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Sports Marketing 2011

Richard K. Miller & Associates


since 1972
SPORTS MARKETING 2011


By: Richard K. Miller and Kelli Washington
Published by:
Richard K. Miller & Associates
4132 Atlanta Highway, Suite 110
Loganville, GA 30052
(770) 466-9709
www.rkma.com
Richard K. Miller & Associates
since 1972
SPORTS MARKETING 2011
Copyright 2010 by Richard K. Miller & Associates
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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ISBN Number: 1-57783-165-9
Richard K. Miller & Associates
4132 Atlanta Highway, Suite 110
Loganville, GA 30052
(770) 466-9709
www.rkma.com
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CONTENTS
1 MARKET SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.1 The American Sports Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.2 The U.S. Sports Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.3 Sports Brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4 Athletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5 Sports Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2 TOP SPORTS CITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2 Avid Sports Fans City-by-City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.3 Attending Spectator Sports Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.4 College Basketball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.5 Major League Baseball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.6 Professional Basketball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.7 Professional Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.8 NASCAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.9 Top Minor League Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.10 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
PART I: SPORTS MARKET SEGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3 ADVERTISING & SPONSORSHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2 Athlete Endorsements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3 Advertising Agencies in Sports Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4 Sports Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.5 Sports Website Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.6 Naming Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4 CONCESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2 Concessionaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3 Menu Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5 FANTASY SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.2 Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.3 Market Characteristics and Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
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5.4 Fantasy Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6 GAME PROMOTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.1 Giveaways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.2 Entertainment and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.3 All-You-Can-Eat Promotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7 LICENSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.2 Sports Licensed Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.3 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
8 MEMORABILIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
8.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
8.2 Sports Memorabilia Auctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
8.3 Sports Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
9 PARTICIPATION & RECREATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.1 Sports, Exercise, and Recreational Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.2 Individual Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.3 Racquet Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.4 Team Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
9.5 Water Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
9.6 Winter Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
10 SPORTING GOODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10.2 Marketshare Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
10.3 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
11 SPORTS FANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
11.1 Favorite Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
11.2 Avid Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
11.3 Fan Base By Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
11.4 Fan Base By Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
11.5 Fan Base By Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
11.6 Fan Base By Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
11.7 Female Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
11.8 Youth Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
11.9 African-American Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
11.10 Hispanic-American Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
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12 SPORTS MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.2 Sports Management Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
12.3 Academic Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
12.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
13 SPORTS TRAVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
13.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
13.2 Sports-specialist Travel Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
13.3 Sports Museums and Halls of Fame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
13.4 Baseball Spring Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
14 STADIUMS & ARENAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
14.1 Sports Facility Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
14.2 Professional Sports Stadiums and Arenas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
14.3 Financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
14.4 Premium Seating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
15 TICKETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
15.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
15.2 Secondary Ticketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
15.3 Key Players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
15.4 Dynamic Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
15.5 Mobile Ticketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
15.6 Moving Unsold Ticket Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
15.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
PART II: SPORTS MEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
16 SPORTS TELEVISION BROADCASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
16.1 Major Sports Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
16.2 Broadcast Rights Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
16.3 Sports Programming On Cable Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
16.4 League Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
16.5 Regional Sports Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
16.6 Sport-Specific Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
16.7 College Sports Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
16.8 International Sports Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
17 SPORTS RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
17.1 Sports Radio Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
17.2 The Sports Radio Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
17.3 Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
17.4 Sports on Satellite Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
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17.5 Live Broadcast Baseball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
17.6 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
18 SPORTS PERIODICALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
18.1 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
18.2 Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
18.3 Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
18.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
19 NEWSPAPER SPORTS SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
19.1 How Fans Obtain The Sports News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
19.2 Sports Section Readership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
19.3 Sports Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
19.4 Trends in Sports News Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
19.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
20 SPORTS ONLINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
20.1 Sports Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
20.2 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
20.3 Sports Website Visitor Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
20.4 Major League Sports Streaming Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
20.5 Online Sports Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
20.6 Live Sports Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
20.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
21 MOBILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
21.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
21.2 Most Popular Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
21.3 Apps for Professional Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
21.4 In-Game Enhancements and Promotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
21.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
PART III: MAJOR TEAM SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
22 MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
22.1 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
22.2 Team Valuations and Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
22.3 Franchise Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
22.4 Fan Cost Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
22.5 Fan Loyalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
22.6 Television Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
22.7 World Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
22.8 MLB All-Star Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
22.9 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
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22.10 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
23 NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
23.1 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
23.2 Team Valuations and Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
23.3 Franchise Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
23.4 Fan Cost Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
23.5 Fan Loyalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
23.6 Television Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
23.7 NBA Finals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
23.8 NBA All-Star Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
23.9 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
23.10 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
24 NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
24.1 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
24.2 Team Valuations and Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
24.3 Franchise Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
24.4 Fan Cost Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
24.5 Fan Loyalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
24.6 Television Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
24.7 Super Bowl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
24.8 Pro Bowl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
24.9 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
24.10 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
25 NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
25.1 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
25.2 Team Valuations and Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
25.3 Franchise Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
25.4 Fan Cost Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
25.5 Fan Loyalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
25.6 Television Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
25.7 Stanley Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
25.8 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
25.9 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
26 MAJOR LEAGUE SOCCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
26.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
26.2 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
26.3 Television Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
26.4 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
26.5 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
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27 WOMENS NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
27.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
27.2 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
27.3 Television Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
27.4 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
27.5 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
27.6 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
28 WOMENS PROFESSIONAL SOCCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
28.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
28.2 Teams and Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
28.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
28.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
29 PROFESSIONAL LACROSSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
29.1 Major League Lacrosse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
29.2 National Lacrosse League . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
29.3 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
30 MINOR LEAGUE SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
30.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
30.2 Minor League Baseball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
30.3 Minor League Hockey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
30.4 NBA Development League . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
PART IV: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
31 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
31.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
31.2 Tour de France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
31.3 USA Cycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
31.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
32 GOLF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
32.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
32.2 The Majors Championships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
32.3 The Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
32.4 The PGA Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
32.5 The LPGA Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
32.6 Demographics of Golf Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
32.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
33 TENNIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
33.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
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33.2 Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
33.3 Top Paid Tennis Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
33.4 Grand Slam Tournaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
33.5 US Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
33.6 US Open Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
33.7 Sony Ericsson WTA Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
33.8 ATP World Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
33.9 Wimbledon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
33.10 Sony Ericsson Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
33.11 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
PART V: RACING SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
34 INDY RACING LEAGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
34.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
34.2 Television and Radio Broadcast Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
34.3 Indianapolis 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
34.4 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
34.5 Racing Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
34.6 IndyCar Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
34.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
35 NASCAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
35.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
35.2 Broadcast Rights and Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
35.3 Advertising and Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
35.4 Racing Teams and Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
35.5 Track Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
35.6 Sprint Cup Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
35.7 Nationwide Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
35.8 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
35.9 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
36 RACING CIRCUITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
36.1 American Le Mans Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
36.2 Grand American Road Racing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
36.3 NHRA Drag Racing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
36.4 World of Outlaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
36.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
37 SUPERCROSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
37.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
37.2 Television Broadcast Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
37.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
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37.4 Racing Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
37.5 Monster Energy AMA Supercross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
PART VI: FIGHTING SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
38 BOXING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
38.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
38.2 Professional Boxing Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
38.3 Pay-per-View Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
38.4 Live Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
38.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
39 MIXED MARTIAL ARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
39.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
39.2 MMA Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
39.3 Ultimate Fighting Championship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
39.4 Strikeforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
39.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
40 WORLD WRESTLING ENTERTAINMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
40.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
40.2 Professional Wrestling Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
40.2 Live Events and Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
40.3 Pay-per-View Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
40.4 Viewer Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
40.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
PART VII: COLLEGIATE & HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
41 NCAA SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
41.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
41.2 Mens and Womens Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
41.3 Conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
41.4 NCAA Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
41.5 Conference Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
41.6 Athletic Department Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
41.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
42 COLLEGE FOOTBALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
42.1 Fans and Spectators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
42.2 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
42.3 Regular-Season Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
42.4 Bowl Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
42.5 Bowl Championship Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
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42.6 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
43 COLLEGE MENS BASKETBALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
43.1 Fans and Spectators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
43.2 Favorite Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
43.3 Market Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
43.4 Regular-Season Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
43.5 NCAA Division I Mens Basketball Tournament Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
43.6 NCAA Finals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
43.7 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
44 COLLEGE WOMENS BASKETBALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
44.1 Fans and Spectators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
44.2 Favorite Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
44.3 NCAA Womens Final Four Championship Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
45 HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
45.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
45.2 Participation by Sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
45.3 Participation by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
45.4 High School Sports Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
45.5 Local Television Broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
45.6 Sponsorships and Promotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
45.7 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
46 YOUTH SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
46.1 Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
46.2 Youth Baseball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
46.3 Youth Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
46.4 Youth Soccer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
46.5 Streaming Youth Sports Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
PART VIII: MULTI-SPORT EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
47 ACTION SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
47.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
47.2 Dew Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
47.3 X Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
47.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
48 EVENTS FOR ATHLETES WITH DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
48.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
48.2 Summer and Winter Paralympic Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
48.3 Special Olympics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
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48.4 Extremity Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
48.5 Disabled Sports USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
48.6 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
49 OLYMPIC GAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
49.1 Summer Olympics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
49.2 Winter Olympic Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
49.3 United States Olympic Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
49.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
50 SENIOR GAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
50.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
50.2 Biennial Summer Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
50.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
50.4 Winter Senior Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
50.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
51 STATE GAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
51.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
51.2 Calendar of 2010 State Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
51.3 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
PART IX: ORGANIZED SPORTS/COMPETITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
52 AMERICAS CUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
52.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
52.2 The 33 and 34 Americas Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rd th
253
52.3 Television Broadcasts and Web-Streamed Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
52.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
53 BASS FISHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
53.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
53.2 Bass Anglers Sportsmans Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
53.3 Tournaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
53.4 Western Outdoor News Bass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
53.5 Fantasy Fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
53.6 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
54 BOWLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
54.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
54.2 United States Bowling Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
54.3 Professional Bowlers Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
54.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
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55 COMPETITIVE CHEERLEADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
55.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
55.2 Sanctioning Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
55.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
55.4 Collegiate Competitive Cheer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
55.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
56 CRICKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
56.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
56.2 Organized Cricket in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
56.3 Professional Cricket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
56.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
57 FIGURE SKATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
57.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
57.2 Sanctioning Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
57.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
57.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
58 GYMNASTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
58.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
58.2 Sanctioning Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
58.3 Major Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
58.4 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
58.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
59 HORSE RACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
59.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
59.2 Triple Crown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
59.3 \Breeders Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
59.4 Saratoga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
59.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
60 LACROSSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.2 Sanctioning Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.3 Growth of Soccer in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
60.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
61 MARATHONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
61.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
61.2 Economic Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
61.3 Business Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
61.4 Sponsorships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
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61.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
62 POKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
62.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
62.2 Poker Tournaments on Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
63 RODEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
63.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
63.2 Professional Bull Riders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
63.3 Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
63.4 Fan Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
63.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
64 RUGBY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
64.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
64.2 Rugby in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
64.3 Rugby World Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
64.4 RBS Six Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
64.5 Rugby in the Summer Olympic Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
64.6 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
65 SOCCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
65.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
65.2 FIFA World Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
65.3 Growth of Soccer in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
65.4 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
65.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
66 SOFTBALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
66.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
66.2 Governing Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
66.3 Amateur Softball Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
66.4 National Pro Fastpitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
66.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
67 SWIMMING, DIVING & WATER POLO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
67.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
67.2 Sanctioning Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
67.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
67.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
68 TRACK & FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
68.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
68.2 Sanctioning Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
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68.3 Major Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
68.4 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
68.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
69 TRIATHLONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
69.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
69.2 Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
69.3 Major Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
69.4 Sponsorships and Promotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
69.5 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
70 VIDEO GAME COMPETITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
70.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
70.2 Major Tournaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
70.3 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
70.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
71 VOLLEYBALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
71.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
71.2 Sanctioning Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
71.3 AVP Pro Beach Volleyball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
71.4 Market Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
MARKET RESOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Sports Marketing 2011
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Sports Marketing 2011
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1
MARKET SUMMARY
1.1 The American Sports Fan
In a recent Gallup Poll (www.gallup.com), 54% of respondents said they were
sports fans. This ranks sports at the top among all leisure activities, ahead of casino
gaming, crafts, gardening, hobby collecting, performing arts, pets, video games, and
wildlife watching.
_________________________________________________________________
Live sports are about experiences and emotions.
For the more than 90 million people who attend
sports events in person in the United States, those
emotions can range from joy and pleasure to
indifference to disappointment and defeat. Fan
experiences can also vary widely whether they are
sharing time with family, having camaraderie among
friends or conducting business with clients.
Sports Business Journal
_________________________________________________________________
Major sports events such as the Super Bowl, NCAA Basketball Finals, World
Series, NBA Finals, and Kentucky Derby are followed by a majority of the U.S.
population. Super Bowl, with almost 100 million viewers, is top at-home party event of
the year, even surpassing New Years Eve.
_________________________________________________________________
In a fragmented culture, big sports events are
one of the ties that bind.
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
_________________________________________________________________
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1.2 The U.S. Sports Market
Sports Industry Almanac 2011, by Plunkett Research (www.plunkettresearch.com),
estimates the entire U.S. sports industry at $411 billion, a figure which includes sports
marketing, spectator sports, and sports and recreation participation. Major components of
this spending are as follows:
Sporting goods: $ 71.8 billion
Sports advertising and marketing: $ 27.3 billion
Professional sports: $ 21.6 billion
Fitness and recreation centers: $ 20.7 billion
Other amusement and recreation: $ 20.5 billion
Golf courses: $ 19.8 billion
Racetracks: $ 8.7 billion
Other spectator sports leagues: $ 4.3 billion
NCAA sports: $ 700 million
Other (concessions, facility construction, gambling,
licensing, sponsorships, sports travel, sports-related
publishing, etc.): $180.0 billion
Professional sports revenue is distributed by league as follows:
NBA revenue: $7.8 billion
MLB revenue: $6.8 billion
NFL revenue: $4.0 billion
NHL revenue: $3.0 billion
1.3 Sports Brands
Forbes assesses the most valuable sports brands as follows:
Athletes
Tiger Woods (golf): $105.0 million
Floyd Mayweather Jr. (boxing): $ 65.0 million
Kobe Bryant (basketball): $ 48.0 million
Phil Nickelson (golf): $ 46.0 million
David Beckham (soccer): $ 43.7 million
Roger Federer (tennis): $ 43.0 million
LeBron James (basketball): $ 42.8 million
Manny Pacquiao (boxing): $ 42.0 million
Eli Manning (football): $ 39.9 million
Terrell Suggs (football): $ 38.3 million
Julius Peppers (football): $ 36.0 million
Alex Rodriguez (baseball): $ 35.9 million
Cristiano Ronaldo (soccer): $ 35.8 million
Kimi Rikknen (motorsports): $ 34.0 million
Philip Rivers (football): $ 32.1 million
Sports Marketing 2011
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Valentino Rossi (motorsports): $ 32.0 million
Shaquille ONeal (basketball): $ 31.0 million
Dale Earnhardt (motorsports): $ 30.0 million
Derek Jeter (baseball): $ 29.7 million
Lewis Hamilton (motorsports): $ 29.0 million
Yao Ming (basketball): $ 28.4 million
Tracy McGrady (basketball): $ 28.2 million
Fernando Alonso (motorsports): $ 28.0 million
Michael Schumacher (motorsports): $ 28.0 million
Albert Haynesworth (football): $ 27.3 million
Lionel Messi (soccer): $ 27.0 million
Jeff Gordon (motorsports): $ 26.9 million
Dwayne Wade (basketball): $ 26.8 million
DeMarcus Ware (football): $ 26.7 million
Ichiro Suzuko (baseball): $ 26.0 million
Kak (soccer): $ 25.6 million
Ronaldinho (soccer): $ 25.1 million
Peyton Manning (football): $ 24.8 million
Tim Duncan (basketball): $ 24.7 million
Maria Sharapova (tennis): $ 24.5 million
Dwight Howard (basketball): $ 24.2 million
Jermaine ONeal (basketball): $ 24.0 million
Carmelo Anthony (basketball): $ 23.8 million
Thierry Henry (soccer): $ 23.5 million
Ernie Els (golf): $ 23.0 million
Jimmy Johnson (motorsports): $ 23.0 million
Jake Delhomme (football): $ 22.4 million
Kevin Garnett (basketball): $ 22.4 million
Amare Stoudamire (basketball): $ 21.9 million
Dirk Nowitzki (basketball): $ 21.8 million
Paul Pierce (basketball): $ 21.8 million
CC Sabathia (baseball): $ 21.4 million
Matthew Stafford (football): $ 21.4 million
Vince Carter (basketball): $ 21.3 million
Lance Armstrong (cycling): $ 21.0 million
Teams
Manchester United (soccer): $1.835 billion
Dallas Cowboys (football): $1.650 billion
New York Yankees (baseball): $1.600 billion
Washington Redskins (football): $1.550 billion
New England Patriots (football): $1.361 billion
Real Madrid (soccer): $1.323 billion
New York Giants (football): $1.183 billion
Sports Marketing 2011
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Arsenal (soccer): $1.181 billion
New York Jets (football): $1.170 billion
Houston Texans (football): $1.150 billion
Philadelphia Eagles (football): $1.123 billion
Tampa Bay Buccaneers (football): $1.085 billion
Chicago Bears (football): $1.082 billion
Denver Broncos (football): $1.081 billion
Baltimore Ravens (football): $1.079 billion
Ferrari (motorsports): $1.050 billion
Carolina Panthers (football): $1.049 billion
Cleveland Browns (football): $1.032 billion
Kansas City Chiefs (football): $1.027 billion
Indianapolis Colts (football): $1.025 billion
Pittsburgh Steelers (football): $1.020 billion
Green Bay Packers (football): $1.019 billion
Miami Dolphins (football): $1.015 billion
Tennessee Titans (football): $1.000 billion
Barcelona (soccer): $1.000 billion
Seattle Seahawks (football): $ 994 million
Bayern Munich (soccer): $ 990 million
Cincinnati Bengals (football): $ 953 million
New Orleans Saints (football): $ 942 million
Arizona Cardinals (football): $ 935 million
San Diego Chargers (football): $ 917 million
St. Louis Rams (football): $ 915 million
Buffalo Bills (football): $ 909 million
San Francisco 49ers (football): $ 875 million
Boston Red Sox (football): $ 870 million
Detroit Lions (football): $ 867 million
Jacksonville Jaguars (football): $ 866 million
New York Mets (baseball): $ 858 million
Atlanta Falcons (football): $ 856 million
Minnesota Vikings (football): $ 835 million
Liverpool (soccer): $ 822 million
McLaren Mercedes (motorsports): $ 805 million
AC Milan (soccer): $ 800 million
Oakland Raiders (football): $ 797 million
Los Angeles Dodgers (baseball): $ 727 million
Chicago Cubs (baseball): $ 726 million
Juventus (soccer): $ 656 million
Chelsea (soccer): $ 646 million
Los Angeles Lakers (basketball): $ 607 million
New York Knicks (basketball): $ 586 million
Sports Marketing 2011
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Businesses
ESPN: $7.5 billion
Nike: $5.6 billion
Adidas: $2.4 billion
Under Armour: $2.2 billion
EA Sports: $2.0 billion
Sky Sports (U.K.): $1.3 billion
Reebok: $ 900 million
YES Network: $ 500 million
IMG: $ 450 million
MSG Network: $ 400 million
Events
Super Bowl: $ 336 million
Olympic Summer Games: $ 176 million
FIFA World Cup: $ 103 million
Daytona 500: $ 90 million
NCAA Mens Final Four: $ 90 million
Olympic Winter Games: $ 82 million
Rose Bowl Game: $ 72 million
MLB World Series: $ 61 million
Kentucky Derby: $ 59 million
NBA Finals: $ 58 million
1.4 Athletes
In a June 2010 Harris Poll (www.harrisinteractive.com), sports fans ranked their
favorite male sports stars as follows:
1. (tie) Tiger Woods
1. (tie) Kobe Bryant
3. Derek Jeter
4. Brett Favre
5. Peyton Manning
6. LeBron James
7. Michael Jordan
8. Tom Brady
9. Drew Brees
10. Dale Earnhardt Jr.
Fans ranked their favorite female sports stars as follows:
1. Serena Williams
2. Venus Williams
3. Danica Patrick
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4. Mia Hamm
5. Maria Sharapova
6. Anna Kournikova
7. Misty May
8. Shawn Johnson
9. Lisa Leslie
10. (tie) Billy Jean King
10. (tie) Martina Navratolova
According to Sports Illustrated (August 2010), the following are the highest-
earning American athletes:
Tiger Woods (golf): $90.5 million
Phil Mickelson (golf): $61.7 million
Floyd Mayweather Jr. (boxing): $60.2 million
LeBron James (basketball): $45.8 million
Alex Rodriguez (baseball): $37.0 million
Shaquille ONeal (basketball): $36.0 million
Kobe Bryant (basketball): $33.0 million
Derek Jeter (baseball): $31.0 million
Peyton Manning (football): $30.8 million
Dwayne Wade (basketball): $27.8 million
Matthew Stafford (football): $27.6 million
Dwight Howard (basketball): $27.2 million
CC Sabathia (baseball): $26.5 million
Eli Manning (football): $26.5 million
Kevin Garnett (basketball): $26.4 million
Dale Earnhardt Jr. (auto racing): $26.1 million
Philip Rivers (football): $25.8 million
Tim Duncan (basketball): $25.7 million
Terrell Suggs (football): $25.0 million
Albert Haynesworth (football): $24.7 million
Brett Favre (football): $24.0 million
Jermaine ONeal (basketball): $23.3 million
Amare Stoudemire (basketball): $23.1 million
