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# LECTURE

BY
EPSITA CHAKRABARTI
WHAT IS ELECTRIC HEATING ? WHAT IS ELECTRIC HEATING ?
WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE BEHIND WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE BEHIND
IT ? IT ?
Electric heating is any process in which
ELECTRICAL ENERGY is converted to HEAT
ENERGY.
Electric heating works on the principle of
JOULE HEATING: an electric current through a
resistor converts electrical energy into heat
energy.
Lesson Plan 32
EEXAMPLES XAMPLES OF ELECTRIC OF ELECTRIC
HEATING HEATING
Lesson Plan 32
Domestic
Immersion Heaters for
Water Heating
Electric Toasters
Electric Irons
Electric Ovens
Room Heaters
Industrial
Melting of Metals
Moulding of Glass
Enamelling of
Copper Wires
Welding
Heat Treatment
Process
Lesson Plan 32
HEATING HEATING
Free from dirt
No flue gas is produced
Responds quickly
Accurate temperature control can be made
easily
Comparatively safe
Overall efficiency is much higher
TRANSFER OF HEAT TRANSFER OF HEAT
Conduction Conduction
This phenomenon takes place in solid, liquid and gas
Heat transfer is proportional to the difference of temperatures
between two faces.
No actual motion of molecules.
Convection Convection
This phenomenon takes place in liquid and gas
Heat is transferred due to actual motion of molecules
This phenomenon is confined to surfaces
Radiant energy emitted or absorbed is dependent on the
nature of the surface.
Lesson Plan 32
Low Temperature Heating up to 400 C
Medium Temperature Heatingfrom 400 C to
1150 C
High Temperature Heatingabove 1150 C
Lesson Plan 32
Lesson Plan 32
CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES
OF HEAT OF HEAT
Heat dissipated (Q) in a body depends upon
Mass of the body [m in Kg]
Nature of Material [specific heat, s in KJ/KgC]
Difference in Initial & Final Temperature[ (U2- U1)in C ]
Formula Q = m Q = m s s ( (UU
2 2
- - UU
1 1
) )
Lesson Plan 32
Q. A large auditorium has an air circulation of Q. A large auditorium has an air circulation of
50,000 m 50,000 m
3 3
for 20 hr. What is the rating of the for 20 hr. What is the rating of the
heater that raises the temperature by 24 heater that raises the temperature by 24C. C.
Specific Heat of air = 1.34 KJ/ m Specific Heat of air = 1.34 KJ/ m
3 3
C C
Ans: 22.33 kW.
Lesson Plan 33
CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF CLASSIFICATION OF METHODS OF
ELECTRIC HEATING ELECTRIC HEATING
Power
Frequency/Ohmic
Heating method (50-
60 Hz)
High Frequency
(kHz) (5-500KHz)
Microwave Heating
(0.3 GHz 300 GHz)
Induction
Heating
Direct
Indirect
Resistance
Heating
Direct
Indirect
Arc Heating
Direct
Indirect
Dielectric
Heating/ High
Frequency
Capacitive
Heating
Infrared
Heating Heating
Lesson Plan 33
R RESISTANCE ESISTANCE HEATING HEATING
The generation of heat is done by electric
resistor carrying current.
Characteristic Features of Heating Elements
high resistivity
able to withstand high temperatures without
deterioration
low temperature coefficient of resistance
positive temperature coefficient of resistance
free from oxidation at high temperatures
Lesson Plan 33
ELECTRIC WATER HEATER ELECTRIC WATER HEATER- - AN AN
EXAMPLE OF RESISTANCE EXAMPLE OF RESISTANCE
HEATING HEATING
Lesson Plan 33
DIRECT & INDIRECT RESISTANCE DIRECT & INDIRECT RESISTANCE
HEATING HEATING
Direct
Electric current is passed
through the body (charge) to
be heated
High efficiency
Example-
Electrode boiler for heating
water
Resistance Welding
Indirect
Electric current is passed
through highly resistive material
(heating element) placed inside
an oven
Heat produced due to I
2
R loss in
the element is transmitted to the
body
Mode of heat transfer is
Conduction &/or Convection &/or
Example-
Room Heaters
Domestic & commercial cooking
Heat treatment of metals
Lesson Plan 33
Q.WHICH TYPE OF HEATING IS Q.WHICH TYPE OF HEATING IS
USED IN USED IN BIMETALLIC BIMETALLIC STRIPS OF STRIPS OF
FLUOROSCENT LAMP STARTERS FLUOROSCENT LAMP STARTERS- -
DIRECT/INDIRECT? DIRECT/INDIRECT?
Lesson Plan 33
MATERIALS OF HEATING MATERIALS OF HEATING
ELEMENTS ELEMENTS
Low & Medium
Temperature (up to
1150 C)
Alloy of nickel &
chromium
Ni= 80%, Cr= 20%
Alloy of nickel,
chromium & iron
Ni= 65%, Cr=15%, Fe=
20%
High Temperature (>1150
C)
Silicon carbide
Molybdenum
Tungsten
Graphite
Lesson Plan 33
ELECTRIC RESISTANCE FURNACE ELECTRIC RESISTANCE FURNACE
These are insulated closed chambers with a
provision for ventilation
Heating elements may consists of circulars wire
or rectangular ribbons
Heating elements placed either on top or sides
of the oven
Charge is placed inside a heating chamber
Lesson Plan 33
TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF
HEATING FURNACE HEATING FURNACE
Temperature of Furnace depends upon----
Voltage (V) can be controlled by tapped transformer
Resistance (R)- can be controlled by switching in various
combinations of groups of resistance of the furnace
Time (t)- can be controlled by an on-off switch, which
determines the time for which the furnace is connected to
supply or remain isolated from the supply.
Lesson Plan 32
LOSSES LOSSES
Besides raising the temperature of the Charge, heat
energy is lost in following operations:
In raising the temperature of furnace
In raising the temperature of the container/carrier
Heat conducted through wall
Escapement of heat due to opening of door
Lesson Plan 33
EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY
Heat required to raise the temperature of
the charge to the required value
Efficiency =
Heat required to raise the temperature of the
charge to the required value + losses
Lesson Plan 33
DESIGN OF HEATING ELEMENT DESIGN OF HEATING ELEMENT
If P = Power input
H= Heat dissipated by radiation then
2 2
4
4
d
l
d
l
l
a
R

