Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 46

# HW

Problem set 1, Due Jan 15. Total 80 points. The problem marked by * will not
1. Find an equation describing the shortest path between the (x, y, z) two points on the
conical surface z = 1
_
x
2
+ y
2
, and its general solution
Solution:
Cylindrical coordinates: x = r sin ; y = r cos which gives us z = 1 r
L =
_
ds =
_
_
dr
2
+ r
2
d
2
+ dz
2
=
_
_
2 + r
2

2
r
dr (0.1)
dL/d = 0.
Euler equation:
d
dr
r
2

_
2 + r
2

2
= 0
r
2

= C
_
2 + r
2

2C
r

r
2
C
2
=

2C
_
dr
r

r
2
C
2
+ C
1
=
2
1/2
arccos |
C
r
| + C
1
(0.2)
2. Find the curve y(x) that passes through the endpoints (0, 0) and (1, 1) and minimizes
the functional
I[y] =
_
1
0
[(
dy(x)
dx
)
2
y
2
(x)]dx
Solution:
f = (y

)
2
y
2
(0.3)
Euler equation:
2y(x) + 2y

= 0
y = C
1
sin t + C
2
cos t
C
2
= 0, C
1
= 1/ sin 1 (0.4)
3. Consider a spherical pendulum of a mass m and a length l. Write expressions for
a. the Lagrangian in terms of generalized coordinates, and the Lagrange equations
L =
1
2
ml
2
(
d
dt
)
2
+
1
2
ml
2
sin
2
(
d
dt
)
2
+ mgl cos
1
2
ml
2
d
2

d
2
t
ml
2
cos (
d
dt
)
2
+ mgl sin = 0 (0.5)
1
2
ml
2
d
dt
(sin
2

d
dt
) = 0 (0.6)
b. the generalized momenta,
p

= ml
2
d
dt
p

= ml
2
sin
2

d
dt
(0.7)
c. generalized forces
F

= 0
F

= mgl sin + ml
2

2
sin cos (0.8)
4. A double pendulum consists of two simple pendule, with one pendulum suspended
from the the blob of the other. The two pendule have equal lengths and bobs have equal
masses. They are conned to move in the same plane. Find Lagranges equations of motion
for the system. Do not assume small angles.
Solution:
The Lagrangian has a form:
L = ml
2

2
1
+
m
2
l
2

2
2
+ ml
2

2
cos(
1

2
) + 2mgl cos
1
+ mgl cos
2
L

1
= 2mgl sin
1
ml
2

2
sin(
1

2
),
L

2
= mgl sin
2
+ ml
2

2
sin(
1

2
),
L

1
= 2ml
2

1
+ ml
2

2
cos(
1

2
)
L

2
= ml
2

2
+ ml
2

1
cos(
1

2
) (0.9)
2
Lagrange equations are:
d
dt
[2ml
2

1
+ ml
2

2
cos(
1

2
)] + 2mgl sin
1
+ ml
2

2
sin(
1

2
) = 0
d
dt
[ml
2

2
+ ml
2

1
cos(
1

2
)] + mgl sin
2
ml
2

2
sin(
1

2
) = 0
(0.10)
.
5. A pendulum consists of a mass m suspended by massless spring with unextended
length b and spring constant k.
.
a. Find Lagranges equations of motion.
Solution:
x = l sin ; y = l cos
x =

l sin + l

cos ; y =

l cos l

sin ;
L =
m
2
(

l
2
+ l
2

2
) + mgl cos
k
2
(l b)
2
(0.11)
Lagrange equations:
m

l ml

2
mg cos + k(l b) = 0
ml
2

+ 2ml

## l + mgl sin = 0 (0.12)

b. Suppose that the point of support of the pendulum is moving in vertical direction
according the low y = a sin ct Fig.1). Find the Lagrange equations.
Solution:
y = l cos + a sin ct = y + a sin ct, y =

l cos l

sin + ac cos ct =

y + ac cos ct
L =
m
2
(

l
2
+ l
2

2
) + m

## yac cos ct + mgl cos k(l b)

2
(0.13)
The term which depends only on time was omitted from the Lagrangian. It is convenient
to use the identity:
d
dt
( y cos ct) =
d y
dt
cos ct c y sin ct (0.14)
3
k
m
y=a sin ct
FIG. 1:
Omitting the total derivative from the Lagrangian we have
L =
m
2
(

l
2
+ l
2

2
) + mac
2
y sin ct + mgl cos k(l b)
2
=
m
2
(

l
2
+ l
2

2
) + mac
2
l cos sin ct + mgl cos k(l b)
2
(0.15)
(You do not have to use this trick. Lagrange Eqs. will be the same)
Lagrange Eqs:
m

l ml

2
mg cos + k(l b) + mac
2
cos sin ct = 0
ml
2

+ 2ml

## l + mgl sin mac

2
l sin sin ct = 0 (0.16)
6. A spherical pendulum is rotating about the vertical axis with frequency (See Fig.2).
Write a Lagrange equation.
Solution:
L =
1
2
ml
2
(
d
dt
)
2
+
1
2
ml
2

2
sin
2
+ mgl cos
d
dt
=
d
2

d
2
t

2
sin cos +
g
l
sin = 0 (0.17)
7. Two identical pendule of mass m and length l are attached to a bar of a mass M, which
can slide without friction in horizontal direction. (see Fig. 3). Write Lagrange equations.
4
l
m
w
FIG. 2:
x
m
m
M
l l
FIG. 3:
Solution:
x
1,2
= x + l sin
1,2
, y = l cos
L =
M + 2m
2
x
2
+
ml
2
2

2
1
+
ml
2
2

2
2
+ ml x cos
1

1
+ ml x cos
2

2
+ mgl cos
1
+ mgl cos
2
(M + 2m) x + ml
d
dt
(cos
1

1
+ cos
2

2
) = 0
ml

1
+
d
dt
( x cos
1
) + g sin
1
= 0

2
+
d
dt
( x cos
2
) + g sin
2
= 0 (0.18)
8. A point particle with a mass m moves along a circle of radius l in a vertical plane
under the inuence of the gravity eld (mathematical pendulum). Estimate the period of
5
q
ds
y
x
FIG. 4:
the pendulum if
a. E 2mgl. Here E is the energy of the pendulum.
Solution:
T =

l
g
(0.19)
b. 0 < 2mgl E 2mgl.
Solution:
T =

l
g
ln
2mgl
2mgl E
(0.20)
9*. A particle is oscillating on a curve y(x) with a frequency , which is independent of
the amplitude. Find the curve.
Solution:
Let s be a length of the curve. (See g.4)
ds
dt
= mg sin = mg
dy
ds
ds
dt
=
2
s

