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Angle Stability (AS) Outline

Definitions
Small-disturbance:
Hopf Bifurcations
Control and Mitigation
Practical applications
Transient Stability (large-disturbance):
Time domain
Direct Methods:
Equal Area Criterion
Energy Functions
Practical applications
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Short Term
Small -Disturbance
Angle Stability
Transient
Stability
Large -
Disturbance
Voltage Stability
Small -
Disturbance
Voltage Stability
Short Term Long Term
Power System
Stability
Rotor Angle
Stability
Frequency
Stability
Voltage
Stability
Long Term Short Term
Long Term
AS Definitions
IEEE-CIGRE classification (IEEE/CIGRE J oint Task Force on Stability Terms and
Definitions, Definition and Classification of Power System Stability, IEEE Trans.
Power Systems and CIGRE Technical Brochure 231, 2003):
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AS Definitions
Rotor angle stability refers to the ability of
synchronous machines of an interconnected
power system to remain in synchronism after
being subjected to a disturbance. It depends on
the ability to maintain/restore equilibrium
between electromagnetic torque and mechanical
torque of each synchronous machine in the
system.
In this case, the problem becomes apparent
through angular/frequency swings in some
generators which may lead to their loss of
synchronism with other generators.
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Small-disturbance
Small-disturbance (or small-signal) rotor angle stability
is concerned with the ability of the power system to
maintain synchronism under small disturbances. The
disturbances are considered to be sufficiently small that
linearization of system equations is permissible for
purposes of analysis.
This problem is usually associated with the appearance
of undamped oscillations in the system due to a lack of
sufficient damping torque.
Theoretically, this phenomenon may be associated with
a s.e.p. becoming unstable through a Hopf bifurcation
point, typically due to contingencies in the system (e.g.
August 1996 West Coast Blackout).
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Hopf Bifurcations
For the generator- system example, with
AVR but no Q
G
limits:
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Hopf Bifurcations
As previously discussed, the ODE model for this
system for numerical time domain simulations is:
where: X = X
L
+ X
Th
+ X'
G
; V
1r
= V
1
cos
1
;
V
1i
= V
1
sin
1
; and P
m
= P
d
.
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Hopf Bifurcations
The PV curves for M = 0.1, D = 0.1, K
v
= 1,
X '
G
= 0.25, X
Th
= 0.25, V = V
1o
=1 are:
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
HB
HB
P
d
V
3
Operating
Point
X
L
=0.5
X
L
=0.6
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Hopf Bifurcations
The eigenvalues for the system with respect to
changes in P
d
for X
L
= 0.5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Real
I
m
a
g
.
P
d
P
d
Hopf
Bifurcation
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Hopf Bifurcations
There is a Hopf bifurcation at P
d
1.25:
1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
P
d
R
e
a
l
{
e
v
}
Hopf Bifurcation
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Hopf Bifurcations
A Hopf bifurcation with eigenvalues
= j yields a periodic oscillation of period:
Hence, for the example:
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Hopf Bifurcations
A contingency X
L
= 0.5 0.6 at operating
point P
d
= 1.13 yields:
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
t [s]


f [Hz]
[rad]
E' [pu]
V
1
[pu]
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Hopf Bifurcations
Observe the system oscillations, which are a
trademark of Hopf bifurcations and small-
disturbance angle instabilities.
These oscillations have a period of about 5s,
which is typical in practice, where these kinds
of oscillations are in the 0.1-1 Hz range.
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Control and Mitigation
For the IEEE 145-bus, 50-machine test system:
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Control and Mitigation
For an impedance load model, the PV curves yield:
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Control and Mitigation
Hence, a line 90-92 outage yields:
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Control and Mitigation
This has been typically solved by adding Power
System Stabilizers (PSS) to the voltage controllers in
certain generators, so that the equilibrium point is
made stable, i.e. the Hopf is removed (FACTS may
also be used to address this problem):
AVR
V
ref
V
t
+
+
_
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Control and Mitigation
A participation factor analysis in this case yields:
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Control and Mitigation
The line 90-92 outage with PSS at generators 93 and
104 yields:
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Control and Mitigation
More details regarding this example can
be found in:
N. Mithulananthan, C. A. Caizares, J . Reeve,
and G. J . Rogers, Comparison of PSS, SVC
and STATCOM Controllers for Damping
Power System Oscillations, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 18, No.
2, May 2003, pp. 786-792.
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Small Disturbance (SD)
Applications
In practice, some contingencies trigger plant or
inter-area frequency oscillations in a heavily
loaded system, which may be directly
associated with Hopf bifurcations.
This is a classical problem in power systems
and there are many examples of this
phenomenon in practice, such as the August 10,
1996 blackout of the WSCC (now WECC)
system.