Tracy McGrady (basketball): $22.7 million
Carmelo Anthony (basketball): $21.8 million
John Lackey (baseball): $21.7 million
Paul Pierce (basketball): $21.6 million
Darrius Heyward-Bey (football): $21.5 million
Jeff Gordon (auto racing): $21.5 million
Vernon Wells (baseball): $21.2 million
Vince Carter (basketball): $21.1 million
Albert Pujois (baseball): $21.0 million
Jason Smith (football): $20.6 million
Sports Marketing 2011
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Ryan Howard (baseball): $20.5 million
Mark Teixeira (baseball): $20.2 million
Julius Peppers (football): $20.1 million
Ray Allen (basketball): $19.5 million
Vince Wilfork (football): $19.0 million
Barry Zito (baseball): $18.6 million
DeAngelo Hall (football): $18.6 million
Torii Hunter (baseball): $18.5 million
Tyson Jackson (football): $18.2 million
Josh Beckett (baseball): $17.5 million
Jimmie Johnson (auto racing): $17.3 million
Michael Redd (basketball): $17.3 million
Rashard Lewis (basketball): $17.2 million
Davit Ortiz (baseball): $17.0 million
Mark Sanchez (football): $17.0 million
DeMarcus Ware (football): $16.8 million
A.J. Burnett (baseball): $16.8 million
Note: Earnings include salary, winnings, bonuses, endorsements, and appearance fees.
The following are the highest-earning international athletes:
Roger Federer (Switzerland, tennis): $61.8 million
Lionel Messi (Argentina, soccer): $44.0 million
David Beckham (Great Britain, soccer): $40.5 million
Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal, soccer): $40.0 million
Manny Pacquiao (Philippines, boxing): $38.0 million
Ichiro Suzuki (Japan, baseball): $37.0 million
Valentino Rossi (Italy, motorcycle racer): $35.0 million
Yao Ming (China, basketball): $34.4 million
Rafael Nadal (Spain, tennis): $27.5 million
Lewis Hamilton (Great Britain, auto racing): $26.7 million
Kak (Brazil, soccer): $25.1 million
Thierry Henry (France, soccer): $24.0 million
Dirk Nowitzki (Germany, basketball): $23.8 million
Kimi Rikknen (Finland, auto racing): $23.6 million
Jenson Button (Great Britain, auto racing): $23.1 million
Ronaldinho (Brazil, soccer): $23.0 million
Fernando Alonso (Spain, auto racing): $22.6 million
Carlos Tvez (Argentina, soccer): $20.5 million
Miguel Cabrera (Venezuela, baseball): $20.2 million
Maria Sharapova (Russia, tennis): $19.9 million
1.5 Sports Media
Sports media is strong in all formats: print, broadcast, digital.
Sports Marketing 2011
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_________________________________________________________________
We are living in an incredible time for sports
consumption. There were over 43,700 hours of live
sporting events on broadcast and cable television
in 2009. And the continued growth of high
definition and satellite TV now in 33% and 29% of
U.S. homes, respectively made it even easier for
fans to follow their favorite teams in amazing clarity
no matter where they might be located across the
country. The DVR-proof nature of sports continued
to entice commercial advertisers who, despite a
down economy, spent $7.6 billion on sports
programming in the past year. Sports are also
perfectly suited for the current three-screen media
age. On average 81 million people in the U.S.
visited sports websites each month to keep tabs on
their fantasy teams or follow any one of the
captivating stories this year. Leagues have used
websites, social networks, and smart phones to
create a virtual sports bar for fan dialogue to help
the buzz surrounding major televised sporting
events. Thats why, even in an age with unlimited
entertainment options, sports fans still tuned in at
record numbers for the big games. The year 2009
saw the most-watched Super Bowl (98.7 million
viewers) ever, the most watched Stanley Cup in
seven years (4.5 million), and the most watched
World Series in five years (19.1 million).
Stephen Master, Vice President
Nielsen Sports
The Changing Face of Sports Media, 1/10
_________________________________________________________________
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2
TOP SPORTS CITIES
2.1 Overview
Scarborough Sports Marketing (www.scarborough.com) and International
Demographics (www.themediaaudit.com) surveyed residents in major metropolitan
areas to determine interest in sports. This chapter presents the findings of these
surveys.
2.2 Avid Sports Fans City-by-City
Scarborough Sports Marketing performs surveys in 81 metropolitan areas asking
about 29 major spectator sports. The following are percentages of adults in each city
that said they are avid fans of at least one major sport:
Columbus, Ohio: 66%
Boston, Massachusetts: 64%
Buffalo, New York: 63%
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 63%
Green Bay/Appleton, Wisconsin: 62%
Providence/New Bedford, Rhode Island: 62%
Denver, Colorado: 62%
Rochester, New York: 62%
Louisville, Kentucky: 62%
Cleveland/Akron, Ohio: 62%
San Antonio, Texas: 62%
Birmingham, Alabama: 62%
Spokane, Washington: 61%
Dayton, Ohio: 61%
Jacksonville, Florida: 61%
Indianapolis, Indiana: 61%
Albany/Schenectady/Troy, New York: 60%
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 60%
Lexington, Kentucky: 60%
Flint/Saginaw/Bay City, Michigan: 60%
Toledo, Ohio: 60%
Colorado Springs/Pueblo, Colorado: 60%
Mobile, Alabama/Pensacola, Florida: 60%
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Detroit, Michigan: 60%
Dallas/Ft. Worth, Texas: 59%
Greensboro/High Point/Winston-Salem, North Carolina: 59%
Norfolk/Portsmouth/Newport News, Virginia: 59%
Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota: 59%
Washington, D.C.: 59%
St. Louis, Missouri: 59%
Roanoke/Lynchburg, Virginia: 59%
Des Moines/Ames, Iowa: 59%
Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida: 58%
Tulsa, Oklahoma: 58%
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 58%
Charlotte, North Carolina: 58%
Milwaukee, Wisconsin: 58%
Las Vegas, Nevada: 58%
Seattle/Tacoma, Washington: 58%
Albuquerque/Santa Fe, New Mexico: 57%
Hartford/New Haven, Connecticut: 57%
Chicago, Illinois: 57%
Salt Lake City, Utah: 57%
New Orleans, Louisiana: 57%
Baltimore, Maryland: 57%
Knoxville, Tennessee: 57%
Cincinnati, Ohio: 57%
Nashville, Tennessee: 57%
Kansas City, Missouri: 57%
Richmond/Petersburg, Virginia: 57%
Greenville/Spartanburg/Anderson, North Carolina: 57%
Tucson, Arizona: 56%
Atlanta, Georgia: 56%
Syracuse, New York: 56%
Honolulu, Hawaii: 56%
West Palm Beach/Fort Pierce, Florida: 56%
Charleston/Huntington, West Virginia: 56%
Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina: 56%
Memphis, Tennessee: 56%
Phoenix, Arizona: 55%
Orlando/Daytona Beach/Melbourne, Florida: 55%
San Diego, California: 55%
Sacramento/Stockton/Modesto, California: 55%
Fort Myers/Naples, Florida: 55%
Harrisburg/Lancaster/Lebanon/York, Pennsylvania: 54%
Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo/Battle Creek, Michigan: 54%
Austin, Texas: 54%
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Chattanooga, Tennessee: 53%
Wilkes-Barre/Scranton, Pennsylvania: 52%
Houston, Texas: 52%
Portland, Oregon: 52%
San Francisco/Oakland/San Jose, California: 51%
Los Angeles, California: 51%
Little Rock/Pine Bluff, Arkansas: 51%
Miami/Ft. Lauderdale, Florida: 51%
New York, New York: 50%
El Paso, Texas: 49%
Fresno/Visalia, California: 49%
Wichita/Hutchinson, Kansas: 48%
Bakersfield, California: 48%
Harlingen/Weslaco/Brownsville/McAllen, Texas: 43%
In the 81 metropolitan areas surveyed by Scarborough, 56% of residents said
they are avid sports fans.
2.3 Attending Spectator Sports Events
According to International Demographics, the following are the percentages of
adults that attend three or more professional or college sports events annually:
Columbia-Jefferson City, Missouri: 32.5%
Atlanta, Georgia: 29.8%
Nashville, Tennessee: 29.6%
Milwaukee-Racine, Wisconsin: 29.5%
Denver, Colorado: 28.9%
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota: 28.3%
Memphis, Tennessee: 27.3%
Columbus, Ohio: 26.3%
Columbia, South Carolina: 26.0%
New Orleans, Louisiana: 27.7%
St. Louis, Missouri: 27.5%
Omaha-Council Bluffs, Nebraska: 26.9%
Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina: 26.5%
Ann Arbor, Michigan: 25.5%
Salt Lake City, Utah: 25.5%
Kansas City, Missouri: 25.4%
Toledo, Ohio: 25.2%
Austin, Texas: 25.1%
Lexington, Kentucky: 24.9%
Little Rock, Arkansas: 24.8%
Buffalo, New York: 24.7%
Indianapolis, Indiana: 24.7%
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Washington, D.C.: 24.7%
Madison, Wisconsin: 24.4%
Detroit, Michigan: 24.3%
Southern New Hampshire: 24.3%
Colorado Springs, Colorado: 24.2%
Boise, Idaho: 24.0%
Cincinnati, Ohio: 23.9%
Wilmington, North Carolina: 23.9%
Long Island, New York: 23.7%
San Antonio, Texas: 23.6%
Houston, Texas: 23.5%
Tampa-St. Petersburg, Florida: 23.5%
Jacksonville, Florida: 23.3%
Baltimore, Maryland: 23.1%
Cleveland, Ohio: 23.1%
Dayton, Ohio: 23.1%
Phoenix, Arizona: 23.1%
Rochester, New York: 23.1%
Birmingham, Alabama: 23.0%
Seattle-Tacoma, Washington: 23.0%
Greenville-Spartanburg, South, Carolina: 22.9%
Reno, Nevada: 22.9%
Boston, Massachusetts: 22.7%
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, Florida: 22.6%
Chicago, Illinois: 22.5%
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 22.1%
Jackson, Mississippi: 22.0%
Louisville, Kentucky: 22.0%
San Francisco, California: 21.9%
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 22.0%
Orange County, California: 21.7%
San Diego, California: 21.7%
Tucson, Arizona: 21.8%
Charlotte, North Carolina: 21.5%
Eugene-Springfield, Oregon: 21.4%
Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas: 21.3%
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 21.0%
Las Vegas, Nevada: 20.9%
New York, New York: 20.3%
Albuquerque, New Mexico: 20.1%
Greensboro, North Carolina: 20.1%
Orlando, Florida: 20.0%
Fresno, California: 19.8%
Akron, Ohio: 19.6%
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Los Angeles, California: 19.3%
Peoria, Illinois: 19.2%
San Jose, California: 19.2%
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, New York: 19.1%
Spokane, Washington: 19.1%
Hartford-New Haven, Connecticut: 18.9%
Charleston, South Carolina: 18.4%
Portland, Oregon: 17.9%
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, Virginia: 17.6%
Riverside-San Bernardino, California: 17.5%
Grand Rapids, Michigan: 17.3%
West Palm Beach, Florida: 17.0%
Allentown-Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: 16.7%
Sacramento, California: 16.7%
Ft. Myers-Naples, Florida: 16.8%
Melbourne-Titusville-Cocoa, Florida: 16.3%
Tulsa, Oklahoma: 16.3%
Daytona Beach, Florida: 14.5%
Ocala, Florida: 13.3%
2.4 College Basketball
According to International Demographics, the top markets for college basketball,
ranked by percentage of adults regularly following the sport, are as follows:
Lexington, Kentucky: 65.7%
Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina: 61.8%
Louisville, Kentucky: 60.8%
Tucson, Arizona: 58.5%
Columbus, Ohio: 56.5%
Cincinnati, Ohio: 55.0%
Columbia-Jefferson City, Missouri: 53.6%
Eugene-Springfield, Oregon: 52.9%
Syracuse, New York: 52.9%
Columbia, South Carolina: 52.4%
Memphis, Tennessee: 51.4%
Madison, Wisconsin: 48.8%
Charlotte, North Carolina: 48.1%
Indianapolis, Indiana: 48.0%
Little Rock, Arkansas: 47.6%
Greensboro, North Carolina: 47.5%
Dayton, Ohio: 47.5%
Spokane, Washington: 47.3%
Kansas City, Missouri: 47.1%
Grand Rapids, Michigan: 46.5%
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Among all U.S. adults, 35.8% regularly follow college basketball.
2.5 Major League Baseball
The top markets for Major League Baseball, ranked by percentage of adults
regularly following games on television or radio in 2009, are as follows (source:
International Demographics):
Boston, Massachusetts: 76.1%
Southern New Hampshire: 71.0%
Cleveland, Ohio: 70.7%
St. Louis, Missouri: 69.4%
Long Island, New York: 68.3%
Peoria, Illinois: 66.8%
Chicago, Illinois: 65.9%
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 65.1%
Minneapolis, Minnesota: 63.4%
Hartford, Connecticut: 63.4%
Among all U.S. adults, 51.2% regularly follow professional baseball on television
or radio.
2.6 Professional Basketball
The following are the top markets for professional basketball fans, ranked by
percentage of adults who regularly followed NBA games in 2009 (source: International
Demographics):
San Antonio, Texas: 71.6%
Cleveland, Ohio: 72.1%
Boston, Massachusetts: 63.1%
Detroit, Michigan: 59.7%
Salt Lake City, Utah: 58.2%
Akron, Ohio: 58.1%
Phoenix, Arizona: 57.7%
Southern New Hampshire: 55.7%
New Orleans, Louisiana: 53.2%
Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas: 51.2%
Among all U.S. adults, 40.8% regularly follow professional basketball games on
television or radio.
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2.7 Professional Football
The following are the top markets for professional football fans, ranked by
percentage of adults who regularly followed NFL games in 2009 (source: International
Demographics):
Milwaukee-Racine, Wisconsin: 80.1%
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 79.6%
Boston, Massachusetts: 79.2%
Indianapolis, Indiana: 78.4%
Jacksonville, Florida: 76.0%
Nationally, 60.9% of adults regularly follow professional football games on
television or radio.
2.8 NASCAR
The following are the top markets for NASCAR, ranked by percentage of adults
who regularly followed races on television in 2009 (source: International
Demographics):
Daytona Beach, Florida: 48.5%
Charlotte, North Carolina: 44.0%
Indianapolis, Indiana: 41.7%
Greensboro, North Carolina: 39.6%
Melbourne, Florida: 38.6%
Jacksonville, Florida: 38.5%
Greenville-Spartanburg, South Carolina: 37.1%
Columbia, South Carolina: 35.8%
Ocala, Florida: 35.6%
Dayton, Ohio: 35.0%
Nationally, 23.1% of adults regularly follow NASCAR races on television.
2.9 Top Minor League Markets
In 2009, SportsBusiness Journal assessed 542 minor league teams in 239
markets. Markets were ranked based on three category-specific scores: tenure rank,
attendance rank, and economic rank. The assessment ranked the top minor league
markets as follows:
Hershey-Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 100.0
Fort Wayne, Indiana: 85.9
Tulsa, Oklahoma: 82.6
Billings, Montana: 81.5
Spokane, Washington: 66.7
Peoria, Illinois: 65.7
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San Bernardino County, California: 65.3
Bossier City-Shreveport, Louisiana: 62.5
Idaho Falls, Idaho: 62.1
Rochester, New York: 61.2
Sioux Falls, South Dakota: 60.9
Visalia, California: 60.6
Kinston, North Carolina: 60.5
Manchester-Nashua, New Hampshire: 59.9
Wichita, Kansas: 59.7
Modesto, California: 59.6
Midland, Texas: 58.7
Toledo, Ohio: 57.8
Albany, New York: 57.4
Princeton-Bluefield, West Virginia: 57.1
Appleton, Wisconsin: 56.7
Reading, Pennsylvania: 56.6
North Little Rock, Arkansas: 56.2
Stockton, California: 55.3
Casper, Wyoming: 55.0
Lakewood, New Jersey: 54.7
Woodbridge, New Jersey: 54.4
Savannah, Georgia: 52.9
Wappingers Falls, New York: 52.0
Clearwater-Dunedin, Florida: 51.9
Quad Cities (Moline-Rock Island, Illinois/Davenport/
Bettendorf, Iowa): 51.4
Lynchburg, Virginia: 50.1
Burlington, Iowa: 48.6
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania: 48.3
Springfield, Massachusetts: 48.0
Binghamton, New York: 48.0
Pawtucket-Providence, Rhode Island: 45.6
Auburn, New York: 44.9
Grand Rapids, Michigan: 44.5
Salisbury, Maryland: 44.1
Rockford, Illinois: 44.0
Boise, Idaho: 43.7
Corpus Christi, Texas: 43.9
Tacoma, Washington: 43.5
Knoxville-Kodak, Tennessee: 42.9
Johnson City, Tennessee: 42.8
Pasco-Kennewick, Washington: 42.6
Batavia, New York: 42.0
Orem, Utah: 41.4
Greenville, South Carolina: 41.3
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2.10 Market Resources
International Demographics, 10333 Richmond Avenue, Suite 200, Houston, TX 77042.
(713) 626-0333. (www.themediaaudit.com)
Scarborough Sports Marketing, 770 Broadway, New York, NY 10003. (646) 654-8400.
(www.scarborough.com/sports.htm)
Sports Business Journal, 112 South Tryon Street, Suite 1600, Charlotte, NC 28284.
(704) 371-3100. (www.sportsbusinessjournal.com)
Sports Marketing 2011
36
PART I: SPORTS MARKET SEGMENTS
Sports Marketing 2011
37
3
ADVERTISING & SPONSORSHIPS
3.1 Market Assessment
Sports Industry Almanac 2011, by Plunkett Research (www.plumkettresearch.com),
estimates annual spending for sports advertising and marketing in the U.S. at $27.3 billion.
According to SportsBusiness Journal, based on Ad*Views data from The Nielsen
Company (www.nielsen.com), the following companies had the highest sports ad
spending in 2009 (change from 2008 and percentage of total ad spending dedicated to
sports are also given):
2009 Sports Ad Pct. of Total
Spending (change) Ad Spending
Anheuser Busch: $309.2 million (-6%) 76%
Verizon: $228.1 million (-2%) 20%
Sprint Nextel: $204.9 million (10%) 36%
Ford: $197.3 million (10%) 33%
AT&T Wireless: $180.9 million (-32%) 24%
Geico: $171.3 million (26%) 40%
Toyota: $166.8 million (-25%) 33%
DirecTV: $166.7 million (9%) 44%
Chevrolet Motor Division: $160.3 million (-30%) 36%
McDonalds: $155.4 million (-9%) 22%
Pfizer: $129.2 million (74%) 20%
Southwest Airlines: $126.5 million (-4%) 64%
State Farm: $117.1 million (4%) 44%
Miller Beer: $116.8 million (6%) 68%
Coors Lite: $115.2 million (7%) 80%
Taco Bell: $112.2 million (10%) 50%
Warner Bros.: $111.1 million (60%) 24%
Subway: $ 98.6 million (-4%) 26%
Apple: $ 97.1 million (5%) 25%
Microsoft: $ 94.9 million (160%) 26%
GMC Truck Div.: $ 89.8 million (20%) 47%
Dodge Car-Truck Div.: $ 86.9 million (-30%) 32%
Coca-Cola: $ 79.8 million (-34%) 50%
Lexus: $ 78.7 million (6%) 44%
Lilly Icos: $ 78.1 million (23%) 54%
Lowes: $ 77.9 million (8%) 34%
Sports Marketing 2011
38
Nissan North America: $ 77.8 million (-52%) 30%
Hyundai Motor America: $ 77.4 million (14%) 32%
Burger King: $ 75.8 million (15%) 31%
NFL: $ 68.1 million (57%) 89%
Home Depot: $ 67.8 million (-17%) 27%
Honda: $ 67.4 million (-20%) 16%
Visa: $ 63.9 million (-50%) 35%
Adaptive Marketing: $ 63.4 million (310%) 51%
Mercedes-Benz: $ 63.3 million (-11%) 38%
Boehringer Ingelheim: $ 62.7 million (-5%) 38%
IBM: $ 62.5 million (30%) 83%
Universal Pictures: $ 61.4 million (-20%) 20%
Nike: $ 58.1 million (-36%) 94%
Wendys: $ 57.6 million (1%) 23%
Walmart: $ 57.5 million (81%) 8%
NFL Properties: $ 56.6 million (-34%) 99%
Sony: $ 56.1 million (46%) 50%
Cadillac: $ 54.0 million (-36%) 34%
KFC: $ 54.0 million (10%) 22%
American Express Travel: $ 53.7 million (16%) 37%
Progressive: $ 53.1 million (44%) 15%
FedEx: $ 51.6 million (14%) 92%
T-Mobile: $ 51.6 million (-8%) 15%
Unilever: $ 50.0 million (88%) 15%
3.2 Athlete Endorsements
According to Sports Illustrated, the following professional athletes had the
highest estimated endorsement income in 2010:
Tiger Woods: $70 million
Phil Mickelson: $52 million
LeBron James: $30 million
Dale Earnhardt Jr.: $22 million
Dwight Howard: $12 million
Jeff Gordon: $15 million
Peyton Manning: $15 million
Shaquille ONeal: $15 million
Dwyane Wade: $12 million
Kobe Bryant: $10 million
Kevin Garnett: $10 million
Derek Jeter: $10 million
Jimmy Johnson: $10 million
Albert Pujols: $ 8 million
Brett Favre: $ 7 million
Sports Marketing 2011
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Eli Manning: $ 7 million
Amare Stoudemire: $ 7 million
Carmelo Anthony: $ 6 million
Vince Carter: $ 5 million
David Ortiz: $ 5 million
Alex Rodriguez: $ 4 million
_________________________________________________________________
You cant stop them you can only hope to
re-sign them. Extracurricular scandals, contract
holdouts and ugly labor negotiations seem to
have rocked professional sports more than at any
other point in recent memory. And yet financially,
athletes seem nearly bulletproof. In a year in
which Tiger Woods image has been forever
tarnished costing the perennial No. 1 tens of
millions in endorsement dollars he still stayed
ahead of the curve. Tigers earnings were down
more than $9 million from a year ago, but he still
earned nearly $30 million more than the No. 2
athlete, fellow golfer Phil Mickelson.
Sports Illustrated, 8/10
_________________________________________________________________
3.3 Advertising Agencies in Sports Marketing
The following are the advertising agencies most active in sports marketing
(source: Sports Business Journal):
180 Communications (www.180amsterdam.com)
Aguilar/Girard Agency (www.ccagency.com)
Almighty Advertising (www.almightyboston.com)
Anomaly (www.anomaly.com)
Arnold Worldwide (www.arnoldworldwide.com)
BBDO Worldwide (www.bbdo.com)
Bartle Bogle Hegarty (www.bartleboglehegarty.com)
Berlin Cameron United (www.bc-p.com)
Boathouse Group (www.boathouseinc.com)
Sports Marketing 2011
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Bromley Communications (www.bromleyville.com)
Burrell Communications Group (www.burrell.com)
Campbell-Ewald (www.campbell-ewald.com)
Carat (www.carat.com)
Cramer-Krasselt Co. (www.c-k.com)
Crispin Porter + Bogusky (www.cpbgroup.com)
Cutwater (www.cutwater.com)
DDB Worldwide (www.ddb.com)
Dailey & Associates (www.daileyads.com)
Deutsch (www.deutschinc.com)
DeVito/Verdi (www.devitoverdi.com)
Dieste Harmel & Partners (www.diesteharmel.com)
Doner (www.donerus.com)
DraftFCB Worldwide (www.draftfcb.com)
Element 79 (www.element79.com)
Euro RSCG Worldwide (www.eurorscg.com)
Fallon Worldwide (www.fallon.com)
GlobalHue (www.globalhue.com)
Goodby, Silverstein & Partners (www.goodbysilverstein.com)
Gotham (www.gothamad.com)
GSD&M Idea City (www.ideacity.com)
Hill Holliday (www.hillholliday.com)
JWT Worldwide (www.jwt.com)
Kastner & Partners (www.kastnerwork.com)
LatinWorks Marketing (www.latinworks.com)
Leo Burnett Co. (www.leoburnett.com)
Lpez Negrete Communications (www.lopeznegrete.net)
Lowe & Partners Worldwide (www.loweworldwide.com)
McCann Erickson Worldwide (www.mccannerickson.com)
mcgarrybowen (www.mcgarrybowen.com)
MMB (www.mmb580.com)
Modernista (www.modernista.com)
Mullen (www.mullen.com)
Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide (www.ogilvy.com)
Publicis USA (www.publicis-usa.com)
Publicis West (www.publiciswest.com)
Saatchi & Saatchi (www.saatchi.com)
T:M Advertising (www.tm.com)
Tank (www.tankdesign.com)
TBWA\Chiat\Day (www.tbwachiat.com)
Team One (www.teamoneadv.com)
The Bravo Group (www.thinkbravo.com)
The Martin Agency (www.martinagency.com)
The Richards Group (www.richards.com)
Sports Marketing 2011
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UniWorld (www.uniworldgroup.com)
Vigilante (www.vigilantenyc.com)
Wieden + Kennedy (www.wk.com)
Y&R (www.yr.com)
3.4 Sports Sponsorships
According to IEG Sponsorship Report (www.sponsorship.com), sports
sponsorship spending has been as follows:
2002: $ 6.5 billion
2003: $ 7.1 billion
2004: $ 7.7 billion
2005: $ 8.3 billion
2006: $ 8.9 billion
2007: $ 9.9 billion
2008: $11.6 billion
2009: $11.3 billion
_________________________________________________________________
Corporations have become gun-shy about
extravagant sponsorships. In addition to
hunkering-down in the recession, companies
fear the type of criticism heaped on financial
institutions over the past six months for their
multi-million-dollar sponsorships of stadiums,
golf tournaments and other events while being
propped up by government bailout funds.
The Wall Street Journal, 6/17/09
_________________________________________________________________
3.5 Sports Website Marketing
As online platforms are becoming an important part of the sports media mix,
advertising through this channel is increasing. According to eMarketer, spending for
online advertising at sports websites has been, and is projected, as follows:
2007: $ 548 million
2008: $ 727 million
2009: $ 859 million
Sports Marketing 2011
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2010: $ 985 million
2011: $1.11 billion
3.6 Naming Rights
Naming-rights deals for sports venues is a relatively modern concept, an idea
conceived to help facilities raise new capital for construction and operations. The
concept was developed with the naming of professional sports venues during the late
1980s. It has spread over the past decade to venues of all type such as minor league
sports venues, college sports venues, performing arts and concert venues, convention
centers, and other facilities. Deal makers include banks and financial institutions
which maintain about a third of naming-rights deals energy companies, insurers,
airlines, telecoms, auto companies, brewers, and software makers.
According to Sports Business Journal, $6.1 billion has been committed to
naming rights deals for new facilities of the NBA, NFL, NHL, MLB, and MLS. An
additional $500 million is committed for college and minor league venues. Many of the
deals have 20-year and 30-year terms.
Forbes estimated naming rights generated a combined $187 million for the 122
franchises of the NBA, NFL, NHL, and MLB in 2009.
_________________________________________________________________
Thats only 1% of their revenue, but its a
critical stream of financing for construction.
Forbes, 1/18/10
_________________________________________________________________
The following are the largest naming-rights deals among stadiums and arenas:
Barclays Center (Brooklyn): $400 million, 20 years
Citi Field (New York City): $400 million, 20 years
Reliant Stadium (Houston): $300 million, 30 years
FedEx Field (Landover, Maryland): $207 million, 27 years
Philips Arena (Atlanta): $185 million, 20 years
American Airlines Center (Dallas): $195 million, 30 years
Minute Maid Park (Houston): $178 million, 28 years
Invesco Field at Mile High (Denver): $120 million, 20 years
Staples Center (Los Angeles): $116 million, 20 years
Toyota Center (Houston): $ 95 million; 20 years
FedEx Forum (Memphis): $ 90 million; 22 years
Sports Marketing 2011
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3.7 Market Resources
Advertising Age, 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017. (212) 210-0100.
(www.adage.com)
IEG Sponsorship Report and IEG Sponsorship Sourcebook, published by IEG, 640
North LaSalle, Suite 450, Chicago, IL 60654. (800) 834-4850. (www.sponsorship.com)
SportsBusiness Journal, 112 South Tryon Street, Suite 1600, Charlotte, NC 28284.
(704) 371-3100. (www.sportsbusinessjournal.com)
Sports Marketing 2011
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4
CONCESSIONS
4.1 Market Assessment
Sports Business Journal estimates revenue from on-site game-day concessions,
merchandise, and parking at $10.7 billion.
For the 2009 season of the 122 major league facilities, 107 had contracts with
independent companies to operate their general concessions; 15 had in-house
operations, according to Sports Business Journal. For premium-seat catering, 108
facilities contracted with outside suppliers; 14 handled this service in-house.
Premium concessions are probably the most lucrative aspect of sports
foodservice. The NFLs suite/club seating market alone yields somewhere in the
neighborhood of $2 billion annually, according to the Association of Luxury Suite
Directors (www.alsd.com).
4.2 Concessionaires
According to Sports Business Journal, the sports concessions business is
distributed by vendor marketshare as follows:
Arenas General Premium
Aramark (www.aramark.com): 41.5% 28.6%
Levy Restaurants (www.levyrestaurants.com): 26.8% 42.9%
Delaware North Sportservice (www.delawarenorth.com): 14.6% 11.9%
Centerplate (www.centerplate.com): 9.8% 4.8%
Other: 7.3% 11.8%
Stadiums General Premium
Aramark: 28.3% 26.5%
Levy Restaurants: 25.4% 29.4%
Delaware North Sportservice: 19.4% 14.7%
Centerplate: 19.4% 17.6%
Other: 7.5% 11.7%
4.3 Menu Trends
Food courts at many professional sports stadiums and arenas have gone
upscale, and many fans look forward to a meal at a game, rather than avoid stadium
Sports Marketing 2011
45
fare as in years past. At the plaza level of American Airlines Arena in Miami, for
example, Bongos Cuban Caf, owned by Gloria and Emilio Estefan, offers a unique
blend of authentic Cuban cuisine. At Jacksonville Municipal Stadium, home of the
Jacksonville Jaguars, A1A Seafood offers the areas seafood specialties: crab legs,
conch fritters, and grouper sandwiches. At the new Yankee Stadium, which opened in
2009, customers can watch a butcher cut meat at Lobels of New York. And at the
Palace of Auburn Hills, home of the Detroit Pistons, the Palace Grille offers elegant
dining for up to 250 patrons and includes a lounge area for enjoying cocktails and
refreshments before or after events.
Despite the infusion of more upscale cuisine, hot dogs remain a favorite at ball
parks. The Hot Dog & Sausage Council (www.hot-dog.org) estimated that 21.2 million
hot dogs were consumed in major league stadiums during the 2009 season. The top
hot dog-eating stadiums are as follows:
Shea Stadium (New York Mets): 2.0 million
Fenway Park (Boston Red Sox): 1.7 million
Wrigley Field (Chicago Cubs): 1.5 million
Sports Marketing 2011
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5
FANTASY SPORTS
5.1 Market Assessment
The Fantasy Sports Trade Association (FSTA, www.fsta.org) estimates that
27 million American adults play fantasy sports. Estimates of spending are as high
as $5 billion annually up to $468 per player for publication subscriptions, league
entrance fees, mail-order draft kits, fantasy software, and other products. League
entrance fees are returned to winning players, however, so net spending is
considerably less than the $5 billion figure.
_________________________________________________________________
The fantasy sports industry, as many know,
has been growing at historic levels. The
audience size of about 15 million just four years
ago has since surged to more than 27 million,
fueling an unprecedented wave of corporate
acquisitions of fantasy companies and overall
industry consolidation.
SportsBusiness Journal, 3/1/10
_________________________________________________________________
5.2 Demographics
FSTA surveys provide the following profile of fantasy sports participants:
Males Females Total Avg.
Average age: 37 33 36
Average household size: 3 2 3
Education (B.S. degree or higher): 73% 54% 71%
Attended some college: 93% 81% 92%
Average household income: $91k $65k $77k
Sports leagues played in: 2.1 1.6 2.0
Average years played fantasy football: 10 6 9
Sports Marketing 2011
47
Average number of leagues per year: 6.6 2.2 6.0
Play free only (all fantasy sports): 16% 20% 17%
Started playing online: 40% 75% 55%
Weekly time managing their football teams: 3.24 2.56 3.0
Married: 69% 59% 65%
Female participation in fantasy sports has increased substantially over the past
decade. Title IX paved the way for more women to play sports, and their elevated
interest level is manifesting itself in the stands, in the front office, and in front of the
computer competing in the sports worlds alternate universe, where genders are not
assigned separate leagues. As recently as 2000, fantasy leagues were an almost
exclusively male domain, with women comprising less than 3% of all players, by most
estimates. Today, at roughly 15%, women represent a significant and growing
portion of the fantasy-sports population.
5.3 Market Characteristics and Trends
Fantasy games allow players to create teams using real statistics from actual
players, and online platforms allow individuals to partake in competition based on the
performance of the athletes. After analyzing players statistics, participants select a
fantasy team within a league, typically consists of between eight and 14 teams.
_________________________________________________________________
In a typical league, a dozen or so participants
chip in money $20 on the low end and $1,300
or more for highstakes contests. The team with
the best aggregate statistics wins at the end of
the regular season and takes the lions share of
prize money.
Forbes, 3/16/09
_________________________________________________________________
League winners can take home a grand prize of $100,000 in national competi-
tions such as the NBC Sports national fantasy baseball competition, a season-long-
contest of 26 leagues and 309 teams.
Most fantasy sport players play multiple sports, with football being the most
popular. According to the FSTA, the following are percentages of participants and total
spending for the five most popular sports:
Sports Marketing 2011
48
Participation Spending
Football: 93% 48%
Baseball: 70% 33%
Basketball: 35% 12%
Hockey: 24% 3%
NASCAR: 23% 3%
Major media companies, including CBS, ESPN, Fox, and Yahoo!, have become
active in the fantasy sports business operating leagues and providing services to
players. While most fantasy operators previously charged players a fee to play, more
leagues are now free. A company like CBS makes money by selling to players a range
of products, such as draft guides and expert analysis, and through advertising.
Fantasy sports is supported by about a dozen magazines, about 200 websites
(some fee-based), and countless amateur blogs.
Fantasy sports is considered a game of skill rather than gambling. As such, the
Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2008 specifically excluded any
prohibitions for fantasy sports.
A challenge to fantasy sports is the angst it causes employers. Players
constantly logging on to the Internet to check stats has been associated with lost
productivity in the workplace. According to a study by outplacement consultants
Challenger, Gray & Christmas (www.challengergray.com), employers lose a collective
$1.1 billion a week in productivity to fantasy sports. Many companies have restricted
access to all major fantasy websites.
5.4 Fantasy Football
A 2010 survey by Toluna (http://us.toluna.com), conducted for Turnkey Sports
(www.turnkeysports.com), found that 91% of fantasy sports participants play fantasy
football. Among these players, activities are as follows:
Number of fantasy football leagues participated in
One: 40%
Two: 35%
Three: 16%
Four or more: 9%
Websites used for fantasy football league(s)
ESPN.com: 55%
NFL.com: 46%
Yahoo.com: 42%
SportsLine.com: 19%
FantasySportsLive.com: 17%
Sports Marketing 2011
49
Entry fee paid for fantasy football league
Free: 38%
$1 to $25: 23%
$26 to $50: 14%
Frequency in checking player statistics
Daily: 38%
A few times per week: 32%
A few times per day: 18%
Once per week: 10%
Visit to websites of fantasy league sponsors
A few times per week: 29%
Daily: 20%
Never: 15%
Less than once per week: 13%
A few times per day: 12%
Once per week: 11%
Have become a more avid fan of NFL since started playing fantasy football
Agree somewhat: 39%
Agree completely: 32%
Neither agree nor disagree: 17%
Disagree somewhat: 10%
Disagree completely: 2%
Feel worse when fantasy team loses than when favorite NFL team loses
Agree somewhat: 28%
Neither agree nor disagree: 22%
Disagree somewhat: 18%
Agree completely: 17%
Disagree completely: 15%
Sports Marketing 2011
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6
GAME PROMOTIONS
6.1 Giveaways
Though most professional sports teams only occasionally have promotional
giveaways, the practice is wildly popular in Major League Baseball. The following
giveaways were offered by MLB clubs during the 2009 season (source: SportsBusiness
Journal):
No. of Games Attendance Change
Cap: 85 7.0%
Bobblehead: 75 12.7%
Shirt: 67 -11.6%
Backpack/bag: 48 4.6%
Magnetic schedule: 41 13.7%
Jersey: 34 3.8%
Poster: 33 - 7.3%
Figurine: 29 8.9%
Lunch box/school supplies: 25 - 2.0%
Calendar: 23 - 2.6%
Webkidz toy: 17 31.6%
Helmet/gloves: 14 - 8.5%
Baseball cards: 11 -33.5%
Blanket: 11 21.2%
Banner/pendant: 10 15.6%
_________________________________________________________________
Bobbleheads still draw at the gate, but Webkinz
were the hot new giveaway this summer at Major
League Baseball parks.
SportsBusiness Journal, 10/19/09
_________________________________________________________________
6.2 Entertainment and Events
The following events were provided by MLB clubs during the 2009 season
Sports Marketing 2011
51
(source: SportsBusiness Journal):
No. of Games Attendance Change
Fireworks: 195 8.6%
Concessions discount: 122 - 4.5%
Cultural celebration: 61 4.9%
Kids day: 60 - 7.4%
Run the bases: 53 7.3%
Autographs: 48 9.9%
Family day: 41 -11.7%
Concert: 36 8.9%
Fan appreciation day: 29 9.2%
Military day: 28 - 0.6%
Health awareness day: 26 - 6.2%
Little League day: 26 -13.9%
College night: 22 -20.5%
Team history tribute: 19 13.3%
Pet day: 15 -13.5%
6.3 All-You-Can-Eat Promotions
All-you-can-eat promotions at games, a concept first introduced in 2007 by the
Los Angeles Dodgers, make available to fans in special non-premium seating areas
food and non-alcoholic beverages. Typically selling for as low as $20 during the week,
the seats are priced at up to $50 at some stadiums with the upscale menu items.
Sixteen of the 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams had all-you-can-eat
sections during the 2010 season.
These promotions appear to be a fan favorite. The Dodgers 5,519-seat
all-you-can-eat sections have made up 10% of stadium capacity. The Pittsburgh
Pirates, which launched the concept in 2008, experienced a 75% growth in all-you-can-
eat seat sales in 2009.
_________________________________________________________________
Were getting high schoolers up through 35-to-
40-year olds, guys and girls. Its a night out,
better than going to a restaurant, and customers
know what theyll spend.
Lou DePaoli, Exec. Vice President
Pittsburgh Pirates
SportsBusiness Journal, 7/13/09
_________________________________________________________________
Sports Marketing 2011
52
Several teams have enhanced promotional revenue by selling naming rights to
their all-you-can-eat sections. Ampm, a convenience store chain, has naming rights
deals with five of the 16 MLB clubs that have such seating sections.
Sports Marketing 2011
53
7
LICENSING
7.1 Market Assessment
According to The Licensing Letter, retail sales of sports-licensed merchandise
have been as follows:
2001: $10.5 billion
2002: $11.3 billion
2003: $12.7 billion
2004: $12.6 billion
2005: $13.4 billion
2006: $13.9 billion
2007: $13.7 billion
2008: $15.1 billion
2009: $12.5 billion
Sports-licensed merchandise accounts for 13.5% of the total U.S. licensing
market.
Impacted by the economy, the sports-licensed merchandise market declined
17.2% in 2009. For comparison, the overall licensing market declined 11.5% and the
total retail market dropped 6.2% in 2009.
_________________________________________________________________
The falloff in sports merchandise sales is more
about the economy and decline in impulse
spending, and less correlated to an overall drop
in attendance, which was down for each of the
major sports leagues. Historically, sports
merchandise is a way to connect with fans who
cant go to the games unlike music
merchandise, which is frequently purchased at
a concert.
The Licensing Letter, 2/15/10
_________________________________________________________________
Sports Marketing 2011
54
The Licensing Letter provides the following assessment of the sports licensing
market:
Apparel, accessories (including caps), and footwear generate 51% of retail sales of
licensed goods for sports-based properties.
Video games and software account for 10% of retail sales of all sports-related
licensed merchandise, though for some leagues or sports organizations it can be as
high as 15%.
The NBA draws 25% of its worldwide licensing sales from outside North America,
the highest of any major American sports league or organization.
Major sports leagues and athletes earn more than $500 million annually in royalties
from sales of licensed sports merchandise.
7.2 Sports Licensed Properties
Retail sales of sports-licensed merchandise for various sports properties are as
follows:
NFL: $3.0 billion
MLB: $3.0 billion
Colleges: $2.0 billion
NBA: $1.8 billion
NASCAR: $1.1 billion
NHL: $ 730 million
MLS: $ 275 million
7.3 Market Resources
EPM Licensing Letter Sourcebook, The Licensing Business Handbook, and The
Licensing Letter, EPM Communications, 19 West 21 Street, New York, NY 10010.
st
(212) 941-0099. (www.epmcom.com)
License! Global, 641 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022. (212) 951-6600.
(www.licensemag.com)
Licensing Industry Merchandisers Association, 350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1408, New
York, NY 10118. (212) 244-1944. (www.licensing.org)
Sports Marketing 2011
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8
MEMORABILIA
8.1 Market Assessment
The annual U.S. market for sports memorabilia is approximately $4 billion. This
figure includes the autographed sports collectible market, which is estimated by
SportsMemorabilia.com at $1 billion.
According to Sports Market Report, 92% of sports memorabilia collectors are
male and an average age of 37 years old. Their average income is $91,775 and 68%
are college educated.
According to Beckett Media (www.beckett.com), 34% of collectors buy in shops,
33% from online auctions, and 24% from online fixed-price dealers. The average
monthly expenditure of online buyers is $149.
8.2 Sports Memorabilia Auctions
With all collectibles, high-end pieces are in greatest demand and have the
highest increases in value. The bulk of high-end sports memorabilia are sold through
auction houses, which typically collect a 15% consignment fee from the seller and a
20% premium from the buyer.
The following are the major auction houses specializing in sports memorabilia:
American Memorabilia Inc., 7260 West Azure Drive, Suite 140-103, Las Vegas, NV
89130. (www.americanmemorabilia.com)