2
s = g
dy
ds
s = (
2
/2g)s
2
s =
g

2
sin (0.21)
Thus the curve has maximum hight Y = g/2
2
.
6
Problem set 2, 3 0 points. Due. Jan. 22. The problem, marked by *, will not be
1. Find the deection angle of fast particles (E V ) moving in a potential
U(r) = V exp(
r
2
R
2
)
as a function of the impact parameter .
Solution:
p =

U(| + vt|)dt =
2V

v
xe
x
2
where x = /R
=

v
RE
e

2
/R
2
(0.22)
2. For what values of the angular momentum M it is possible to have nite orbits in the
potential ? The particle have a mass m.
U = exp(r) (0.23)
.
Solution:
U
eff
= U(r) +
M
2
2m
2
r
2
(0.24)
To have nite orbits the eective potential should have minimum. Eq. U

eff
= 0 can
be reduced to the form f(x) = M
3
/m, where f = x(x + 1)e
x
. This equation has real
roots only if M
2
/m is less than the max. of f(x). (x > 0). This maximum has a value
(2 + 5
1/2
) exp[1/2(1 + 5
1/2
)].
3. Two masses hang from a support by string of equal length l. The masses are coupled
by a spring of spring constant k, and upstretched length l. (See Fig.5.)
a. Write Lagrange equations.
Solution:
L =
1
2
ml
2

2
1
+
1
2
ml
2

2
2

1
2
kl
2
(
2

1
)
2
mgl
2
1
mgl
2
2
ml
2

1
+ kl
2
(
1

2
) + mgl
1
= 0
ml
2

2
+ kl
2
(
2

1
) + mgl
2
= 0 (0.25)
7
k
m
m
FIG. 5:
b. What are frequencies of small oscillations of the system?
Solution:
We a looking for a solution in the form
1,2
= a
1,2
e
it
.
ml
2

2
a
1
+ kl
2
(a
1
a
2
) + mgla
1
= 0
ml
2

2
a
2
+ kl
2
(a
2
a
1
) + mgla
2
= 0
(ml
2

2
kl
2
mgl)
2
= k
2

2
1
= (2kl
2
+ mgl)/ml
2
,
2
2
= g/l (0.26)
4. Find the frequency of the small oscillations for particles moving in the following 1D
potential:
U(x) = V cos x Fx
.
Solution:
U

= V sin x
0
F = 0
sin x
0
= F/V
U

= V
2
cos x
0

2
=
V
2
m
_
1 (
F
V
)
2
(0.27)
8
5. Find frequencies of small oscillations of the double pendulum considered in HW1,
problem 4.
Solution:
Linearized Lagrange Eqs:
2mgl
1

d
dt
[2ml
2

1
+ ml
2

2
] = 0
mgl
2

d
dt
[ml
2

2
+ ml
2

1
] = 0
(0.28)

2
1,2
=

2 1
g
l
(0.29)
6. Consider the system shown in Fig.3. What are frequencies of small oscillations?
Lianearizing Lagrange Eqs. we have
(M + 2m) x + m

1
+

2
) = 0
ml
2

1
+ m x + mg
1
= 0
ml
2

2
+ m x + mg
2
= 0 (0.30)

2
1
=
g
l
,
2
2
=
g
l
M + 2m
M
(0.31)
7.* Find the inaccessible region of space for a beam of particles with a mass m ying
parallel to the z-axis with a velocity v and being scattered by a potential U(r) = /r.
.
Solution:
The solution of the Kepler problem for the orbit is
P
r
= e cos(
0
) 1
where p = M
2
/m; e =
_
1 + 2EM
2
/m
2
, while
0
= 1/e is determined by the condition
that = 0 at r = . The inaccesable region is bounded be the envelope of the family of
orbits. To nd it we dierentiate the equation for the orbit
M
2
mr
+ 1 cos
M

_
2E
m
sin = 0
9
with respect to M
2M
mr

_
2E
m
sin = 0
Eliminating M from the two Eqs. for r, , M we get the equation of caustics:
2
Er
= 1 + cos
and the inaccessible region is
r <
2
E(1 + cos )
is bounded by a paraboloid of revolution.
10
Problem set 3 Due Jan.29. 10 points each. Problems marked by * will not be
1. A two-dimensional oscillator has kinetic and potential energies
T =
1
2
m( x
2
+ y
2
)
U =
1
2
k(x
2
+ y
2
) + xy (0.32)
a. Show by a coordinate transformation that this oscillator is equivalent to an anisotropic
oscillator with lagrangian
L =
1
2
m(
2
+

2
)
A
2

2
+
B
2

2
(0.33)
Solution:
x =
1
cos
2
sin
y =
1
sin +
2
cos
L =
1
2
m(
2
+

2
) +
k
2
(
2
1
+
2
2
) + [(
2
1

2
1
) sin cos +
1

2
(cos
2
sin
2
)] (0.34)
If cos 2 = 0 we have
L = L =
1
2
m(
2
+

2
) +
2
1
k +
2
+
2
2
k
2
(0.35)
b. Find eigenfrequencies of the oscillator
Solution:

2
1,2
=
k
m
(0.36)
2. The Lagrangian of a system has a form
L =
1
2
(m
1
x
2
+ m
2
y
2
) + x y
1
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
a Find the eigenfrequencies of the system.
Solution:
Lagrange equations:
m
1
x + y + x = 0
m
2
y + x + y = 0
(0.37)
11
(m
1

2
1)(m
2

2
1)
2

4
= 0

2
=
(m
1
+ m
2
)
_
(m
1
+ m
2
)
2
+ 4
2
2(
2
m
1
m
2
)
b Find the normal coordinates of the system.
.
x = Q
1
cos Q
2
sin
y = Q
1
sin + Q
2
cos
(0.38)
This represent a rotation of the system of coordinates. The potential energy does not
change its form under the rotation, while the coecient of

Q
1

Q
2
is cos 2+(m
2
m
1
) sin 2.
Thus to diagonalise the problem we determine the parameter from the condition cot 2 = 0.
3.
A particle moves in a central potential of the form U(r) = k/(n1)r
(n1)
, where k and
n are constants.
a. Find a criterium of existence of a circular orbit.
Solution:
U
eff
=
k
(n 1)r
(n1)
+
M
2
2mr
2
dU
eff
dr
|
r=R
=
k
R
n

