass of earth by means of suitable
earth electrode .The foundations of OLE connected in parallel by means of a traction return
rail or earth wire constitute this electrode .
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13.0 SMOS
fu the early days of 25kV AC electrification the main circuit breakers at feeder stations and
track section cabins were oil circuit breakers. These were housed in substantial line side brick
buildings . The introduction of vacuum interrupters allowed these to be housed in cheaper
modular steel cabins . More recent developments of outdoor switch gear has lead to the
interrupters being mounted on appropriately positioned line side masts. SMOS is the acronym
for "Structure Mounted Outdoor Switchgear." and its use is claimed to give significant cost
savings. Lineside housing is only needed to accommodate the Supervisory protection
equipment.
The overhead line arrangements at SMOS can be complex requiring each circuit breaker to be
located on a mast adjacent to switching positions at appropriate ends of the overlap and
interconnected by a bare wire conductor busbar. Interconnections to manual switches and to
the OLE by means of feeder wires furthers the complexity. Great care is needed in the
overhead system design to minimise the complexity and to ensure adequate electrical
clearance and safety during isolations and to arrange emergency switching arrangements to
cater in the event of bus bar breakage.
There is only a standard basic design arrangement available for two track systems using
cantilever supports at present so the OSD engineer needs to improvise for other situations.
Very often it is more satisfactory to locate the SMOS units on separate structures remote
from the OLE to enable a perimeter security fence to enclose the unit. Consideration may be
given to using Headspan construction rather than the standard cantilever arrangement as this
may give more flexibility with across track insul ation, clearances and screening.
Care in choice of sites and arrangements that do not offend aesthetically is also important.
GEC and ABB offer different SMOS designs and the choice of either is a tender option with
the client. The GEC design has the current transformer (CT)integral with the circuit breaker
and the voltage transformer (VT) separate whilst ABB has independent cr and VT.
Requirement for VTs is stipulated by the Distribution engineer and is used to provide a
reference voltage to the protection system.
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14.0 Overhead System Design Procedure
The overhead line System design issued to the constructor comprises the following
documents.
(a) Layout Plan
(b) Walkout Notes
(c) Cross sections for each location shown on the layout plan.
(d) Switching cross sections
(e) Bonding Plan
(f) Wire run Schedule
Documents are prepared to set standards to ensure unifonnity of symbols, scales and format
14.1 Procedure and Documents.
All documents are given a unique number and a title related to the scheme area code,
construction unit and track unit, Columns for recording revision, issue and persons
performing the design, checking and approval of the drawing are included
14.2 Layout Plan
The Instruction for Layout of OLE is EHQ/IN/0/006.
With knowledge of all the information outlined so far the OSD Engineer prepares a
preliminary layout plan for each Track Unit of the scheme concerned. Draft plans are
circulated to all parties concerned in the Electrification, Resignalling or modernisation
scheme.
Layout plans show the following information typically:
Structure Location.
Structure Number.
Design Wind speeds
Span Length.
Type of structure( by symbol).
Stagger and curvature information.
Tracks and wire arrangements including wire numbering.
Bridges, level crossings, powerlines, stations etc.
Anchoring arrangements, Overlap, Booster transformer and MPC requirements.
Switching requirement, Jumper, EWs and RC requirements ..
All conductor heights.
Line jumper requirements.
Lineside details such as embankment and cutting areas .
Cut Lines and reference to other sheets of same document or next layout plan ..
It is good practice to make preliminary designs for features such as bridges in conjunction
with the layout design as the available CW height and position of fixings can influence the
span lengths and arrangement outside the vicinity of the bridge.
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14.3 Walkout
The route is marked with all the proposed mast positions then "Walked out" with all parties.
Inevitably changes or special needs are required. A Walkout clearance to mast is agreed
taking note of Signal Engineers troughing routes, cable routes, drains, signal sighting and
other features.
All requirements including the clearance of masts from rail are recorded in the "Walkout
notes" which are distributed to all parties with updated version of the layouts.
14.4 Bridge and OLE Structure Cross sections
An across track survey is recorded at the site of each structure or bridge location given on the
layout plan.
Information regarding rail levels, cants, wire heights, mast heights and bracket fixing
positions are entered onto the cross section drawing and the assemblies to be allocated are
drawn. Scale drawings are prepared at all positions involving complexity otherwise a Data
sheet approach is used.