Bill Goodwin & Co., 9706 Mill Hill Lane, St. Louis, MO 63127. (314) 849-9798.
(www.goodwinandco.com)

Grey Flannel Auctions, 13 Buttercup Lane, Westhampton, NY 11977.
(631) 288-7800. (www.greyflannelacutions.com)

Guernseys Auction, 108 East 73 Street, New York, NY 10021. (212) 794-2280.
rd
(www.guernseys.com)

Heritage Auction Galleries, 3500 Maple Avenue, Dallas, TX 75219. (800) 872-6467.
(www.ha.com)

Huggins & Scott, 900 Silver Spring Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910.
(866) 462-2273. (www.hugginsandscott.com)

Sports Marketing 2011
56
Legendary Auctions, 17542 Chicago Avenue, Lansing, MI 60438. (708) 889-9380.
(www.legendaryauctions.com)

Lelands, 130 Knickerbocker Avenue, Suite H, Bohemia, NY 11716. (516) 409-9700.
(www.lelands.com)

Memory Lane, 12831 Newport Avenue, Suite 180, Tustin, CA 92780.
(714) 730-0600. (www.memorylaneinc.com)

Robert Edward Auctions, P.O. Box 7256, Watchung, NJ 07069. (908) 226-9920.
(www.robertedwardauctions.com)

SCP Auctions, 32451 Golden Lantern, Suite 308, Laguna Niguel, CA 92677.
(800) 350-2273. (www.scpauctions.com)

Sothebys, Collectibles & Memorabilia Department, 1334 York Avenue, New York,
NY 10021. (212) 606-7000. (www.sothebys.com)
Also, eBay is a popular medium for sports memorabilia trading.
8.3 Sports Cards
The sports trading card industry peaked with sales of $1.1 billion in 1991; sales
in 2009 were about $300 million. The number of card stores nationwide is down to less
than 1,000, from about 4,500 at peak.
The popularity of baseball card collecting has faltered, in part, because
manufacturers began focusing the market toward investors, charging up to $150 for
packs that included extras such as autographs and small pieces of jerseys. Topps is
redirecting the market back to kids, with basic cards that are inexpensive.
Only Topps Company (www.topps.com) and Upper Deck (www.upperdeck.com)
remain significant trading card producers; there once were about 80 producers.
Michael Eisner, former CEO of Walt Disney Co., acquired Topps in 2007. In
2009, Topps signed a deal to become the exclusive trading-card maker of Major
League Baseball.
8.4 Market Resources
Beckett Media, 4635 McEwen Road, Dallas, TX 75244. (972) 991-6657.
(www.beckett.com)
Sports Collectors Digest and Sports Collectors Monthly, P.O. Box 420235, Palm
Coast, FL 32142. (386) 246-3439. (www.sportscollectorsdigest.com)
Sports Marketing 2011
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9
PARTICIPATION & RECREATION
9.1 Sports, Exercise, and Recreational Activities
According to The American Time Use Survey, published by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (www.bls.gov) of the U.S. Department of Labor, Americans on average spend
18 minutes per day participating in sports, exercise, or recreation. Among those who
participate in these activities at all, the average is 1.7 hours daily, representing about
one-third of leisure activity time.
The survey suggests that Americans tend to do less physical activity as they get
older. On average, teens are active 40 minutes a day; people age 35 and above spend
15 minutes or less being active.
9.2 Individual Sports
According to the 2009 Sports & Fitness Participation Topline Report, published
by the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (SGMA, www.sgma.com), total
participation (at least once) among those ages six and older and core participation (13
or more times) in individual sports was as follows (change from previous year in
parenthesis):
Total Core
Archery: 6.4 million (7%) 1.1 million (0%)
Boxing: 2.4 million (4%) 1.2 million (5%)
Climbing (sport/indoor/boulder): 4.8 million (6%) n/a
Climbing (mountaineering/ice): 2.3 million (11%) n/a
Horseback riding: 10.8 million (-11%) 3.4 million (-9%)
Ice skating: 11.0 million (-4%) 1.4 million (-27%)
Martial arts: 6.8 million (-1%) 5.3 million (-4%)
Roller skating (2x2 wheels): 7.9 million (-12%) 1.6 million (-18%)
Roller skating (inline wheels) 9.6 million (-11%) 3.7 million (-22%)
Skateboarding: 7.8 million (-7%) 3.7 million (-3%)
9.3 Racquet Sports
Total participation (at least once) and core participation (13 or more times) in
racquet sports was as follows (change from previous year in parenthesis):
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Total Core
Badminton: 7.2 million (3%) 2.2 million (-5%)
Racquetball: 5.0 million (18%) 2.1 million (7%)
Squash: 706,000 (16%) 250,000 (-13%)
Table tennis: 17.2 million (8%) 5.0 million (-2%)
Tennis: 18.6 million (10%) n/a
9.4 Team Sports
Total participation (at least once) and core participation (defined by a different
number of times for various sports) in team sports was as follows (change from
previous year in parenthesis):
Total Core # Core Participation
Baseball: 15.0 million (-6%) 13 10.1 million (-12%)
Basketball: 26.3 million (1%) 13 17.7 million (-2%)
Cheerleading: 3.1 million (-5%) 26 1.7 million (-18%)
Field hockey: 1.1 million (-1%) 8 548,000 (-5%)
Football (flag): 7.3 million (n/a) 13 3.3 million (n/a)
Football (touch): 10.5 million (n/a) 13 4.3 million (n/a)
Football (tackle): 7.7 million (-3%) 26 4.2 million (0%)
Gymnastics: 3.9 million (-4%) 50 1.5 million (-17%)
Ice hockey: 1.9 million (3%) 13 1.0 million (-21%)
Lacrosse: 1.1 million (6%) 13 565,000 (-20%)
Paintball: 4.9 million (-11%) 8 1.9 million (-15%)
Roller hockey: 1.6 million (-15%) 13 550,000 (-32%)
Rugby: 690,000 (12%) 8 289,000 (-8%)
Soccer (indoor): 4.7 million (12%) 13 2.6 million (11%)
Soccer (outdoor): 14.2 million (4%) 26 6.4 million (2%)
Softball (fast pitch): 2.3 million (-1%) 26 1.2 million (-8%)
Softball (slow pitch): 9.8 million (4%) 13 5.9 million (-3%)
Track and field: 4.5 million (-4%) 26 2.3 million (-15%)
Ultimate frisbee: 4.9 million (21%) 13 1.4 million (3%)
Volleyball (beach): 4.2 million (8%) 13 1.1 million (-19%)
Volleyball (court): 8.2 million (17%) 13 4.7 million (16%)
Volleyball (grass): 5.1 million (3%) 13 1.2 million (-25%)
Wrestling: 3.4 million (2%) 26 1.5 million (2%)
9.5 Water Sports
Total participation (at least once) and core participation (8 or more times) in
water sports was as follows (change from previous year in parenthesis):
Total Core
Boardsailing/windsurfing: 1.3 million (17%) 339,000 (5%)
Canoeing: 9.9 million (1%) n/a
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Jet skiing: 7.8 million (-3%) 2.7 million (-2%)
Kayaking (recreational): 5.0 million (7%) n/a
Kayaking (sea touring): 1.5 million (-1%) n/a
Kayaking (white water): 1.0 million (-8%) n/a
Rafting: 4.7 million (7%) n/a
Sailing: 4.2 million (12%) 1.6 million (12%)
Scuba diving: 3.2 million (8%) 1.0 million (2%)
Snorkeling: 10.3 million (11%) 2.3 million (21%)
Surfing: 2.6 million (18%) 1.0 million (10%)
Wakeboarding: 3.5 million (1%) 1.1 million (1%)
Water skiing: 5.6 million (-6%) 1.8 million (-14%)
9.6 Winter Sports
Total participation (at least once) in winter sports was as follows (change from
previous year in parenthesis):
Skiing (alpine/downhill): 10.3 million (0%)
Skiing (cross country): 3.8 million (9%)
Skiing (freestyle): 2.7 million (-4%)
Snowboarding: 7.2 million (5%)
Snowmobiling: 4.7 million (-3%)
Snowshoeing: 2.9 million (22%)
Telemarkting (downhill): 1.4 million (22%)
Sports Marketing 2011
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10
SPORTING GOODS
10.1 Market Assessment
According to the Census Bureau (www.census.gov) of the U.S. Department of
Commerce, total sales at sporting goods stores have been as follows:
2005: $30.88 billion
2006: $34.14 billion
2007: $36.28 billion
2008: $37.10 billion
2009: $37.40 billion
These figures do not include sporting goods sales at general merchandise
stores.
_________________________________________________________________
Downturn trends have been much softer in the
athletic footwear and apparel markets than for
the larger economy.
The NPD Group
_________________________________________________________________
The National Sporting Goods Association (NSGA, www.nsga.org) estimates
consumer purchases of sporting goods as follows:
2007 2008 2009
Equipment: $25.1 billion $24.9 billion $24.6 billion
Athletic footwear: $17.5 billion $17.2 billion $17.2 billion
Sports apparel: $10.8 billion $10.6 billion $10.5 billion
Total: $53.4 billion $52.7 billion $52.3 billion
NSGA estimated consumer equipment purchases by sport for 2009 as follows:
Exercise: $5.10 billion
Hunting (firearms): $4.94 billion
Golf: $3.44 billion
Team goods sales: $2.54 billion
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Fishing tackle: $2.04 billion
Camping: $1.43 billion
Optics: $1.03 billion
Snow skiing: $ 479 million
Billiards & indoor games: $ 395 million
Baseball & softball: $ 387 million
Wheel sports: $ 387 million
Archery: $ 383 million
Tennis: $ 368 million
Skin diving & scuba: $ 363 million
Snowboarding: $ 306 million
Basketball: $ 257 million
Helmets & sport protective: $ 177 million
Bowling: $ 164 million
Hockey & ice skates: $ 148 million
Football: $ 98 million
Soccer (balls): $ 70 million
Water skis: $ 46 million
Lacrosse: $ 32 million
Volleyball & badminton: $ 32 million
Sports equipment sales are distributed by retail channel as follows (source:
NSGA):
Sporting goods stores: 30%
Discount stores/warehouse clubs: 15%
Specialty sport shops: 14%
Department stores: 9%
Online: 8%
Pro shops: 6%
Specialty fitness shops: 4%
Other: 14%
Athletic footwear sales are distributed by retail channel as follows (source:
NSGA):
Department stores: 18%
Sporting goods stores: 16%
Family footwear stores: 15%
Specialty athletic footwear stores: 13%
Discount stores/warehouse clubs: 11%
Online: 8%
Factory outlet stores: 7%
Specialty sport shops: 5%
Other: 7%
Sports Marketing 2011
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According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com),
by far, the biggest challenge facing the sporting goods industry is the decline in sports
participation. With the exception of fitness activities, Americans are far less involved in
sports and outdoors activities than they were 15 years ago. Sports such as softball,
volleyball, baseball, badminton, and tennis have lost millions of casual participants.
Fitness has seen an increase in the number of frequent participants in recent years, but
still has fewer frequent participants as a percentage of the total population than it had in
1990. Organized team sports in schools and leagues have grown in recent years,
largely because of a strong infusion of female players. But many organized team
sports tend to emphasize elite players and competition, freezing out millions who might
like to play for fun.
10.2 Marketshare Leaders
The largest sporting goods chains, ranked by annual revenue, are as follows:
Dicks Sporting Goods (www.dickssportinggoods.com): $4.41 billion
Bass Pro Shops (www.basspro.com): $3.40 billion
The Sports Authority (www.thesportsauthority.com): $3.03 billion
Cabelas, Inc. (www.cabelas.com): $2.35 billion
Academy Sports & Outdoors (www.academy.com): $2.26 billion
Gander Mountain (www.gandermountain.com): $1.06 billion
Big 5 Sporting Goods (www.big5sportinggoods.com): $ 864 million
Hibbett Sports (www.hibbett.com): $ 564 million
Sport Chalet (www.sportchalet.com): $ 372 million
10.3 Market Resources
National Sporting Goods Association, 1601 Feehanville Drive, Suite 300, Mt. Prospect,
IL 60056. (847) 296-6742. (www.nsga.org)
Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, 1150 17 Street NW, Suite 407,
th
Washington, DC 20036. (202) 775-1762. (www.sgma.com)
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11
SPORTS FANS
11.1 Favorite Sports
According to a December 2009 Harris Poll (www.harrisinteractive.com), favorite
sports among adults (age 18 and older) are as follows (results of a 2004 survey by
Harris Interactive are also presented for comparison):
2004 2009
Professional football: 30% 35%
Baseball: 15% 16%
College football: 11% 12%
Auto racing: 7% 9%
Mens professional basketball: 7% 5%
Hockey: 4% 4%
Mens golf: 4% 4%
Mens college basketball: 6% 3%
Mens soccer: 3% 2%
Horse racing: 1% 2%
Bowling: 1% 1%
Boxing: 2% 1%
Mens tennis: 1% 1%
Swimming: <1% 1%
Track and field: 1% 1%
Womens tennis: 2% 1%
11.2 Avid Fans
In the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll (www.sportspoll.com), the following percentages
of sports fans said they are avid followers of the following sports leagues:
National Football League: 32%
NCAA Football: 24%
Major League Baseball: 20%
NCAA Basketball: 16%
National Basketball Association: 15%
NASCAR: 12%
National Hockey League: 8%
Major League Soccer: 6%
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11.3 Fan Base By Gender
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, fan distribution by gender is as follows:
Major League Baseball
Men: 63%
Women: 37%
National Basketball Association
Men: 65%
Women: 35%
National Football League
Men: 66%
Women: 34%
National Hockey League
Men: 60%
Women: 40%
College Basketball
Men: 63%
Women: 37%
College Football
Men: 67%
Women: 33%
NASCAR
Men: 63%
Women: 37%
WNBA
Men: 40%
Women: 60%
LPGA
Men: 53%
Women: 47%
WTA Tour
Men: 38%
Women: 62%
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11.4 Fan Base By Age
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, fan distribution by age is as follows:
Major League Baseball
12-to-17: 11%
18-to-24: 9%
25-to-34: 15%
35-to-44: 14%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 29%
National Basketball Association
12-to-17: 16%
18-to-24: 15%
25-to-34: 18%
35-to-44: 13%
45-to-54: 18%
55 and older: 21%
National Football League
12-to-17: 12%
18-to-24: 11%
25-to-34: 19%
35-to-44: 15%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 22%
National Hockey League
12-to-17: 13%
18-to-24: 11%
25-to-34: 18%
35-to-44: 21%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 17%
College Basketball
12-to-17: 15%
18-to-24: 8%
25-to-34: 15%
35-to-44: 15%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 28%
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College Football
12-to-17: 13%
18-to-24: 10%
25-to-34: 17%
35-to-44: 15%
45-to-54: 19%
55 and older: 25%
NASCAR
12-to-17: 9%
18-to-24: 9%
25-to-34: 18%
35-to-44: 18%
45-to-54: 22%
55 and older: 23%
WNBA
12-to-17: 23%
18-to-24: 25%
25-to-34: 10%
35-to-44: 12%
45-to-54: 17%
55 and older: 24%
LPGA
12-to-17: 6%
18-to-24: 7%
25-to-34: 6%
35-to-44: 13%
45-to-54: 21%
55 and older: 47%
WTA Tour
12-to-17: 9%
18-to-24: 8%
25-to-34: 10%
35-to-44: 14%
45-to-54: 23%
55 and older: 36%
11.5 Fan Base By Ethnicity
According to the 2010 ESPN Sports Poll, fan distribution by ethnicity is as
Sports Marketing 2011
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follows:
Major League Baseball
Caucasian: 74%
Hispanic-American: 12%
African-American: 5%
Other: 9%
National Basketball Association
Caucasian: 65%
African-American: 15%
Hispanic-American: 14%
Other: 6%
National Football League
Caucasian: 73%
African-American: 11%
Hispanic-American: 11%
Other: 5%
Major League Soccer
Caucasian: 61%
Hispanic-American: 23%
African-American: 9%
Other: 7%
College Basketball
Caucasian: 73%
African-American: 13%
Hispanic-American: 9%
Other: 5%
College Football
Caucasian: 75%
African-American: 11%
Hispanic-American: 9%
Other: 5%
NASCAR
Caucasian: 77%
African-American: 9%
Hispanic-American: 9%
Other: 5%
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11.6 Fan Base By Income
According to Scarborough Sports Marketing (www.wcarborough.com), the
annual income distribution of fans of professional sports is as follows:
>$50,000 $50,000 to $100,000 <$100,000
MLB: 44% 34% 22%
MLS: 51% 31% 18%
NASCAR: 49% 35% 16%
NBA: 48% 32% 20%
NFL: 41% 36% 23%
NHL: 34% 38% 28%
PGA Tour: 41% 36% 23%
11.7 Female Fans
Surveys have found that roughly 50 million women avidly follow sports.
According to Scarborough Sports Marketing and Sports Business Journal, the
percentages of women (ages 18 and older) who are fans or avid fans of various sports
are as follows:
Fan Avid Fan
Olympics: 60% 24%
NFL: 49% 15%
MLB: 43% 10%
College football: 32% 9%
NBA: 31% 6%
College basketball: 26% 7%
NASCAR: 24% 8%
Horse racing: 22% 3%
PGA Tour: 21% 4%
Pro rodeo: 17% 3%
NHL: 16% 2%
Pro bull riding: 16% 3%
Minor league baseball: 16% 2%
WNBA: 15% 2%
IndyCar Series racing: 14% 2%
LPGA Tour: 13% 2%
Monster trucks: 11% 2%
MLS: 11% 2%
PBA bowling: 10% 1%
A recent survey by BIGresearch (www.bigresearch.com) found that women are
more likely to regularly or occasionally watch televised sports than soap operas. Sixty
percent (60%) of women responding said they watched sports regularly or occasionally
on television compared with 42% who were regular or occasional soap opera viewers.
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11.8 Youth Fans
The following percentages of children ages 7-to-11 responded in a recent ESPN
Sports Poll saying they were fans of the following sports:
NBA: 77%
NFL: 69%
MLB: 69%
College basketball: 68%
Action sports: 68%
MLS: 62%
College sports: 60%
NASCAR: 57%
NHL: 50%
11.9 African-American Fans
According to Scarborough Sports Marketing and Sports Business Journal, the
percentages of African-American men (ages 18 and older) who are avid fans of various
sports are as follows:
NFL: 42%
College football: 28%
NBA: 28%
Olympics: 22%
College basketball: 21%
MLB: 18%
World Wrestling Entertainment: 12%
NASCAR: 10%
PGA Tour: 9%
WNBA: 6%
MLS: 5%
NHRA drag racing: 4%
Pro bull riding: 4%
Minor league baseball: 4%
11.10 Hispanic-American Fans
According to ESPN Deportes and Sports Business Journal, the percentages of
Hispanic-Americans that are fans of various sports compared with all U.S. consumers
are as follows:
Hispanic- All
Americans Consumers
Boxing: 62% 33%
World Cup Soccer: 61% n/a
MLB: 59% 58%
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NBA: 56% 50%
Mexican Soccer League: 56% n/a
NFL: 50% 69%
Action sports: 48% 45%
NASCAR: 40% 43%
NHL: 24% 28%
PGA Tour: 22% 36%
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12
SPORTS MANAGEMENT
12.1 Overview
Sports management typically includes the following:
Advertising representation for sports properties
Athlete representation
Content distribution for multimedia platforms
Event management
Managing corporate hospitality at sporting events on behalf of clients
Negotiating sponsorships
Negotiating stadium and arena naming rights deals
Presence marketing
Strategic consulting for sports properties
Many of the firms in the field also work in related fields, such as entertainment
marketing and talent representation.
12.2 Sports Management Agencies
The sports management consulting field dates to 1960, when Arnold Palmer
contracted with Mark McCormick and his firm, IMG (www.img.com), for professional
representation. Sports management has since blossomed into a multi-billion market
segment.
_________________________________________________________________
If you believe that sports marketing is a
diverse, engaging, energetic way to reach
customers, you have IMG to thank.
Brandweek
_________________________________________________________________
Sports Marketing 2011
72
The following are the largest sports management companies:
BDA Sports Management, 700 Ygnacio Valley Road, Suite 330, Walnut Creek, CA
94596. (925) 279-1040. (www.bdasports.com)

CAA Sports, division of Creative Artists Agency, 2000 Avenue of the Stars, Los
Angeles, CA 90067. (424) 288-2000. (http://sports.caa.com)

Excel Sports Management, 1156 Avenue of the Americas, Suite 400, New York,
NY 10036. (646) 454-5900 (www.excelsm.com)

Fenway Sports Group, 82 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215. (617) 226-6300.
(www.fenwaysportsgroup.com)

Front Row Marketing Services, 3601 South Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19148.
(215) 389-9516. (www.frontrow-marketing.com)

Genesco Sports Enterprises, 1845 Woodall Rodgers Freeway, Suite 1250, Dallas,
TX 75201. (214) 826-6565. (www.genescosports.com)

GMR Marketing, 5000 South Towne Drive, New Berlin, WI 53151. (262) 786-5600.
(www.gmrmarketing.com)

IMG, 1360 East 9 Street, Cleveland, OH 44114. (216) 522-1200.
th
(www.imgworld.com)

Learfield Sports, 2400 Dallas Parkway, Suite 500, Plano TX 75093.
(469) 241-9191. (www.learfieldsports.com)

LVRG Marketing & Media, 1184 Springmaid Avenue, Suite 201, Fort Mill, SC
29708. (803) 802-8765. (www.lvrgmarketing.com)

Millsport, division of The Marketing Arm, 1999 Bryan Street, Suite 1800
Dallas, TX 75201. (214) 259-3200. (www.millsport.com)

Momentum Worldwide, 250 Hudson Street, 2 Floor, New York, NY 10013.
nd
(646) 638-5400. (www.momentumww.com)

Octagon, 800 Connecticut Avenue, 2 Floor, Norwalk, CT 06854. (203) 354-7400.
nd
(www.octagon.com)

Paragon Marketing Group, 7449 North Natchez Avenue, Suite 100, Niles, IL 60714.
(847) 676-6550. (www.paragonmarketing.biz)

Relay Sponsorship & Event Marketing, 222 Merchandise Mart Plaza,
Suite 4-160-B, Chicago, IL 60654. (312) 297-1212. (www.relayworldwide.com)

Scott Boras Corp., 3 San Joaquin Plaza, Suite 100, Newport Beach, CA 92660.
(949) 760-0188. (www.scottborascorporation.com)

Velocity Sports & Entertainment, 230 East Avenue, Norwalk, CT 06855.
(203) 831-2000. (www.teamvelocity.com)

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Wasserman Media Group, 12100 West Olympic Boulevard, Suite 400,
Los Angeles, CA 90064. (310) 407-0200. (www.wmgllc.com)
12.3 Academic Programs
As the field of sports management has grown, so too has the demand for those
trained in the field. According to Sports Business Journal, 334 U.S. universities and
colleges offered programs in sports business for the 2009-2010 academic year.
_________________________________________________________________
More business schools, including some major-
league MBA players, are getting into the sports
game. They are creating specialized courses
and degree programs to teach students how to
make winning moves as managers and
marketers in the sports world. The schools
hope to give graduates a shot at the growing
career opportunities for professionally trained
managers in the major athletic leagues,
equipment and apparel companies, the media,
and other sports-related businesses.
The Wall Street Journal
_________________________________________________________________
The following are some universities and colleges offering sports management
curricula (source: Sports Business Journal):
American Military University (www.amuonline.com/sports-management)
Arizona State University, W.P. Carey School of Business
(http://wpcarey.asu.edu/marcomm/sbj.cfm)
Arkansas State University (www.clt.astate.edu/hpess/)
Belmont Abbey College
(www.belmontabbeycollege.edu/academics/programs/majors/sportsManagement/s
portsManagement.aspx)
California Baptist University (www.calbaptist.edu/kinesiology)
California State University - Bakersfield
(http://bpa.csub.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=page&page_id=8)
California State University - Long Beach
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(www.csulb.edu/colleges/chhs/departments/kin)
California University of Pennsylvania (www.cup.edu/education/hsss)
Columbia University (www.ce.columbia.edu/sports)
DePaul University (www.management.depaul.edu)
Drexel University (www.drexel.edu/goodwin/grad/smt)
Duquesne University (www.leadership.duq.edu/sports)
Eastern Connecticut State University
(www.easternct.edu/depts/pe/program_requirements_slm.htm)
Elon University (www.elon.edu/e-web/academics/education/lsm/)
Flagler College
(www.flagler.edu/page2.aspx?id=353&terms=&searchtype=0&fragment=False)
Florida Atlantic University (www.fau.edu)
Florida State University (www.fsu.edu/~smrmpe/)
Georgia State University (http://education.gsu.edu/kin/1205.html)
Illinois State University (www.kinrec.ilstu.edu/graduate/sport_management.shtml)
Indiana State University (www.indstate.edu/rcsm)
Indiana University (www.indiana.edu/~kines/graduate/ms_marketing.shtml)
Indiana Wesleyan (http://cas.indwes.edu/Academic-Divisions/HKRSS/sports-
management/)
Ithaca College (www.ithaca.edu/academics/programs/sm/)
Johnson & Wales University (www.jwu.edu/content.aspx?id=10458)
Loras College (http://loras.edu/academics/program/sportsmgt.asp)
Loyola University (www.luc.edu/sba/sport_management.shtml)
Lynn University (www.lynn.edu/hospitality)
Manhattanville College (www.mville.edu/AcademicsandResearch/GraduateStudies/
Business/SportBusinessManagement/Default.aspx)
Marquette University (www.law.marquette.edu/jw/sports)
Minnesota State University
(http://ahn.mnsu.edu/hp/undergraduate/sportmanagement.html)
Missouri Baptist College
(www.mobap.edu/academics/divisions/hss/sport_management.asp)
Mount Union College
(www.muc.edu/academics/academic_programs/sport_management)
New York University (www.scps.nyu.edu/tischcenter)
Nichols College
(www.nichols.edu/highschool/academicprogram/businessmajor/smgt.html)
Northcentral University (www.ncu.edu/smww)
Northern Kentucky University (www.nku.edu/~mgtmkt/sportsbusiness.html)
Northwestern University (www.scs.northwestern.edu/grad/sports)
Ohio State University (http://ehe.osu.edu/paes/sem)
Ohio University (www.ohio.edu/sportsad)
Otterbein College (www.otterbein.edu/dept/hpe/sport_management.htm)
Sacred Heart University (www.sacredheart.edu/pages/2591_major.cfm)
Saint Leo University
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(www.saintleo.edu/SaintLeo/Templates/Inner.aspx?durki=564&pid=564)
Salem State College (www.salemstate.edu/sfl/sportmanagement.htm)
San Diego State University (www.rohan.sdsu.edu/~cba/sports/)
San Jose State University (www.sjsu.edu/kinesiology/sm/sm.htm)
Seton Hall University (www.business.shu.edu/sports)
Sienna Heights University (www.sienahts.edu/~bam/sportmanagement)
Slippery Rock University (www.sru.edu/pages/9107.asp)
Smith College (www.smith.edu)
St. John Fisher College (http://home.sjfc.edu/sportstudies/program.asp)
State University of New York at Cortland (www.cortland.edu/spmg/home.htm)
Stetson University (www.stetson.edu/academics/programs/174.php)
Syracuse University (http://hshp.syr.edu/schools/sport)
Temple University (www.temple.edu/sthm)
United States Sports Academy (www.ussa.edu)
University of Alabama (www.sportsmanagemewww.tc3.edunt.ua.edu)
University of Arkansas (www.uark.edu/depts/gradhkrd/M_Rec_SportMngt.html)
University of Central Florida (www.bus.ucf.edu/sport/cgi-bin/site/sitew.cgi)
University of Connecticut
(www.education.uconn.edu/departments/ekin/smsc/smsc.cfm)
University of Delaware (www.udel.edu/hnes)
University of Denver (http://daniels.du.edu/SMC/index.cfm)
University of Detroit Mercy (www.udmercy.edu/)
University of Florida (www.hhp.ufl.edu/trsm/)
University of Georgia
(www.coe.uga.edu/kinesiology/pe-sport/graduate/medpess.html)
University of Kentucky Sports Marketing Academy (www.sportsmarketing.org)
University of Louisville (www.louisville.edu/education/departments/hss/spad)
University of Massachusetts - Amherst (www.isenberg.umass.edu/sportmgt/)
University of Miami (www.miami.edu/sportadmin)
University of Nevada at Las Vegas (http://education.unlv.edu/sel/)
University of New Hampshire (www.unh.edu/sport-studies)
University of New Haven (www.newhaven.edu/sportsman/)
University of New Mexico (www.unm.edu/~sportad)
University of North Carolina - Charlotte (www.sportsmba.uncc.edu)
University of North Florida
(www.unf.edu/coehs/degrees/sportmanag/sportmanagement.htm)
University of Northern Colorado (www.unco.edu/nhs/ses/)
University of Pennsylvania, Wharton Sports Business Initiative
(http://wsb.wharton.upenn.edu/)
University of Oregon (www.warsawcenter.com)
University of San Francisco (www.usfca.edu/sm)
University of South Carolina (www.hrsm.sc.edu)
University of Southern Mississippi
(www.usm.edu/hpr/html/sport_management_admission_course_requirements.htm)
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University of Tampa (http://static.ut.edu/public_info/sports_management.cfm)
University of Tennessee (http://web.utk.edu/~sals/up/sport.html)
University of the Pacific (http://web.pacific.edu/x12442.xml)
Virginia Commonwealth University (www.vcu.edu/sportscenter)
Wayne State College (www.wsc.edu/schools/nss/academic_programs/hhps/sm/)
West Virginia University (www.wva.edu/~physed/sportman/welcomepage.html)
Wichita State University (www.wichita.edu/sportadmin)
Wilmington University (www.wilmcoll.edu/business/sportsmgt.html)
Xavier University (www.xavier.edu/sport_administration/index.cfm)
12.4 Market Resources
Journal of Sport Management, P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825. (800) 747-4457.
(http://journals.humankinetics.com/JSM)
North American Society for Sport Management, 135 Winterwood Drive, Butler, PA
16001. (724) 482-6277. (www.nassm.com)
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13
SPORTS TRAVEL
13.1 Market Assessment
According to Sports Business Journal, the annual U.S. market for sports-related
travel is $44.5 billion, distributed as follows:
Spectators: $40.8 billion
Colleges: $ 1.1 billion
Major professional teams: $ 200 million
Other: $ 2.3 billion
According to the U.S. Travel Association (USTA, www.ustravel.org), in the past
five years, 38% of American adults, or 75.3 million, attended an organized sports event,
competition, or tournament either as a spectator or participant while traveling 50 miles
from home. Of these, 52.7 million adults, or 70%, took their most recent sports trip in
the past year. The following are the most popular organized sports events to watch or
participate in while traveling:
Baseball or softball: 33.7 million (17%)
Football: 30.3 million (15%)
Basketball: 18.8 million (9%)
Auto racing: 15.0 million (7%)
Golf: 11.1 million (6%)
13.2 Sports-specialist Travel Agencies
The popularity of sports travel has spawned a niche of specialist travel agencies
offering packages to major sports events. The following are select travel agencies that
specialize in sports travel and tours:
Creative Sports/Travel (www.creativetravelgroup.com)
Destination Management (www.bigeasy.com)
East Town Travel (www.easttowntravel.com)
Esoteric Sports Tours (www.goin2travel.com)
Palms Travel Express (www.palmstravel.com)
Roadtrips (www.roadtrips.com)
Sports Travel and Tours (www.sportstravelandtours.com)
Sports World Tours (www.sportsworldtours.com)
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13.3 Sports Museums and Halls of Fame
There are approximately 60 national sports museums and halls of fame, in
addition to dozens of team, local, and state sports museums.
The following are recent attendance estimates for the largest among them:
National Baseball Hall of Fame (Cooperstown, New York): 350,000
Hockey Hall of Fame (Toronto, Ontario, Canada): 300,000
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame (Springfield, MA): 200,000
World Golf Hall of Fame (St. Augustine, Florida): 210,000
Pro Football Hall of Fame (Canton, Ohio): 200,000
According to Sports Business Journal, the National Basketball Hall of Fame
earns $13 million in annual revenue; the Pro Football Hall of Fame earns $8 million in
revenue.
The following are other large sports museums:
Babe Ruth Birthplace & Museum (Baltimore, Maryland)
College Football Hall of Fame (South Bend, Indiana)
International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame (St. Louis, Missouri)
International Swimming Hall of Fame (Ft. Lauderdale, Florida)
International Tennis Hall of Fame (Newport, Rhode Island)
National Soccer Hall of Fame (Oneonta, New York)
NCAA Hall of Champions (Indianapolis, Indiana)
Negro League Baseball Museum (Kansas City, Missouri)
Womens Basketball Hall of Fame (Knoxville, Tennessee)
The NASCAR Hall of Fame (www.nascarhall.com) opened in Charlotte, North
Carolina, in May 2010. Owned by the City of Charlotte, the facility is licensed by
NASCAR and operated by the Charlotte Regional Visitors Authority. The cost of
construction, which was paid for by the city, was approximately $160 million.
13.4 Baseball Spring Training
Some 1.7 million baseball fans travel to Florida between late February and late
March each year to watch spring training games. A study conducted for the Florida
Sports Foundation (www.flasports.com) found that spring training brings approximately
$500 million a year into the Florida economy.
Arizonas Cactus League Association (www.cactusleague.com) estimates $120
million in spending directly by tourists who come to Arizona for the games.
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14
STADIUMS & ARENAS
14.1 Sports Facility Construction
According to Sports Business Journal, spending for sports facility construction
has been as follows:
2000: $3.00 billion
2001: $3.17 billion
2002: $3.49 billion
2003: $4.37 billion
2004: $2.14 billion
2005: $2.08 billion
2006: $2.39 billion
2007: $1.40 billion
2008: $3.34 billion
2009: $6.70 billion
With the opening of the new Yankee Stadium, Citi Field, and the Dallas Cowboys
new NFL facility, investments in sports facility construction completions in 2009 were
the highest in history.
Construction spending throughout the past decade, 2000-2009, which totals
$32.3 billion, was distributed as follows:
Major stadiums: $13.34 billion
Major arenas: $ 3.99 billion
College stadiums: $ 3.73 billion
College arenas: $ 5.52 billion
Minor stadiums: $ 3.23 billion
Minor arenas: $ 2.27 billion
During the 1990s, more than $16 billion was spent on professional and college
sports stadiums and arenas, according to Dennis Howard, a University of Oregon
sports marketing professor. That compares with just $3 billion spent in the 1970s and
1980s combined.
14.2 Professional Sports Stadiums and Arenas
The following 121 stadiums and arenas in the United States and Canada are
home to teams of Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association
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(NBA), the National Football League (NFL), the National Hockey League (NHL), and
Major League Soccer (MLS):
Seating Year
Stadium Team Capacity Opened