M
2
mR
3
= 0
R
(n3)
=
mk
M
2
(0.39)
b.Find a criterium of stability of the circular orbit.
Solution:
d
2
U
eff
dr
2
|
r=R
=
nk
R
(n1)

M
2
mR
3
> 0
(3 n)
M
2
m
> 0 (0.40)
12
4. Consider a mechanical system described by a Lagrangian L(q, q) (for simplicity we
assume that L does not have explicit time dependence). Consider another Lagrangian,

L(q, q) = L(q, q) +
d
dt
f(q) = L(q, q) + f

(q) q
where f(q) is some function of the generalized coordinate q.
a. Write the Euler-Lagrange equation for the new Lagrangian

L, and show that it coin-
cides with the Euler-Lagrange equation for the old Lagrangian L.
d
dt
d(f

(q) q)
d q

f

(q) q
dq
= f

q f

q = 0 (0.41)
b. Explain this coincidence using Hamiltons action principle. (What is the dierence
between the action for

L and L?).
See a comment in LL, p4 after Eq. 2.8.
5. Let the central force be F(r) = (b/r
2
c/r
4
)n
r
, where b > 0, c > 0, and n
r
is the
unit vector in the radial direction.
a. Find a radius r of a circular orbit.
Solution:
dU
eff
dr
=
d
dr
[U +
M
2
2mr
2
] =
(b/r
2
c/r
4
)r
M
2
mr
3
= 0
M
2
r
m
br
2
+ c = 0
r = R =
M
2
2bm
+
1
2b
[(
M
2
m
)
2
+ 4bc]
1/2
(0.42)
b. Check stability of the orbit.
Solution:
d
2
U
eff
dr
2
|
r=R
=
3M
mR
4

2b
R
3
+
4c
R
5
= K/2 =
bR
2
= M
2
R/m + c
K/2 = 3M
3
R/m2bR
2
+ 4c = M
2
R/m + 2c > 0 (0.43)
c. What is the angular frequency of the motion as a function of M, b and c, where M is
the angular momentum?
13
Solution:
M = R
2
(0.44)
d. Find eigenfrequency of small oscillations of r(t).
Solution:

2
= k/m (0.45)
6.
a. Find the integrals of motion (other than the total energy E) for the potential U =
1
2
r
2
=
1
2
(x
2
+ y
2
).
Solution:
E
x
= m x
2
+
1
2
x
2
, E
y
= m y
2
+
1
2
y
2
(0.46)
b. Is M
z
is an integral which is independent of E, E
x
, E
y
?
Solution: No
7. Find the frequency of the small oscillations for particles moving in the following 1D
potential:
U(x) = V cos x Fx
.
Solution:
U

= V sin x
0
F = 0
sin x
0
= F/V
U

= V
2
cos x
0

2
=
V
2
m
_
1 (
F
V
)
2
(0.47)
8. Find frequencies of small oscillations of the double pendulum considered in HW1,
problem 4.
Solution:
Linearized Lagrange Eqs:
14
2mgl
1

d
dt
[2ml
2

1
+ ml
2

2
] = 0
mgl
2

d
dt
[ml
2

2
+ ml
2

1
] = 0
(0.48)

2
1,2
=

2 1
g
l
(0.49)
9. Consider the system shown in Fig.3. What are frequencies of small oscillations?
Solution:
Linearizing Lagrange Eqs. we have
(M + 2m) x + m

1
+

2
) = 0
ml
2

1
+ m x + mg
1
= 0
ml
2

2
+ m x + mg
2
= 0 (0.50)

2
1
=
g
l
,
2
2
=
g
l
M + 2m
M
(0.51)
10*.
A particle of mass m is moving in the presence of a force F =
K
r
2
e
r/a
. Determine
conditions for a such that the circular motion is stable.
Solution:
F = dU/dr, dU
eff
/dr = 0, dU
eff
/dr > 0
dU
eff
/dr = F + d/dr(M
2
/2mr
2
) =
K
r
2
e
r/a

M
2
mr
3
= 0
kRe
R/a
= M
2
/m
d
2
U
eff
/dr
2
|
r=R
=
1
R
4
(
2M
2
m
2KRe
R/a

KR
2
a
> 0
M
2
mR
4
(1
R
a
) > 0 (0.52)
11*.
A comet is moving along a parabolic trajectory. (See g. 6). U = GmM/r, where
M is the mass of sun, and m is the mass of the particle. Find the time the comet spends
15
within the orbit of the Earth E. Assume that the Earths orbit is circular. (The value of M
is given).
Solution:
In the case of parabolic trajectory
E =
m r
2
2
+
M
2
2mr
2
+ U = 0 (0.53)
If r = r
min
= p, then r = 0, U + M
2
/2mr
2
= 0, and M = (2mp)
1/2
dr
dt
=
_
2
m
(

r

M
2
2mr
2
)
t = 2
_
r
max
r
min
dr
_
2
m
(

r

M
2
2mr
2
)
=
=
2
3/2
3
_
ma
3

(1 +
2p
a
)
_
1
p
a
r
min
= p, r
max
= a
_
a
p
rdr

r p
=
2
3
_
ma
3

(1 +
2p
a
)
_
1 p/a (0.54)
12*.
Calculate the rate of precession of the planetary perihelion, to lowest order in , if U =

GMm
r
+

r
2
= U
0
+ U.
Solution:
At = 0 the trajectory of the planet is an ellipse and = 0.
= 2
_
r
max
r
min
Mdr
r
2
_
2m[E u] M
2
/r
2
2

M
_
r
max
r
min
dr
_
2m[E u] M
2
/r
2
=
2m

M
_
r
max
r
min
2mUdr
_
2m[E U
0
] M
2
/r
2
(0.55)
Since r =

(dr/d) =
M
mr
2
(dr/d), and
M
2
mr
2
dr
d
=
1
m
_
2m[E U
0
] M
2
/r
2
, (0.56)
we have
=

M
[
2m
M
_

0
r
2
Ud] =

M
[
2m
M
_

0
d] =
2m
M
2
(0.57)
16
a comet
earth
sun
p
a
FIG. 6:
Problem set 4 Due Feb. 5. 10 point each. Problems marked by * will not be graded.
1.
Consider a pendulum of a length l and mass m. Find a correction
(2)
to the frequency
of small oscillations
0
=
_
g/l, which is quadratic in the amplitude of oscillations
0
.
Solution:

=
2
0
sin
2
0
( +
1
6

3
+ ...) (0.58)
Since we are interested in a correction to
0
proportional to
2
0
we do not need higher powers
on is the expansion of sin. We can rewrite this equation as

2
0

=
2
0
( +
1
6

3
) + (

2
0

2
1)

(0.59)
and look for a solution in a form =
(1)
+
(2)
+ .... , and =
0
+
(1)
+
(2)
+
....Heresuperscripts (1), (2), ... indicate that corresponding terms are proportional to

0
,
2
0
, .... respectively.
In the rst order in
0
we have

(1)
=
2
0

(1)

(1)
=
0
cos
0
t (0.60)
In the second order in
0
we have

(2)
+
2
0

(2)
=

(1)

1
=
(1)

0
cos
0
t (0.61)
17
x
m
M
l
y=a sin ct
FIG. 7:
The requirement of the absence of resonance terms in rhs of the equation gives as
(1)
= 0.
This is a natural result: the frequency should be an even function of the amplitude of
oscillations. Then
(1)
= 0.
In the third order we have

(3)
+
2
0

(3)
=

2
0
6
(
(1)
)
3
+

(1)

(1)
=
cos
0
t[

3
0

2
0
8

0

(2)

0
] +
2
0

2
0
24
cos 3
0
t (0.62)
(cos
3
=
3
4
cos +
1
4
cos 3). The requirement of the absence of resonance terms in rhs of
the equation gives as

(2)
=

2
0
8

0
(0.63)
.
2.
Consider a system shown in Fig.7. The point of support of the oscillator oscillates ac-
cording to the low y = a sin ct. Assume that c
_
g/l.
.
a. Write down equations of motion averaged over the period of the oscillations 2/c.
.
Solution:
18
y = a cos ct l cos , X = x + l sin
y = ac sin ct + l sin

,

X = x + l cos

L =
1
2
ml
2

2
+
m + M
2
x
2
+ ml x

cos acl sin ct sin

+ mgl cos (0.64)
Using the fact that (cos sin ct)

= sin

sin ct + c cos cos ct we get, and neglecting a
total derivative we get
L =
1
2
ml
2

2
+
M + m
2
x
2
+ ml x

cos mlac
2
cos ct cos + mgl cos (0.65)
Thus the expression for the oscillating in time generalized force is
f = mlac
2
sin cos ct (0.66)
(mgl
2
plays the role of the eective mass.) Averaging over the period 2/c (See LL. Eq.
30.8) we get an expression for an eective potential U
eff
= mgl[cos +
(ac)
2
4gl
sin
2
] and
for a Lagrangian
L
eff
=
ml
2
2

2
+
M + m
2
x
2
+ ml x

cos U
eff
(0.67)
and Lagrange equations
ml
2

+ ml
d
dt
( x cos ) = dU
eff
/d + ml x

sin
(m + M) x + ml
d
dt
(

cos ) = 0 (0.68)
b. How many stationary solutions do these equations have?
Solution:
In a stationary state all time derivatives are zero. So we have mgl[sin +
(ac)
2
4gl
sin 2] =
mgl sin (1+
(ac)
2
4gl
cos ) = 0, which gives us sin = 0. Thus there are two solutions = 0,
a. = 0 is always stable solution. ((d
2
U
eff
/d
2
)|
=0
> 0)
b. (d
2
U
eff
/d
2
)|
=
> 0, and = is stable provided (ac)
2
> 2gl.
c. What are frequencies of oscillations near the stationary solutions?
4.
19
2l
FIG. 8:
A ladder of mass m and length 2l stands against a frictionless wall with its feet on a
frictionless oor. (See Fig.8). The initial angle is
0
. It is let go
.
a. Write Lagrange equations.
Solution:
The kinetic energy is
m
2
( x
2
c
+ y
2
c
) +
1
2
I
2
=
2
3
ml
2

2
(0.69)
Here x
c
= l cos and y
c
= l sin are coordinates of the center of mass, and I = ml
2
/3 is
the moment of inertia relative to the center of mass.
L =
2
3
ml
2

2
mgl sin
4
3
l = g cos (0.70)
.
b. What will be the angle when the ladder loses contact with the wall?
Solution:
The energy conservation low
2
3
ml
2

2
= mgl sin
0
mgl sin
x
c
= l
2
l sin = N/m (0.71)
Here N is the the force acting from the vertical wall to the lader. It the pint when the ladder
loses contact with the wall N = 0, which gives us =
2
cot , and using the lagrange
20
R
r
f
FIG. 9:
Eq. we get 4l
2
/3 = g sin . than from the energy conservation low we get
sin =
2
3
sin
0
(0.72)
5.
A homogeneous cylinder of radius r and mass m is rolling inside a cylindrical surface of
radius R. (There is no sliding.) (See Fig.9)
a. Write Lagrange equation.
Solution:
V
c
=

(R r), = V/r
L =
m
2
(R r)
2

2
+
1
2
I(R r)
2

2
/r
2
+ mg(R r) cos =
3m
4
(R a)
2

2
+ mg(R r) cos (0.73)
Here I = mR
2
/2 is the moment of inertia of the cylinder.
.
b. Find a frequency of small oscillations about the stable equilibrium position.
. 6.
A uniform thin cylinder rod of length l and mass m is supported at its ends by two
massless springs with identical spring constants k. (See Fig.10). Find eigenfrequencies of
small oscillations. (Springs can move only vertically.)
21
l
FIG. 10:
Solution:
Equations for the displacement of the center of mass and for small amplitude rotation
1
2
( y
1
+ y
2
) = k(y
1
+ y
2
)
I

=
1
2
lk((y
1
+ y
2
) (0.74)
with I = ml
2
/12.
Symmetric mode: ys = y
1
+ y
2
,
2
= 2k/m.
Asymmetric mode: ya = y
1
y
2
,
2
= 6k/m.
.
7* .
A particle of mass m is attached to a rigid support by a spring with force constant k.
(See Fig.11) To the mass of this oscillator an identical oscillator is attached. The whole
system is in the gravitation eld of the Earth. Find the normal frequencies and the normal
modes of the system. Consider vertical and horizontal motions separately.
Solution:
Denote the unstretched length of the spring as l. The equilibrium length of the springs
will then be l
1
= l + 2mg/ for the upper spring, and l
2
= l + mg/ for the lower springs.
There are many ways to introduce the generalized coordinates. The result should not
depend on the choice of the coordinates. We shall use the deviations of the mass point
22
m
m
k
k
FIG. 11:
from the equilibrium position. Let the x axis be directed vertically, and y horizontally. The
coordinates of the rst (upper) mass point is (x
1
, y
1
), and of the second (lower) mass point
is (x
2
, y
2
), respectively.
The kinetic energy of the system is
T =
m
2
( x
2
1
+ y
2
1
+ x
2
2
+ y
2
2
)
The potential energy is
V =