Special drawings are prepared for each Bridge giving details of roof or wall fixings and a
plan view showing the support arm positions and interconnecting bonds. The plan view
supports the layout plan as it is usually not possible to show sufficient detail on that drawing.
Structures and foundations are sized and all the assemblies and parts relating to the structure
are allocated including the along track fittings for the next span.
Allocations are listed in categories relating to Steelwork, Foundations, Wiring, Along track
and Bonding.
14.5 Constructabl/lty.
The designer should be aware of the requirements in construction.
Where the design needs to consider
(i) Provision for staging of the work and continuity of the construction.
This may involve the use of additional or temporary structures.
(ii) Safety during construction and subsequent maintenance.
This may require structures or components to accept additional loads during construction or
be subjected to worst load conditions if an equipment is subsequently removed.
(iii) Disruption to services if other tracks, with or without electrification, are affected by the
works.
Minimise the number of new masts/foundations and wiring within or adjacent to other lines
that border the scheme concerned.
(iv) Wire runs can be made efficiently, minimising track occupations as much as possible.
Try to ensure designs minimise the disruption caused if a pantograph dewirement occurs or a
wire is broken. A broken wire of an equipment which crosses several tracks affects the
services operating on all those tracks.
(v) A vail ability of materials to meet program dates and for maintenance .
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* A Design that Details the Overhead Line System.
*
A Design to enable Construction.
* A Design to Suitable Safe Standards.
*
A Design that provides a Bills of Quantities for order of Materials.
It might be better to use two commonly available components if they do the job rather than
one special or rarely used item.
(vi) Availability of Track Possessions and Isolations.
(vii) Site Access.
(viii) Electrical considerations. Consider the isolation limitations of the switching and
sectioning devised. It is essential that the consequence of any design changes to switching,
sectioning or earthing and bonding are fully considered
14.6 Bonding Plans.
These plans generally mimic the layout plans to show the track layout and all the structures.
They are prepared in outline and sent to the signalling authority who marks up the track
circuit and traction return rail detail. Electrification bonding detail is then added to show the
bonds Viz Structure to rail .Track to track, Impedence, transition, continuity bonds and
earth wires .
14.7 Wire Run Schedules.
This schedule lists the individual length and type of conductors that are to be supplied for a
t scheme or phase of a scheme.
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14.8 Design, Checking and Approval Procedure.
No documentation is issued before this procedure is completed and amendment to design
carried out where necessary. Suitably experienced and qualified personnel perform each of
the respective functions. All documents are signed off by the appropriate designer, checker or
approver. At issue the status of the documents is endorsed on the drawing .Viz Draft, for
Tender purposes, For Construction etc.
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15.0 Design Changes
Design changes can result as a consequence of
(a) Incorrect OSD.
(b) Incorrect site installations.
(c) Client change of Scope of work.
(d) Contractor substituting different materials or dimensions.
mJACOBS GIBB
These changes are generally referred to as ' 'Non Confonnities" and require retrospective
action to amend the design.
Depending on the nature and consequence of the Non Conformity there is often an adverse
monetary cost involved The client will charge the designer for additional work and
inconvenience caused where it is seen to be the designers error.
The Quality System (ISO 9000,BS 5750) requires that changes are investigated as a
safeguard to avoid repetition of incorrect design.
Apart from ensuring adequate training, instruction and supervision of personnel other actions
may include the circulation of new instructions and amending of check lists.
16.0 Bill of Quantities.
This document is prepared from the allocation on the cross sections by a computer driven
package to provide all the materials needed for the scheme.
11.0 As Fitted to De&'lq V\ vvhtlst YJ:mq 1n&'ra.1Jicj .
When a scheme has been installed there will inevitably have been changes made to dJign or
variations made. Most of these changes will have been documented in design changes as the
installation has progressed.
At the end of the job it is necessary to issue a complete set of OSD documents to the client
for maintenance purposes which reflect the "As Fitted" situation using the installation records
and from site measurements and observation ..
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18.0 Glossary of Terms
A.P.C.