Anaheim, California
Angel Stadium of Anaheim: Angels (MLB) 45,050 1966
Honda Center: Ducks (NHL) 17,174 1993
Atlanta, Georgia
Georgia Dome: Falcons (NFL) 71,228 1992
Philips Arena: Hawks (NBA) 18,750 1999
Thrashers (NHL) 18,545
Turner Field: Braves (MLB) 50,097 1996
Baltimore, Maryland
M&T Bank Stadium: Ravens (NFL) 71,008 1998
Oriole Park at Camden Yards: Orioles (MLB) 48,876 1992
Boston/Foxboro, Massachusetts
Fenway Park: Red Sox (MLB) 37,402 1912
Gillette Stadium: Patriots (NFL) 68,756 2002
Revolution (MLS) 22,385
TD Garden: Bruins (NHL) 17,565 1995
Celtics (NBA) 18,624
Buffalo, New York
HSBC Arena: Sabres (NHL) 18,690 1996
Ralph Wilson Stadium: Bills (NFL) 73,967 1973
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Pengrowth Saddledome: Flames (NHL) 19,289 1983
Charlotte, North Carolina
Bank of America Stadium: Panthers (NFL) 73,778 1996
Time Warner Cable Arena: Bobcats (NBA) 19,568 2005
Chicago, Illinois
Soldier Field: Bears (NFL) 61,500 1924
Toyota Park: Fire (MLS) 20,000 2006
U.S. Cellular Field: White Sox (MLB) 40,615 1991
United Center: Bulls (NBA) 20,917 1994
Blackhawks (NHL) 19,717
Wrigley Field: Cubs (MLB) 41,160 1914
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Cincinnati, Ohio
Great American Ball Park: Reds (MLB) 42,271 2003
Paul Brown Stadium: Bengals (NFL) 65,790 2000
Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland Browns Stadium: Browns (NFL) 73,200 1999
Progressive Field: Indians (MLB) 45,199 1994
Quicken Loans Arena: Cavaliers (NBA) 20,562 1994
Columbus, Ohio
Columbus Crew Stadium: Crew (MLS) 20,455 1999
Nationwide Arena: Blue Jackets (NHL) 18,144 2000
Dallas/Arlington, Texas
American Airlines Center: Mavericks (NBA) 19,200 2001
Stars (NHL) 18,532
Cowboys Stadium: Cowboys (NFL) 80,000* 2009
Pizza Hut Park: FC Dallas (MLS) 21,193 2005
Rangers Ballpark In Arlington: Rangers (MLB) 49,170 1994
Denver/Commerce City, Colorado
Coors Field: Rockies (MLB) 50,445 1995
Dicks Sporting Goods Park: Rapids (MLS) 18,086 2007
Invesco Field at Mile High: Broncos (NFL) 76,125 2001
Pepsi Center: Avalanche (NHL) 18,007 1999
Nuggets (NBA) 19,309
Detroit/Auburn Hills, Michigan
Comerica Park: Tigers (MLB) 41,982* 2000
Ford Field: Lions (NFL) 64,500 2002
Joe Louis Arena: Red Wings (NHL) 20,066 1979
The Palace of Auburn Hills: Pistons (NBA) 22,076 1988
Edmondton, Alberta, Canada
Rexall Place: Oilers (NHL) 16,839 1974
Ft. Lauderdale/Sunrise, Florida
BankAtlantic Center: Panthers (NHL) 19,250 1998
Green Bay, Wisconsin
Lambeau Field: Packers (NFL) 72,928 1957
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Houston, Texas
Minute Maid Park: Astros (MLB) 40,950 2000
Reliant Stadium: Texans (NFL) 71,500 2002
Robertson Stadium: Dynamo (MLS) 32,000 1941
Toyota Center: Rockets (NBA) 18,370 2003
Indianapolis, Indiana
Conseco Fieldhouse: Pacers (NBA) 18,345 1999
Lucas Oil Stadium: Colts (NFL) 66,153* 2008
Jacksonville, Florida
EverBank Field: Jaguars (NFL) 67,164* 1995
Kansas City, Missouri
Arrowhead Stadium: Chiefs (NFL) 77,000 1972
Community America Ballpark: Wizards (MLS) 10,345 2003
Kauffman Stadium: Royals (MLB) 39,000 1973
Los Angeles, California
Dodger Stadium: Dodgers (MLB) 56,000 1962
Staples Center: Clippers (NBA) 19,060 1999
Lakers (NBA) 18,997
Kings (NHL) 18,118
The Home Depot Center: C.D. Chivas USA (MLS) 27,000 2003
Galaxy (MLS) 27,000
Memphis, Tennessee
FedEx Forum: Grizzlies (NBA) 18,165 2004
Miami/Miami Gardens, Florida
American Airlines Arena: Heat (NBA) 19,600 1999
Sun Life Stadium: Dolphins (NFL) 75,192 1987
Marlins (MLB) 38,560*
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Bradley Center: Bucks (NBA) 18,717 1988
Miller Park: Brewers (MLB) 41,900 2001
Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota
Mall of America Field at
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome: Vikings (NFL) 64,121 1982
Target Field: Twins (MLB) 39,504* 2010
Target Center: Timberwolves (NBA) 20.500 1990
Xcel Energy Center: Wild (NHL) 18,064 2000
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Montreal, Ontario, Canada
Bell Centre: Canadiens (NHL) 21,273 1996
Nashville, Tennessee
Bridgestone Arena: Predators (NHL) 17,113 1996
LP Field: Titans (NFL) 69,143 1999
New Orleans, Louisiana
Louisiana Superdome: Saints (NFL) 72,928 1975
New Orleans Arena: Hornets (NBA) 18,500 1999
New York/Long Island, New York; East Rutherford/Harrison, New Jersey
Citi Field: Mets (MLB) 41,800 2009
Madison Square Garden: Knicks (NBA) 19,743 1968
Rangers (NHL) 16,250
Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum: Islanders (NHL) 16,250 1972
New Meadowlands Stadium: Giants (NFL) 82,566 2010
Jets (NFL) 82,566
Red Bull Arena: Red Bulls (MLS) 25,189 2010
Yankee Stadium: Yankees (MLB) 50,086* 2009
Newark, New Jersey
Prudential Center: Devils (NHL) 17,625 2007
Nets (NBA) 18,500
Oakland, California
Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum: Athletics (MLB) 35,067* 1966
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Ford Center: Thunder (NBA) 18,203 2002
Orlando, Florida
Amway Arena: Magic (NBA) 17,248 1989
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Scotiabank Place: Senators (NHL) 19,153 1996
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Citizens Bank Park: Phillies (MLB) 43,647 2004
Lincoln Financial Field: Eagles (NFL) 69,144 2003
PPL Park: Union (MLS) 18,500 2010
Wells Fargo Center: 76ers (NBA) 20,444 1996
Flyers (NHL) 19,537
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Phoenix/Glendale, Arizona
Chase Field: Diamondbacks (MLB) 49,033 1998
Jobing.com Arena: Coyotes (NHL) 17,125 2003
University of Phoenix Stadium: Cardinals (NFL) 63,400* 2006
US Airways Center: Suns (NBA) 18,422 1992
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Consol Energy Center: Penguins (NHL) 18,087 2010
Heinz Field: Steelers (NFL) 65,050 2001
PNC Park: Pirates (MLB) 38,496 2001
Portland, Oregon
Rose Garden: Trail Blazers (NBA) 19,980 1995
Raleigh, North Carolina
RBC Center: Hurricanes (NHL) 18,680 1999
Salt Lake City/Sandy, Utah
EnergySolutions Center: Jazz (NBA) 19,991 1991
Rio Tinto Stadium: Real Salt Lake (MLS) 20,008 2008
San Antonio, Texas
AT&T Center: Spurs (NBA) 18,797 2002
San Diego, California
PETCO Park: Padres (MLB) 42,445 2004
Qualcomm Stadium: Chargers (NFL) 71,294 1967
San Francisco/Oakland, California
AT&T Park: Giants (MLB) 42,271* 2000
Candlestick Park: 49ers (NFL) 70,207 1960
Oakland-Alamdea County Coliseum: Athletics (MLB) 35,067* 1966
Raiders (NFL) 63,026
Oracle Arena: Warriors (NBA) 19,596 1996
San Jose, California
Buck Shaw Stadium: Earthquakes (MLS) 10,300 1962
HP Pavilion at San Jose: Sharks (NHL) 17,562 1993
Sacramento, California
ARCO Arena: Kings (NBA) 17,317 1988
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Seattle, Washington
Qwest Field: Seahawks (NFL) 67,000* 2002
Sounders FC (MLS) 35,700
Safeco Field: Mariners (MLB) 47,116 1999
St. Louis, Missouri
Busch Stadium: Cardinals (MLB) 43,975* 2006
Edward Jones Dome: Rams (NFL) 66,965 1995
Scottrade Center: Blues (NHL) 19,150 1994
Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida
Raymond James Stadium: Buccaneers (NFL) 65,857* 1998
St. Pete Times Forum: Lightning (NHL) 28,153 1990
Tropicana Field: Blue Rays (MLB) 36,973* 1990
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Air Canada Centre: Raptors (NBA) 19,800 1989
Maple Leafs (NHL) 18,800 1999
BMO Field: Toronto FC (MLS) 21,800 2007
Rogers Centre: Blue Jays (MLB) 49,539 2009
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Rogers Arena: Canucks (NHL) 18,800 1995
Washington, D.C./Landover, Maryland
FedEx Field: Redskins (NFL) 91,704 1997
Nationals Park: Nationals (MLB) 41,888 2008
RFK Stadium: D.C. United (MLS) 23,865 1961
Verizon Center: Wizards (NBA) 20,173 1997
Capitals (NHL) 18,277
* Total capacity exceeds seating capacity because of standing room, tarp-covered seats, or expandable
design.
14.3 Financing
Despite taxpayer protests, public financing of professional sports venues is
escalating. The 11 projects that opened between 2003 and 2006 cost $3.8 billion; 64%
of this amount was subsidized by local governments. This compares with the 15
professional sports stadiums and arenas that opened between 2000 and 2002 whose
$5.1 billion construction costs were only 54% funded by the public.
Naming rights for sports venues is a recent innovation for raising capital for
construction. Naming rights are assessed in section 3.6 of this handbook.
Now standard practice for new stadiums, the concept of personal seat licenses
(PSLs) as a means to help finance construction dates to the late 1990s. To help fund
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the New Meadowlands Stadium, for example, the New York Giants are charging $1,000
to $20,000 a seat for PSLs; in addition to the seat license is the cost of the ticket: $85
to $700 each.
As of August 2010, PSLs were sold at 28 U.S. stadiums, arenas, and racetracks,
as follows:
Major League Baseball (5)
Arizona Diamondbacks, Minnesota Twins, San Diego Padres, San Francisco
Giants, St. Louis Cardinals
National Basketball Association (3)
Charlotte Bobcats, Toronto Raptors, Utah Jazz
National Football League (15)
Baltimore Ravens, Carolina Panthers, Chicago Bears, Cincinnati Bengals, Cleveland
Browns, Dallas Cowboys, Green Bay Packers, New York Giants, New York Jets,
Houston Texans, Philadelphia Eagles, Pittsburgh Steelers, Seattle Seahawks, St.
Louis Rams, Tennessee Titans
National Hockey League (2)
Columbus Blue Jackets, Toronto Maple Leafs
Auto Racing (3)
California Speedway, Kentucky Speedway, Texas Motor Speedway
14.4 Premium Seating
Annual revenues to professional sports teams from premium seating and suites
is estimated at $5 billion. A teams income from premium seats is not typically shared
with other teams in the league, as is general admission and television broadcast
revenue.
For many teams, the boxes have become a matter of survival, often representing
50% of a teams profit, according to The Wall Street Journal. Premium seating has
changed the way team owners approach the business, with stadium owners insisting on
more and more luxury seating options with each new stadium.
In New York, the Jets and the Giants have already sold several prime suites at
$1 million a year for the New Meadowlands Stadium, as have the Dallas Cowboys,
making these the most expensive suites among NFL stadiums. At Madison Square
Gardens, lower bowl VIP box suites sell for $800,000 the most expensive suites
among NBA arenas.
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15
TICKETING
15.1 Market Assessment
Consumers spend approximately $20 billion annually for tickets to sporting
events.
Increasingly, tickets are sold online, with over 50% of individual game tickets now
sold online. Online sales allow teams to gain access to a wealth of data about their
customers. The average NBA franchise, for example, has 500,000 names in its
database, and some big-market teams have double that number.
Once worried that ticket resales would eat into overall sales, major sports
leagues have realized these concerns were unfounded and many teams have begun
contracting with secondary ticket resellers, primarily as a service to their season ticket
holders. Surveys show that season-ticket holders, who contribute about 80% of overall
ticket revenue, worry about being unable to use all their tickets, thus the option to resell
tickets is one of the best ways of retaining season-ticket holders.
15.2 Secondary Ticketing
The online secondary ticketing market is estimated at $3 billion to $4 billion. The
amount could be much higher; no one knows for certain because so much of the selling
can never be tracked.
While re-selling tickets online at face value is legal in all 50 states and the District
of Columbia, about 15 states have some restriction on how much tickets can be marked
up by sellers. The laws vary widely, depending on the state and type of event and venue,
and they range in scope. Conversely, several states have relaxed their regulations,
removing bans on online individual ticket auctions.
Online brokers largely have to rely on sellers to abide by their respective states
rules, yet there is no way of knowing if they actually do so. And the overall online ticket
market is difficult to police given the borderless nature of the business.
There is a fine line between ticket brokers and scalpers. The former are
generally those who are licensed by their state or are members of an association such
as the National Association of Ticket Brokers (www.natb.org). Legitimate brokers work
to protect consumers against fraudulent transactions. Unlike some independent
scalpers, these resellers guarantee the sale of tickets by checking both the buyer and
seller for potential risk of fraud prior to transactions.
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15.3 Key Players
The following are the largest secondary ticket providers:
Coast to Coast Tickets (www.coasttocoasttickets.com)
eBay (www.ebay.com)
Go Tickets (www.gotickets.com)
RazorGator (www.razorgator.com)
StubHub (www.stubhub.com)
TickCo (www.tickco.com)
Ticket Liquidator (www.ticketliquidator.com)
Ticketmaster (www.ticketmaster.com)
TicketsNow (www.ticketsnow.com)
As competition in the segment has increased, the main players have created
sub-niches for themselves to establish market differentiation. RazorGator, for example,
specializes in the corporate travel market; StubHub works primarily through fan-to-fan
connections and advertises heavily in mass media; TicketsNow takes sales listings only
through prescreened, licensed brokers; and Ticketmaster works in a more traditional
vendor capacity, only selling tickets on the secondary market for its own
TeamExchange clients.
15.4 Dynamic Pricing
Dynamic pricing, also called market-based pricing and variable pricing, adjusts
single-game ticket prices based on demand. Using this model, teams can adjust
regular ticket prices up or down as late as game day.
A relatively new business model, only a few MLB teams conducted trials with
variable pricing during the 2009 season. For the 2010 season more MLB teams; NBA,
NFL, and NHL teams; and two NASCAR tracks conducted more extensive tests of
dynamic pricing.
The New York Giants saw a 7% increase in attendance and 12% increase in
ticket revenue when the team implemented dynamic pricing during the first part of the
2010 season, according to Bloomberg BusinessWeek. (The team was also playing well
during that period.) Russ Stanley, the Giants ticketing manager, foresees that all MLB
teams will adopt dynamic pricing by 2015.
Software by Digonex Technologies (www.digonex.com), Qcue (www.qcue.com),
and Veritix (www.veritix.com) is used by teams to guide variable pricing based on past
ticket sales, team matchups, day and time of the game, player injuries, weather, and
the going rate on ticket resale websites.
Barry Kahn, Ph.D., an economist and founder of Qcue, estimates that dynamic
pricing could boost sports and entertainment revenues by $20 billion a year.
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15.5 Mobile Ticketing
Tickets.com, owned by MLB Advanced Media, offers ProVenueMobile, an app
that allows people to purchase tickets via their smartphone. The app provides real-time
mobile search, seat selection, and payment transaction.
Thirteen major league baseball teams used the service for the 2010 season.
_________________________________________________________________
Ticketing thus far has been slower than many
other industries to adapt to todays lightning-
quick, theres an app for that digital world. But
full end-to-end mobile ticketing is now rapidly
becoming a widespread reality.
SportsBusiness Journal, 5/31/10
_________________________________________________________________
15.6 Moving Unsold Ticket Inventory
According to SportsBusiness Journal, between 11% and 39% of primary ticket
inventory goes unsold.
_________________________________________________________________
Teams and leagues have struggled to find
ways to effectively move unsold tickets at prices
that do not hurt the brand or alienate their
season-ticket holders.
SportsBusiness Journal, 4/26/10
_________________________________________________________________
ScoreBig (www.scorebig.com), dubbed a Priceline.com for sports tickets, plans
to launch an online service that could aid teams in moving unsold tickets. ScoreBigs
strategy is to secure inventory from teams, leagues, venues, promoters, or anyone else
holding large blocks of unsold seats and sell them based on preference in price,
location, and game. The model is loosely based on travel sites that sell hotel rooms or
airline tickets at discounted rates.
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15.7 Market Resources
National Association of Ticket Brokers, 214 North Hale Street, Wheaton, IL 60187.
(630) 510-4594. (www.natb.org)
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PART II: SPORTS MEDIA
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16
SPORTS TELEVISION BROADCASTING
16.1 Major Sports Networks
The following summarizes the broadcast rights of major sports properties by
broadcast and national cable networks:
ABC Sports
Belmont Stakes
FIFA World Cup
Major League Soccer
National Basketball Association, including championship finals
PGA Tour
Indy Racing League, including the Indianapolis 500
Major League Soccer
NASCAR
U.S. Figure Skating Championships
Womens National Basketball Association
CBS Sports
National Football League
NCAA Basketball Tournament
PGA Championship
PGA Tour
SEC college football
Supercross
The Masters
USTA US Open Tennis
Fox Sports
Bowl Championship Series
Major League Baseball, including the All-Star Game and World Series
NASCAR, including the Daytona 500
National Football League
ESPN/ESPN2
Breeders Cup
Indy Racing League
Major League Baseball
Major League Soccer
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NASCAR
National Basketball Association
National Football League
Preakness Stakes
U.S. Open (golf)
Womens National Basketball Association
Wrangler National Finals Rodeo
NBC Sports
Kentucky Derby
NASCAR
National Hockey League, including The Stanley Cup
Olympics: Winter and Summer Games
PGA Tour
Professional Bull Riders
Notre Dame football
U.S. Open (golf)
Turner Sports/TNT
National Basketball Association, including the All-Star Game
NASCAR
Major League Baseball
PGA Tour, PGA Championship, PGA Grand Slam
Versus
Americas Cup
National Hockey League, including the All-Star Game
Professional Bull Riders
Tour de France
16.2 Broadcast Rights Agreements
The following is a summary of major network broadcast rights agreements
(source: SportsBusiness Journal):
CBS Sports Estimated Total Value Term
NCAA mens basketball tournament: $6.0 billion 2001-02 - 2012-13
National Football League: $5.0 billion 2005 - 2013
PGA Tour: $3.0 billion 2006 - 2012
SEC basketball and football: $ 825 million 2008 - 2023
Big Ten basketball: $ 200 million 2005-06 - 2015-16
USTA U.S. Open: $ 145 million 2007 - 2011
The Masters: $ 3 million/year year-to-year
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Fox Sports
National Football League: $5.8 billion 2005 - 2013
Major League Baseball: $1.8 billion 2006 - 2013
NASCAR: $1.8 billion 2006 - 2014
Bowl Championship Series: $ 340 million 2006 - 2010
NBC
National Football League: $4.8 billion 2005 - 2013
PGA: $3.0 billion 2006 - 2012
Olympics Summer & Winter Games: $2.0 billion 2010 - 2012
Wimbledon: $ 52 million 2007 - 2011
Notre Dame football: $ 50 million 2010 - 2015
National Hockey League: n/a 2008-09 - 2010-11
Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes: n/a 2005 - 2010
USGA U.S. Open: n/a 2005 - 2014
U.S, Figure Skating: n/a 2008 - 2014
Walt Disney Co. - ABC and ESPN
National Basketball Association: $4.6 billion 2009-10 - 2015-16
SEC (all sports): $2.3 billion 2008 - 2023
NASCAR: $2.2 billion 2006 - 2014
Big Ten: $1.0 billion 2007 - 2017
Bowl Championship Series: $ 495 million 2010 - 2014
Big 12: $ 480 million 2006 - 2014
Rose Bowl presented by Citi: $ 300 million 2006 - 2014
ACC basketball: $ 300 million 2000-01 - 2015-16
ACC football: $ 258 million 2003 - 2010
Pacific-10 football: $ 229 million 2006 - 2011
Big East football: $ 200 million 2006 - 2012
Major League Soccer: $ 64 million 2006 - 2014
IndyCar: $ 60 million 2008 - 2012
Belmont Stakes: $ 20 million 2005 - 2010
16.3 Sports Programming On Cable Networks
Cable networks with programming rights to significant sports properties
(including reach and penetration) are as follows (sources: The Nielsen Company and
Sports Business Journal):
Households Coverage
TBS: 97.34 million 86.3%
ESPN: 96.50 million 85.6%
TNT: 96.42 million 85.5%
ESPN2: 96.19 million 85.3%
Golf Channel: 73.98 million 65.6%
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Versus: 72.15 million 64.0%
Speed: 71.89 million 63.7%
Superstation WGN: 70.42 million 62.4%
ESPNews: 63.29 million 56.1%
ESPN Classic: 62.15 million 55.1%
NFL Network: 42.85 million 38.0%
The following is sports tier content on cable systems (sources: Sports Business
Journal and the cable systems):
Cablevision
Fox Sports Atlantic, Fox Sports Central, Fox Sports Pacific, Golf Channel, GolTV,
MavTV, NBA TV, NHL Network, Outdoor Channel, TVG (horse racing channel), and
Versus
Charter Communications
CBS College Sports, Fox Sports Atlantic, Fox Sports Central, Fox Sports Pacific,
Fox Sports World, Fuel, HRTV, MavTV, Outdoor Channel, Sportsman Channel, and
Tennis Channel
Comcast
CBS College Sports, Fox Sports Atlantic, Fox Sports Central, Fox Sports Pacific,
NBA TV, NFL Network, NHL Network, and Tennis Channel
Cox Communications
ESPN Classic, ESPNews, ESPNU, Fit TV, Fox Soccer Channel, Golf Channel,
GolTV, NBA TV, NFL Network, NHL Network, Tennis Channel, and Versus
Time Warner Cable
CBS College Sports, ESPNews, Fox Soccer Channel, Fox Sports Atlantic, Fox
Sports Central, Fox Sports Pacific, Fuel, NBA TV, NHL Network, and Tennis
Channel
16.4 League Networks
The National Basketball Association launched NBA TV in 1999. NBA TV
broadcasts 96 regular-season games that are not included in its broadcast rights deals
with networks. For the 2010-2011 season, NBA TV is available through Cablevision,
Comcast, Cox Communications, DirecTV, DISH Network, and Time Warner Cable. The
network has 15 million subscribers.
The National Football League launched the NFL Network in 2003. The channel
broadcasts highlights, classic games, and other content from the more than 4,000
hours of footage from the NFL library. In 2006, the NFL Network began broadcasting
eight primetime regular-season NFL games, dubbed The Run to the Playoffs. NFL
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Network reaches 43 million homes, including 16.3 million that access through DirecTV.
The National Hockey League launched the NHL Network in 2007 with cable and
satellite distribution mostly on dedicated sports tiers. The network offered 50 live
games in high definition during the 2009-2010 season. NHL Network reaches
approximately 20 million homes.
Major League Baseball launched MLB Network, a 24-hour channel, in 2009.
Reaching 50 million cable and satellite customers, it was the largest cable launch in
history.
League networks have expanded online as well as through cable distribution.
16.5 Regional Sports Networks
Regional sports networks (RSNs) provide sports programming generally local
professional and/or college games to a regional market via cable.
Fox Sports Net (FS) is a cluster of 17 regional cable sports networks with a
foundation of local game action, as well as national sports news that can be inserted
locally.
Regional sports networks, their Designated Metropolitan Area (DMA),
professional sports teams, households reached (HHs), and cable rating are as follows
(source: SportsBusiness Journal based on data from The Nielsen Company):