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SD Applications
Observe that the maximum loadability of the system is reduced by
the presence of the Hopfs; this leads to the definition of a dynamic
ATC value:
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
HB
HB
P
d
V
3
Operating
point
Worst contingency
(N-1 criterion)
TTC
ETC ATC TRM
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Transient Stability
Large-disturbance rotor angle stability or
transient stability, as it is commonly referred to,
is concerned with the ability of the power system
to maintain synchronism when subjected to a
severe disturbance, such as a short circuit on a
transmission line. The resulting system response
involves large excursions of generator rotor
angles and is influenced by the nonlinear power-
angle relationship.
The system nonlinearities determine the system
response; hence, linearization does not work in
this case.
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Transient Stability
The basic idea and analysis procedures are:
Pre-contingency (initial conditions): The system is operating in
normal conditions associated with a s.e.p.
Contingency (fault trajectory): A large disturbance, such as a
short circuit or line trip, which is usually associated with the
disappearance of a s.e.p., force the system to move away from
its initial operating point.
Post-contingency (fault clearance): The contingency usually
forces system protections to try to clear the fault; the issue is
then to determine whether the resulting system is stable, i.e.
whether the system remains relatively intact and the associated
time trajectories converge to a reasonable operating point.
Based on nonlinear system theory, this analysis can be
basically viewed as determining whether the fault
trajectory at the clearance point is outside or inside of
the stability region of the post-contingency s.e.p.
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Time Domain Analysis
Given the complexity of power system models,
the most reliable analysis tool for these types of
studies is full time domain simulations.
For example, for the generator-load example:
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Time Domain Analysis
The ODE for the simplest generator d-axis
transient model and neglecting AVR and
generator limits is:
where
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Time Domain Analysis
The objective is to determine how much time an
operator would have to connect the capacitor bank B
C
after a severe transmission system contingency,
simulated here as a sudden increase in the value of
the reactance X, so that the system recovers.
In this case, and as previously discussed in the
voltage stability section, the contingency is severe, as
the s.e.p. disappears.
Full time domain simulations are carried out to study
this problem for the parameter values
M = 0.1, D
G
= 0.01, D
L
= 0.1, = 0.01, E=1,
P
d
= 0.7, k = 0.25, B
C
= 0.5.
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x(t)=x(0)=x
s1
A(x
s1
)
t
f
t
c
x(t
c
)
A(x
s2
)
x(0)=x
s1
x(t)
x(t
f
)=x
s1
x(t)
x
s2
Time Domain Analysis
A contingency X = 0.5 0.6 at t
f
= 1s, with B
C
connection at t
c
=
1.4s yields a stable system:
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x(t)=x(0)=x
s1
A(x
s1
)
t
f
t
c
x(t
f
)=x
s1
x(t)
x(t
c
)
A(x
s2
)
x(0)=x
s1
x(t)
x
s2
Time Domain Analysis
If B
C
is connected at t
c
= 1.5s, the system is unstable:
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Time Domain Analysis
The large disturbance (transient) stability of the
system may then be evaluated by how long the
system is able to withstand a contingency (fault)
before becoming unstable; this is referred to as
the Critical Clearing Time (CCT):
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Direct Methods
Time domain analysis is expensive, so direct
stability analysis technique have been proposed
based on Lyapunovs stability theory.
The idea is to define an energy or Lyapunov
function (x,x
s
) with certain characteristics to
obtain a direct measure of the stability region
A(x
s
) associated with the post-contingency s.e.p.
x
s
.
A systems energy is usually a good Lyapunov
function, as it yields a stability measure.
30
Direct Methods
The rolling ball example can be used to explain the basic
ideas behind these techniques:
There are 3 equilibrium points: one stable (valley bottom), 2
unstable (hill tops).
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Direct Methods
The energy of the ball is a good Lyapunov or Transient
Energy Function (TEF):
The potential energy at the s.e.p. is zero, and presents
local maxima at the u.e.p.s (W
P1
and W
P2
).
The closest u.e.p. is u.e.p.
1
, since W
P1
< W
P2
.
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Direct Methods
The stability of this system can then be
evaluated using this energy:
If W< W
P1
, the ball remains in the valley, i.e. the
system is stable, and will converge to the s.e.p. as
t 1.
If W > W
P1
, the ball might or might not converge to
the s.e.p., depending on friction (inconclusive test).
When the balls potential energy W
P
(t) reaches a
maximum with respect to time t, the system leaves
the valley, i.e. unstable condition.
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Direct Methods
The valley would correspond to the stability
region when friction is large.
In this case, the stability boundary A(x
s
)
corresponds to the ridge where the u.e.p.s
are located and W
P
has a local max. value.
The smaller the friction in the system, the
larger the difference between the ridge and
A(x
s
).
For zero friction, A(x
s
) is defined by W
P1
.
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Direct Methods
The direct stability test is only a sufficient
but not necessary test:
(x,x
s
) < c x A(x
s
)
(x,x
s
) > c Inconclusive!
where the value of c is usually a
associated with a local maximum of a
potential energy function.