Ampact
Alutlex
A
Automatic Power Control (Magnets used at neutral sections)
Wedges used to connect two conductors
Flexible aluminium cable used for earths
Aeroplane Clips onto catenary at dropper points, prevents chaffing and dropper
Auxiliary
A.W.S
A.W.A.C
Bond
Bull Wire
Battleship
Blow Off
B.F.B
Bridle
BWA
movement
Middle wire in a system of 3 wires
Automatic warning system
Aluminium wound aluminium core cable, used for catenary
B
Numerous types for electrical safety and integrity. (To ensure continuity of
earth I electricity)
8mm 0 heavy type stainless steel dropper
Contact wire splice for joining wires (shaped like a battleship)
D.Vc.d.l2 / 8T
Where D = Drag Factor
I= Span
Vc =Design speed
d = Wire diameter
T= Tension
The distance by which the contact wire deteriorates from its static position
under wind load
Broad flanged Beam
Where the catenary goes over a pulley wheel and is jumpered out around this
point
Balance weight Anchor
c
Crosby Clip Generally used to clamp on droppers for adjustment purposes
Contact Lowest wire in ' contact' with ' pantograph'
CANT Slope of track on curves (across)
Cone-end-fitting A fitting for terminating stranded conductors in tension
Contenary Used in place of catenary under bridges where there is low clearance. Is
actually contact wire spliced into the catenary over a set distance.
Clevis Tongue and Groove type connecting component
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coss Controller Of Site Safety
0
Dropper Used to support one wire from another
D.C. Direct Current .ru: Double Channel in mast reference
Dead End Grip See P .L.P
Elephant Clamp
E.W.
Encumbrance
EDV
E
General Conductor Clamp
Earth Wire
(System Depth) distance between contact and catenary wires
Earth Drop Vertical
F
Feeder Cable Connects to OHL for power supply purpose
Head span
Hog
Heel setting
Insulator
I.R.C.
I.W.A
Jumper
Knuckle
K.P.Wedges
K.P. Splice
G
H
Cable support structure
Contact wire arcs upwards through a span length, usual to hog if section
insulator is in span
Distance from bottom of drop bracket to registration arm connection point
I
Prevents flow of current to earth. Many types (sometimes referred to as POT)
Insulated return conductor
Individual working alone
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Used to assist current flow for feeding, safety or electrical stability purposes
K
Rigid connection between two contact wires I equipments
Karl pfisterer clamps for removing tension in conductors to enable work at a
point on the OLE
Karl pfisterer 6 bolt contact wire splice- also by Arthur Flury AG
L
Layout Plan View of layout of overhead line equipment over the tracks
L.D. V. Live drop vertical
M
Mid Span Offset the distance from track centre to contact wire at the mid point of span.
St
r
S 1 +S2. + V = Mid span Offset
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Example
M.P.A.
2
Where
s l and s2 are staggers
200
(-200) + (-100) + 200 =50
2
Mid point Anchor
mJACOBS GIBB
100
3
Mid Point Balancing
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OLE
OLIVE
P.G. Clamps
P.L.P
985m
985m
(less for HI span)
Mechanically Independent registrations
N
0
Overhead line equipment also known as Oill...E I OHL
Overhead line inspection by vehicular equipment - a train mounted system
used to detect faults on the overhead line
p
Conductor clamp with 'parallel grooves'
Pan I Pantograph
Pre-sag
Performed line products, a wrap for terminating wires (dead end grips)
Device for collecting current from OHL to supply power to train
Determined amount by which contact wires sags, for optimum pan
performance. ( eg the wire is designed not to be level but to hang in a
pre determined arc - this relates to the stiffness of the system and helps
to balance pantograph forces)
POT
Registration
R.C.
R.O.M.
R.E.F.O.S
Page No: 72
See insulator
point of support on the OLE
Return conductor
Q
R
Railways overhead measurement. Used to describe ultrasonic measuring
device from SUP ARUI.E systems
Running edge to face of steel distance
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Sag How wire hangs low between support points. See pre-sag
Spider Plate (S.P) use to connect a number of conductors together at one point
Stranded Conductor Wire made up of a number of wires. Sometimes used to describe a
Span
Stringline
Sheds
Stagger
SMOS
S.C.A.D.A
S.S.P
S.P.S
Tie
Tension
T.O.P
T.S.C
T.S.L
Tail Height
u.c
U.B
Versine
Walkout
X-Section
Page No: 73
wire where one out of a set of wires is broken or parted.
Distance a cable travels between support I registration points
(See versine) (S.L.)
The ceramic loops that make up an insulator
Distance from centre of track to contact wire at support points I registrations
Structure mounted operating switch gear
Supervisory control and data Acquisition
Signal Supply point
Small Part Steelwork
T
A rod used to hold another component I mast back - force resisting usage
Load in the overhead wires
Toes of Points
Track sectioning cabin
Track Sectioning Location
When 2 wires join together over track (between 2 buffers. E.g. in a station, i.e
no real track)
Universal Column
Universal Beam
u
v
Distance from chord to tangential line between support points (track
measurement). This defines curvature of the track.