Altitude Pro Teams Broadcast HHs Rating
Denver Avalanche, Nuggets 8,000 0.52
Comcast SportsNet Bay Area
San Francisco-Oakland-
San Jose Giants, Warriors 23,000 0.93
Comcast SportsNet California
Sacramento-Stockton-
Modesto Kings (NBA) 6,000 0.43
San Francisco-Oakland-
San Jose Athletics, Sharks 6,000 0.24
Comcast SportsNet Chicago
Chicago Blackhawks, Bulls, Cubs, White Sox 42,000 1.20
Comcast SportsNet Mid-Atlantic
Washington, D.C. Capitals, Wizards 11,000 0.46
Comcast SportsNet New England
Boston Celtics 17,000 0.69
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Comcast SportsNet Northwest
Portland Trail Blazers 5,000 0.43
Comcast SportsNet Philadelphia
Philadelphia 76ers, Flyers, Phillies 61,000 2.07
Cox Sports Television (CST)
New Orleans Hornets 3,000 0.50
FOX Sports Arizona
Phoenix Coyotes, Diamondbacks, Suns 21,000 1.11
FOX Sports Detroit
Detroit Pistons, Red Wings, Tigers 52,000 2.72
FOX Sports Florida
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale Marlins, Panthers (NHL) 12,000 0.77
Orlando-Daytona Beach Magic 4,000 0.26
Tampa-St. Petersburg Rays 10,000 0.52
FOX Sports Houston
Houston Astros, Rockets 25,000 1.17
FOX Sports Midwest
Indianapolis Pacers 3,000 0.29
Kansas City Royals 8,000 0.89
St. Louis Blues, Cardinals 28,000 2.25
FOX Sports North
Minneapolis-St. Paul Timberwolves, Twins, Wild 34,000 1.97
FOX Sports Ohio
Cincinnati Reds 10,000 1.10
Cleveland-Akron Cavaliers 20,000 1.32
Columbus Blue Jackets 9,000 0.97
FOX Sports Prime Ticket
Los Angeles Clippers, Dodgers 30,000 0.53
FOX Sports South
Atlanta Braves, Hawks, Thrashers 6,000 0.24
Charlotte Bobcats 3,000 0.27
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Memphis Grizzlies 2,000 0.26
Nashville Predators 2,000 0.22
Raleigh-Durham Hurricanes 5,000 0.46
FOX Sports Southwest
Dallas-Ft. Worth Mavericks, Rangers (MLB), Stars 21,000 0.85
Oklahoma City Thunder 3,000 0.40
San Antonio Spurs 5,000 0.56
FOX Sports West
Los Angeles Angels, Kings (NHL), Lakers 37,000 0.65
FOX Sports Wisconsin
Milwaukee Brewers, Bucks 12,000 1.75
FOX Sports Net Northwest
Seattle-Tacoma Mariners 28,000 1.55
FOX Sports Net Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh Penguins, Pirates 26,000 2.22
FOX Sports Net Rocky Mountain
Denver Rockies 16,000 1.14
Salt Lake City Jazz 5,000 0.52
MASNsports
Baltimore Nationals, Orioles 7,000 0.65
Washington, D.C. Nationals, Orioles 7,000 0.30
MASNsports2
Baltimore Nationals, Orioles 3,000 0.28
Washington, D.C. Nationals, Orioles 2,000 0.11
Madison Square Garden Networks (owned by Cablevision)
Buffalo Sabres 6,000 1.01
New York Devils 11,000 0.14
New York Knicks, Rangers (NHL) 26,000 0.35
New England Sports Network
Boston Bruins, Red Sox 76,000 3.16
SD4 on FOX News Sports
San Diego Padres 11,000 0.99
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SportsNet New York (SNY)
New York Mets 54,000 0.72
SportsSouth (owned by FOX)
Atlanta Braves, Hawks, Thrashers 16,000 0.67
Nashville Predators 1,000 0.13
SportsTime Ohio
Cleveland-Akron Indians 12,000 0.76
Sun Sports
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale Heat, Marlins 12,000 0.81
Orlando-Daytona Beach Magic 6,000 0.39
Tampa-St. Petersburg Lightning 12,000 0.68
Yankees Entertainment & Sports Network (YES)
New York Nets, Yankees 82,000 1.10
16.6 Sport-Specific Networks
The success of The Golf Channel, which launched in 1995 and has reach in
almost 75 million households, spurred other sport-specific networks. The channels
success is linked to its broadcast rights contract for the PGA Tour.
The following are some other sport-specific networks:
The Tennis Channel, a 24-hour sports and lifestyle channel that launched in 2003,
reaches 9 million households. The channel is offered on Dish Networks Americas
Top 180 tier of programming and on sports tiers by major cable operators.
With 70 million subscribers, Speed is the second-largest sport-specific network.
Speed broadcasts several NASCAR Sprint Cup races along with other racing circuit
events.
Gol TV, a channel devoted to soccer and aimed at the U.S. Latino population,
launched in February 2003. Households that take EchoStars Dish Latino package
receive the service.
Fox Soccer Channel reaches 25 million cable and satellite subscribers throughout
the U.S. and Caribbean.
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16.7 College Sports Networks
College Sports Television (CSTV), launched in 2006 and owned by CBS,
reaches 15 million cable sports tier subscribers. While the network broadcasts some
major sports events, such as Navy football games, for the most part it offers niche
programming soccer, swim meets, womens volleyball that will never build a national
audience but appeals to local enthusiasts.
In 2006, ESPN launched ESPNU which delivers college programming to eight
million subscriber households.
Major college conferences weigh the option of either contracting with big
networks to broadcast their sports events or launching their own cable network. The
Big East, for instance, in early 2007 chose the former option, selling TV rights to ESPN
for $200 million for six years.
There are two college conference channels, the Mountain West Conferences
The mtn and the Big Ten Network. The mtn has been struggling to find distribution for
its network, which was launched in fall 2006. The Big Ten has contracted with ESPN
for broadcast rights to major football and basketball games. The 10-year deal will net
the conference $100 million. In addition, the conference set up a 20-year partnership
(with a five-year renewal option) with Fox to launch the Big Ten Network, with the
conference holding a 51% stake.
The Southeastern Conference (SEC) considered launching a conference
network but, instead, signed a 15-year, $2.25 billion broadcast rights deal with ESPN in
2008.
16.8 International Sports Networks
NASN, acquired by ESPN from Irish broadcaster Setanta Sports in 2006 for a
reported $120 million, is the only European channel dedicated to American sports.
Started in 2002, NASN offers subscribers live and recorded coverage of Major
League Baseball, National Hockey League, National Football League, and college
basketball games. Its coverage depends on the TV rights holders in each country.
NASN delivers more than 800 live or time-delayed U.S. and Canadian sporting
events annually to 10 million households across Europe. A significant portion of the
subscriber base consists of American expatriates and Europeans who have lived in the
U.S.
Hockey games have been a big draw for the network approximately 30% of
NHL players are from Europe.
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17
SPORTS RADIO
17.1 Sports Radio Stations
New York City-based WFAN (660 AM) is credited with pioneering the
24-hour-per-day sports-talk station format, in 1987. Its success spawned rapid growth
of sports-talk radio in the 1990s and 2000s. Every major metropolitan area now has at
least one radio station offering 24/7 sports; some have two or more.
According to the Streaming Radio Guide (www.streamingradioguide.com), there
are 461 AM sports radio stations and 91 FM sports radio stations in the U.S. Among
these 552 stations, 313 stream online. A list of sports radio stations is available at
http://streamingradioguide.com/streaming-radio.php?format=3&sort=&showall=on.
As music stations have migrated to FM and other carriers, sports talk radio is
credited as being a significant factor in saving the AM band as a viable broadcast
medium.
ESPN Radio, Fox Sports Radio, and Sporting News Radio have all launched
24-hour national sports talk radio networks. Sports Byline USA, a national radio talk
network, has a weekly audience of 2.2 million listeners. There are also nationally
syndicated radio shows, such as The Jim Rome Show and 2 Live Stews.
Arbitron ratings represent average quarter-hour shares (percentage of
households tuned into a specific station) within a given market. Forty-two (42) sports
radio stations have an Arbitron rating of 1.0 or higher. The following are the sports
radio stations with the highest ratings:
WEEI/WEEI-FM (Boston, Massachusetts): 6.2
WWLS/WWLS-FM (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma): 4.8
WFAM (Nassau-Suffolk, New York): 4.3
KFAN 1130 (Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota): 3.9
WIP (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania): 3.7
WHTK (Sacramento, California): 3.5
WHB (Kansas City, Missouri-Kansas): 2.9
WFAN (New York, New York): 2.7
WBNS (Columbus, Ohio): 2.6
WEAE (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania): 2.4
WSAI (Cincinnati, Ohio): 2.4
KJR (Seattle, Washington): 2.3
WDAE (Tampa-St. Petersburg, Florida): 2.3
KNBR (San Francisco, California): 2.2
WTEM (Washington, D.C.): 2.2
WFNZ/WFNA (Charlotte, North Carolina): 2.2
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According to Sports Business Journal, annual sports radio broadcast rights fees
are approximately $460 million.
17.2 The Sports Radio Audience
According to Arbitron (www.arbitron.com), 41.8 million people listen to sports
radio each week.
Arbitron provides the following profile of sports radio listeners:
Gender
Men: 88%
Women: 12%
Age (men only)
Ages 12-to-34: 21%
Ages 35-to-44: 24%
Ages 45-to-49: 11%
Ages 50-to-55: 9%
Age 55 and older: 21%
Household Income
Less than $25,000: 7%
$25,000 to $49,999: 21%
$50,000 to $74,999: 25%
$75,000 and higher: 48%
Education
Less than high school: 3%
High school graduate: 16%
Some college: 34%
College graduate: 48%
17.3 Advertising
Sports Business Journal estimates annual sports radio advertising revenues at
$2.2 billion.
Although audiences are dwarfed by market-leading rock stations, broadcast
analysts say sports stations are a good vehicle for products aimed at the male
audience. According to Interep (www.interep.com), a radio sales representation firm,
more than 65% of sports-radio listeners are men; 70% are ages 25-to-54. These
listeners are 81% more likely than all radio listeners to be college graduates; 67% are
more likely to have household income over $75,000.
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_________________________________________________________________
Sports radio stations do better in revenue
share than they do in audience share. You think
that a station that gets 10% of the audience
would get 10% of a markets revenue. But
sports talk does better than that because of the
target demographic of 18-to-34 year-old males.
When youre that young, you dont really
consume that much media, so the media you do
consume is very attractive.
Mark Fratrik, Vice President
BIA Financial Network
_________________________________________________________________
According to BIA Financial Network (www.bia.com) and Sports Business Journal,
the following all-sports stations have the highest annual advertising revenue:
WFAM 660 (Nassau-Suffolk, New York): $54.0 million
WEEI 850 (Boston, Massachusetts): $45.6 million
KNBR 680 (San Francisco, California): $29.8 million
WTCK 1310 (Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas): $24.5 million
KLAC 570 (Los Angeles, California): $24.0 million
WIP 610 (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania): $18.4 million
WQAM 560 (Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, Florida): $15.4 million
WMVP 1000 (Chicago, Illinois): $14.0 million
WSCR 670 (Chicago, Illinois): $13.8 million
WQXI 790 (Atlanta, Georgia): $ 9.8 million
According to Duncans American Radio (www.duncanradio.com), national
advertisers are attracted to targeted audiences like those of sports radio. Local
companies, however, are less likely to advertise on narrow-format stations, preferring
the larger audiences delivered by broader-format stations.
17.4 Sports on Satellite Radio
As of August 2010, satellite radio had available 19 sports radio channels: 10 on
XM Satellite Radio and 9 on Sirius Satellite Radio. This includes one French-language
and one Spanish-language station on each system.
For Sirius XM Radio (www.siriusxm.com), which formed in July 2008 when
regulators approved the merger of XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. and Sirius Satellite
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Radio, sports programming was a strength of both broadcasters prior to the merger.
When the content packages of both former operators were merged in October 2008,
Sirius XM began providing live play-by-play broadcasts of games for all major sports
leagues as well as live coverage of major golf, racing, and tennis events.
The following are the sports broadcast rights deals of Sirius XM Radio:
MLB: 11-year, $850 million deal through 2015
NASCAR: Five-year, $107 million deal through 2011
NBA: Original deal with Sirius in 2003 was extended in October 2008
NFL: Seven-year, $220 million deal through 2010 season
NHL: 10-year, $100 million deal through 2015
NLL: Multi-year deal signed in February 2007
17.5 Live Broadcast Baseball
According to Mid-Season 2010 Arbitron Sports Report: PPM Radio Listening
TM
for Pro Baseball, published in August 2010 by Arbitron, the top 14 teams average
176,000 listeners per game in their home market. The number of listeners by team and
station is as follows:
Flagship Station Avg. Audience
New York Yankees: WCBS-AM 441,000
New York Mets: WFAN-AM 368,500
Chicago Cubs: WGN-AM 259,700
Detroit Tigers: WXYT-AM/WXYT-FM 193,400
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim: KLAA-AM/KSPN-FM 166,600
Philadelphia Phillies: WPHT-AM 159,500
San Francisco Giants: KNBR-AM 154,900
Minnesota Twins: KSTP-AM 133,000
St. Louis Cardinals: KTRS-AM 128,400
Cincinnati Reds: WLW-AM 116,100
Seattle Mariners: KIRO-AM 113,400
Boston Red Sox: WEEI-AM 107,500
Chicago White Sox: WSCR-AM 105,600
Los Angeles Dodgers: KABC-AM 99,900
17.6 Market Resources
Arbitron, 142 West 57 Street, New York, NY 10019. (212) 887-1300. Contact: Chris
th
Meinhardt, Sports Manager. (www.arbitron.com)
BIA Financial Network, 15120 Enterprise Court, Chantilly, VA 20151. (703) 818-2425.
Contact: Mark Fratrik, Vice President. (www.bia.com)
The Center for Radio Information, 18 Fair Street, Cold Spring, NY 10516.
(800) 359-9898. Contact: Scott E. Webster, President. (www.the-cri.com)
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18
SPORTS PERIODICALS
18.1 Market Assessment
According to Advertising Age, the combined revenue of the top 15 sports
magazines is $2.2 billion, of which approximately 77% is derived from advertising and
23% from circulation.
18.2 Circulation
According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations (www.accessabc.com), the
following are the sports periodicals with the highest circulation:
Sports Illustrated: 3.2 million
ESPN The Magazine: 2.0 million
The Sporting News: 707,000
18.3 Advertising
According to Advertising Age, 15 sports titles rank among the top 300 consumer
and business magazines. They are as follows:
Revenue Rank
Sports Illustrated: $911.7 million 5
ESPN The Magazine: $325.5 million 27
Golf Magazine: $205.3 million 48
Golf Digest: $219.0 million 45
The Sporting News: $107.3 million 98
Ski: $ 45.1 million 198
Tennis Magazine: $ 39.7 million 212
Sports Illustrated for Kids: $ 49.4 million 175
Travel & Leisure Golf: $ 48.5 million 179
Golf World: $ 42.6 million 203
Skiing: $ 26.1 million 276
Golf for Women: $ 36.7 million 224
Golfweek: $ 24.0 million 291
Transworld Skateboarding: $ 35.4 million 229
Runners World: $ 83.9 million 123
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18.4 Market Resources
Advertising Age, 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017. (212) 210-0100.
(www.adage.com)
Audit Bureau of Circulations, 48 West Seegers Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60005.
(224) 366-6939. (www.accessabc.com)
Magazine Publishers of America, 810 Seventh Avenue, 24 Floor, New York, NY
th
10019. (212) 872-3700. (www.magazine.org)
SRDS, 1700 Higgins Road, Des Plaines, IL 60018. (847) 375-5000. (www.srds.com)
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19
NEWSPAPER SPORTS SECTIONS
19.1 How Fans Obtain The Sports News
According to a 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, fans use the following media source
most frequently for information about their favorite professional sports team:
Fans Avid Fans
Newspaper* hardcopy: 41% 36%
Team website: 29% 36%
Newspaper* website: 15% 17%
Other: 15% 11%
* Only local newspapers
By age, fans preferred source of team information is as follows:
Age 12-34 Age 35-44 Age 45+
Newspaper hardcopy: 28% 44% 58%
Team website: 45% 23% 11%
Newspaper website: 19% 17% 7%
Other: 8% 16% 24%
_________________________________________________________________
Extra! Pro sports fans still overwhelmingly
choose newspaper sports sections as way to
follow their favorite teams.
SportsBusiness Journal, 7/20/09
_________________________________________________________________
19.2 Sports Section Readership
The sports section is the third most read section of daily newspapers, trailing
only the front page and business sections. According to International Demographics
(www.themediaaudit.com), 38 million U.S. adults, or 25.5% of the adult population,
regularly read the sports section. Among those earning more than $100,000, that figure
is 31.0%.
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19.3 Sports Editors
The following are sports editors for the 100 largest U.S. newspapers
(source: Mundo Conde [www.easymedialist.com/usa/top100sports.html]):
Akron Beacon Journal: Richard Desrosiers
Albany Times Union: Bill Callen
Albuquerque Journal: Sam Aselstine
Allentown Morning Call: Bill Kline
Arizona Republic: Mark Faller
Arizona Daily Star: Shannon Conner
Arkansas Democrat-Gazette: Jeff Krupsaw
Arlington Heights Daily Herald: Tom Quinlan
Asbury Park Press: Jack Genung
Atlanta Journal-Constitution: Ronnie Ramos
Austin American-Statesman: James Wangemann
Baltimore Sun: Trif Alatzas
Baton Rouge Advocate: Butch Muir
Bergen County Record: John Balkun
Birmingham News: Marsha Knox
Boston Herald: Hank Hryniewicz
Boston Globe: Joseph Sullivan
Buffalo News: Steve Jones
Charleston Post and Courier: Ken Burger
Charlotte Observer: Michael Reader
Chicago Sun-Times: Chris De Luca
Chicago Tribune: Mike Kellams
Cincinnati Enquirer: Josh Pichler
Cleveland Plain Dealer: Roy Hewitt
Colorado Springs Gazette: Jim OConnell
Columbus Dispatch: Ray Stein
Contra Costa Times: Mike Lefkow
Dallas Morning News: Garry Leavell
Dayton Daily News: Brian Kollars
Daytona Beach News-Journal: Dave Markowitz
Delaware News Journal: Jason Levine
Denver Post: Scott Monserud
Des Moines Register: Bryce Miller
Detroit News: Ruben Luna
Detroit Free Press: Gene Myers
El Nuevo Herald: Manolo Hernandez
Florida Times-Union: Chet Fussman
Fort Myers News-Press: Ed Reed
Fort Worth Star-Telegram: Joe Garza
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Fresno Bee: Matt Lloyd
Grand Rapids Press: Mary Ullmer
Harrisburg Patriot-News: Jim Carlson
Hartford Courant: Jeff Otterbein
Honolulu Star-Advertiser: Curtis Murayama
Houston Chronicle: Carlton Thompson
Indianapolis Star: Jim Lefko
Kansas City Star: Holly Lawton
Knoxville News Sentinel: John Adams
La Opinion: Gabriel Ochoa
Las Vegas Review-Journal: Joe Hawk
Lexington Herald-Leader: Gene Abell
Los Angeles Times: Mike James
Los Angeles Daily News: Jon Clifford
Louisville Courier-Journal: Harry Bryan
Memphis Commercial Appeal: Gary Robinson
Miami Herald: Jorge Rojas
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: Garry D. Howard
Minneapolis Star Tribune: Glen Crevier
Mobile Press-Register: Randy Kennedy
Nashville Tennessean: Larry Taft
New York Daily News: Leon Carter
New Orleans Times-Picayune: Doug Tatum
New York Post: Greg Gallo
New York Times: Tom Jolly
Newark Star-Ledger: Drew Van Esselstyn
Newport News Daily Press: Nick Mathews
Newsday: Hank Winnicki
Oklahoman: Mike Sherman
Omaha World-Herald: Thad Livingston
Orange County Register: John Fabris
Orlando Sentinel: Tim Stephens
Palm Beach Post: Nick Moschella
Philadelphia Inquirer: Jim Cohen
Philadelphia Daily News: Josh Barnett
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review: Kevin Smith
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: Jerry Micco
Portland Oregonian: Mark Hester
Providence Journal: Michael McDermott
Raleigh News & Observer: Gary Schwab
Richmond Times-Dispatch: Steve Trosky
Riverside Press-Enterprise: Dave Ammenheuser
Roanoke Times: Steven Hemphill
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle: Steve Bradley
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Sacramento Bee: Bill Bradley
Salt Lake Tribune: Jim Patrick
San Jose Mercury News: Bud Geracie
San Antonio Express-News: Brad Lehman
San Francisco Chronicle: Alan Saracevic
San Diego Union-Tribune: Doug Williams
Santa Rosa Press Democrat: Bill Pinella
Sarasota Herald Tribune: Scott Peterson
Seattle Times: Don Shelton
South Florida Sun Sentinel: Joe Schwerdt
South Carolina State: Rick Millians
Spokane Spokesman-Review: Joe Palmquist
St. Louis Post-Dispatch: Reid Laymance
St. Paul Pioneer Press: Mike Bass
St. Petersburg Times: Jack Sheppard
Syracuse Post-Standard: Charlie Miller
Tacoma News Tribune: Darrin Beene
Tampa Tribune: Kim Pendery
Toledo Blade: Frank Corsoe
Tulsa World: Mike Strain
USA Today: Monte Lorell
Virginian-Pilot: Colleen McDaniel
Wall Street Journal: Sam Walker
Washington Post: Emilio Garcia-Ruiz
White Plains Journal News: Sean Mayer
Wisconsin State Journal: Greg Sprout
Worcester Telegram & Gazette: Dave Nordman
19.4 Trends in Sports News Coverage
Faced with competition from Internet sources, many local newspapers across the
U.S. have struggled financially. One effect has been a decline in local sports coverage.
A survey of sports editors for major newspapers by SportsBusiness Journal found
cutbacks in local sport coverage as follows:
Space has been cut, on average, by 20%, with sports sections reduced by an
average of six pages per week.
Ninety-six percent (96%) of newspapers have reduced spending for travel to cover
sports events.
Jobs lost through layoffs or buyouts resulted in a sports editorial staff reduction of
21% over a period of 18 months.
Twenty-four percent (24%) of newspapers eliminated coverage of motorsports or
reduced coverage to only local races.
Ten percent (10%) of newspapers had axed the golf beat; 16% of papers skipped
the Masters and U.S. open in 2009 after covering both in 2008.
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_________________________________________________________________
There is less coverage, period.
Lynn Hoppes, former President
Associated Press Sports Editors
SportsBusiness Journal, 7/20/09
_________________________________________________________________
19.5 Market Resources
Associated Press Sports Editors, P.O. Box 29743, Richmond, VA 23242. Contact:
Jack Berninger, Executive Director. (804) 754-6148. (www.apsportseditors.org)
National Sports Journalism Center, Indiana University School of Journalism, 535 West
Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202. (317) 278-5335. (www.sportsjournalism.org)
Newspaper Association of America, 4401 Wilson Blvd., Suite 900, Arlington, VA 22203.
(571) 366-1000. (www.naa.org)
Sports Journalism Institute (www.sportsjournalisminstitute.org)
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20
SPORTS ONLINE
20.1 Sports Websites
According to Nielsen Online (www.nielsen-online.com), the top online sports
destinations, ranked by total cumulative sessions for January thru November 2009,
were as follows:
Yahoo! Sports: 2.08 billion
ESPN Digital Network: 1.92 billion
FoxSports.com on MSN: 985 million
CBS Sports: 716 million
MLB.com: 680 million
NFL Internet network: 497 million
Fantasy Sports Ventures Network: 474 million
Sports Illustrated sites: 380 million
Fantasyhouse/AOL Sports: 365 million
NASCAR Online: 180 million
NBA.com: 151 million
Yardbarker Sports Media Network: 138 million
Sportgenic network: 120 million
NHL.com network: 113 million
eBay Sports: 102 million
20.2 Market Assessment
According to eMarketer, revenues at U.S. sports sites have been, and are
projected, as follows:
Online Advertising Paid Content Other Total
2007: $ 819 million $372 million $298 million $1.48 billion
2008: $1.00 billion $414 million $310 million $1.72 billion
2009: $1.15 billion $434 million $302 million $1.88 billion
2010: $1.35 billion $450 million $343 million $2.14 billion
2011: $1.58 billion $476 million $391 million $2.44 billion
2012: $1.95 billion $532 million $473 million $2.96 billion
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_________________________________________________________________
The proliferation of paid streaming content by
U.S. leagues and the huge online audiences for
ad-supported sporting events such as the U.S.
Open tennis tournament, the Olympics and
March Madness point to a shift in consumer
behavior. As people get more comfortable with
the notion of watching games online, leagues
will be able to monetize sports content through
a variety of paid and ad-based models.
Paul Verna, Senior Analyst
eMarketer, 2/19/10
_________________________________________________________________
20.3 Sports Website Visitor Demographics
According to Nielsen Online, audience composition for visitors to sports-related
websites is as follows:
Gender
Male: 58%
Female: 42%
Age
2-to-11: 3%
12-to-17: 8%
18-to-24: 5%
25-to-34: 14%
35-to-44: 35%
45 and older: 46%
55 and older: 21%
65 and older: 8%
Household Income
Under $25,000: 5%
$25,000 to $49,999: 18%
$50,000 to $74,999: 25%
$75,000 to $99,999: 21%
$100,000 to $149,999: 18%
$150,000 and above: 10%
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20.4 Major League Sports Streaming Packages
The following is a summary of the paid video streaming packages of the four
major sports leagues:
Major League Baseball
Package: MLB.tv
Pricing: $13 to $20 per month or $80 to $110 per season
Selection: All out-of-market games
SportsBusiness Journal estimated 2009 subscription revenue for MLB.com at more
than $40 million, the highest among all professional leagues.
National Basketball Association
Package: NBA League Pass Broadband
Pricing: $100 to $150 per season
Selection: All games of seven selected teams ($100) or up to 40 games per week
($150); all games out-of-market
National Football League
Package: SuperFan
Pricing: $90 per year for subscribers to DirecTVs NFL Sunday Package
Selection: All Sunday games (up to 14 per week)
National Hockey League
Package: GameCenter Live
Pricing: $21 per month or $170 per season
Selection: Up to 40 out-of-market games per week
_________________________________________________________________
To avoid alienating broadcast partners, many
leagues prevent streaming of in-market games
and make other efforts to curb cannibalization
of their other revenue streams. But fans are
demanding platform-agnostic access to games,
and sports leagues are increasingly willing to
provide it.
Paul Verna, Senior Analyst
eMarketer, 2/19/10
_________________________________________________________________
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20.5 Online Sports Video
According to Nielsen Online, a combined total of 204.9 million video streams
were viewed online at sports sites in December 2009. The top 10 sports sites in
December 2009, ranked by total video streams from home and work, were as follows:
Total Streams Unique Viewers
ESPN.com: 101.9 million 8.47 million
NBA.com: 27.7 million 986,000
NFL.com: 20.4 million 3.88 million
MLB.com: 18.4 million 2.56 million
Yahoo! Sports: 11.7 million 4.29 million
CBSsports.com: 6.5 million 1.60 million
FoxSports.com: 6.2 million 1.22 million
NHL.com: 4.5 million 1.08 million
GolfChannel.com: 3.9 million 426,000
WWE.com: 3.8 million 740,000
Among all online brands, ESPN.com ranked 10 in total streams viewed in
th
December 2009. For comparison, YouTube, which led all online brands, had 6.4 billion
total stream views.
20.6 Live Sports Online
With broadband Internet access at 66% in 2010 up from only 9.5% in 2001 and
58% in 2008 there are more sports fans seeking quality video to complement the up-
to-the-minute sports stats, highlights, and information that had initially drawn such fans
online.
The following is a summary of some of the live sports events accessible online:
ESPN3 (formerly ESPN360) will show more than 3,500 live sports events in 2010,
an increase from some 2,000 streamed in 2008. To watch ESPN3, a users Internet
service provider must have a licensing agreement with ESPN.
In 2010, more than five million college basketball fans watched March Madness on
their computers, streamed by CBS SportsLine and available free at NCAA.com.
Major League Baseball draws more than one million subscribers to its $89 MLB.TV
package of live baseball games and highlights.
More than 300 live college-football games are offered on sports sites such as
ESPN3 and CSTV.com.
Most regular season out-of-market hockey games are streamed on NHL.com.
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_________________________________________________________________
Long known for having the most tech savvy fan
base, the NHL has built out its website with
more multimedia bells and whistles than all the
other leagues combined.
SportsBusiness Journal, 2/22/10
_________________________________________________________________
Marquee events that drive television ratings are generally available on television
only and not streamed online.
_________________________________________________________________
Team loyalty is one of the determining factors
in deciding whether to monetize sports content
through advertising or fees. Events that draw
widespread popular interest but are not
necessarily fan-base-oriented the Olympics,
U.S. Open or March Madness lend themselves
to ad-supported streaming. By contrast,
team-oriented sports such as baseball, football,
basketball, hockey and soccer are well suited
for paid systems.
Paul Verna, Senior Analyst
eMarketer, 2/19/10
_________________________________________________________________
20.7 Market Resources
ComScore, 11465 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 200, Reston, VA 20190. (703) 438-2000.
(www.comscore.com)
eMarketer, 75 Broad Street, 32 Floor, New York, NY 10004. (212) 763-6010.
nd
(www.emarketer.com)
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Experian Hitwise Inc., 300 Park Avenue South, 9 Floor, New York, NY 10010.
th
(212) 380-2900. (www.hitwise.com)
Forrester Research, Harvard Square, P.O. Box 1091, Cambridge, MA 02237.
(617) 497-7090. (www.forrester.com)
The Nielsen Company, 770 Broadway, 13 Floor, New York, NY 10003.
th
(646) 654-7990. (www.nielsen.com)
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21
MOBILE
21.1 Overview
Mobile Access 2010, a report by the Pew Internet & American Life Project
(www.pewinternet.org), defines two types of wireless Internet user, with access as
follows:
Those online with a laptop using a wi-fi connection or mobile broadband card
Roughly half of all adults (47%) go online in this way, up from the 39% who did so in
2009.
Those using the Internet, email or instant messaging on a cellphone
Two-in-five adults (40%) access the Internet using a mobile device, an increase
from the 32% of adults who did so in 2009.
Taken together, 59% of American adults went online wirelessly in 2010 using
either a laptop or cellphone, an increase over the 51% of Americans who did so in
2009.
The Mobile Internet Report, published in December 2009 by Morgan Stanley
(www.morganstanley.com), predicts that within five years, more consumers will connect
to the Internet via a mobile device than on desktop computers.
_________________________________________________________________
The implication for sports, long term, likely will
be felt most on the multimedia side, as the rapid
adoption of mobile streaming video turns the
wireless device into a TV that fits in your pocket.
SportsBusiness Journal, 2/22/10
_________________________________________________________________
21.2 Most Popular Sites
According to The Changing Face Of Sports Media, published in January 2010 by
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The Nielsen Company (www.nielsen.com), the most popular mobile sites, ranked by
average monthly unique audience in 2009, are as follows:
ESPN: 8.78 million
Yahoo! Sports: 2.83 million
MLB.com: 2.69 million
Fox Sports: 2.61 million
NFL Internet Network: 2.60 million
NBA.com: 1.56 million
21.3 Apps for Professional Sports
Major wireless companies AT&T, T-Mobile, Sprint, and Verizon each sponsor
various professional sports leagues. These sponsorships influence the mobile
strategies for sports content.
_________________________________________________________________
As devices become more sophisticated, sports
properties must figure out a business model
that will please partners and consumers.
SportsBusiness Journal, 2/22/10
_________________________________________________________________
Mobile sports content for sports leagues are as follows:
Major League Baseball
The MLB At Bat app ($14.99 per season) offers audio from teams for every game, a
live telecast of at least one game a day, and a pitch track system. Robust versions
of MLB At Bat are available for the iPhone and iPod touch; scaled-down versions
are offered for BlackBerry, Android, and the mobile Web. The MLB.com Web TV
package ($99 per season) provides wireless delivery of every television telecast
other than those blacked out in local markets.
National Basketball Association
The NBA offers a range of mobile packages, including a scoreboard and in-game
box scores (free), a live radio broadcast app ($9.99), and the League Pass out-of-
market TV package ($39.99). The League Pass app, operated by MobiTV
(www.mobitv.com), is available for Android, BlackBerry, and iPhone.
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National Football League
An app delivered by DirecTV provides the NFL Sunday Ticket games ($100) for the
iPhone, Palm Pre, and some Android, BlackBerry, and Windows Mobile devices.
Sprint, an NFL sponsor, offers an NFL app for its phones.
National Hockey League
The NHL does not yet offer out-of-market televised games via mobile. Leaguewide
out-of-market audio of games were made available in late 2009.
_________________________________________________________________
Increases in smartphone ownership and mobile
data plan subscriptions are creating a growing
demand for streaming sports video content to
cellphones and other portable devices. U.S.
sports leagues are rising to this challenge by
extending online streaming packages to mobile
platforms. The NFL offers this capability as a
free add-on to its Supercast online streaming
service. The NBA and MLB sell mobile apps that
include access to select game content.
Paul Verna, Senior Analyst
eMarketer, 2/19/10
_________________________________________________________________
21.4 In-Game Enhancements and Promotions
Professional sports clubs offer game enhancements and promotions via
cellphone communications.
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_________________________________________________________________
This season, the New Meadowlands Stadium
will offer fans free smart-phone applications
that they can glance at to see video replays,
updated statistics and live video from other
games that will work only inside a stadium.
Over the next few years, stadium officials say,
the applications will provide fans with statistics
on the speed of players and the ball and fantasy
games that will allow them to pick players and
compete against other fans. A real-life game no
longer seems to be enough.
SportsBusiness Journal, 7/28/10
_________________________________________________________________
In-game text messaging is popular. Clubs use it for contests for fans to win
prizes as well as to register them for mobile alerts.
21.5 Market Resources
eMarketer, 75 Broad Street, 32 Floor, New York, NY 10004. (212) 763-6010.
nd
(www.emarketer.com)
Mobile Marketing Association, 1670 Broadway, Suite 850, Denver, CO 80202.
(303) 415-2550. (www.mmaglobal.com)
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PART III: MAJOR TEAM SPORTS
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22
MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL
22.1 Attendance
The Major League Baseball (MLB, www.mlb.com) season includes 2,429
regular-season games, with 30 teams playing 81 home games. Regular-season
average game attendance has been as follows:
2001: 30,045
2002: 28,166
2003: 28,046
2004: 31,402
2005: 30,923
2006: 31,419
2007: 32,785
2008: 32,543
2009: 30,351
Average home game attendance during the 2009 season for MLB teams was as
follows:
Los Angeles Dodgers: 46,440
New York Yankees: 45,364
Philadelphia Phillies: 44,453
St. Louis Cardinals: 41,274
Los Angeles Angels: 40,004
Chicago Cubs: 39,610
New York Mets: 38,941
Boston Red Sox: 37,811
Milwaukee Brewers: 37,499
San Francisco Giants: 35,322
Colorado Rockies: 32,902
Detroit Tigers: 31,693
Houston Astros: 31,124
Minnesota Twins: 29,466
Atlanta Braves: 29,304
Chicago White Sox: 28,199
Texas Rangers: 27,641
Seattle Mariners: 27,116
Arizona Diamondbacks: 26,281
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San Diego Padres: 23,735
Baltimore Orioles: 23,545
Toronto Blue Jays: 23,162
Tampa Bay Rays: 23,147
Washington Nationals: 22,715
Cleveland Indians: 22,492
Kansas City Royals: 22,473
Cincinnati Reds: 21,579
Pittsburgh Pirates: 19,479
Florida Marlins: 18,770
Oakland Athletics: 17,392
22.2 Team Valuations and Revenue
According to Forbes (April 7, 2010), valuations and revenue of MLB teams are
as follows:
Valuation Revenue
New York Yankees: $1.60 billion $441 million
Boston Red Sox: $ 870 million $266 million
New York Mets: $ 858 million $268 million
Los Angeles Dodgers: $ 727 million $247 million
Chicago Cubs: $ 726 million $246 million
Philadelphia Phillies: $ 537 million $233 million
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim: $ 521 million $217 million
St Louis Cardinals: $ 488 million $195 million
San Francisco Giants: $ 483 million $201 million
Chicago White Sox: $ 466 million $194 million
Houston Astros: $ 453 million $189 million
Texas Rangers: $ 451 million $180 million
Atlanta Braves: $ 450 million $188 million
Seattle Mariners: $ 439 million $191 million
San Diego Padres: $ 408 million $157 million
Minnesota Twins: $ 405 million $162 million
Cleveland Indians: $ 391 million $170 million
Washington Nationals: $ 387 million $184 million
Colorado Rockies: $ 384 million $183 million
Arizona Diamondbacks: $ 379 million $172 million
Baltimore Orioles: $ 376 million $171 million
Detroit Tigers: $ 375 million $188 million
Milwaukee Brewers: $ 351 million $171 million
Kansas City Royals: $ 341 million $155 million
Cincinnati Reds: $ 331 million $166 million
Toronto Blue Jays: $ 326 million $163 million
Florida Marlins: $ 317 million $144 million
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Tampa Bay Rays: $ 316 million $156 million
Oakland Athletics: $ 295 million $155 million
Pittsburgh Pirates: $ 289 million $145 million
22.3 Franchise Transactions
The most recent MLB team sales are as follows:
Year Price
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim: 2003 $200 million
Los Angeles Dodgers: 2004 $421 million
Tampa Bay Rays: 2004 $ 85 million
Oakland Athletics: 2005 $180 million
Milwaukee Brewers: 2005 $220 million
Cincinnati Reds: 2006 $270 million
Washington Nationals: 2006 $450 million
Atlanta Braves: 2007 $450 million
22.4 Fan Cost Index
Team Marketing Report (www.teammarketing.com) annually computes the Fan
Cost Index (FCI) for professional sports leagues and teams. FCI comprises the price of
two (2) adult average-price tickets, two (2) child average-price tickets, two (2) small
draft beers, four (4) small soft drinks, four (4) regular-size hot dogs, parking for one (1)
car, two (2) game programs, and two (2) least-expensive, adult-size caps.
For the 2010 season, the FCI for Major League Baseball was $194.98, a 0.7%
decrease from the previous season. The average ticket price was $26.74, a 1.5%
increase over the previous season. The average premium ticket price was $88.38.
These metrics for each team for the 2010 season are as follows:
FCI Avg. Ticket Avg. Prem. Ticket
Boston Red Sox: $333.78 $52.32 $100.85
Chicago Cubs: $329.74 $52.56 $256.98
New York Yankees: $316.32 $51.83 $312.11
Chicago White Sox: $249.60 $38.65 $ 94.24
Philadelphia Phillies: $227.46 $32.99 $ 65.86
New York Mets: $226.88 $32.22 $133.98
Los Angeles Dodgers: $221.64 $29.66 $222.38
San Francisco Giants: $220.66 $28.79 $ 76.36
St. Louis Cardinals: $216.56 $30.14 $ 67.43
Washington Nationals: $215.52 $30.63 $192.89
Houston Astros: $212.16 $29.29 $ 50.07
Toronto Blue Jays: $208.21 $23.84 $ 65.73
Minnesota Twins: $206.88 $31.47 $ 70.74
Seattle Mariners: $183.16 $25.53 $ 58.61
Cleveland Indians: $180.38 $22.12 $ 61.62
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Oakland Athletics: $179.80 $22.04 $ 45.95
Detroit Tigers: $172.13 $23.48 $ 69.74
Baltimore Orioles: $172.40 $23.42 $ 42.86
Florida Marlins: $170.26 $19.06 $ 70.36
Texas Rangers: $167.04 $20.65 $ 67.17
Kansas City Royals: $161.16 $19.38 $ 87.38
Colorado Rockies: $161.00 $19.50 $ 36.50
Milwaukee Brewers: $160.52 $22.10 $ 39.59
Atlanta Braves: $157.19 $17.05 $ 44.98
Cincinnati Reds: $151.14 $19.19 $ 60.23
Tampa Bay Rays: $141.19 $19.75 $ 64.32
Los Angeles Angels: $131.42 $18.93 $ 69.04
Pittsburgh Pirates: $126.32 $15.39 $ 42.67
San Diego Padres: $120.72 $15.15 $ 30.56
Arizona Diamondbacks: $115.84 $14.31 $ 60.24
22.5 Fan Loyalty
Brand Keys (www.brandkeys.com) assessed fan loyalty for each MLB team
during the 2010 season. The following teams were ranked highest in fan loyalty:
1 Boston Red Sox
2 New York Yankees
3 Philadelphia Phillies
4 (tie) Anaheim Angels
4 (tie) Los Angeles Dodgers
6 (tie) Minnesota Twins
6 (tie) Milwaukee Brewers
6 (tie) Houston Astros
22.6 Television Broadcasts
MLB and ESPN have been partners since 1990. ESPN pays MLB an average of
$296 million annually for the rights to regular-season games, through 2013.
TBS pays about $145 million a year for the rights to one of the league
championship series, the league division series, and 26 regular-season games. Fox
pays an average of $256 million a year (through 2013) for its Saturday afternoon
schedule, one league championship series, and the World Series.
Regular-season broadcast network ratings have been as follows (sources:
Nielsen Media Research and Sports Business Journal):
FOX Saturday Afternoon Telecasts
# Telecasts U.S. Rating
2005: 18 2.6
2006: 18 2.4
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2007: 26 2.3
2008: 26 2.0
2009: 26 1.8
ESPN Overall
# Telecasts Cable Rating
2006: 98 1.2
2007: 64 1.5
2008: 63 1.4
2009: 66 1.3
ESPN Sunday Night Baseball
# Telecasts Cable Rating
2005: 26 1.6
2006: 26 1.9
2007: 23 2.2
2008: 24 2.0
2009: 23 1.9
TBS Sunday Afternoon Telecasts
# Telecasts Cable Rating
2008: 26 0.6
2009: 28 0.7
In 2007, MLB signed a $700 million agreement with DirecTV to air exclusively its
out-of-market package of games through 2014.
In 2009, Major League Baseball launched its own 24-hour channel, with
viewership reaching approximately 50 million cable and satellite customers. The
channel carries 26 Saturday night games (some of which compete with local
broadcasts), archival and fantasy programming, studio shows, and some original
programming.
22.7 World Series
The 2009 World Series, which celebrated its 105 year, saw the New York
th
Yankees beat the Philadelphia Phillies in six games. Broadcast by Fox, the games,
posted an 11.4 average national rating. Broadcast nationally on Fox, game ratings
were as follows:
Ratings Share Audience
Game 1: 11.9 households 19 19.5 million
Game 2: 11.7 households 19 18.9 million
Game 3: 9.1 households 18 15.4 million
Game 4: 13.5 households 22 22.8 million
Game 5: 10.6 households 16 17.1 million
Game 6: 13.4 households 22 22.3 million
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World Series broadcast ratings on Fox have been as follows:
Games Avg. Rating Viewers
2003: 6 12.8 20.1 million
2004: 4 15.8 25.4 million
2005: 4 11.1 17.2 million
2006: 5 10.1 15.8 million
2007: 4 10.6 17.1 million
2008: 5 8.4 13.6 million
2009: 5 11.4 18.7 million
Note: The rating is the percentage of all homes with televisions watching the broadcast; share is the
percentage of TVs in use at the time that are tuned in.
22.8 MLB All-Star Game
Broadcast ratings on Fox for the MLB All-Star Game have been as follows:
2001: 11.0
2002: 9.5
2003: 9.5
2004: 8.8
2005: 8.1
2006: 8.3
2007: 8.4
2008: 9.3
2009: 8.9
2010: 7.5
According to SportsBusiness Journal, Fox sold 30-second spots for about
$525,000 for the 2010 All-Star Game broadcast.
Among all-star games of the major sports, MLB has consistently had the highest
ratings in recent years, followed by the NBA, NFL, NHL, and MLS.
The economic impact of recent All-Star Games on its host cities and
communities has been as follows:
2001 (Seattle): $ 50 million
2002 (Milwaukee): $ 50 million
2003 (Chicago): $ 60 million
2004 (Houston): $ 65 million
2005 (Detroit): $ 52 million
2006 (Pittsburgh): $ 52 million
2007 (San Francisco): $ 60 million to $65 million
2008 (New York City): $148 million
2009 (St. Louis): $ 60 million
2010 (Anaheim): $ 85 million
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22.9 Sponsorships
MLBs official sponsors for the 2010 season are Anheuser-Busch, Bank of
America, Bayer (One a Day), FIA Card Service, NA, Firestone, Frito Lay, Gatorade,
Gillette, General Motors (Chevy), InterContinental Hotels Group, KPMG, MasterCard
Worldwide, Nike, Pepsi-Cola, Scotts, State Farm, Taco Bell, and Sirius XM.
Sponsors of MLB.com are Anheuser-Busch, Bank of America, Bayer (One a
Day), Captain Morgan, Cisco, Dove, FIA Card Service, Firestone, Frito-Lay, Gatorade,
General Motors (Chevrolet), Gillette, InterContinental Hotels Group (Holiday Inn),
MasterCard International, Nike, Panasonic, Pepsi-Cola, Prudential, Scotts, Sears,
Sports Illustrated, Sprint, State Farm, Under Armour, U.S. Army, and U.S. Marines
Corps.
22.10 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, MLB fan distribution is as follows:
Gender
Men: 59%
Women: 41%
Age
12-to-17: 11%
18-to-24: 9%
25-to-34: 15%
35-to-44: 14%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 29%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 74%
Hispanic-American: 12%
African-American: 9%
Other: 5%
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23
NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION
23.1 Attendance
The NBA season includes 1,230 regular-season games, with 30 teams each
playing 41 home games. Regular-season average game attendance has been as
follows:
1997-1998: 17,135
1998-1999: 16,738
1999-2000: 16,135
2000-2001: 16,784
2001-2002: 16,974
2002-2003: 16,883
2003-2004: 16,994
2004-2005: 17,314
2005-2006: 17,543
2006-2007: 17,760
2007-2008: 17,311
2008-2009: 17,520
2009-2010: 17,149
Average home game attendance during the 2009-2010 season for NBA teams
was as follows:
Chicago Bulls: 20,725
Cleveland Cavaliers: 20,562
Portland Trailblazers: 20,497
Dallas Mavericks: 19,994
New York Knicks: 19,501
Utah Jazz: 19,378
Los Angeles Lakers: 18,997
Detroit Pistons: 18,751
Boston Celtics: 18,169
San Antonio Spurs: 18,089
Golden State Warriors: 18,027
Oklahoma City Thunder: 18,003
Denver Nuggets: 17,995
Toronto Raptors: 17,897
Miami Heat: 17,730
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Phoenix Suns: 17,648
Orlando Magic: 17,461
Atlanta Hawks: 16,545
Houston Rockets: 16,528
Los Angeles Clippers: 16,343
Washington Wizards: 16,204
Charlotte Bobcats: 15,824
New Orleans Hornets: 15,130
Milwaukee Bucks: 15,108
Minnesota Timberwolves: 15,101
Philadelphia 76ers: 14,224
Indiana Pacers: 14,202
Memphis Grizzlies: 13,485
Sacramento Kings: 13,254
New Jersey Nets: 13,103
23.2 Team Valuations and Revenue
According to Forbes (December 9, 2009), valuations and revenue of NBA teams
are as follows:
Valuation Revenue
Los Angeles Lakers: $607 million $209 million
New York Knicks: $586 million $202 million
Chicago Bulls: $511 million $168 million
Detroit Pistons: $479 million $171 million
Cleveland Cavaliers: $476 million $159 million
Houston Rockets: $470 million $160 million
Dallas Mavericks: $446 million $154 million
Boston Celtics: $433 million $144 million
Phoenix Suns: $429 million $148 million
San Antonio Spurs: $398 million $133 million
Toronto Raptors: $386 million $133 million
Miami Heat: $364 million $126 million
Orlando Magic: $361 million $107 million
Philadelphia 76ers: $344 million $115 million
Utah Jazz: $343 million $118 million
Portland Trail Blazers: $338 million $121 million
Denver Nuggets: $321 million $115 million
Golden State Warriors: $315 million $113 million
Washington Wizards: $313 million $110 million
Oklahoma City Thunder: $310 million $111 million
Atlanta Hawks: $306 million $103 million
Sacramento Kings: $305 million $109 million
Los Angeles Clippers: $295 million $102 million
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Indiana Pacers: $281 million $ 97 million
Charlotte Bobcats: $278 million $ 96 million
New Jersey Nets: $269 million $ 92 million
Minnesota Timberwolves: $268 million $ 96 million
New Orleans Hornets: $267 million $ 95 million
Memphis Grizzlies: $257 million $ 88 million
Milwaukee Bucks: $254 million $ 91 million
23.3 Franchise Transactions
The most recent NBA team sales are as follows:
Year Price
Boston Celtics: 2003 $360 million
Phoenix Suns: 2004 $401 million
New Jersey Nets: 2004 $300 million
Atlanta Hawks/Thrashers: 2004 $250 million*
Cleveland Cavaliers: 2005 $375 million
Oklahoma City Thunder: 2006 $350 million
New Jersey Nets: 2009 $380 million**
Charlotte Bobcats: 2010 $270 million
Golden State Warriors: 2010 $450 million