! !
V V V
R
V
P
2
!
(I)
.(II)
] )
100
( )
100
[( 67 . 5
4 4
1
T T
e whereH L
in W/m
2
1
=temp of hot body in K,
T
2
= temp of cold body in K.
For circular wire a= Td
2
/4
Lesson Plan 33
Therefore,
l
V d
P
V 4
2 2

!
Or,
P
V
d
l
V 4
2
2

!
Heat Dissipated/sec = (Td) l H
dlH
l
d

4
2 2
2 2
4
,
V
H
l
or
V
!
.(III)
(IV)
From equation (III) & (IV) we can find values of l & d.
For rectangular ribbons a=[t where [=width, t=thickness
& surface area=2[l, neglecting side area of small
thickness t.
Lesson Plan 33
Q. A resistance oven employing Q. A resistance oven employing nichrome nichrome wire is wire is
to be operated from 220 V single phase supply to be operated from 220 V single phase supply
and is to be rated at 16 KW. If the temperature of and is to be rated at 16 KW. If the temperature of
the element is to be limited to 1170 the element is to be limited to 1170C and average C and average
temperature of the charge is 500 temperature of the charge is 500C find the C find the
diameter and length of the element wire. diameter and length of the element wire.
L L = 0.57, e=0.9, specific resistance of = 0.57, e=0.9, specific resistance of nichrome nichrome
=109 =10910 10
- -8 8
; ;m m
Ans:2.723mm. Ans:2.723mm.
Lesson Plan 34
ARC HEATING ARC HEATING
Due to application of sufficiently high voltage across an air gap causes the air in
the gap to get ionized and forms ARC
ARC drawn between two electrodes develop high temperature (3000-3500C)
depending upon material
ARC may be used in following ways:
by striking between charge and electrodes-principle behind Direct ARC
Furnace
by striking between two electrodes-principle behind Indirect ARC Furnace
by striking between an electrode and the two metallic pieces to be joined -
principle behind ARC welding
Lesson Plan 34
ARC FURNACE & ARC FURNACE &
ELECTRODES ELECTRODES
Types of ARC Furnaces :
1. Direct
2. Indirect
3. Submerged
Electrodes:
1. Carbon Electrode- used with small furnaces
less costly than graphite electrode
its large area allows uniform heating
2. Graphite Electrode
size is 1/4
th
that of carbon electrodes owing to lower resistivity
oxides at higher temperature than carbon
consumes less than carbon electrode
3. Self Baking Electrode
made up of special paste contained in a steel cylinder
heat due to flow of current bake the paste to form electrode
Lesson Plan 34
DIRECT ARC FURNACE DIRECT ARC FURNACE
electric current passes through the body of the charge and ARC is formed
between charge and electrode
purer product is obtained
operates at 0.8 p.f lagging
costly
Use a)composition can be controlled during refining process
b) used for making alloy steels like stainless & high speed steel
Lesson Plan 34
ARC is formed between two electrodes and heat is transmitted to the charge by
lower temperature than direct ARC furnace
operates at 0.85 p.f lagging
have to provide rocking motion through a motor to distribute heat uniformly
Use usually employed for melting non-ferrous metals
INDIRECT ARC FURNACE INDIRECT ARC FURNACE
Lesson Plan 34
SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE
ARC is formed between carbon electrodes placed at top and hearth
electrode or the conducting hearth itself
the number of electrodes placed at top depends on the type of supply
power is controlled either by varying the applied voltage to the
electrodes or by varying the distance between electrodes
better distribution of heating
better mixing of charge
current under short circuit is less than indirect ARCfurnace
p.f is 0.8 lagging
Use-Manufacture of ferro alloy like ferro-chrome and ferro-manganese
Lesson Plan 34
POWER SUPPLY POWER SUPPLY
REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS
Power consumption is very high