/ V=ine
w
Distance from mast to contact wire
X
Plan of each structure with positional measurements and allocation of
components shown
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19.0 Some Typical Layout Symbols
--- e Insulation cut into wires
(plan view)
n
v
Versine I stringline +ve
-ve
Staggers
Mid point anchor
- - r - - ~
Section insulator
Wire run number
Anchor structure with tie
Mast Anchor
switch
Signal (Aerial)
mJACOBS GIBB
r Signal (ground)
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Balance weight anchor (with insulator)
Balance weight anchor (without insulator)
Balance weight anchor on mast
Full current feeder jumper
Equalising Jumper
Ill
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Continuity Jumper
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20.0 Exercise Modules
In all cases exercises are to be completed and submitted to your line
manager for checking and approval.
A combination of satisfactory completion of all modules and
experience gained on scheme work, followed by interview will result
in Accredited Designer Status .
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Exercise 1: Cantilever Bending Moment Calculation (refer to
section 10.1 of Training Manual)
Mast length = 9 m
Contact and Catenary = 1v.lk3 B
Contact height= 4.7 m
Catenary Height = 6.1 m
Wmd speed= 28 m/s
Reach (face of steel to centre of track = 2.1 m
Mast size = 203 nun Universal column
Span length 1 = 45 m
Span length 2 = 64 m
Assume contact and catenary radial load of SOON
each.
Attempt the following questions:
Record your workings and assumptions. You can assume a frame weight of 1.5 kN but see
also if you are able to determine a typical weight from the OLEMI design range by adding
component weights - Hint : Look in the 199 series for an allocation drawing and then find
component parts.
1 Draw on the load arrows on the above drawing with notes as to what they are
2 Calculate the wind on the mast across track
3 Calculate the wind on each of the conductors
4 Calculate I derive the system weight point load due to the weight of the contact,
catenary and droppers
5 Calculate the bending moment for the mast Oeft to right wind at lOC and -18C)
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Exercise 2: Bridge Arrangement Exercise (refer to section 8.1 of
Training Manual)
Survey details
A bridge spans two tracks and is skew by 17 degrees.
It is 20m wide and is formed of girders running across the track, which rest on supporting
walls either side (Jack arch construction)
All girders are 300 mm wide, 750 mm deep and have 20mm thick flanges.
The girders are 2000mm apart (to centres)
Soffit height = 4.5 m
The track radius is 1500m (right hand)
Track is canted by 25mm at the bridge.
Other stipulations
The Civil Engineer has stipulated that
a) Fixings to the bridge must be on spreaders between two roof girders
b) Wall fixings must be as close to the underside of a girder as possible
121.050 wall to cess raill.8 m 121.070
DOWN
UP
1500m Radius wall to cess rail3.0 m
121.051 121.071
ASSUME
:Mk3 B twin contact to be run with 19/3.25 RC's on either side

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EXERCISE
Determine
1 The bridge contact wire height
Positions for underbridge anns and 1 st structure either side of bridge
Show heights and staggers and calculate string lines
2 Decide RC height and determine fixings to be used
3 Decide on wall or roof mounted GFRP arms
GIBB
4 Do a detail design for each support and include the allocation, indicate a set out position
for the tube fixings from the nearest rail.
5 Decide the bonding requirement
PRESENT TillS INFORMATION ON 3 SHEETS
SliT 1 OF 1 -X-section showing Front elevation of support arrangements for UP and DN
Include
Allocation
Heights and staggers
Cant
Location and support number
Indicate the bending moment on the support
SliT 2 of 2 - The layout plan view
Include
Span lengths
String lines
Heights and Staggers
Locations of all supports
Soffit dimensions
Track details
SliT 3 of 3 - Detail of roof fixing arrangements, wall and RC fixings
USEFUL REFERENCES
11111/100
1/8/103
1/178/202
11128/001
199/576
1/174/851
tn6t204
1n612o5
1/171/827
tn6t242
11121142
199/561
1n6t242
199/622 and 623
1/14/145
148/57
148/45
1/85/803
199/603 and 4
1/128007
11128/25
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Exercise 3: Layout Arrangement Exercise
To be determined
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Exercise 4: Cross Section Exercises
X Section Design
X section design is made up of a number of separate fields which need to be addressed in
turn. At some stage it may be necessary to re-visit a previous field as the design
develops. The fields to consider are:
Foundation
Steelwork
Along Track
Bonding
Wiring
EXERCISES FOLLOW
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Stage 1
FOUNDATION CONSIDERATIONS
It is best to start from the mast size and work through the following points in turn until you have developed
an idea of what style of foundation suits the application. It is then a process of addressing the loads applied
and the surrounding ground conditions to get a design depth .