* total price for sale of NBA and NHL teams, which were sold together
** price for 80% stake in the team and 45% of the Brooklyn arena at Atlantic Yards; includes
$180 million in assumed debt
23.4 Fan Cost Index
Team Marketing Report (www.teammarketing.com) annually computes the Fan
Cost Index (FCI) for professional sports leagues and teams. FCI comprises the price of
two (2) adult average-price tickets, two (2) child average-price tickets, two (2) small
draft beers, four (4) small soft drinks, four (4) regular-size hot dogs, parking for one (1)
car, two (2) game programs, and two (2) least-expensive, adult-size caps.
For the 2008-2009 season (most recent data available as of September 2010),
the FCI for the National Basketball Association was $281.90, a 3.5% increase over the
previous season. The average ticket price was $49.47, a 1.3% increase over the
previous season. These metrics for each team were as follows:
FCI Avg. Ticket
Los Angeles Lakers: $479.48 $93.25
New York Knicks: $420.04 $70.51
Boston Celtics: $389.20 $68.55
Phoenix Suns: $355.63 $64.16
Miami Heat: $352.20 $58.55
Dallas Mavericks: $344.86 $62.10
Chicago Bulls: $344.50 $64.25
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Portland Trailblazers: $329.83 $61.21
San Antonio Spurs: $329.48 $56.37
Sacramento Kings: $318.20 $59.80
Los Angeles Clippers: $316.50 $54.50
New Jersey Nets: $309.42 $54.98
Cleveland Cavaliers: $293.78 $55.95
Denver Nuggets: $287.70 $47.30
Toronto Raptors: $284.17 $45.31
Detroit Pistons: $284.00 $47.50
Houston Rockets: $279.11 $43.40
Milwaukee Bucks: $273.42 $47.86
Philadelphia 76ers: $272.98 $43.00
Golden State Warriors: $267.00 $39.00
Utah Jazz: $252.60 $43.90
Indiana Pacers: $252.36 $41.09
Oklahoma City Thunder: $337.40 $36.35
Atlanta Hawks: $335.59 $36.90
Orlando Magic: $234.70 $40.30
Minnesota Timberwolves: $230.04 $36.26
Charlotte Bobcats: $213.51 $33.25
Washington Wizards: $203.56 $29.14
New Orleans Hornets: $192.68 $25.17
Memphis Grizzlies: $182.94 $24.11
23.5 Fan Loyalty
Brand Keys (www.brandkeys.com) assessed fan loyalty for each NBA team
during the 2009-2010 season. The following teams were ranked highest in fan loyalty:
1 San Antonio Spurs
2 Los Angeles Lakers
3 (tie) Boston Celtics
3 (tie) Phoenix Suns
5 (tie) Dallas Mavericks
5 (tie) Detroit Pistons
7 Utah Jazz
23.6 Television Broadcasts
In 2007, the NBA announced extensions of its television broadcast rights
contracts with ABC/ESPN and TNT/Turner Sports. The deals, which run through the
2015-2016 season, include the allowance for the networks to broadcast live games and
other content on digital media.
Regular-season broadcast network ratings (number of broadcasts in
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parenthesis) for the NBA have been as follows (sources: Multichannel News, Sports
Business Journal, and the networks):
ABC ESPN TNT ESPN2
2003-2004: 2.4 (18) 1.3 (64) 1.4 (53) 0.6 (21)
2004-2005: 2.3 (18) 1.2 (66) 1.3 (53) 0.6 (18)
2005-2006: 2.2 (20) 1.2 (65) 1.3 (52) 0.6 (21)
2006-2007: 2.0 (19) 1.2 (69) 1.2 (52) 0.6 (21)
2007-2008: 2.2 (19) 1.3 (70) 1.1 (52) 0.6 (20)
NBA TV, launched by the league in 1999, is available to approximately 12 million
subscribers of cable and satellite sports tiers. The network broadcasts 96 regular-
season games that are not included in its broadcast rights deals with networks.
23.7 NBA Finals
The following are recent ratings of NBA Finals broadcasts (sources: Nielsen
Media Research, Sports Business Journal, and USA Today):
2007 (ABC): 6.2 (4 telecasts) 9.3 million viewers
2008 (ABC): 9.3 (6 telecasts) 14.9 million viewers
2009 (ABC): 8.4 (5 telecasts) 14.3 million viewers
2010 (ABC): 10.6 (7 telecasts) 18.1 million viewers
23.8 NBA All-Star Game
Recent NBA All-Star games have had the following viewership on TNT (Source:
Nielsen Media Research and Sports Business Journal):
2007: 6.8 million
2008: 6.3 million
2009: 7.6 million
2010: 6.8 million
23.9 Sponsorships
NBA marketing partners are Adidas, AutoTrader.com, Budweiser (Anheuser-
Busch), Dasani (Coca-Cola Co.), EA Sports, FedEx, Gatorade (PepsiCo), Haier, Kia
Motors, Lamasil (Novartis Pharmaceutical), Lenovo, McDonalds, Nike, Minute Maid
(Coca-Cola Co.), Right Guard, Southwest Airlines, Spaulding, Sprite (Coca-Cola Co.),
T-Mobile, Toyota, Wrigley, and Sirius XM Radio.
23.10 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, NBA fan distribution is as follows:
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Gender
Men: 60%
Women: 40%
Age
12-to-17: 16%
18-to-24: 15%
25-to-34: 18%
35-to-44: 13%
45-to-54: 18%
55 and older: 21%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 65%
African-American: 15%
Hispanic-American: 14%
Other: 6%
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24
NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE
24.1 Attendance
The NFL season includes 256 regular-season games, with 32 teams each
playing eight home games. Regular-season average game attendance has been as
follows:
2000: 66,896
2001: 65,187
2002: 66,282
2003: 66,328
2004: 66,409
2005: 66,455
2006: 67,738
2007: 67,775
2008: 66,625
2009: 65,043
Average paid attendance in 2009 represented more than 90% of stadium
capacity. Average home game attendance during the 2009 season for NFL teams was
as follows:
Dallas Cowboys: 89,756
Washington Redskins: 84,794
New York Giants: 78,701
New York Jets: 77,052
Denver Broncos: 75,116
Carolina Panthers: 73,289
Baltimore Ravens: 71,082
Green Bay Packers: 70,708
Houston Texans: 70,608
Buffalo Bills: 70,128
New Orleans Saints: 70,105
San Francisco 49ers: 69,732
Philadelphia Eagles: 69,144
Tennessee Titans: 69,143
Cleveland Browns: 68,888
New England Patriots: 68,756
Atlanta Falcons: 68,173
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San Diego Chargers: 67,543
Miami Dolphins: 67,542
Kansas City Chiefs: 67,514
Seattle Seahawks: 67,392
Indianapolis Colts: 66,549
Cincinnati Bengals: 64,004
Minnesota Vikings: 63,775
Pittsburgh Steelers: 63,485
Arizona Cardinals: 63,142
Tampa Bay Buccaneers: 62,991
Chicago Bears: 62,250
St. Louis Rams: 55.237
Jacksonville Jaguars: 49,651
Detroit Lions: 49,395
Oakland Raiders: 44,284
24.2 Team Valuations and Revenue
According to Forbes (August 24, 2010), valuations and revenue of NFL teams
are as follows:
Valuation Revenue
Dallas Cowboys: $1.80 billion $420 million
Washington Redskins: $1.55 billion $353 million
New England Patriots: $1.36 billion $318 million
New York Giants: $1.18 billion $241 million
Houston Texans: $1.17 billion $272 million
New York Jets: $1.14 billion $238 million
Philadelphia Eagles: $1.12 billion $260 million
Baltimore Ravens: $1.07 billion $255 million
Chicago Bears: $1.07 billion $254 million
Denver Broncos: $1.05 billion $250 million
Indianapolis Colts: $1.04 billion $248 million
Carolina Panthers: $1.03 billion $247 million
Tampa Bay Buccaneers: $1.03 billion $246 million
Green Bay Packers: $1.02 billion $242 million
Cleveland Browns: $1.01 billion $242 million
Miami Dolphins: $1.01 billion $247 million
Pittsburgh Steelers: $ 996 million $243 million
Tennessee Titans: $ 994 million $242 million
Seattle Seahawks: $ 989 million $241 million
Kansas City Chiefs: $ 965 million $235 million
New Orleans Saints: $ 955 million $245 million
San Francisco 49ers: $ 925 million $226 million
Arizona Cardinals: $ 919 million $236 million
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San Diego Chargers: $ 907 million $233 million
Cincinnati Bengals: $ 905 million $232 million
Atlanta Falcons: $ 831 million $231 million
Detroit Lions: $ 817 million $210 million
Buffalo Bills: $ 799 million $228 million
St Louis Rams: $ 779 million $223 million
Minnesota Vikings: $ 774 million $221 million
Oakland Raiders: $ 758 million $217 million
Jacksonville Jaguars: $ 725 million $220 million
Valued at $1.8 billion, the Dallas Cowboys is the most valuable professional
sports team in the United States.
24.3 Franchise Transactions
Recent NFL team sales have been as follows:
Year Price
Baltimore Ravens: 2004 $ 325 million for 49% stake
Minnesota Vikings: 2005 $ 600 million
Miami Dolphins: 2008 $1.00 billion for 95% stake
24.4 Fan Cost Index
Team Marketing Report (www.teammarketing.com) annually computes the Fan
Cost Index (FCI) for professional sports leagues and teams. FCI comprises the price of
two (2) adult average-price tickets, two (2) child average-price tickets, two (2) small
draft beers, four (4) small soft drinks, four (4) regular-size hot dogs, parking for one (1)
car, two (2) game programs, and two (2) least-expensive, adult-size caps.
For the 2009-2010 season, the FCI for the National Football League was
$412.64, a 4.1% increase over the previous season. The average ticket price was
$74.99, a 3.9% increase over the previous season. And the average premium ticket
price was $226.23. These metrics for each team for the 2009-2010 season are as
follows:
FCI Avg. Ticket Avg. Prem. Ticket
Dallas Cowboys: $758.58 $159.65 $340.00
New England Patriots: $597.25 $117.84 $566.67
Chicago Bears: $501.33 $ 88.33 $312.50
New York Giants: $483.02 $ 88.06 $115.00
Baltimore Ravens: $481.69 $ 86.20 $241.84
New York Jets: $476.26 $ 86.99 $390.20
Indianapolis Colts: $452.16 $ 82.13 $246.17
Kansas City Chiefs: $445.76 $ 80.69 $139.00
Washington Redskins: $441.43 $ 79.13 $254.56
San Diego Chargers: $436.56 $ 81.39 $170.00
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Denver Broncos: $410.51 $ 76.75 $356.31


