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PWM Sine AC/DC Inverter

Goal:
Produce a 120V, 60H Sine out!ut acro"" an# $iven load
Mu"t %e Ca!a%le o& Su!!l#in$ Po'er (! to 2)0W
Given DC In!ut o& A!!ro*i+atel# 1,0VDC Ste!!ed (! -ro+ 12VDC
Strategy:
. (tilie Analo$ and Di$ital Co+!onent" to Drive 2 or /01evel PWM
. ("e 1o' 1evel PWM In!ut to S'itc2 Hi$2 Volta$e M3S-45S in H06rid$e
Con&i$uration
. 1evel 5ran"lation &or M3S-45" Done Wit2 International 7ecti&ier 2110
Inte$rated Circuit
. -ilter Sine Wave to Mini+ie Contri%ution" A%ove 60H
. Account &or Volta$e and Current S!i8e" Due to Inductive 1oad" 52rou$2
Si+!le Snu%%er Circuit
Presented Information:
. Si+ulation" o& 2 and /01evel Pul"e Widt2 Modulation
. Sc2e+atic" o& Analo$ Circuitr# &or PWM
. In&or+ation a%out I72110
. H06rid$e and 3ut!ut Circuit
. Snu%%er De"i$n and Si+ulation" &or Inductive 1oad"
Figure 1: Bilevel PWM signal
Figure 2: Bilevel PWM signal fft
52e"e !lot" re!re"ent t2e PWM "i$nal $enerated %# "'itc2in$ t2e load
%et'een
V
cc 9 52e dra'%ac8 to t2i" +et2od i", a" can %e "een in t2e to!+o"t
"i$nal, a ero out!ut volta$e i" o%tained 'it2 a )0: dut# c#cle, '2ic2 +ean" t2e
"'itc2e" are 'or8in$ t2eir 2arde"t to !roduce a ero out!ut9 A" can %e "een in t2e
ne*t !anel, t2i" i" re+edied 'it2 /0level "'itc2in$, and t2e &&t i" "o+e'2at
i+!roved a" a %onu"9
Figure 3: Trilevel PWM signal
Figure 4: Trilevel PWM signal fft
52e"e !lot" re!re"ent t2e PWM "i$nal $enerated %# "'itc2in$ t2e load
%et'een
V
cc and 0 &or t2e !o"itive !ortion o& t2e "inu"oid, and "'itc2in$
V
cc and
0 &or t2e ne$ative !ortion9 52i" attain" t2e de"ired 0 : dut# c#cle &or a ero
out!ut volta$e, and decrea"e" t2e "'itc2in$ 2ar+onic +a$nitude9
Figure 5: Bilevel PWM Controller circuit
Figure 6: Trilevel PWM Controller circuit
W2ile t2e %ilevel circuit i" "el&0e*!lanator#, t2e trilevel one +a# not %e9
-ir"t, and o!a+! ;(/< convert" t2e "ine in!ut into a "=uare 'ave9 52i" "=uare
'ave i" added to t2e trian$le 'ave in!ut, to re"ult in a t2ree0level tran$ular 'ave
;"ee t2ree0level PWM out!ut c2art in -i$ure /9< 52i" +odi&ied trian$ular "i$nal i"
t2en co+!ared 'it2 t2e "ine 'ave to o%tain a trilevel PWM "i$nal9 52i" "i$nal
control" onl# t'o "'itc2e" > t2e ot2er t'o are controlled %# t2e "=uare 'ave
$enerated %# (/9
Driving High Side N-Channel MOSFETs
Difficulties:
Hi$2 Side ?0C2annel M3S-45S are 5ied to Vcc in 3ur H06rid$e
Drivin$ t2e"e M3S-45S re=uire" V$" to %e Hi$2er t2an Vd" W2ic2 i" t2e
1ar$e"t Volta$e in 3ur S#"te+
MOSFET Drivers:
S!ecial IC@" De"i$ned to Ac2ieve Hi$2 Gate0to0Source Volta$e