What size of mast ?
Side bearing I Gravity or piled ?
Customer requirement ?
Soil conditions (if high water table use gravity or pile types)
Is mast an SSA - use side bearing /piled
Bolted base or planted (common to use bolted these days)
Hand Dug or Machine excavated ( ask contractor I if buried services best to hand dig ?)
Is it a tie or mast support foundation ?
What is overturning moment ?
Use 3/4 Overturning table attached to notice board
If unusual mast type get structures engineer to determine this
Look up foundation in the 80- 81 series of drawings
Use 98/805/A2 to adjust for any slope of ground conditions (ie mast on embankments etc)
Make sure to leave some OUT OF GROUND depth in the allocation (as per drawing)
Check if reinforcement needs to be on one side or both (depends on direction of loads)
the third set of 3 numbers in the allocation will change depending on which sides the
reinforcement should go.
ALLOCATE THE FOUNDATION
Exercises:
1 The ground conditions at Stafford are poor. Allocate a foundation for a 203 x 203 cantilever mast
assuming no other restrictions.
2
3
Allocate a hand dug foundation for a 305 x 305 Self supporting anchor mast. Assume that
anchored wires are on both sides of the mast. The worst case along track overturning moment is
150kNm .
Allocate a tie foundation for a 25 mm dia tie. The foundation should withstand a pull out load of
30 kN and a side bearing resistance moment of 34kNm
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Stage2 STEELWORK
The mast size will be determined by the structures engineer based on actual loads and stresses. However in
general:
1. It is GIBB policy to allocate 203 x 203 UC masts as a minimum for cantilever design. 152 x 153
and 152 x 157 masts should not be used. It is unlikely that larger mast sizes will be needed until
you get to allocate twin cantilevers and switching elements .
2. For Twin track Cantilevers it is GIDB policy to allocate 4 angle masts and not 381 x 102 double
channels. The reason for this is that they have a better torsion resistance and are less likely to
rotate along track. (The maximum bending moment on this type of mast should be limited to 120
kNm.)
When allocating steelwork you must also include any brackets I pipes etc -i.e anything that attaches
DIRECTLY to the steelwork. in the steelwork section.
Assess what mast is to be used
What is going to be attached to the mast
- Cantilever ?
- Anchor attachments ?
-Balance weights ?
- RC?
CANTILEVER MASTS
If this is a cantilever mast you will have to determine the height of the mast above rail level. Do this by
working out the following.
How far will the mast be from track centre line ?
What type of cantilever is to be used ? (ie simple equipment 1.4 m encumbrance)
From cantilever drawing find out bracket centres.
What is the contact wire height.
From cantilever drawing work out top bracket height above the contact wire.
The mast length should be approx 200mm above top bracket to allow for future adjustment.
REMEMBER - If the track is to be lifted or lowered from it's existing position you will need to take this
into account as well ! ! !
Allocate the mast from the 35 series of drawings.
TWIN TRACK CANTn...EVER MASTS
TTC masts are made up of panels in 0.4m intervals with an initial start length of l.Sm. If allocating them
you must first work out your catenary height and add on electrical clearance values to the underside of the
boom (i.e 270mm)
The TTC boom is 600mm wide so your final mast length needs to be:
Cat height + clearance + boom width + (distance of foundation below rail level)
An additional amount may need to be added to ensure the mast length can be made up of a number of a set
number of panels and the starting length of 1.8m.
Use allocation from 38 series of drawings
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TWIN TRACK CANTILEVER BOOMS
Like the mast the TIC boom is made up of panels. TIC Booms don't always have to reach the furthest
wire as "normal cantilevers" can be registered off the nose to reach the last 3m or so. Again make sure the
boom length allocated can be made up correctly.
Use allocation from 39 series of drawings
BRACKETS AND STOVEPIPES
All brackets and stovepipes need to be allocated in the steelwork section. (see 199/651 and 148 series)
Use the allocation reference sheets as a guide. Wrap round angles for attaching stovepipes to TIC booms
are found in the 994 series. See if you can find them.