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Direct Methods
For the simple generator-infinite bus
example, neglecting limits and AVR:
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Direct Methods
The kinetic energy in this system is defined as:
And the potential energy is:
where
s
is the s.e.p. for this system.
37
Direct Methods
With W
P
presenting a very similar profile as the rolling
ball example:
38
Direct Methods
Hence, the system Lyapunov function or TEF is:
Thus, using similar criteria as in the case of the rolling ball:
If TEF < W
P1
system is stable.
If TEF > W
P1
Inconclusive for D > 0 (friction)
Unstable for D = 0 (unrealistic)
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Direct Methods
This is identical to comparing areas in the P
G
vs.
graph (Equal Area Criterion or EAC):
40
Direct Methods
Thus, comparing the acceleration area:
versus the deceleration area:
If A
a
< A
d
system is stable at t
c
.
If A
a
> A
d
Inconclusive for D >0
Unstable for D = 0 (unrealistic)
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Direct Methods
Example: A 60 Hz generator with a 15% transient
reactance is connected to an infinite bus of 1 p.u.
voltage through two identical parallel transmission lines
of 20% reactance and negligible resistance. The
generator is delivering 300 MW at a 0.9 leading power
factor when a 3-phase solid fault occurs in the middle of
one of the lines; the fault is then cleared by opening the
breakers of the faulted line.
1. Assuming a 100 MVAbase, determine the critical clearing time
for this generator if the damping is neglected and its inertia is
assumed to be H=5s.
2. Assuming a D = 0.1 s determine the actual critical clearing time.
42
Direct Methods
Pre-contingency or initial conditions:
where:
43
Direct Methods
44
Direct Methods
Fault conditions:
where, using a Y- circuit transformation due to the
fault being in the middle of one of the parallel lines:
45
Direct Methods
46
Direct Methods
Post-contingency conditions:
47
Direct Methods
48
Direct Methods
During the fault:
49
(t
cc
) 81
o
t
cc
0.18 s

Spre
Direct Methods
Integrating these equations numerically for
(0) =
Spre
= 28.82
o
:
50
Direct Methods
For D = 0.1 and a clearing time of t
c
= 0.27s,
the system is stable:
51
Direct Methods
For clearing time of t
c
= 0.28s, the system is
unstable; hence, t
cc
0.275s:
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Direct Methods
Generator-motor, i.e. system-system, cases may
also be studied using the EAC method based on
an equivalent inertia M = M
1
M
2
/(M
1
+M
2
), and
damping D= M D
1
/M
1
= M D
2
/M
2
.
For the generator-load example neglecting the
internal generator impedance and assuming an
instantaneous AVR:
53
Direct Methods
The energy functions, with or without generator limits,
can be shown to be:
The stability of this system can then be studied using the
same energy evaluation previously explained for TEF =
(x,x
o
) = W
K
+W
P
.
54
Direct Methods
Thus, for V
1
= 1, X
L
= 0.5, P
d
= 0.1, and Q
d
= 0.25 P
d
, the
potential energy well W
P
(,V
2
) that basically defines the stability
region with respect to the s.e.p. is:
s.e.p.
(node)
u.e.p.
(saddle)
*
W
Pmax
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Direct Methods
Simulating the critical contingency X
L
=0.5 0.6 for P
d
=0.7 and
neglecting limits, the energy profiles are:
The exit point on A(x
s
) is approximately at the max. potential energy
point; thus, the critical clearing time is: t
cc
1.42s. A similar value can be
obtained through trial-and-error.
t
cc
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Direct Methods
The advantages of using Lyapunovfunctions are:
Allows limited stability analysis.
Can be used as an stability index.
The problems are:
Lyapunov functions are model dependent; in practice, only
approximate energy functions can be found.
Inconclusive if test fails.
The post-perturbation system state must be known ahead
of time, as the energy function is defined with respect to
the corresponding s.e.p.
Can only be used as an approximate stability
analysis tool.
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Transient Stability (TS)
Applications
In practice, transient stability studies are carried
out using time-domain trial-and-error techniques.
These types of studies can now be done on-line
even for large systems.
The idea is to determine whether a set of
realistic contingencies make the system
unstable or not (contingency ranking), and thus
determine maximum transfer limits or ATC in
certain transmission corridors for given
operating conditions.
58
TS Applications
Thus, the maximum loadability of the system may be affected by the size
of the stability region, leading to the definition of a true ATC value:
Operating
point
Worst contingency
(N-1 criterion)
TTC
ETC ATC TRM
Point at which contingency
leads to instability, as pre-
contingency operating point
is not in the stability region
of the contingency
equilibrium point.
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TS Applications
Critical clearing times are not really an issue with
current fast acting protections.
Simplified direct methods such as the Extended
Equal Area Criterion (Y. Xue et al., Extended
Equal Area Criterion Revisited, IEEE Trans.
Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 3 , Aug. 1992, pp.
1012-1022) have been proposed and tested for
on-line contingency pre-ranking, and are being
implemented for practical applications through
an E.U. project.
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