ARC voltage is quite low (50-150V) resulting in a high current
(several hundred amperes)
Advantages of High Current Low voltage Supply
1. High current is essential as Heating is proportional to the
current
2. From view point of Insulation & Safety low voltage is needed
3. As voltage is small electrode must be placed very nearer to
charge making the ARC length small increasing life of the roof
4. This arrangement causes Higher Voltage Gradient between
charge and electrode causing nitrogen of furnace atmosphere
ionized and absorbed by the charge, which produces
embrittlement.
Lesson Plan 35
INDUCTION HEATING INDUCTION HEATING
Principle behind Induction Heating
Principle of TRANSFORMER
A.C source is provided to primary winding
Primary winding is magnetically coupled to the charge
Charge acts as secondary winding
Voltage is induced from primary side to the charge
Charge is heated up by the secondary current
Heat is proportional to V
2
/R (V= voltage induced in charge, R=
resistance of the charge)
For sufficient development of Heat
R should be low possible with metals only
Employing Higher frequency & Flux to raise voltage level
Lesson Plan 35
TYPES OF INDUCTION TYPES OF INDUCTION
FURNACE FURNACE
Core type or
Low Frequency
Coreless type or High
Frequency
Direct
Core
type
Vertical
Core
type
Indirect
Core type
Lesson Plan 35
DIRECT DIRECT CORE TYPE INDUCTION CORE TYPE INDUCTION
FURNACE FURNACE
Consists of a vertical furnace with a V shaped portion at the bottom
Consists of a Transformer charge is magnetically coupled to the primary
winding and forms single-turn short circuited secondary
Secondary channel should not be emptied
Magnetic coupling between primary & secondary is weak resulting in large
leakage reactance poor p.f
Leakage reactance is nullified using low frequency supply
Drawbacks
Leakage reactance is high & p.f is low
Low frequency requirement
Suffers from Pinching Effect
Pinching Effect current, density above 500 A/cm
2,
flowing around the melt
interacts with the alternating field and produces force to squeeze the melt of a
section and results in complete interruption of current.
Use-preferable for non- intermittent service, are obsolete these days
Lesson Plan 35
VERTICAL CORE TYPE INDUCTION VERTICAL CORE TYPE INDUCTION
FURNACE FURNACE
Also known as AJAX-WYATT FURNACE
Vertical crucible is used for the charge
Bottom is usually V-shaped or U-shaped
Molten metal is kept circulated round the V
Pinch effect is counteracted by the weight of the charge
Capable of continuous operation
Normal frequency can be used
Use-melting & refining of non-ferrous metals
Highly efficient
Low operating cost
Temperature control is simple
Comparatively higher p.f
Lesson Plan 35
INDIRECT CORE TYPE INDUCTION INDIRECT CORE TYPE INDUCTION
FURNACE FURNACE
Charge is heated indirectly
A metal container forms the secondary of the transformer
Container is heated up by transformer action
Temperature control is done using different materials for the detachable bar
P.f is comparatively poor (w.r.t direct resistance furnace, approx-0.8)
Lesson Plan 35
CORELESS TYPE OR HIGH CORELESS TYPE OR HIGH
FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
Consists of 3 parts-
Primary coil
Ceramic crucible
Frame
No iron core
Primary coil is fed with ac supply
Eddy current is induced within the charge
Eddy current produces heating of the charge
High frequency supply is to be used (flux density is low)
High frequency increases resistance due to skin effect resulting in high
primary copper loss
No magnetic core results in very low p.f (between 0.1-0.3)
Static r is employed to improve p.f
Lesson Plan 35
Use-
Steel production
Melting non-ferrous metals
Electronic industry