DRILLING
Check if any attachments require that the mast be pre-drilled in a set hole pattern - use correct reference
drawing.
again the allocation needs to suit the drilling requirement
If ties I anchor arrangements are to be attached to a UC type mast they will need to be drilled.
It is normal to put a tie drilling reference in a note oo the cross section (63 series) and not in the steelwork
section.
Balance weight drillings are made up within the reference tables of the 35 series mast drawing. Each
reference table is for drillings a set distance from the top of the mast.
Exercise 1:
Allocate a 203 x 203 mast 7.2m long with BW drillings 0.4m from the top.
Exercise2:
A cantilever (style lOUlOO) is to be attached to a 203 x 203 mast. The contact wire height is 4.8m. The
foundation is set 200mm below rail and the reach is 3.lm (reach is from mast centre line to the wire-
assume zero stagger)
Work out the mast length and allocate the steelwork, including mast brackets(top and bottom) for this style
of cantilever.
Exercise3:
A TIC mast must span two tracks. The walkout (running edge to mast centre line is 2.5m) and the track
separation (centre line to centre line) is 3.4 m. Assume the foundation is level with rail and that the
catenary height is 6.lm. Allocate a mast and boom.
Allocate 2 catenary stovepipes (dia 76) and 2 cantilever stovepipes (101.2 dia) with appropriate bracketry
to attach them to the boom. Length of the pipes should be l.Sm for the catenary and 3.5m for the contact
(These are assumed values)
Note:
Use sketches and show your dimensions and reasoning wherever possible.
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Stage 3 BONDING
Bonding allocation is generally quite simple on standard structure types.
It is not necessary to show the bond from structure to rail on the cross section but a bond should be
allocated from the 199/601 drawing. Bear in mind that there are 3 sheets to this drawing for Welded,
Cembre or Glenair connections to rail. It is usually courteous to ask the contractor which their preferred
method of connection is. Allocate Glenair types where no preference is expressed.
It may be necessary to allocate track to track bonds from time to time (see 199/602) and also RC to rail
connections (see 199/605)
As in ALONG TRACK, it is usual, in say the case of a track to track bond, to allocate it at the structure
pre-ceding the span (i.e the structure at lower chainage)
Bonding cable is usually 19/3.25 rnm alwninium with PVC sheath
IMPORTANT:
Always work from the As Fitted Bonding plan or site survey data. Structure Bonds must connect to the
TRACTION RETURN RAIL.
Exercises:
1. Allocate a Glenair type Structure to rail bond- TO FAR RAIL. Walkout of2.5 m.
2. Allocate a length of bonding cable 4m long.
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Stage 4 ALONG TRACK
There are 5 types of along track equipment typically allocated:
Droppers
Section Insulators
Jumpers
Cut in insulation /splices
Anchor equipment
GIBS
They are allocated on the previous structure, i.e. jumpers between 4.132 and 4.182 will be allocated on the
cross section for 4.132.
Droppers:
Information needed: Catenary type
Encumbrance (Difference in height between catenary and contact)
Span length
Equipment type (i.e. Auto tensioned or fixed termination, mark 1 or mark 3b)
These should be found from the layout.
To AJlocate:
1) Look at the 14 series drawings to find the number of droppers needed for your span and encumbrance.
14/123 for Mark 3b fixed termination
1114/122 and 1114/130 and 14/131 for Mark 3b Auto tensioned
D/14/122 and D/14/130 for Mark 5 (Dollands Moor only)- watch out for the very similar numbers- check
where it says contact size. Mark 3 = 107 mm
2
, Mark 5 = 150 mm
2
Mark 5 is heavy equipment used at the
Channel tunnel rail terminal in Felixtowe.
(If allocating for mark 1 equipment the tables are in the back of the mark 1 drawings folder.)
On site the droppers are made to the lengths shown here. If the encumbrance is different at each structure
then the lengths are adjusted according to 1/14/132.
2) Look at 199/621-631 for the droppers.
Use the drawing for correct number of droppers for your span. The table shows the encumbrance and
catenary type. Read across from this to find the allocation number.
3) For Mark 1 compound equipment allocate droppers and auxiliary droppers from the 994 series. You
need twice as many auxiliary droppers as main droppers.