2
_
_
(l
1
+ x
1
)
2
+ y
2
1
l
_
2
+

2
_
_
(l
2
+ x
2
x
1
)
2
+ (y
2
y
1
)
2
l
_
2
mg(x
1
+ x
2
)
Expanding the potential energy in Taylor series over x
1,2
and y
1,2
, keeping only terms up to
the second order inclusively, we nd
V =

2
[(l
1
l)
2
+ (l
2
l)
2
]
+ [(l
1
l) mg]x
1
+ [(l
2
l
1
) mg]x
2
+

2
[x
2
1
+ (x
2
x
1
)
2
] +

2
_
l
1
l
l
1
y
2
1
+
l
2
l
l
2
(y
2
y
1
)
2
_
The constant term (rst line) can be ignored. The terms linear in x
1
and x
2
(second line)
vanish due to the equilibrium condition. The last line is all that has to be taken into account.
Clearly, the vertical and the horizontal motions separate.
For the vertical motion (x
1
, x
2
) the characteristic equation is
det
_
_
2 m
2

m
2
_
_
= 0
23
The two normal frequencies are

=

2m
(3

5)
and the two normal modes are
_
_
1
1

5
2
_
_
For the horizontal motion, let us introduce the notations

1
=
l
1
l
l
1
=
2mg
l + 2mg

2
=
l
2
l
l
2
=
mg
l + mg
The characteristic equation is then
det
_
_
(
1
+
2
) m
2

2

2
m
2
_
_
= 0
which gives two solutions

=

2m
_

1
+ 2
2

2
1
+ 4
2
2
_
The two corresponding normal modes are
_
_

2

1
2

1
2
_

2
1
+ 4
2
2
_
_
24
FIG. 12:
Problem set 5 Due Feb. 12. 10 point each. Problems marked by * will not be graded.
1.
A torsion pendulum consists of a vertical wire attached to a mass which may rotate about
the vertical. Consider three torsion pendulums which consist of identical wires from which
identical homogeneous solid cubes are hung. Cube A is hung from a corner, cube B from
midway along an edge, and cube C from the middle of a face (See Fig.12). What are the
ratios of periods of the three pendulums? Briey explain or derive your answer.
Solution:
I
1
= I
2
= I
3
. The ratios equal to one.
2.
A solid ball of radius r rolling with velocity v, collides inelastically with a step of height
h < r. (See Fig.13). Assume no slipping. What is the minimum velocity for which the ball
will trip up over the step?
Solution:
M = mv(r h) + I =
7
5
mvr mvh
M

= I

= (I + mr
2
)

=
7
5
mr
2

(0.75)
Here M and M

are angular momenta about the point of impact before and after the
collision. As the center of mass of the ball is momenterely at rest after the collision, the
25
h
r
FIG. 13:
angular momentum conservation low gives us

= v/r 5hv/7r
2
(0.76)
The kinetic energy must be sucient to provide for the increase in potential energy. I

2
/2 =
mgh.
v =
r

70gh
7r 5h
(0.77)
3.
Consider a nonlinear pendulum described by an equation
x +
2
0
x + x
2
+ x
3
= f sin

0
2
t (0.78)
a. What is the lowest order in f in which a resonance takes place?
Solution:
In the absence of nonlinear terms
x
(0)
= a sin(
0
t + ) +
f

2
0

2
0
/4
sin

0
2
t (0.79)
Nonlinear terms generate harmonics with frequency
0
. So if a = 0, in lowest in f order
x
(2)
+
2
0
x
(2)
= (x
(1)
)
2
= (
4f
3
2
0
)
2
sin
2

2
0
2
t =
(
4f
3
2
0
)
2
1 cos
0
t
2
= F(1 cos
0
t) (0.80)
There is a component of the force at the resonance frequency
0
.
26
b. Estimate the amplitude of the oscillations at which the resonance saturates. Neglect
numerical factors.
As the amplitude a of the harmonics with the frequency
0
grows, the frequency of the
oscillations changes. The a- dependence of the frequency is quadratic in a (See Eq.28.13 in
LL)
= [
3
8
0

5
2
12
3
0
]a
2
(0.81)
As the frequency changes, the system is moving out of the resonance and the amplitude of
oscillations with the frequency
0
saturates at a value (See Eq.22.4 in LL)
a =
F

(0.82)
(
0
) Finally
a [
F
3
8
0

5
2
12
3
0
]
1/3
(0.83)
4. Consider the problem 1 in \$ 35 of LL (Fig. 48) and assume that the lowest point
of the symmetrical top oscillates vertically according to the low Z = a sin t. Write the
Lagrangian of the system.
27
MechFig1MT.pdf
FIG. 14:
MT
1. 50 points.
A particle of mass m
1
is constrained to move on a horizontal plane. A second particle
of mass m, is constrained to a vertical line. The two particles are connected by a massless
string which passes through a hole in the plane. (See Fig. 1.)
a. Write a Lagrange equation.
Solution:
L =
m
1
2
( r
2
+ r
2

2
) +
1
2
m r
2
mgr
d
dt
(m
1
r
2

2
) = 0
(m
1
+ m) r m
1
r

2
+ mg = 0 (0.84)
b. Find the dependence of the radius r = R(M) as a function of the angular momentum
of the system M in a stationary state ( r = 0).
Solution:
28
d
dr
U
eff
=
d
dr
(mgr +
M
2
2
m
1
r
2
) = 0
r = R = (
M
2
gm
1
m
)
1/3
(0.85)
c. Find a frequency of oscillations.
Solution:

2
=
1
m
1
+ m
d
2
U
eff
dr
2
|
r=R
=
1
1 + m
1
/m
(3g/R) (0.86)
2. 50 points
A particle of mass m = 1 moves in a potential
V =
1
r
2
where r is the distance to the center.
a. Write down the Lagrangian of the system, using the polar coordinates r and .
Solution:
L =
1
2
( r
2
+ r
2