St. Louis Rams: $404.32 $ 70.20 $163.67
Tampa Bay Buccaneers: $399.40 $ 74.25 $295.00
Pittsburgh Steelers: $391.88 $ 67.47 $204.34
Philadelphia Eagles: $387.50 $ 69.00 $202.82
Minnesota Vikings: $386.92 $ 73.23 $173.23
Atlanta Falcons: $385.79 $ 72.45 $228.55
Cincinnati Bengals: $384.41 $ 69.85 $196.81
Houston Texans: $383.92 $ 68.48 $260.17
Detroit Lions: $380.88 $ 65.72 $150.68
Seattle Seahawks: $378.49 $ 61.25 $151.96
Green Bay Packers: $376.95 $ 63.39 $232.29
San Francisco 49ers: $376.71 $ 70.55 n/a
Miami Dolphins: $366.42 $ 65.61 $180.00
Arizona Cardinals: $364.38 $ 67.10 $211.08
Oakland Raiders: $359.90 $ 62.23 $139.93
Tennessee Titans: $356.79 $ 60.95 $158.27
New Orleans Saints: $353.89 $ 62.22 $147.68
Cleveland Browns: $336.11 $ 54.65 $198.47
Carolina Panthers: $330.67 $ 63.32 $179.13
Jacksonville Jaguars: $310.28 $ 57.34 $229.17
Buffalo Bills: $303.96 $ 51.24 $177.87
24.5 Fan Loyalty
Brand Keys (www.brandkeys.com) assessed fan loyalty for each NFL team
during the 2010 season. The following teams were ranked highest in fan loyalty:
1 Indianapolis Colts
2 New England Patriots
3 Pittsburgh Steelers
4 Tennessee Titans
5 Detroit Lions
24.6 Television Broadcasts
The NFL has broadcast rights contracts with CBS, ESPN, Fox, NBC, and
DirecTV. Current deals, as of the 2010 season, are as follows:
American Football Conference Sunday afternoon broadcasts: CBS
National Football Conference Sunday afternoon broadcasts: Fox
Sunday Night Football: NBC
Monday Night Football: ESPN
Sunday Ticket Package: DirecTV
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The deal between the NFL and ESPN, transacted in 2005, is for $8.8 billion over
eight years (2006-2013). The NFLs deals with CBS, Fox, NBC, and DirecTV, worth
$11.5 billion, date to 2004.
NFL game broadcast ratings have been as follows (sources: Nielsen Media
Research and the NFL):
Avg. Rating Avg. Viewers
2002: 10.4 15.8 million
2003: 10.3 15.5 million
2004: 10.1 15.4 million
2005: 10.1 15.6 million
2006: 10.4 16.3 million
2007: 10.6 16.6 million
2008: 10.2 16.6 million
2009: 11.1 18.4 million
The National Football League launched the NFL Network in 2003. The channel
broadcasts highlights, classic games, and other content from the more than 4,000
hours of footage available in the NFL library. In 2006, the NFL Network began
broadcasting eight primetime regular-season NFL games, dubbed The Run to the
Playoffs.
24.7 Super Bowl
The Super Bowl is, by far, the biggest TV event of the year. Recent television
ratings have been as follows (sources: Nielsen Media Research and Sports Business
Journal):
Super Bowl XXXIX (2005): 41.1 (Fox) 86.4 million viewers
Super Bowl XL (2006): 41.6 (ABC) 89.2 million viewers
Super Bowl XLI (2007): 42.6 (CBS) 93.2 million viewers
Super Bowl XLII (2008): 43.2 (Fox) 97.4 million viewers
Super Bowl XLIII (2009): 43.8 (ABC) 98.7 million viewers
Super Bowl XLIX (2010): 45.0 (CBS) 106.5 million viewers
The Super Bowl television audience is approximately 57% male. With most
broadcasts of sports events typically of a 70% male audience, the Super Bowl actually
attracts more women than other events. Worldwide, viewership is estimated at 800
million.
The Super Bowl has become the top at-home party event of the year, surpassing
New Years Eve. Behind only Thanksgiving, Super Sunday is the second-biggest day
of food consumption.
The Super Bowls advertising lineup has become its own high-stakes competition
for marketers who produce the most provocative and of-the-moment ads they can. The
event can be an ideal launchpad for a new product, new company, or name change.
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According to NBC, the entry price for a 30-second ad during Super Bowl XLIII
was $3 million. The game was February 1, 2009 in Tampa. NBC generated a record
$206 million in advertising revenue for 69 ad spots for the game telecast and $261
million for the entire day.
Future Super Bowl locations and networks providing the broadcasts are as
follows:
Location Network
2011: Dallas Fox
2012: Indianapolis ABC
2013: New Orleans NBC
2014: Meadowlands Fox
24.8 Pro Bowl
The NFL Pro Bowl is held annually in Honolulu, two-weeks following the Super
Bowl. Recent games have had Nielsen ratings as follows (Source: Nielsen Media
Research and Sports Business Journal):
2005: 5.1 (ESPN) 7.8 million viewers
2006: 4.5 (ESPN) 7.0 million viewers
2007: 4.6 (CBS) 7.3 million viewers
2008: 6.3 (Fox) 10.1 million viewers
2009: 5.4 (NBC) 8.8 million viewers
2010: 7.2 (ESPN) 12.3 million viewers
The 2010 Pro Bowl was played at Sun Life Stadium in South Florida, the first
time since 1980 that the game was played somewhere other than Honolulu.
24.9 Sponsorships
NFL sponsors are Bank of America, Bridgestone, Campbell Soup, Canon USA,
FedEx, Frito-Lay, Gatorade, General Motors, IBM, Mars Snackfood, MillerCoors (Coors
Light), Monster.com, Motorola, National Dairy Council, National Guard, News America,
Pepsi-Cola, Prilosec OTC, Proctor & Gamble (Head & Shoulders and Old Spice),
Samsung, Sprint, State Farm, Ticketmaster, Tropicana, and Visa.
24.10 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, NFL fan distribution is as follows:
Gender
Men: 59%
Women: 41%
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Age
12-to-17: 12%
18-to-24: 11%
25-to-34: 19%
35-to-44: 15%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 22%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 73%
African-American: 11%
Hispanic-American: 11%
Other: 5%
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25
NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE
25.1 Attendance
The NHL season includes 1,230 regular-season games, with 30 teams each
playing 41 home games. Regular-season average game attendance has been as
follows:
2000-2001: 16,563
2001-2002: 16,760
2002-2003: 16,592
2003-2004: 16,533
2004-2005: season cancelled
2005-2006: 16,954
2006-2007: 16,956
2007-2008: 17,308
2008-2009: 17,460
2009-2010: 17,070
Average home game attendance during the 2009-2010 season for NHL teams
was as follows:
Chicago Blackhawks: 21,356
Montreal Canadiens: 21,273
Detroit Red Wings: 19,546
Philadelphia Flyers: 19,535
Calgary Flames: 19,289
Toronto Maple Leafs: 19,260
St. Louis Blues: 18,883
Vancouver Canucks: 18,810
Buffalo Sabres: 18,529
Minnesota Wild: 18,415
Washington Capitals: 18,277
Ottawa Senators: 18,269
New York Rangers: 18,076
San Jose Sharks: 17,558
Boston Bruins: 17,388
Los Angeles Kings: 17,313
Dallas Stars: 17,215
Pittsburgh Penguins: 17,078
Edmonton Oilers: 16,839
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New Jersey Devils: 15,535
Tampa Bay Lightning: 15,497
Columbus Blue Jackets: 15,416
Carolina Hurricanes: 15,240
Anaheim Ducks: 15,168
Florida Panthers: 15,146
Nashville Predators: 14,979
Colorado Avalanche: 13,947
Atlanta Thrashers: 13,607
New York Islanders: 12,735
Phoenix Coyotes: 11,989
25.2 Team Valuations and Revenue
According to Forbes (November 11, 2009), valuations and revenue of NHL
teams are as follows:
Valuation Revenue
Toronto Maple Leafs: $470 million $168 million
New York Rangers: $416 million $139 million
Montreal Canadiens: $339 million $130 million
Detroit Red Wings: $337 million $130 million
Philadelphia Flyers: $273 million $101 million
Boston Bruins: $271 million $108 million
Chicago Blackhawks: $258 million $108 million
Dallas Stars: $246 million $ 97 million
Vancouver Canucks: $239 million $109 million
New Jersey Devils: $223 million $ 97 million
Pittsburgh Penguins: $222 million $ 93 million
Minnesota Wild: $210 million $ 95 million
Los Angeles Kings: $208 million $ 92 million
Anaheim Ducks: $206 million $ 94 million
Colorado Avalanche: $205 million $ 84 million
Calgary Flames: $200 million $ 95 million
Ottawa Senators: $197 million $ 90 million
Tampa Bay Lightning: $191 million $ 80 million
San Jose Sharks: $184 million $ 84 million
Washington Capitals: $183 million $ 83 million
Carolina Hurricanes: $177 million $ 82 million
St Louis Blues: $176 million $ 80 million
Buffalo Sabres: $170 million $ 79 million
Edmonton Oilers: $166 million $ 83 million
Columbus Blue Jackets: $165 million $ 77 million
Florida Panthers: $159 million $ 74 million
Nashville Predators: $156 million $ 71 million
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New York Islanders: $149 million $ 62 million
Atlanta Thrashers: $143 million $ 68 million
Phoenix Coyotes: $138 million $ 66 million
25.3 Franchise Transactions
Recent NHL team sales are as follows:
Year Price
Ottawa Senators: 2003 $110 million
Buffalo Sabres: 2003 $ 92 million
Atlanta Thrashers/Hawks: 2004 $250 million*
St. Louis Blues: 2006 $150 million
Nashville Predators: 2007 $193 million
Phoenix Coyotes: 2009 $140 million
* total price for sale of NHL and NBA teams, which were sold together
25.4 Fan Cost Index
Team Marketing Report (www.teammarketing.com) annually computes the Fan
Cost Index (FCI) for professional sports leagues and teams. FCI comprises the price of
two (2) adult average-price tickets, two (2) child average-price tickets, two (2) small
draft beers, four (4) small soft drinks, four (4) regular-size hot dogs, parking for one (1)
car, two (2) game programs, and two (2) least-expensive, adult-size caps.
For the 2008-2009 season, the FCI for the National Hockey League was
$288.23, a 5.5% increase over the previous season. The average ticket price was
$49.68, a 5.1% increase over the previous season. These metrics for each team for
the 2008-2009 season are as follows:
FCI Avg. Ticket
Toronto Maple Leafs: $411.30 $76.15
Montreal Canadiens: $361.25 $64.26
Boston Bruins: $352.60 $61.40
New York Rangers: $348.84 $54.96
New Jersey Devils: $339.60 $57.15
Minnesota Wild: $338.12 $61.28
Vancouver Canucks: $334.43 $62.05
Philadelphia Flyers: $322.80 $60.25
Calgary Flames: $312.44 $55.81
Chicago Blackhawks: $312.38 $52.22
Florida Panthers: $309.44 $52.61
Edmonton Oilers: $294.61 $54.17
New York Islanders: $287.86 $48.84
Los Angeles Kings: $281.31 $47.20
Detroit Red Wings: $279.40 $46.60
Columbus Blue Jackets: $278.66 $47.76
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Pittsburgh Penguins: $276.30 $51.45
Ottawa Senators: $276.09 $48.82
Anaheim Ducks: $274.50 $43.50
Nashville Predators: $273.38 $47.22
San Jose Sharks: $269.78 $43.07
Atlanta Thrashers: $262.48 $48.51
Tampa Bay Lightning: $250.64 $42.41
Washington Capitals: $244.64 $41.66
Dallas Stars: $244.18 $37.80
Colorado Avalanche: $242.96 $40.62
Buffalo Sabres: $222.72 $36.43
Phoenix Coyotes: $221.80 $37.45
Carolina Hurricanes: $229.52 $38.38
St. Louis Blues: $193.26 $29.94
25.5 Fan Loyalty
Brand Keys (www.brandkeys.com) assessed fan loyalty for each NHL team
during the 2010 season. The following teams were ranked highest in fan loyalty:
1 Detroit Red Wings
2 Philadelphia Flyers
3 San Jose Sharks
4 New Jersey Devils
5 Boston Bruins
By the NHLs count, there are some 53 million avid hockey fans in North
America. And though they are among the most loyal in sports, this enthusiasm does
not transfer across the entire sport with many fans.
_________________________________________________________________
Our fans say they love hockey, but they dont
behave like they love hockey. They behave like
a million fans of the New York Rangers, a
million fans of the Chicago Blackhawks. The
passion they have is at a local level, but that
doesnt translate to passion at a league level.
John Collins, V.P. Business and Media
National Hockey League
Brandweek
_________________________________________________________________
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This localization tends to influence television viewing. Many hockey fans, for
example, are less likely to tune in to the Stanley Cup playoffs once their favorite team is
out of the running, compared to baseball fans with the World Series after their favorite
team is eliminated. Current marketing efforts of the league are aimed, in part, at
scaling local enthusiasm to the national level.
25.6 Television Broadcasts
NBC broadcasts 10 regular-season NHL games. NHL games are also broadcast
on Versus, which has a broadcast-rights deal through 2011. The number of viewers
during the 2009-2010 season were as follows (change from previous season in
parenthesis; source: The Nielsen Company):
# Telecasts Avg. No. Viewers
NBC: 10 1.14 million (-29.6%)
Versus: 56 311,000 (0.3%)
The league launched the NHL Network in October 2007 with cable distribution
thorough Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Cablevision Systems, and Cox
Communications, as well as satellite distribution thorough DirecTV and EchoStar,
mostly on dedicated sports tiers. The network broadcast 50 live games during the
2009-2010 season.
25.7 Stanley Cup
The 2010 Stanley Cup Final Game 6 between the Chicago Blackhawks and
Philadelphia Flyers on NBC Sports had 8.3 million viewers, making this the
most-watched and highest-rated NHL game in 36 years.
The first five Stanley Cup Final games on NBC and Versus averaged 4.6 million
viewers per game, up 10% from the 2009 games.
Matchups in championship games influence viewership in all sports, and this is
particularly true with hockey. The NHL was fortunate in 2010 to feature two very strong
hockey cities in the finals.
25.8 Sponsorships
For the 2010-2011 season, NHL Corporate Marketing Partners are Bell Mobility,
Bell Sympatico, Bridgestone, Bud Lite, Canadian Tire, Cisco, Compuware, Energizer,
Enterprise, Gatorade, Geico, Honda, Kraft Foods, LG, McDonalds, Pepsi Max, Reebok,
Scotia Bank, Sirius XM Satellite Radio, Starwood Hotels & Resorts, Ticketmaster, U.S.
Army, Verizon Wireless, and Visa.
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25.9 Fan Demographics
A 2009 survey by International Demographics (www.themediaaudit.com) found
that 22.7% of adults follow professional hockey on television or radio. Among those
earning more that $100,000 in household income, 26.2% follow the sport.
According to the 2010 ESPN Sports Poll, NHL fan distribution is as follows:
Gender
Men: 64%
Women: 36%
Age
12-to-17: 13%
18-to-24: 11%
25-to-34: 18%
35-to-44: 21%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 17%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 78%
Hispanic-American: 9%
African-American: 8%
Other: 5%
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26
MAJOR LEAGUE SOCCER
26.1 Overview
Major League Soccer (MLS, www.mlsnet.com) launched in 1996. The regular
season runs April through October.
The league expanded to 14 teams in 2008, with the reintroduction of a team in
San Jose, and to 15 teams in 2009, with the addition the Seattle Sounders FC. The
league expanded to 16 teams for the 2010 season when Philadelphia Union began
play. MLS is scheduled to include 18 teams for the 2011 season and 19 teams by
2012.
26.2 Attendance
Each MLS team plays 15 home games. Regular-season average game
attendance has been as follows:
1996: 17,406
1997: 14,619
1998: 14,312
1999: 14,282
2000: 13,756
2001: 14,961
2002: 15,882
2003: 14,898
2004: 15,559
2005: 15,108
2006: 15,390
2007: 16,770
2008: 16,459
2009: 16,120
Total and average home game attendance during the 2009 season for MLS
teams was as follows:
Total Average
Seattle Sounders FC: 499,262 31,203
Los Angeles Galaxy: 333,239 20,827
Toronto FC: 305,167 20,344
Real Salt Lake: 303,138 17,831
Houston Dynamo: 264,368 17,624
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Chivas USA: 251,611 15,725
DC United: 202,605 15,585
Chicago Fire: 247,793 15,487
Columbus Crew: 226,808 14,175
Colorado Rapids: 195,282 13,018
New York Red Bulls: 165,672 12,744
New England Revolution: 173,985 12,427
San Jose Earthquakes: 134,283 10,329
Kansas City Wizards: 150,802 10,053
FC Dallas: 108,717 9,883
26.3 Television Broadcasts
In 2006, MLS signed four broadcast rights deals worth approximately $20 million
annually, as follows:
ESPN/ABC
$7 million to $8 million through 2015
Twenty-six (26) regular-season games (primarily on Thursday nights) and three
playoff matches on ESPN/ESPN2; the season opener, All-Star game, and MLS Cup
on ABC
Univision/TeleFutura (Spanish-language rights)
$9 million to $10 million through 2015
Twenty-five (25) regular-season games and three playoff matches
Fox Soccer Channel
$2.2 million through 2018
MLS Game of the Week on Saturday Nights, three playoff matches
HDNet
$2.5 million through 2010
Twenty-six (26) regular-season games (13 of which are exclusive) and up to three
post-season games
Regular-season average ratings for MLS broadcasts on ESPN2 have been as
follows (sources: Nielsen Media Research and Sports Business Journal):
Telecasts Rating Viewers
2006: 21 0.2 263,000
2007: 25 0.2 289,000
2008: 26 0.2 253,000
According to The Nielsen Company, MLS TV viewership in 2009 was as follows:
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# Telecasts Avg. # of Viewers
Regular season, cable: 62 172,000
Regular season, Spanish language TV: 24 229,000
Playoff games, cable: 9 404,000
Playoff games, Spanish language TV: 2 371,000
The MLS Cup Championship Game, broadcast on ESPN2, had 1.14 million
viewers. Real Salt Lake defeated Los Angeles Galaxy in the game.
Beginning with the 2007 season, when the Toronto FC team was added, CBC,
The Score, and Rogers Sportsnet began launches of broadcasts of Toronto matches
nationwide.
The leagues MLS Direct Kick package, which broadcasts out-of-market matches,
has been expanded to ensure that every league match is aired. MLSNET.com also
offers streaming live video of some matches.
26.4 Sponsorships
Official sponsors of MLS for 2010 are Adidas, AT&T, Aquafina, Budweiser,
Castrol, Chase, Continental Tire, Degree, Dicks Sporting Goods, Gatorade, Glidden,
Makita, NAPA, Panasonic, Pepsi, Red Bull, The Home Depot, US Soccer Foundation,
Volkswagen, Visa, and Xbox 360.
Jersey sponsorship deals are as follows (Sports Business Journal):
Sponsor Annual Amount
Los Angeles Galaxy: Herbalife $4.0 million to $5.0 million
Toronto FC: Bank of Montreal more than $4.0 million
Seattle Souncers FC: Microsoft $4,0 million
D.C. United: Volkswagen $3.1 million to $3.7 million
Chicago Fire: Best Buy $2.6 million
Chivas USA: Comex Group $2.0 million-plus
Houston Dynamo: Amigo Energy $1.9 million
Columbus Crew: Glidden $1.0 million
Real Salt Lake: XanGo $1.0 million
Vancouver Whitecaps: Bell Canada n/a
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_________________________________________________________________
MLS was the first professional sports league in
the U.S. to permit advertising on uniforms when
it approved the practice in 2006. More than half
the leagues teams managed to sell a jersey
sponsorship, boosting those clubs bottom
lines by $1 million to as much as $5 million.
Other leagues [the WNBA and Womens
Professional Soccer] have followed suit in
hopes of generating revenue.
SportsBusiness Journal, 6/28/10
_________________________________________________________________
MLS is the only league that has approved the naming of a team after a
consumer product brand. The first, the New York Red Bulls, was named by the energy
drink company that acquired the team in 2006.
26.5 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, MLS fan distribution is as follows:
Gender
Men: 61%
Women: 39%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 61%
Hispanic-American: 23%
African-American: 9%
Other: 7%
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27
WOMENS NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION
27.1 Overview
The Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA, www.wnba.com) season
runs May (pre-season) through September, with each team playing 17 home games.
Twelve (12) teams competed in the 2010 season.
Several WNBA teams have NBA counterparts and play in the same arena.
27.2 Attendance
Regular-season average game attendance has been as follows (change from
previous season in parenthesis):
1997: 9,669 (inaugural season)
1998: 10,869 (12.4%)
1999: 10,207 (-6.1%)
2000: 9,072 (-11.1%)
2001: 9,075 (0.0%)
2002: 9,228 (1.7%)
2003: 8,800 (-4.3%)
2004: 8,613 (-4.1%)
2005: 8,172 (-4.5%)
2006: 7,490 (7.0%)
2007: 7,750 (1.7%)
2008: 7,948 (2.4%)
2009: 8,039 (1.1%)
2010: 7,834 (-2.6%)
Average home game attendance during the 2010 season for WNBA teams was
as follows:
New York Liberty: 11,069
Los Angeles Sparks: 9,468
Washington Mystics: 9,357
Phoenix Mercury: 8,982
Seattle Storm: 8,322
Indiana Fever: 8,265
San Antonio Silver Stars: 8,023
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Minnesota Lynx: 7,622
Connecticut Sun: 7,490
Atlanta Dream: 6,088
Tulsa Shock: 4,812
Chicago Sky: 4,293
27.3 Television Broadcasts
WNBA games are televised by ABC, ESPN2 and NBA TV. The broadcast rights
deal with ESPN and ABC runs through the 2016 season. ABC broadcasts the first
regular season game and the All-Star game.
Viewership on ESPN2 has been as follows
Regular Season Playoffs
2008: 248,000 282,000
2009: 269,000 435,000
2010: 250,000
27.4 Sponsors
WNBA marketing partners for the 2010 season are 1-800-Flowers.com, Adidas,
Body by Milk, EA Sports, Gatorade, General Mills, Hewlett-Packard, IHOP, KIA Motors,
Meredity, Nike, Russell Athletic, Sanofi Pasteru, Spalding, Starwood Hotels & Resorts
International, T-Mobile, and Taco Bell.
27.5 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, WNBA fan distribution is as follows:
Gender
Men: 60%
Women: 40%
Age
12-to-17: 23%
18-to-24: 25%
25-to-34: 10%
35-to-44: 12%
45-to-54: 17%
55 and older: 24%
27.6 Market Resources
WNBA, 645 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10022. (www.wnba.com)
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28
WOMENS PROFESSIONAL SOCCER
28.1 Overview
Womens Pro Soccer (WPS, www.womensprosoccer.com) launched in 2009
with seven teams each playing 10 home games.
Fox Soccer Channel broadcast 21 live telecasts, averaging a 0.1 cable rating
and 32,000 households. Fox Sports Network broadcast three games, as follows:
Cable Rating Households
All-Star game: 0.2 119,000
Playoff game: 0.1 100,000
Championship game: 0.1 80,000
The league expanded to eight teams for the 2010 season and anticipates further
expansion in 2011 and beyond.
28.2 Teams and Attendance
Total attendance for the 2009 inaugural season was 327,878, or an average of
4,684 per game. Team average attendance was as follows:
Los Angeles Sol: 6,298
Washington Freedom: 5,747
Chicago Red Stars: 4,928
Boston Breakers: 4,665
Saint Louis Athletes: 3,833
FC Gold Pride: 3,667
Sky Blue FC: 3,651
WPSs second season of play kicked off in April 10, 2010 with eight teams:
Atlanta Beat, Boston Breakers, Chicago Red Stars, FC Gold Pride, Philadelphia
Independence, Saint Louis Athletes, Sky Blue FC, and Washington Freedom.
28.3 Sponsors
Womens Professional Soccer sponsors for 2010 are American Youth Soccer
Organization, Citi, Fox Soccer, National Soccer Coaches Association of America,
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Puma, U.S. Coast Guard, United States Adult Soccer Association, US Club Soccer,
and US Youth Soccer.
28.4 Market Resources
Womens Professional Soccer, 1000 Brannan Street, Suite 401, San Francisco, CA
94103. (415) 553-4460. (www.womensprosoccer.com)
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29
PROFESSIONAL LACROSSE
29.1 Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse (MLL, www.majorleaguelacrosse.com), which plays
games outdoors, has six franchises:
Denver Outlaws
Boston Cannons
Long Island Lizards
Chesapeake Bayhawks
Chicago Machine
Toronto Nationals
MLL sponsors are Body By Jake, Brine, Bud Light, Cascade, Gatorade, Great
Atlantic Lacrosse Company, New Balance, and Warrior.
ESPN2 airs select MLL games.
29.2 National Lacrosse League
The National Lacrosse League (NLL, www.nll.com), which plays indoor games,
has been in existence since 1986. The season runs from January through April, with
each team playing eight home games. There are 10 franchises:
Boston Blazers
Buffalo Bandits
Calgary Roughnecks
Colorado Mammoth
Edmonton Rush
Minnesota Swarm
Philadelphia Wings
Rochester Knighthawks
Toronto Rock
Washington Stealth
By giving fans entertainment value at a reasonable ticket price, NLL attendance
has remained robust despite the economic downturn.
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_________________________________________________________________
[NLL] gives fans what they want - the most
entertainment bang for their dwindling
entertainment buck.
USA Today, 1/14/09
_________________________________________________________________
NLL games are televised on Versus.
29.3 Market Resources
Major League Lacrosse, 20 Guest Street, Suite 125, Brighton, MA 02135.
(617) 746-9980. (www.majorleaguelacrosse.com)
National Lacrosse League, 53 West 36 Street, Suite 406, New York, NY 10018.
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(212) 764-1390. (www.nll.com)
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30
MINOR LEAGUE SPORTS
30.1 Overview
According to Sports Business Journal, minor league sports collectively generate
$1.6 billion annually. Operating expenses are $600 million, giving an operating income
of approximately $1 billion.
30.2 Minor League Baseball
Minor league baseball has experienced a renaissance across the U.S. The key
has been marketing good, old-fashioned summer entertainment at a good price.
Minor league teams are affiliated with teams of Major League Baseball. The
teams retain revenues and pay operational expenses while the parent MLB teams pay
players salaries. The various baseball minor leagues are as follows:
Class AAA: International League, Pacific Coast League, Mexican League
Class AA: Eastern League, Southern League, Texas League
Class A Advanced: California League, Carolina League, Florida State League
Class A: Midwest League, South Atlantic League, New York-Penn League,
Northwest League
Rookie Advanced: Appalachian League, Pioneer League
Rookie: Arizona League, Dominican Summer League, Gulf Coast League, Mexican
Academy League, Venezuelan Summer League
Information about teams in each league can be found online at
www.minorleaguebaseball.com.
There are also three independent leagues, as follows:
Atlantic League (www.atlanticleague.com)
Frontier League (www.frontierleague.com)
Northern League (www.northernleague.com)
In total, Minor League Baseball drew 41,644,518 fans during the 2009 season.
Average attendance for Class AAA teams during the 2009 regular season was
as follows:
International League
Columbus Clippers: 9,526
Lehigh Valley IronPigs: 9,162
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Louisville Bats: 8,750
Buffalo Bisons: 8,027
Toledo Mud Hens: 7,986
Pawtucket Red Sox: 8,937
Indianapolis Indians: 8,202
Durham Bulls: 6,783
Rochester Red Wings: 6,599
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees: 6,188
Syracuse Chiefs: 6,039
Gwinnett (Georgia) Braves: 5,966
Norfolk Tides: 5,956
Charlotte Knights: 4,513
Pacific Coast League
Sacramento River Cats: 9,126
Round Rock Express: 8,707
Albuquerque Isotopes: 8,363
Iowa Cubs: 7,895
Salt Lake Bees: 7,240
Memphis Redbirds: 6,982
Fresno Grizzlies: 6,675
Reno Aces: 6,481
Oklahoma City RedHawks: 5,675
Omaha Royals: 5,457
Portland Beavers: 5,280
New Orleans Zephyrs: 5,258
Tacoma Rainiers: 4,964
Las Vegas 51s: 4,752
Nashville Sounds: 4,492
Colorado Springs Sky Sox: 4,351
30.3 Minor League Hockey
There are four established minor hockey leagues. They are as follows:
Founded Teams
American Hockey League (www.theahl.com): 1936 30
East Coast Hockey League (www.echl.com): 1988 18
Central Hockey League (www.centralhockeyleague.com): 1992 18
Southern Professional Hockey League (www.thesphl.com): 2004 8
All American Hockey League (www.aahlhockey.com): 2008 5
Federal Hockey League (www.thefederalhockeyleague.com): 2010 4
Despite its popularity in many small markets throughout the U.S., minor league
hockey had stability problems throughout the decade. The International Hockey
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League, which had been the largest of the minor leagues, ceased operations in 2001.
In 2003, the East Coast Hockey League absorbed the teams of the West Coast Hockey
League and realigned into two conferences with two divisions each. The United
Hockey League ceased operations in 2007, with several teams absorbed into other
leagues. Numerous local teams have disbanded.
30.4 NBA Development League
The NBAs first official minor league, the NBA Development League
(www.nba.com/dleague/), started in October 2001. The league has evolved each year
since its formation, with all eight of the inaugural teams relocating and several new
teams added.
The league topped one million in attendance for the first time during the 2009-
2010 season, an increase of 6.6% from the previous season. That increase was aided
by the inaugural season of the Maine Red Claws, who played to capacity crowds every
game.
Over 15% of current NBA players have come from the NBA D-League. NBA
teams called up a record 34 players during the 2009-2010 season.
_________________________________________________________________
Below the radar, the NBAs Development
League has gone from an underdeveloped asset
to a key tool for NBA. franchises.
The New York Times, 4/12/10
_________________________________________________________________
The 2010-2011 season opened with 16 teams. All games are streamed through
the NBA D-Leagues website and can be viewed at no cost. Teams and their NBA
affiliates are as follows:
Dakota Wizards: Grizzlies, Wizards
Erie BayHawks: Cavaliers, Raptors
Fort Wayne Mad Ants: Bucks, Pacers, Pistons
Iowa Energy: Bulls, Suns
Maine Red Claws: Bobcats, Celtics
Sioux Falls Skyforce: Heat, Timberwolves
Springfield Armor: 76ers, Knicks, Nets
Austin Toros: Spurs
Bakersfield Jam: Clippers, Lakers
Idaho Stampede: Nuggets, Trail Blazers
New Mexico Thunderbirds: Hornets, Magic
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Reno Bighorns: Kings, Warriors
Rio Grande Valley Vipers: Rockets
Texas Legends: Mavericks
Tulsa 66ers: Thunder
Utah Flash: Hawks, Jazz
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PART IV: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS
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31
CYCLING
31.1 Overview
Bicycle racing, generally referred to as cycling, encompasses many formats in
which bicycles are used for competition, including road bicycle racing, cyclo-cross,
mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, bike trials, and cycle speedway. Among
these competitions, road bicycle races are most recognized.
In addition to road races in which all riders start simultaneously, individual time
trial and team time trial events are also held on road-based courses.
A popular form of road racing in North America, criteriums are races based on
circuits typically less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time (generally
60 minutes or 90 minutes) rather than a specific distance.
There are three major European professional cycling stage races, referred to as
the Grand Tour: Tour de France (tour of France), Giro dItalia (tour of Italy), and Vuelta
a Espaa (tour of Spain).
As a sport, cycling is governed internationally by the Union Cycliste
Internationale (UCI, www.uci.ch), or the International Cycling Union, which sponsors
UCI World Championships to determine world champion cyclists. These take place
annually and are organized around nations rather than trade teams.
USA Cycling (www.usacycling.org), which merged with the United States Cycling
Federation in 1995, is the governing body in the United States.
There are over 2,000 cycling clubs in the United States. Club activities generally
focus on touring and club rides and do not involve racing.
31.2 Tour de France
The Tour de France (www.letour.fr), a 22-day, 20-stage road race run over more
than 3,000 km, is the worlds premier cycling race. The time taken to complete each
stage becomes a cumulative total to decide the winner at the end of the Tour. The race
consists of 20 to 22 teams with nine riders each. Each team is known by the name of
its sponsor. The Tour de France has long been a household sporting name around the
globe, even to those not generally interested in cycling.
Sponsorship is key to the Tour de France a symbiotic relationship exists
between the teams: the cyclists need for funding and corporations eager for exposure.
Few images of the Tour dont feature a company name emblazoned on a bicycle,
jersey, helmet, or team van.
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_________________________________________________________________
As much as cycling is about sport, it is also
about advertising. And the Tour de France,
more than any other event, is the time when
companies hope to reap the benefit of the
millions of dollars they spend each year
supplying teams with salaries, uniforms, bikes,
hotel rooms and all manner of luxury. The
presence of advertising at the Tour can hardly
be overstated. Each of the main prizes in the
race for the overall winner, the best mountain
climber, the best sprinter and so forth
conforms to the colors or logo of its corporate
sponsor. The race is preceded each day over
its entire route by a publicity caravan, a mile-
long parade of 45 corporate floats.
The New York Times
_________________________________________________________________
The level of television exposure during the tour is significant, particularly for
companies doing business in France. The television broadcast of the Tour regularly
reaches more than 4.5 million viewers in France, nearly half of the global television
audience.
The 97 Tour de France ran from July 6 through July 28, 2010. The race visited
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three countries: the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. The Tour was won by the
Alberto Contador from Spain.
There were only eight U.S. cyclists in the 2010 Tour. Lance Armstrong, who won
the Tour seven consecutive years (1999 through 2005), competed in the race. There
were three U.S.-based team sponsors: BMC Bicycles, Garmin, and Radio Shack.
31.3 USA Cycling
Recognized by the United States Olympic Committee and the Union Cycliste
Internationale, USA Cycling (www.usacycling.org) is the official governing body for all
disciplines of competitive cycling in the United States, including road, track, mountain
bike, BMX, and cyclo-cross.
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USA Cycling, with over 66,800 members, sanctioned 2,638 events in 2009.
Sponsors are Dow, Gatorade, Nike, Shimano, and Skins.
31.4 Market Resources
International Cycling Union (UCI), Ch. de la Mle 12, 1860 Aigle, Switzerland.
(+41 24) 468 58 11. (www.uci.ch)
USA Cycling, 210 USA Cycling Point, Colorado Springs, CO 80919. (719) 434-4200.
(www.usacycling.org)
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32
GOLF
32.1 Overview
The total economic impact of golf in the United States is $62 billion. There are
105 million self-professed golf fans, and 36 million people participate in the sport.
According to the National Golf Foundation (www.ngf.org), 489 million rounds of golf
were played in the U.S. in 2009.
The United States Golf Association (USGA, www.usga.org) is the governing
body for golf in the U.S. The USGA conducts the United States national
championships. These include the U.S. Open, the U.S. Womens Open, the U.S.
Senior Open, 10 national amateur championships, and the State Team Championships.