Per&or+ 1evel S2i&tin$ to S'itc2 Hi$2 Volta$e" 'it2 1o' Volta$e Control
Si$nal
5a8e out!ut &ro+ PWM Sta$e and Control M3S-45S in Po'er Sta$e
IR211 MOSFET Driver:
M3S-45 Driver Device &ro+ International 7ecti&ier C2o"en to S'itc2 H0
6rid$e
4ac2 C2i! Control" 3ne Hi$20Side and 3ne 1o'0Side M3S-45
7e=uire" ("e o& 5'o Device"
-loatin$ Gate Drive ("e" 6oot"tra!!in$ Ca!acitor and Diode
3!erational u! to )00V at -a"t S'itc2in$ S!eed"
Figure 7: T!ical Connection for "#211$ M%&F'T (river
H-Bridge Circuit for Output Sine Wave
Figure ): *+Bri,ge -aout .sing /+C0annel M%&F'Ts
O!eration of "#$ridge %ircuit:
A1,0V Acro"" 1oad W2en S'itc2e" 1 and B Are Driven
0V Acro"" 1oad W2en S'itc2e" 1 and 2 or / and B Are Driven
01,0V Acro"" 1oad W2en S'itc2e" 2 and / Are Driven
&ogical %ontrol of S'itc(es:
7i$2t Side o& 6rid$e Driven %# 3ut!ut o& S=uare Wave PWM Sta$e
Deter+ine" Polarit# o& 3ut!ut Sine Wave
S'itc2ed at A!!ro*i+atel# 60 H
1e&t Side o& 6rid$e Driven %# PWM Si$nal Generated
Deter+ine" A+!litude o& 3ut!ut Sine Wave
S'itc2ed at CC 60 H
nductive !oad ssues
Pro)lem:
W2en inductive load" are u"ed t2e "udden turn o&& can cau"e !ro%le+" 'it2 t2e
"'itc2
Hi$2 dV/dt, dI/dt, V and I a""ociated 'it2 inductive load" can 2urt t2e "'itc2
and e&&ect it" runnin$
E*am!le Situation:
A !o'er drill or vacuu+ cleaner i"
!lu$$ed into t2e inverter
I& un!lu$$ed '2ile "till on can cau"e an
electric arc and i& no "nu%%er i" !re"ent
t2en a lar$e current i" run t2rou$2 t2e
"'itc2e" cau"in$ da+a$e
Solution:
A "nu%%er circuit i" "i+!l# a re"i"tor
and ca!acitor !laced in "erie" acro"" a
"'itc2
52e "nu%%er a""i"t" in reducin$ t2e
tran"ient dV/dt and dI/dt value" a"
'ell a" an# lar$e Volta$e or current"
Even Furt(er:
I& a Dener Diode i" !laced
acro"" t2e "'itc2 a" 'ell 'it2 a
value $reater t2en V" it 'ill
a""i"t even &urt2er in reducin$
2ar+&ul value"

Figure 1 : "n,uctive -oa, Circuit


Figure 1$ : "n,uctive -oa, Circuit 2it0 &nu33er

Figure 11 : "n,uctive -oa, Circuit 2it0 &nu33er an,
4ener (io,e
Si"ulations #ith and Without Snu$$er
52e"e $ra!2" co+e &ro+ a "i+ulation o& a "'itc2 'it2 and 'it2out a
"nu%%er, t2e "'itc2in$ &re=uenc# "et at 1008H, and u"in$ t2e circuit" "2o'n
under Inductive 1oad I""ue"
Figure 12: &2itc0ing Fre5uenc
Figure 13: Voltage 6cross &2itc0 728o snu33er9
Figure 14: Voltage 6cross &2itc0 728 snu33er9
Figure 15: Current T0roug0 &2itc0 728o snu33er9
Figure 16: Current T0roug0 &2itc0 728 snu33er9
Figure 17: 6verage Po2er (issi!ate, in &2itc0 over Ti:e 728o snu33er9
Figure 1): 6verage Po2er (issi!ate, in &2itc0 over Ti:e 728 snu33er9