2
) +
1
r
2
b. The particle moves from r = along an orbit with angular momentum M. Show
that if M <

2 then the particle falls into the center of force (capture), and if M >

2 it
will escape to innity.
Solution:
The radial motion is determined by the eective potential, which is equal to the sum of
the potential energy and the centrifugal potential,
V
e
(r) =
1
r
2
+
M
2
2r
2
=
M
2
2
2r
2
When M
2
> 2, the eective potential increases to + as r 0. A particle moving from
r = will bounce back. When M
2
< 2 the eective potential is negative and goes to
as r 0. A particle moving from r = will fall to the center r = 0.
c. Suppose the velocity of the particle at t = is v

## . Write the condition for capture

in term of the impact parameter b.
29
Solution:
The angular momentum is conserved, and is equal to the angular momentum at t = ,
which is bv

## . Therefore capture occurs when bv

<

2
d. Express r and

in terms of E, M, and r.
Solution:
The angular momentum and energy are
l = r
2

, E =
r
2
2
+
M
2
2
2r
2
therefore
r =
_
2E
M
2
2
r
2
,

=
M
r
2
(I choose the sign in r to correspond to a particle moving toward the center).
e. Find a trajectory of the particle in the case M
2
= 2.
d
dr
=
M

2E
1
r
2
or
=
0
+
M

2E
1
r
or
r =

2E
M
1

0
The trajectory is a spiral that makes an innite number of rotations before approaching
r = 0 (when , r 0).
2.
A particle of mass m is moving in a central potential U = Ar
n
/n with n non-zero integer
and A > 0.
a. Find a radius of a circular orbit as a function of A, m, n, M.
Solution:
A circular motion corresponds to a minimum of the eective potential
d
2
U
eff
dr
2
|
r=R
=
d
2
dr
2
[Ar
n
/n +
M
2
2mr
2
]|
r=R
R = (M
2
/mA)
1
(n+2)
(0.87)
b. What is the angular frequency of this motion?
mR
2
= M (0.88)
30
c. What is the frequency of small oscillations of r(t) near the circular orbit?
K/2 =
d
2
U
eff
dr
2
|
r=R
K = (n + 2)
M
2
m
[
M
2
mA
]
4/(n+2)

2
= k/m (0.89)
d. At what value of n = non-circular orbits are closed?
Solution: n = 1, 2.
3.
A point of support of a pendulum of a length l and a mass m is moving horizontally with
an acceleration a.
Write a lagrange equation.
Solution:
x = l sin + at
2
/2, x = l cos

+ at
y = l cos . y = l sin
L =
ml
2
2

2
+ mlat cos

mgl(1 cos )
ml
2

mlat sin

+ mlat cos mlat sin

+ sin (0.90)
31
Problem set 5. Due Feb.26. (70 points). Problems marked by * will not be graded.
1.
Obtain the Hamilton equations by calculating
dq
i
dt
= [H; q
i
];
dp
i
dt
= [H; p
i
] (0.91)
where [..,..] are the Poisson bracket. The form of the Hamilton function H should not be
specied.
Solution:
Since q and p are independent variables q
i
/p
j
= 0 and p
i
/q
j
= 0 and q
i
/q
j
=
ij
one gets
[H; q
i
] =
H
p
i
(0.92)
[H; p
i
] =
H
q
i
(0.93)
2.
Find the canonical transformation generating by the generating function
F = (r P) + (a [r P])
Solution:
p =
F
r
= P+ [a r];
R = r + [a r] (0.94)
The transformation is a rotation of the system of coordinates over the angle a
32
3.
Is the following transformation is canonical one?
Q = ln(1 + q
1/2
cos p)
P = 2(1 + q
1/2
cos p)q
1/2
sin p
(0.95)
Solution:
[Q, Q] = 0, [P, P] = 0, [Q, P] =
=
Q
q
P
p

P
q
Q
p
=
q
1/2
cos p
1 + q
1/2
cos p
[q sin
2
p + (1 + q
1/2
cos p)q
1/2
cos p] +
+
q
1/2
sin
2
p
1 + q
1/2
cos p
[cos p + (1 + q
1/2
cos p)q
1/2
] = 1 (0.96)
So the transformation is canonical.
4.
Consider a top with principle moments of inertia I
3
> I
2
> I
1
. Initially it rotates with
frequency
1
bout the axis 1. A a small torque
2
=
0
cos t is applied about axis 2.
Use Eulers equations and calculate
1
,
2
,
3
in the rst order in
0
.
Solution:
I
1
d
1
dt
+ (I
3
I
2
)
2

3
= 0
I
2
d
2
dt
+ (I
1
I
3
)
1

3
=
I
d
3
dt
+ (I
2
I
1
)
1

2
= 0
33
Since we expect that
2
,
3

1
we can leanearise the eqs.
I
1
d
1
dt
= 0
I
2
d
2
dt
+ (I
3
I
2
)
1

3
=
I
3
d
3
dt
+ (I
2
I
1
)
1

2
= 0
According to the rst eq.
1
= const. Solving the eqs. in a form
1,2
(t) =
(0)
1,2
e
it
we get

(0)
2
=
0
iI
3

1
(I
3
I
1
)(I
2
I
3
)
2
I
2
I
3
(0.97)
(To solution of the uniform eq. should be added to this eq.)
5.
The surface of a sphere is vibrating SLOWLY in such a way that the principal moments
of inertia are harmonic functions of time.
I
zz
=
2mr
2
5
(1 + cos t) (0.98)
I
xx
= I
yy
=
2mr
2
5
(1

2
cos t) (0.99)
where 1. Find
z,y,z
in the rst order in .
Solution:
The orbital moment is conserved. However, the principe moments of inertia are dened
in the body frame. Using Eulers equations we get:
dI
zz

z
dt
= 0
dI
xx

x
dt
+
3
2
I
0

z
cos t = 0
dI
yy

y
dt

3
2
I
0

z
cos t = 0 (0.100)
where I
0
= 2mr
2
/5. Thus

z
=

z0
1 + cost
(0.101)
34
l
m
FIG. 15:
Since 1, in our approximation
z
= const. Then, in the rst in order, one can neglect
dI
xx,yy
/dt, and the last two eqs. are
I
0
d
x
dt
+
3
2
I
y

z
cos t = 0
I
0
d
y
dt

3
2
I
x

z
cos t = 0 (0.102)
If
z
one can regard in these eqs as a constant. Then a solution of these equations
is
x
=
0
sin
0
t,
x
=
0
cos
0
t, where
0
=
3
2

z
.
6.
Consider a pendulum shown in Fig.15 Assume that the length of the pendulum l =
l
0
+ l
1
cos t changes in time, and l
1
l
0
.
a. Find the interval of frequencies where the resonance takes place.
Solution:
The Lagrangian of the system is
L =
m
2
l
2
(t)(