Exercise: Find a mark 1 allocation drawing
____________________________________________ (!,)
One set of droppers is needed for each set of equipment.
Section Insulators:
These are used to separate out different sections. You can tell where you need them by seeing where the
colours change on the section diagram. They are most commonly used on crossovers and on main lines
where the line speed is less than 100 mph. If the line speed is greater than 100 mph an insulated overlap
must be used instead.
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A train should never stop on a section insulator. To avoid this it should be installed approximately 100m
away from a signal. if this is not possible then the individual scheme should be looked at. with the types of
trains which run on the route and the distance from the from of the train to the pantograph taken into
account.
The section insulator should always be installed in the middle of the span and over the centreline, within a
construction tolerance of +1- 220 mm for B.I.C.C. S.I.s, and+/- 120 rom for Brown Boveri (tramway only)
types. Droppers are adjusted to allow for the weight of the insulator in span.
Information needed:
To Allocate:
I) Look at 199/5xx
Catenary type
Encumbrance
Line speed
Direction of travel
Exercise: Find 3 drawings:
______________________ (3)
2) Choose the insulator required for your line speed, direction of travel and encumbrance. For
encumbrances less than 450 mm a reduced height arrangement should be used.
Jumpers:
There are 4 types of jumpers:
1. Continuity - between catenary and contact, ensures both are at same potential so that droppers
don't burn out. Need 5 per tension length, equidistant from each other, or at least one in every 6
spans in crossovers and sidings.
Exercise: How is this shown on a layout? Find and old layout and work it out. Draw a sketch. (2)
2. Potential equalising -Used where 2 wires in the same section are running parallel to each other
for some distance to keep them at the same potential, e.g. 1 wire wiring 2 crossovers that are
separated over a relatively long distance.
Exercise: How is this shown on a layout? Draw a sketch. (2)
3. Full current- Used to liven up a wire, e.g. at an overlap which is not a section change a full current
jumper would be used to enliven the new wire.
Exercise: How is this shown on a layout? Draw a sketch. (2)
4. Feeder- Used at switches to power up a new section. Usually allocated with the rest of the
switching equipment.
Information needed: Catenary type
Contact type
Direction of travel
To allocate:
1)
2)
Decide what type of jumper you need in the span.
Go to 199/5xx.
Exercise: Find 4 drawings:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ( ~
3) Allocate the jumper; ensuring that you use the right type for the catenary type, i.e. A. W.A.C.
requires the ones with bi-metallic connectors.
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Cut in insulation
Used for out of running wires, e.g. where a wire is going to anchor or at an insulated overlap.
When the wire is going out to anchor the insulation is often at the mast itself, and is allocated with that
structure. If it is in span it must be over the rail edge or further, to ensure it's clear of the pantograph.
To allocate:
You need:
Catenary type
1) Decide what type of insulation you want i.e.
Porcelain
Glass fibre
Polymeric
Anti vandal
Porcelain is standard, with anti vandal caps if near a bridge or in a station. Glass fibre is used if i) weight is
an issue as it is lighter than porcelain, or ii) a porcelain one could be in the way of the pantograph.
Polymcrics are relatively recent, and are likely to become more poplar as they are lighter than porcelain and
don't need any additions to become anti-vandals. They don't currently have an OLEMI number.
2) If using porcelain ones check the layout to see if the area is polluted or ool If so, long creepage ones
are necessary. These are longer and have more sheds. The benefit is that standard insulators can have
their effectiveness reduced as the build up of dirt and grime can cause short circuits and cracking of
sheds.
3) Look at 199/5xx and choose the insulator for the situation.
Exer cise: Find 1 drawing:-
_______________________ (!)
4) If using long creepage or anti-vandal insulators credit back the standard porcelain ones and allocate
the new types (121/Sxx)
Exercises:
Find the standard insulators: (1)
Long creepage: (1)
Anti vandal: (1)
5) Write a construction note explaining where you want the insulator to go, e.g. over buffer stops, over
rail edge, 20m into span etc. You may need to look at the wire profile with the insulator in the chosen
position if there is limited clearance or there is any chance of it coming in contact with the pantograph.
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Anchor equipment
Anchor equipment differs for AT and Ff equipment.
AT consists of an equalising plate attached to a set of pulleys and weights, either directly or via a tail wire.
The balance weights are designed to rise and lower on the mast as the wire expands and contracts due to the
temperature. They ensure that the tension in the wire remains at ll.kN (Mark 3b) or 9kN (mark 1 ). A mid
point anchor in the middle of the tension length fixes the wire at the centre, ensuring that it can't migrate
towards one side.