)
2
+ mgl(t) cos (0.103)
(The term proportional to

l
2
can be dropped from the Lagrangian. A Lagrange equation
has a form:

+ 2

l
l

=
2
(t) sin (0.104)
35
The second term in the Eq. 0.89 makes this problem slightly dierent from that in LL
Ch.30. (If g(t) oscillates in time there is no second term in the Eq. and the problem would
be exactly the same as in LL. In both cases the parametric resonances exists.)
Expanding the frequency of oscillations in powers of l
1
(keeping only lowest in h terms),
linearizing the Eq. and introducing = 2
0
+ we get

8
0
hsin(2
0
+ )t

=
2
(t) (0.105)

2
0
=
g
l
0
;
2
(t) =
2
0
[1 hcos(2
0
+ )t],
h = l
1
/2l
0
, (0.106)
Let us look for a solution in the form = a sin(
0
+
1
2
)t + b cos(
0
+
1
2
)t, At the ends of
the interval of where the resonance takes place a and b are time independent, and and one
can drop their time derivatives. (In other words, one can dierentiate over time only sin
and cos. The terms proportional to
2
0
cancel. Using the fact that
cos(
0
+
1
2
)t cos(2
0
+ )t =
1
2
[cos 3(
0
+
1
2
)t + cos(
0
+
1
2
)t]
sin(
0
+
1
2
)t cos(2
0
+
1
2
)t =
1
2
[sin 3(
0
+
1
2
)t + sin[(
0
+
1
2
)]t]
sin(
0
+
1
2
)t sin(2
0
+
1
2
)t =
1
2
[cos(
0
+
1
2
)t cos 3(
0
+
1
2
)t] (0.107)
and dropping the harmonics oscillating with the frequency close to 3
0
we get
b( +
9
2
h
0
) sin(
0
+
1
2
)t +
a( +
9
2
h
0
)(cos(
0
+
1
2
)t = 0 (0.108)
This Eq. , should valid at arbitrary t, and we get for the endpoints =
9
2
h
0
), and for
the interval:

9
2
h
0
< <
9
2
h
0
(0.109)
b. Assume that
_
g/l and write a Lagrange equation averaged over the period 2/
36
Solution:
The Lagrange equation is dierent from that considered in Ch. 30 LL. by the second
term. However, the form of the potential energy is the same. (After the averaging the second
term does not contribute to the Lagrange Eq. ) Thus, in notations of LL
f = mgl
1
sin cos t
U
eff
= mgl
0
cos +
(mgl
1
)
2
4
sin
2

ml
2
0

=
dU
eff
d
(0.110)
c. Now consider the case
_
g/l Write an expression for the adiabatic invariant. How
the energy of the pendulum depends on time?
7.
Calculate the following Poisson brackets:
a.[M
i
, M
j
]; b.[M
i
; p
j
]; c.[M
i
, x
j
], d.[(a M), (b M)].
Solution:
[M
i
, M
j
] = ijkM
k
; [M
i
; p
j
] = ijkp
k
, [M
i
; p
j
] = ijkp
k
; [(a M)(bM)] = ([a b]M)
(0.111)
8.
Consider an innite system of of pendulums in a gravitational eld, shown in Fig.16
(Only a spring between the rst and the second pendulums is shown.)
a.
Find a Lagrangian of the system.
Solution:
L =

n
[
ml
2
2

2
n
+
k
2
(
n+1

n
)
2
+ mgl cos
n
] (0.112)
b.
Write the Lagrangian in a continuous limit where |
n+1

n
| 1. For simplicity use the
system of units where l, m, g, a, k = 1. Here a and k are spacing between springs and the
spring constant.
37
FIG. 16:
Solution:
L =
1
2
_
dx[(

(x, t))
2
+ (
x
)
2
+ 2 cos ] (0.113)
c.
Write Lagrange equations both in both discrete and continues limits.
solution:
ml
2

n
+ k(2
n

n+1

n1
) + mgl sin
n
= 0

2
sin = 0 (0.114)
d.
Write the expressions for generalized momenta and for the Hamiltonians in the continues
limit.
Solution:
p =
L

H(p, ) =
_
dxp

L =
_
dx
p
2
+ ()
2
+ 2(1 cos )
2
(0.115)
8*.
Find a soliton (solitary wave) solutions of the Lagrange eq. in the previous problem in
the continues limit. Use the boundary conditions () = 0, () = 2 This solution
38
should have a form (y) = (xut) which does not change its shape in time and move with
a velocity u. Substitute this form into the lagrange eq., and reduce it to the problem of a
single particle moving in an eective potential U(). So plays a role of coordinate, and
y plays a role of time. Estimate (up to a numerical factor) a relation between the solitons
width and its velocity u.
Solution:
(1 u
2
)(
d
2

d
2
y
)
2
+ 2 cos = 2E (0.116)
the boundary conditions gives E = 1. One can introduce a variable z = y/(1 u
2
)
1/2
which
eliminates u from the eq. So the width of the soliton scales as (1u
2
)
1/2
. The eq. is identical
to an eq. describing a particle with a mass (1u
2
) moving in a well potential . Here y plays
the role of time. If (1 u
2
) > 0 the particles motion is nite, and it oscillates.
Solution of this eq. with a center at y = y
0
((y
0
) = 0 is
y y
0
1 u
2
=
_
/2
/2
d
sin
= ln tan(/4) (0.117)
BTW, Sin-Gordon eq. has innite number of conservation lows. It is totaly integrable
system, and all exact solutions can be obtained. The famous method of obtaining these
39
Problem set 6 Due March. 5 Problems marked by * will not be graded.
1 A fast particle (v
_
A/k
2
m) of mass m is moving in the potential eld
U(r) = A(x
2
y
2
) sin kz (0.118)
at a small angle to the z-axis.
Describe the motion of the particle in xy-plane.
Solution:
In the rst approximation z = vt. In the xy-plane there is a fast oscillating force acting
on the particle
f
x
= 2Ax sin kvt; f
y
= 2Ay sin kvt
the corresponding eective potential (See Ch. 30 Landau) has a form
U
eff
(x, y) =
m
2
2
(x
2
+ y
2
) (0.119)
where = A/mkv.
Thus the particle performs harmonic oscillations in the xy plane with the frequency .
Note that kv and we can apply results of Ch. 30 to this problem.
2
Consider a conguration of the magnetic eld shown in Fig. 19. In the center there is a
source of particles which emits them isotropically with momentum p. Estimate a fraction of
particles which escape the magnetic trap.
Solution:
I =
1
2
_
P
t
dr =
1
2
_
p
t
dr +
e
2c
_
Here p
t
is the component of momentum perpendicular to H. The modulus |p
t
| = const,
and r = cp
t
/eH. Thus
I = rp
t

e
2c
Hr
2
=
cp
2
t
2eH
= const (0.121)
Energy is also conserved (p
2
t
+ p
2

)/2m = E. If at x = p

## = 0, then the particle do not

leave the region. At this point
I =
cE
eH
(0.122)
40
Inside the region
I = I =
cE sin
2

e(H H)
(0.123)
where sin = p
t
/p

## . Thus sin = [(H H)/H]

1/2
.
Thus the fraction of particles which escapes on innity is
2(1 cos )
4
(0.124)
Solve the Hamiltonian-Jacoby equation for S(q, t, ) in the case of a single particle moving
under the Hamiltonian H = p
2
/2m.
S
t
+
1
2
(
S
q
)
2
= 0 (0.125)
S = q
1
2

2
t (0.126)
3
Find a solution solution u(x vt) of of Koteveg de Vries equation
u
t
+

3
u
x
3
+ u
u
x
= 0 (0.127)
Express u(x, t) in terms of an integral, and estimate the relation between the width and the
velocity of the soliton.
Solution:
Let us look at a solution in the form u = u(x ct).
t
u = c
x
u, and introducing
y = x ct we get
d
dy
[
d
2
u
d
2
y
cu + u
2
/2 = 0 (0.128)
Integrating on time over y and putting the integration constant to zero we get an equation
describing a non-linear oscillator
d
2
u
d
2
y
=
dU
dx
W = cu
2
/2 + u
3
/6 (0.129)
41
FIG. 17:
The potential W has a minimum at y = 2c width 3c. Thus the amplitude of the soliton
is of order c, and its width is of order 1/

## c. The exact solution for the soliton is

u =
3c
ch
2
(x ct)/)
(0.130)

2
= 2/c
4.
Consider a symmetrical top I
1
= I
2
= I
3
whose lower point is xed (See Fig. 17) in the
presence of gravity. The mass of the top is m, and the distance from the lower point to the
center of mass is l.
a.
Write an expression for its rotational kinetic energy about the center of mass using
Eulerian co-ordinates.
Solution:
K =

i
I
i

i
I
1
2
(

2
+

2
sin
2
) +
I
3
2
(

+

cos )
2
(0.131)
b.
42
Write the expression for a Lagrangian. (Do not forget that the top is rotating about the
xed point).
L =

i
(I
i

i
I
1
+ ml
2
2
(

2
+

2
sin
2
) +
I
3
2
(

+

cos )
2
= mgl cos
5.
Write the adiabatic invariant I for the pendulum shown in Fig. 15 assuming that l(t)
changes slowly in time. (Assume that the amplitude of oscillations is small.) Given the
value of I, how the amplitude of the oscillations
0
changes in time ? How the frequency
changes in time?
Solution:

2
=
_
g/l(t).
L =
1
2m
l
2

2
+ mgl cos
I =
_
pdq/2 =

E/ =
l
2
(t)
2
0

2
= l
3/2
g
1/2

2
0
/2 = const

0
= [2Il
3/2
(t)g
1/2
]
1/2
(0.132)
6.
The Hamiltonian for the system has the form:
H =
1
2
(
1
q
2
+ p
2
q
4
) (0.133)
a. Find equation of motion.
b. Find a canonical transformation that reduces the Hamiltonian to the form of harmonic
oscillator.
Solution:
43
P = pq
2
, Q =
1
q
H =
1
2
(P
2
+ Q
2
)
(Q, P)
p,q
=
1
q
2
(q
2
) (0.134)
So the transformation is canonical.
7*
Consider a particle moving on a (xy) plane. A constant external magnetic eld B is
applied in the direction perpendicular to the plane (z direction). Chose A
x
= By/2;
A
y
= Bx/2, show that the Lagrangian is invariant under innitesimal rotation:
x = y, y = x (0.135)
where is a small number. What is the conserved quantity that can be extracted from this
invariance?
Solution:
The Lagrangian is
L =
m
2
( x
2
+ y
2
) +
e
c

A

x =
m
2
( x
2
+ y
2
) +
eB
2c
(x y y x)
Under an innitesimal rotation x = y, y = x the change of the Lagrangian is
L = m( x x + y y) +
eB
2c
(x y + x y y x y x)
= m( x y y x) +
eB
2c
(y y x x + x x y y) = 0
The corresponding conserved quantity is (the z-component of) the angular momentum
L = xp
y
yp
x
= m(x y y x) +
eB
2c
(x
2
+ y
2
)
8*
Consider an innitely thin rectangular of mass m with sides a and b which rotates about
the diagonal. (See Fig.18) . Find a torque applied to the system.
Solution:
44
y
x
z
w
FIG. 18:
H H- H
L
FIG. 19:
Eulers equations are:
I
x
d
x
dt
+ (I
z
I
y
)
y

z
=
x
I
y
d
y
dt
+ (I
x
I
z
)
z

x
=
y
I
z
d
z
dt
+ (I
y
I
x
)
y

x
=
z
(0.136)
I
x
=
1
12
ma
2
; I
y
=
1
12
mb
2
,
x
=
b

a
2
+b
2
,
y
=
a

a
2
+b
2
.
All time derivatives of the angular velocities are zero,
z
= 0. Therefore
x,y
= 0.

z
=
x

y
/(I
y
I
x
) (0.137)
9. *.
45
Also see LL Ch. 5 Problems 1-3. Ch.9 Problems 1,2, Ch.14. Problem1, Ch. 18 Problam
1, Ch 21; Problems 1,2, Ch.27 Problam 1, Ch 51 Problem 1.
46