Instead of balance weights FI' equipment is attached to the mast. either with an equalising plate and a
single attachment. or with separate connections (for contact and catenary). The expansion and contraction
of the wire causes the tension of the wire to rise and fall causing the wire to sag in span.
If the total length of the auto-tensioned wire is less than 985 m (i.e. half maximum tension length) it can be
fixed at one end, with balance weights at the other.)
Insulation is necessary in the anchor span. It can either be direcdy in front of the equalising plate, or in
span.
Information needed:
Catenary type
Equipment type
Position of equalising plate and insulators
Tail wire
To Allocate:
1) For Ff or fixed end of AT look at drawings 199/Sxx
Exercise: Find 2 drawings:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
2) Allocate the drawing applicable to the catenary and contact type, with equalising plate and tail wire as
necessary.
3) For balance weight ends of AT look at drawings 199/5xx
Exercise: Find 3 drawings:
---------:--------------'C3)
4) Allocate the drawing applicable to the catenary and contact type, with equalising plate and tail wire as
necessary
6) For both types tail wire is to be allocated separately. See 148/0xx
Exercise: Find 1 drawing:
--------------------------___:(1)
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Exercises:
1.

30m



Down
30m'\

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40m
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65m 55m 40m
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65m
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55m
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40m
The Up and down tracks are different sections. The equipment is mark 3b auto tensioned, with A WAC catenary. The wire heights are 4.3 m contact and 5.0 m catenary at
the fast structure, and 4.7 m contact and 6.1 m catenary at the last, increasing steadily throughout. Draw symbols on layout and allocate all along track equipment needed,
including a potential equalising jumper and section insulators. Write construction notes where necessary.
B_O
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2.
_____ In-running
-----------Out of running
---- --Tail wire
___________

This is an uninsulated overlap. Wire run A is Mark 3b Auto tensioned, with the insulation and equalising plate in span. Wire run B is Mark 3b ftxed termination, with 2
attachments to the mast In both cases the catenary is A WAC. The masts are both 203 x 203 U.C. cantilever masts. Allocate the jumper and anchor equipment
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StageS WIRING
Wiring allocation will follow on from the steelwork allocation. You will have already decided which structure
is required (Headspan, Cantilever, Portal, ITC) and you now have to continue from your support brackets to
allocate the wiring elements. In essence you will have already decided upon a support arrangement before
allocating the brackets under steelwork based on "what you think will do the job"
Sometimes it is necessary to go back and review the choice because you may be forced into improving
clearances or to avoid live equipment over platforms. It is always an iterative process to achieve the best design
but some problems do prove very complex.
Principally you have to allocate:
1. The wiring support arrangement and insulators
2. The registration parts - i.e arms
Considerations:
The choice of arrangement is dependent on
Equipment type
Line speed
Load applied (radial + wind) - Push or Pull off
Reach requirements
Clearances to bridges I tunnels I other cables I platform edge
The 199 series is the first area to look for wiring arrangements. The 199 drawing shows the assembly of
components that make up the whole. It generally refers to another drawing which gives dimensional data. The
dimensioned drawing gives you the data you need to see if the design will work I establish bracket separation.
Further referenced drawings give maximum load data which will enable the designer to ensure the design will
support the loads applied. In some cases changes to the layout staggers and span lengths may be required to
make a design work satisfactorily.
Registration arms:
Once you have a frame it is necessary to support the wire. In slow speed areas and on tramway equipment the
wire can be clamped directly to a solid stand off or to a registration tube. In high speed areas it is necessary to
use a registration arm that allows for uplift of the wire.
Tho type of arm depends on the stagger and load conditions.
Exercises:
1. Find the 199 drawing which enables you to select the minimum stagger for registration arms.
2. Is there a better alternative ? (see your Electrification handbook for hints)
3. Allocate a standard Mk3 B cantilever frame for 1.4 m encumbrance. Allocate a registration
arrangement that can be used with the frame for speeds up to 125mph (High speed equipment).
Assume that the wire is being pushed off.
4. Allocate a registration arm for use with the frame in question 2.
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Exercise 5: Switching Exercise
To be determined
Exercise 6: Isolation Diagram Exercise
To be determined
Exercise 7: Bonding Exercise
To be determined
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GIBB
JacobsGIBB Ltd