The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA, www.pga.com) is an
association of 28,000 golf professionals, the vast majority of whom oversee the
business operations at 10,000 golf facilities nationwide. The PGA of America also
conducts several premier golf events, such as the PGA Championship, Ryder Cup,
Senior PGA Championship, and PGA Grand Slam of Golf.
The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA, www.lpga.com), the primary
organization for female professional golfers in the United States, hosts the LPGA Tour.
The PGA Tour (www.pgatour.com), which branched off from the PGA of America
in 1968, conducts weekly tournaments throughout the calendar year.
32.2 The Majors Championships
The Major Championships, generally referred to simply as the Majors, are the
most prestigious annual tournaments in professional golf. Majors events are as follows:
The Masters (www.masters.org) is hosted in April as an invitational and played at
Augusta National Golf Club (www.augusta.com). The Masters operates under one-
year broadcast rights contracts; CBS has been the tournaments TV partner every
year since 1956. ESPN televises the first and second rounds.
U.S. Open (www.usopen.com), played in June, is hosted by the USGA and played
at various locations throughout the U.S. The 2010 event was held at Pebble Beach
Golf Links. Sports Business Journal estimates revenue for the tournament at $100
million, including $40 million from domestic and international television revenue, $20
million in ticket sales, $15 million from corporate hospitality, $15 million in
merchandise sales, and $5 million in food and beverage sales. Expenses are
estimated at about $50 million. The U.S. Open is broadcast by NBC and ESPN; the
rights contract ends in 2010.
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The [British] Open Championship (www.opengolf.com), played in July and hosted by
the R&A (which takes its name from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St.
Andrews), is played on a links course at various locations in the U.K. ESPN and
TNT have broadcast rights for the Open Championship.
The PGA Championship is hosted by the Professional Golfers Association of
America and is played in August at various locations in the U.S. The 92 PGA
nd
Championship was played August 12-15, 2010, at Whistling Straits (Kohler,
Wisconsin). CBS and TNT have long-term broadcast rights contracts for the PGA
Championship.
32.3 The Ryder Cup and Presidents Cup
Along with the Majors, the biennial Ryder Cup (www.rydercup.com) and
Presidents Cup (www.pgatour.com/tournaments/presidentscup/) team competitions are
other marquee events.
The 37 Ryder Cup matches were held at the Valhalla Golf Club (Louisville,
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Kentucky) September 16-21, 2009. The 38 Ryder Cup events will be held October
th
1-3, 2010 at Celtic Manor in Wales.
The Presidents Cup, organized by the PGA Tour, pits a team from the United
States against an international team, excluding Europe. In 2009, the 8 Presidents
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Cup, held at Harding Park Golf Club (San Francisco), was broadcast on the Golf
Channel. The 9 Presidents Cup will be held at the Royal Melbourne Golf Club
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(Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) on November 14-20, 2011.
32.4 The PGA Tour
Events of the 2010 PGA Tour are as follows:
REGULAR SEASON
SBS Championship (Plantation Course at Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii): January 07-10
Sony Open in Hawaii (Waialae Country Club; Honolulu, Hawaii): January 14-17
Bob Hope Classic (PGA West - Palmer Course, PGA West - Nicklaus Course, La
Quinta Country Club, and Silver Rock; La Quinta, California): January 20-24
Farmers Insurance Open (Torrey Pines; San Diego): January 28-31
Northern Trust Open (Riviera Country Club; Pacific Palisades, California):
February 4-7
AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am (Pebble Beach Golf Links, Monterey
Peninsula Country Club, Spyglass Hill Golf Course; Pebble Beach): February 11-14
Mayakoba Golf Classic at Riviera Maya-Cancun (El Camaleon; Riviera Maya,
Mexico): February 18-21
World Golf Championships - Accenture Match Play Championship (Ritz-Carlton Golf
Course, Dove Mountain; Marana, Arizona): February 17-21
Waste Management Phoenix Open (TPC Scottsdale; Scottsdale, Arizona): February
25-27
The Honda Classic (PGA National Champion Course; Palm Beach Gardens,
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Florida): March 4-7
Puerto Rico Open presented by Banco Popular (Trump International Golf Course -
Puerto Rico; Rio Grande): March 11-14
World Golf Championships - California Championship (TPC Blue Monster at Doral;
Miami): March 11-14
Transitions Championship (Innisbrook Resort - Copperhead; Palm Harbor, Florida):
March 18-21
Tavistock Cup (Isleworth Golf & Country Club; Windermere, Florida): March 22 - 23
Arnold Palmer Invitational presented by MasterCard (Bay Hill Club & Lodge;
Orlando): March 25-28
Shell Houston Open (Redstone Golf Course Tournament Course; Humble, Texas):
April 1-4
Masters Tournament (Augusta National Golf Course; Augusta, Georgia): April 8-11
Verizon Heritage (Harbour Town Golf Links; Hilton Head): April 15-18
Zurich Classic of New Orleans (TPC Louisiana; Avondale): April 22-25
Wells Fargo Championship (Quail Hollow Club; Charlotte): April 29 - May 2
The Players Championship (TPC Sawgrass; Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida): May 6-9
Valero Texas Open (TPC San Antonio): May 13-16
HP Byron Nelson Championship (TPC Four Seasons Resort; Irving, Texas): May
20-23
Crowne Plaza Invitational (Colonial Country Club; Ft. Worth): May 27-30
The Memorial Tournament presented by Morgan Stanley (Muirfield Village Golf
Course; Dublin, Ohio): June 3-6
St. Jude Classic presented by Smith & Nephew (TPC Southwind; Memphis): June
10-13
U.S. Open Championship (Pebble Beach Golf Links; Pebble Beach, California):
June 17-20
Travelers Championship (TPC River Highlands; Cromwell, Connecticut): June 24-27
CVS Caremark Charity Classic (Rhode Island Country Club; Barrington): June 28-29
AT&T National (Aronimink Golf Club; Newtown Square, Pennsylvania): July 1-4
John Deere Classic (TPC Deere Run; Silvis, Illinois): July 8-11
Reno-Tahoe Open (Montreux Golf & Country Club; Reno): July 15-18
British Open Championship (St. Andrews Links - Old Course; Fife, Scotland):
July 15-18
RBC Canadian Open (St. Georges Golf & Country Club; Etobicoke, Ontario,
Canada): July 22-25
The Greenbrier Classic (The Old White Course; White Sulphur Springs, West
Virginia): July 29 - August 1
Turning Stone Resort Championship (Atunyote Golf Club; Verona, New York):
August 5-8
World Golf Championships-Bridgestone Invitational (Firestone Country Club; Akron,
Ohio): August 5-8
PGA Championship (Whistling Straits; Kohler, Wisconsin): August 12-15
Wyndham Championship (Sedgefield Country Club; Greensboro, North Carolina):
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August 19-22
PGA Grand Slam of Golf (Port Royal Golf Course; Southampton Parish, England):
October 19-20
ADT Skills Challenge (The Breakers - Ocean Course; Palm Beach, Florida):
November 15-17
Chevron World Challenge (Sherwood Country Club; Thousand Oaks, California):
December 2-5
PGA Tour Qualifying Tournament (Panther Lake Course, Crooked Cat Course;
Winter Garden, Florida): December 1-6
The Shark Shootout (Tiburon Golf Course; Naples, Florida): December 10-12
FedEx CUP PLAYOFFS
The Barclays (Ridgewood Country Club; Paramus, New Jersey): August 26-29
Deutsche Bank Championship (TPC Boston; Norton, Massachusetts):
September 3-6
BMW Championship (Cog Hill Golf & Country Club; Lemont, Illinois):
September 9-12
The Tour Championship presented by Coca Cola (East Lake Golf Course; Atlanta):
September 23-26
FEATURED EVENTS
Ryder Cup (Celtic Manor Resort; City of Newport, Wales): October 1-3
CIMB Asia Pacific Classic Malaysia (The Mines Resort & Golf Club; Kuala Lumpur):
October 28-31
World Golf Championships - HSBC Champions (Sheshan International Golf Course;
Shanghai, China): November 4-7
FALL SERIES
Viking Classic (Annandale Golf Course; Madison, Mississippi): September 30 -
October 3
The McGladrey Classic (Seaside Course; Sea Island, Georgia): October 7-10
Frys.com Open (CordeValle Golf Club; San Martin, California): October 14-17
Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open (TPC Summerlin; Las
Vegas): October 21-24
Childrens Miracle Network Classic (Magnolia Golf Course and Palm Golf Course;
Lake Buena Vista, Florida): November 11-14
In 2006, the PGA Tour signed broadcast rights deals with CBS Sports, NBC
Sports, and Golf Channel through 2012. CBS Sports is the main carrier of PGA Tour
golf, broadcasting 19 annual events.
PGA Tour corporate partners for 2010 are Anheuser-Busch (Michelob Ultra and
ODouls), Bank of America Affinity Credit Card, Beringer, Boston Hannah, Bridgestone,
Carey International, CDW, Charles Schwab, Coca-Cola, Custom House, Delta Air
Lines, DePuy Mitek, The Dow Chemical Company, FedEx, Forbes, Getty Images, Golf
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Digest Publications, Hawaii Tourism Authority, Humana, Jani-King, Jeld-Wen, John
Deere, Ketel One, Kodak, Lending Tree, MasterCard, Mitsubishi Electric, National Car
Rental, Nationwide Insurance, Nature Valley Granola Bar, Norwegian Cruise Line,
Outback Steakhouse, PGA Tour Spa Laterra, PODS, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Rolex,
Sentient, SiriusXM, Southern Company, Starwood Hotels & Resorts, Telvent/DTN,
Tiffany & Co., Transitions Optical, and Travelers.
The PGATour.com website is operated by Turner Sports.
32.5 The LPGA Tour
The 2010 LPGA Tour, which launched February 18, includes 34 tournaments,
nine of which are held outside the United States.
All LPGA tournaments are part of a playoff system, leading up to the Tour
Championship, to be held most recently November 29 to December 5, 2010 at Grand
Cypress Golf Club in Orlando.
The following are the premier tournaments, dubbed the Womens Majors,
leading up to the championship:
Kraft Nabisco Championship, held at Mission Hills Country Club (Rancho Mirage,
California), April 1-4, 2010
LPGA Championship presented by Wegmans, held at Locust Hill Country Club
(Pittsford, New York), June 24-27, 2010
Ricoh Womens British Open, held at Royal Birkdale Golf Club (Southport, England),
July 29-August 1, 2010
U.S. Womens Open, held at Oakmont Country Club (Oakmont, Pennsylvania), July
8-11, 2010
LPGA Tour events are broadcast by ESPN/ESPN2 and Golf Channel.
LPGA Corporate Partners are ADT, Alabama Sports Medicine & Orthopaedic
Center, Arpin Van Lines, Bank of America, BearCom Wireless Worldwide, Canyon
Ranch, Choice Hotels International, Kolon, MasterCard, Michelob Ultra, Physiotherapy
Associates, Prudential, Rolex, SkyCaddie, Smuckers, State Farm Insurance, and
Titleist.
32.6 Demographics of Golf Fans
According the Scarborough Research (www.scarborough.com), demographics of
golf fans are as follows:
PGA fan LPGA fan
Gender
Male: 63% 59%
Female: 37% 41%
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Age
18-to-34: 24% 21%
35-to-54: 38% 38%
55 and older: 38% 41%
Race/Ethnicity
White: 85% 85%
Black: 10% 10%
Asian: 2% 3%
Hispanic: 7% 7%
Other: 3% 2%
Household income
Less than $25,000: 12% 12%
$25,000 to $34,999: 10% 10%
$35,000 to $49,999: 19% 20%
$50,000 to $74,999: 20% 19%
$75,000 and above: 39% 39%
$100,000 and above: 22% 23%
$250,000 and above: 3% 3%
32.7 Market Resources
Ladies Professional Golf Association, 100 International Golf Drive, Daytona Beach, FL
32124. (386) 274-6200. (www.lpga.com)
National Golf Foundation, 1150 South U.S. Highway One, Suite 401, Jupiter, FL 33477.
(561) 744-6006. (www.ngf.org)
PGA Tour, 100 PGA Tour Boulevard, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL 32082. (904) 285-3700.
(www.pgatour.com)
The PGA of America, 100 Avenue of the Champions, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410.
(561) 624-8400. (www.pga.com)
United States Golf Association, P.O. Box 708, Far Hills, N.J. 07931. (908) 234-2300.
(www.usga.org)
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33
TENNIS
33.1 Overview
The three main governing organizations for tennis in the United States are as
follows:
ATP
The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP, www.atpworldtour.com), which
represents the interests of male professional tennis players, organizes the ATP
World Tour. Under the leadership of Etienne de Villiers, who took over as CEO in
2005, the tour has instituted significant changes to make it more viewer-friendly for
television broadcasts. Tournaments now start on Sundays instead of Mondays to
attract more weekend fans, for example. Five-set matches, which often took four
hours, have been replaced by best-of-three matches, increasing fan interest.
United States Tennis Association
The United States Tennis Association (USTA, www.usta.com) is the governing body
for tennis in the United States. With more than 700,000 individual members and
7,000 organizational members, USTA is the largest tennis organization in the world.
USTA manages the US Open the worlds largest attended annual sporting event
and the recently launched US Open Series, which links 10 summer tournaments to
the US Open. It also oversees three professional tour events, 94 Pro Circuit events
nationwide, all operations of the USTA National Tennis Center the worlds largest
public tennis facility and home of the US Open and manages and selects the U.S.
teams for Davis Cup, Fed Cup, the Olympics, and the Paralympic Games. In 2006,
USTA acquired partial ownership of The Tennis Channel.
Womens Tennis Association
The Womens Tennis Association (WTA, www.wtatour.com), the organizing body for
womens professional tennis, organizes the WTA Tour, the worldwide professional
tennis tour for women. After several years of a declining fan base and finances, the
WTA rebounded under the direction of Larry Scott, who became CEO in 2003.
33.2 Participation
According to the USTA, 26.9 million people play tennis at least once a year. In
total, there are approximately 600 million play occasions each year.
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The Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (SGMA, www.sgma.com) puts
the number who play at least once a year lower, at 18.6 million.
Both organizations believe that participation is on the rise. USTA estimates
annual growth at 7%, while the SGMA assesses the increase at 10%.
_________________________________________________________________
By almost every key metric and based on
trends, the sport remains poised for growth in
the coming years.
Dave Haggerty, President
Tennis Industry Association
_________________________________________________________________
33.3 Top Paid Tennis Stars
According to Forbes, the highest paid professional tennis players are as follows:
Roger Federer: $35 million
Maria Sharapova: $26 million
Rafael Nadal: $18 million
Andy Roddick: $15 million
Venus Williams: $15 million
Serena Williams: $15 million
Justine Henin: $10 million
Nova Djokovic: $ 9 million
Ana Ivanovic: $ 8 million
James Blake: $ 7 million
33.4 Grand Slam Tournaments
Generally recognized as the most important tennis events each year, the four
Grand Slam tournaments (also called the Majors) are the Australian Open, the French
Open, Wimbledon, and the US Open, played in that order. The French Open is played
on clay, Wimbledon is played on grass, and the other two tournaments are played on
hard courts.
According to The Nielsen Company, average viewership in 2009 for the major
tournament finals was as follows:
Australian Open, Mens Finals (ESPN2): 836,000
Australian Open, Womens Finals (ESPN2): 594,000
French Open, Mens Finals (NBC): 2.21 million
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French Open, Womens Finals (NBC): 1.71 million
Wimbledon, Mens Finals (NBC): 5.71 million
Wimbledon, Womens Finals (NBC): 3.27 million
US Open, Mens Finals (CBS): 3.39 million
US Open, Womens Finals (ESPN2): 1.83 million
Advertisers paid a total of $139.1 million for spots on broadcast and cable
telecasts for the four Majors in 2009. The top advertisers were as follows:
Geico: $12.2 million
IBM: $ 8.0 million
Lexus: $ 7.2 million
DirecTV: $ 6.0 million
Apple: $ 5.9 million
33.5 US Open
The US Open is the final event of Grand Slam tennis. The main court for the
event is the 22,547-seat Arthur Ashe Stadium, located at the USTA Billie Jean King
National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, New York.
CBS and USTA renewed their TV rights agreement for the US Open through
2015. While terms of the deal were not disclosed, Sports Business Journal estimated
that USTA is guaranteed $140 million to $150 million over six years.
US Open sponsors are American Express, Canon, Citizen, Continental Airlines,
Evian, Femara, Heineken, IBM, JPMorganChase, Lever 2000, Lexus, Mass Mutual
Financial Group, Olympus, Polo Ralph Lauren, Tennis Magazine, The New York Times,
Tiffany & Co., Valspar Paint, Vaseline, Wilson, and XM Satellite Radio.
33.6 US Open Series
The 2010 US Open Series (www.usopenseries.com) is the seventh year of the
USTA-hosted series which links 10 summer tournaments to the US Open. This creates
a six-week summer tennis season for ATP (mens events) and Sony Ericsson WTA
Tour (womens events) professional tournaments. In all there are 11 events that make
up the US Open Series, including Pilot Pen Tennis, a combined tournament.
Culminating with the US Open, events are as follows:
Mens Events Womens Events
Week 1: Atlanta Tennis Championships (no womens event
(Atlanta) during week 1)
Week 2: Farmers Classic Presented by Bank of the West Classic
Mercedes-Benz (Los Angeles) (Stanford, California)
Week 3: Legg Mason Tennis Classic Mercury Insurance Open
(Washington, D.C.) (San Diego)
Week 4: Rogers Masters presented by Western & Southern Financial
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National Bank (Toronto) Group Womens Open (Cincinnati)
Week 5: Western & Southern Financial Rogers Cup (Montreal)
Group Masters (Cincinnati)
Week 6: Pilot Pen Tennis at Yale Pilot Pen Tennis at Yale
(New Haven) (New Haven)
US Open Series sponsors are American Express, Evian, Grand Mariner, and
Olympus.
US Open Series matches are broadcast by CBS Sports, ESPN, ESPN2, NBC,
and Tennis Channel.
33.7 Sony Ericsson WTA Tour
The 2010 Sony Ericsson WTA Tour (www.sonyericssonwtatour.com), organized
by the Womens Tennis Association, has 70 events, 53 of which are held outside the
U.S.
Sony Ericsson WTA Tour sponsors are Bed Bath & Beyond, Dubai Duty Free,
Eurosport, Luxilon, Peak, Regency Enterprises, Sony Ericsson, Tennis Warehouse,
Travelex, USANA Health Sciences, Waterford Crystal, and Wilson.
33.8 ATP World Tour
The 2010 ATP Tour has 60 events, with tournaments classified as 1000 Series,
500 Series, and 250 Series.
ATP Tour sponsors for 2010 are Corona, Enel, Head, Pacific, Penn Racquet,
Ricoh, and South African Airways.
33.9 Wimbledon
Since the first championships in 1877, Wimbledons (www.wimbledon.org)
history, elegance, and timeless grass-court setting have held a special place in sports.
Wimbledon is jointly hosted by The All England Tennis and Croquet Club and The Lawn
Tennis Association.
According to The Nielsen Company, 1.9 million people in the U.S. watched the
mens final in 2010 on NBC as Rafael Nadal defeated Tomas Berdych in straight sets,
down 54.8% from the 2009 Roger Federer-Andy Roddick final. The womens final in
2010 between Serena Williams and Vera Zvonareva was viewed by 1.8 million, down
33.3% from the 2009 final, in which Serena defeated sister Venus Williams.
The first week of the 2010 Wimbledon tournament, broadcast on ESPN2, had an
average 500,000 viewers, a 14% increase over 2009.
Wimbledon sponsors for 2010 are Blossom Hill Wine, Evian, G4S,
Hagen-Dazs, Hertz, HSBC, IBM, Lanson champagne, Nescaf, Polo Ralph Lauren,
Robinsons, Rolex, and Slazenger.
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The 2011 Wimbledon Championships will be held June 20 thru July 3.
33.10 Sony Ericsson Open
Held each March since 2005 in Key Biscayne, Florida, the two-week combined
mens and womens Sony Ericsson Open has become one of the top sporting events in
the U.S. for corporate hospitality and nightlife activities. The matches include night
tennis, which integrates tennis, players using reflective gear under ultraviolet lights,
and music. The tournament includes on-site fashion shows and pyrotechnics.
_________________________________________________________________
Pulsating music, psychedelic glow-in-the-dark
rallies and A-list celebrities dont exactly
conjure up images of the genteel game of
tennis. But partying, novelty and celebrity have
very much to do with South Florida. That is why
Sony Ericsson spends millions to glam up the
open.
USA Today
_________________________________________________________________
Host Sponsors for the 2010 Sony Ericsson Open were Bacardi, Baptist Health,
Corona, Fila, Head, Ita Bank, LAN airline, Miami.com, Penn, Pricewaterhouse-
Coopers, SAP, and Tipperary Crystal. Gold Sponsors were Boll, Bombay Sapphire,
Florida Blue Cross and Blue Shield, Great Performances, IMG Bollettieri Tennis
Academy, Laykold, Luxilon, Ocean Drive Magazine, TennisPlaza, Terrazas, and Veuve
Clicquot.
In 2011, the Sony Ericsson Open will be held March 21 through April 3.
33.11 Market Resources
ATP Americas, 201 ATP Tour Boulevard, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL 32082.
(904) 285-8000. (www.atpworldtour.com)
United States Tennis Association, 70 West Red Oak Lane, White Plains, NY 10604.
(914) 696-7000. (www.usta.com)
Womens Tennis Association, One Progress Plaza, Suite 1500, St. Petersburg, FL
33701. (727) 895-5000. (www.wtatour.com)
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PART V: RACING SPORTS
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34
INDY RACING LEAGUE
34.1 Overview
The Indy Racing League (IRL, www.indycar.com) sanctions the Izod IndyCar
Series, an open-wheel racing series. IRL is owned by Hulman & Co., which also owns
the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
Though spectator sports options are increasing among sports fans, IRL has
maintained a strong following, in large part because of the enduring popularity of the
Indianapolis 500, the recognition of team owners such as racing legends (the Foyt and
Andretti families), and interest in several current drivers (Danica Patrick, among others).
Open-wheel racing had been fragmented when some top race teams defected
IRL to form a competing circuit. In 2008, nine former Champ Car teams transitioned to
the IndyCar Series. The reunification sparked a boom in IRLs following.
34.2 Television and Radio Broadcast Rights
Until the current season, the Indy Racing League had broadcast rights deals for
all races of the IndyCar Series with ABC, ESPN, and ESPN2 (all owned by Walt Disney
Co.). Nielsen ratings for IRL telecasts on ABC were typically in the 1.5 to 2.2 range, on
ESPN in the 0.5 to 0.7 range, and on ESPN2 in the 0.2 to 0.5 range.
Starting in 2009, Versus was given the rights to televise a minimum of 13 races
per year, through 2018. Versus also offers 10 hours each season of IndyCar Series
ancillary programming focused on drivers and tracks.
The Indianapolis 500 will continue to be aired on ABC through 2012. The
network will air four additional IndyCar Series races annually.
All IRL races have been broadcast on XM Satellite Radio since 2005. These
broadcasts will be continued on Sirius XM Radio.
34.3 Indianapolis 500
The Indianapolis 500 race has become synonymous with the Memorial Day
weekend. The race, 500 Festival, and associated weekend events have an economic
impact on the city of Indianapolis of approximately $340 million, according to Sports
Business Journal. The seats at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway the largest sporting
facility in the world, with more than 250,000 permanent seats are all reserved months
before the race.
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Broadcast ratings for recent Indianapolis 500 races have been as follows
(source: Nielsen Media Research):
2006: 5.0
2007: 4.3
2008: 4.5
2009: 4.0
2010: 3.7 (approximately 4.36 million households)
34.4 Sponsorships
IRL signed Izod as title sponsor for the IndyCar Series in November 2009.
SportsBusiness Journal estimated the six-year deal at $6 million to $7 million annually.
IRLs Official Sponsors for the 2010 racing season are Avis, Coca-Cola, DB
Schenker, Featherlite Trailers, Firestone, Global Corporate Alliance, Holmatro, Honda,
Honda Generators, IZOD, Kymco Motorcycles Scooters & ATVs, Lincoln Electric,
Makers Mark, NACA, Orbitz, Peak Motor Oil, PerkinElmer, Philips, Racing Electronics,
Ritmo Mundo, SafeFreight Technology, Safety-Kleen, Shock Doctor, Sirius XM Satellite
Radio, Sunoco, Verizon Wireless, and Xtrac. Promotional Sponsors are Bosch,
Clabber Girl, Drivers Edge, Herff Jones, Hot Wheels, iRacing.com, K&N Engineering,
Larsens, Magnum Essential Equipment, National Guard, and Raybestos.
34.5 Racing Teams
Indy Racing League teams are as follows:
A.J. Foyt Racing (www.foytracing.com)
Andretti Green Racing (www.andrettigreenracing.com)
Dreyer & Reinbold Racing (www.dreyerreinbold.com/racing)
Panther Racing (www.pantherracing.com)
Rahal Letterman Racing (www.rahal.com)
Roth Racing (www.martyrothracing.com)
SAMAX Motorsport (www.samaxmotorsport.com)
Target Chip Ganassi Racing (www.chipganassiracing.com)
Team Penske (www.penskeracing.com)
Vision Racing (www.visionracing.com)
34.6 IndyCar Series
The 20 IndyCar Series season runs from April through October 2010. Races
th
are as follows:
Barber Motorsports Park Open (Barber Motorsports Park; Birmingham): February 24
Sao Paulo Indy 300 (Sao Paulo, Brazil): March 14
Honda Grand Prix of St. Petersburg (St. Petersburg, Florida): March 29
Indy Grand Prix of Alabama presented by Legacy Credit Union (Birmingham):
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April 11
Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach (California): April 18
Road Runner Turbo Indy 300 (Kansas Speedway; Kansas City): May 1
2010 Indianapolis 500 (Indianapolis Motor Speedway): May 30
Firestone 550K (Texas Motor Speedway; Fort Worth): June 5
Iowa Corn Indy 250 (Iowa Speedway; Newton): June 20
Camping World Grand Prix at The Glen (Watkins Glen International; Watkins Glen,
New York): July 4
Honda Indy Toronto (Ontario, Canada): July 18
Honda Indy Edmonton (Alberta, Canada): July 25
Honda Indy 200 presented by Westfield Insurance (Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course;
Lexington, Ohio): August 8
Indy Grand Prix of Sonoma (Infineon Raceway; Sonoma): August 22
Peak Antifreeze and Motor Oil Indy 300 (Chicagoland Speedway; Joliet): August 28
Kentucky Indy 300 (Kentucky Speedway; Sparta): September 4
Indy Japan 300 (Twin Ring Motegi; Motegi Haga, Tochi, Japan): September 18
Miami Indy 300 (Homestead-Miami Speedway): October 2
34.7 Market Resources
Indy Racing League, 4565 West 16 Street, Indianapolis, IN 46222. (317) 492-6526.
th
(www.indycar.com)
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35
NASCAR
35.1 Overview
Total annual attendance at National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing
(NASCAR, www.nascar.com) races is about 10 million, with total television viewership
topping 350 million.
Fortune estimates NASCAR revenues at $3 billion annually, distributed as
follows:
Sponsorship: $1.5 billion
Television and media: $ 550 million
Tickets: $ 430 million
Merchandise: $ 320 million
Food and beverages: $ 180 million
Most professional sports have seen declines in spending by their fans during the
economic downturn, but NASCAR has been hit particularly hard.
_________________________________________________________________
After years of jam-packed races, sky-high
television ratings and record merchandise
sales, NASCAR has seen attendance at nearly
every track slip this year as recession-weary
fans continue to cut costs. NASCAR with its
heavier reliance on working-class fans, low fuel
prices and the beleaguered auto industry has
suffered disproportionately, racing industry
executives say. Ratings on television, sales of
licensed goods and sponsorships, the lifeblood
of the sport, are also suffering. Several racing
teams have merged in the last three years.
The New York Times, 8/8/10
_________________________________________________________________
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NASCARs Daytona 500 and Brickyard 400 have been estimated to have a local
economic impact of $240 million and $220 million, respectively.
35.2 Broadcast Rights and Ratings
In 2007, NASCAR signed a new eight-year television broadcast rights deal with
ABC, ESPN, Fox, and TNT for $4.4 billion, 40% higher than the previous contract. Fox
broadcasts the first 13 races each season, TNT broadcasts six races, and ESPN or
ABC (both owned by The Disney Co.) broadcast the final 17 races of the season.
Average household ratings for NASCAR Sprint Cup broadcasts on Fox and ABC
have been as follows:
# Races Avg. Rating
2005: 27 5.8
2006: 26 5.4
2007: 24 4.7
2008: 24 4.8
2009: 24 4.3
Races not affected by weather broadcast on Fox have had ratings as follows:
# Races Avg. Rating # Viewers
2007: 12 5.6 9.32 million
2008: 13 5.7 9.46 million
2009: 12 5.1 8.50 million
2010: 11 4.8 7.90 million
The top three telecasts in 2009 were as follows (source: The Nielsen Company
[www.nielsen.com]):
Daytona 500: 15.96 million
Shelby 427: 11.12 million
Auto Club 500: 10.21 million
Viewership for the 2010 Daytona 500 dropped 16.7%, to 13.29 million.
35.3 Advertising and Sponsorships
The following brands had the highest NASCAR-related spending in 2009
(source: SportsBusiness Journal):
Sprint: $323.0 million
Chevrolet: $124.1 million
Toyota: $ 86.5 million
Coca-Cola: $ 75.7 million
Lowes: $ 69.5 million
Ford: $ 64.2 million
AT&T: $ 48.2 million
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Aflac: $ 40.5 million
Budweiser: $ 39.6 million
Amp: $ 33.1 million
According to The Nielsen Company, the following were the top spending
companies for network and cable TV advertising for the 2009 season:
Sprint: $23.1 million
Ford: $18.7 million
AT&T Mobility: $17.3 million
Toyota: $17.6 million
Anheuser-Busch: $16.1 million
According to Forbes, team sponsors spend $650 million annually for the 35 cars
in the Sprint Cup Series.
Because of cutbacks in corporate sponsorships, many teams have rotating
sponsors.
_________________________________________________________________
With fewer sponsors able to pay for a full
season of racing, teams are lining up multiple
sponsors. The days of race fans associating
one driver with one sponsor and one car over
the course of a season have withered away.
SportsBusiness Journal, 5/24/10
_________________________________________________________________
The following are 2010 NASCAR sponsors: Aflac, Bank of America, Camping
World, Canteen Vending Services, Chevrolet, Cintas, Coca-Cola, Coors Light,
Craftsman Tools, Daytona USA, Diageo, DirecTV, Dodge, DuPont, Exide, Featherlite
Coach, Featherlite Trailers, Ford Trucks, Freightliner Trucks, Gillette, Goodyear, Head
& Shoulders, Mars Snackfood & Petfood, Mobil 1, Nabisco (Kraft), Nationwide,
NicoDerm, Office Depot, Old Spice, O'Reilly's, Prilosec OTC, Raybestos, Safety-Kleen,
Screenvision, SIRIUS XM Radio, Sprint, Sunoco, 3M, Tissot, Tylenol, Toyota, Unilever,
UPS, USG, Visa, Wix Filters, and Whelen Engineering Inc.
35.4 Racing Teams and Drivers
The following are estimates of valuations for NASCAR racing teams (source:
Forbes [April 12, 2010]):
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Hendrick Motorsports (www.hendrickmotorsports.com): $350 million
Roush Fenway Racing(www.roushfenway.com): $238 million
Richard Childress Racing (www.rcracing.com): $153 million
Joe Gibbs Racing (www.joegibbsracing.com): $144 million
Richard Petty Motorsports (www.pettyracing.com): $124 million
Penske Racing (www.penskeracing.com): $110 million
Stewart-Haas Racing (www.stewarthaasracing.com): $ 98 million
Michael Waltrip Racing (www.michaelwaltrip.com): $ 88 million
Earnhardt Ganassi Racing (www.earnhardtganassi.com): $ 71 million
Red Bull Racing Team (www.teamredbull.com): $ 59 million
The following were the drivers with the highest earnings in 2009:
Dale Earnhardt Jr. (Hendrick Motorsports): $30 million
Jeff Gordon (Hendrick Motorsports): $27 million
Jimmy Johnson (Hendrick Motorsports): $23 million
Tony Stewart (Stewart-Haas Racing): $19 million
Carl Edwards (Roush Fenway Racing): $14 million
Kevin Harwick (Richard Childress Racing): $13 million
Kyle Busch (Joe Gibbs Racing): $12 million
Kasey Kahne (Richard Petty Motorsports): $12 million
Matt Kenseth (Roush Fenway Racing): $11 million
Mark Martin (Hendrick Motorsports): $11 million
35.5 Track Activities
The following are the major operators of NASCAR-sanctioned tracks:
International Speedway Corp. (www.iscmotorsports.com): 12 tracks
Speedway Motorsports Inc. (www.speedwaymotorsports.com): 5 tracks
Dover Motorsports Inc. (www.dovermotorsportsinc.com): 4 tracks
With only one NASCAR weekend of racing hosted annually, track operators are
constantly looking for new streams of revenue. Through a variety of events and
activities, most are able to have about 300 revenue-generating days a year. The
following are some activities at tracks:
Lowes Motor Speedway (Concord, North Carolina) has hosted AutoFair since 1978.
With 5,000 cars and 12,000 vendors, it is one of the worlds largest auto shows.
Infineon Race (Sonoma, California) markets its twisty two-mile road course and
prime wine-country location to vintage-car racers. In September, the track hosts an
annual Wine Country Classic, a historic-car race. The track also partners with local
inns and B&Bs to promote track tours and driving events.
The Finger Wine Festival is held annually in July at Watkins Glen International (New
York).
Bristol (Tennessee) Motor Speedway puts up 1.5 million Christmas lights each year,
drawing 250,000 visitors for its Christmas Village, with proceeds from admissions
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going to charity. At track events with names like Midnight Mayhem and Top the
Cops, teenagers can safely race each other, and the local police.
The Daytona 500 Club at Daytona International Speedway, a $9 million hospitality
center, has hosted the annual NAACP dinner as well as numerous corporate events
and weddings.
California Speedway is often rented by the Beverly Hills Lamborghini dealership,
which takes potential buyers there by helicopter to test one of its $200,000 sports
cars.
According to an assessment by Washington Economics Group (www.weg.com),
year-round operations at Daytona International Speedway generate $1.9 billion in the
Florida economy. The operations of Homestead-Miami Speedway has an economic
impact of $248 million.
Several tracks have built condominium units on their property. Speedway
Motorsports Inc. (www.speedwaymotorsports.com) has built a total of 174 condo units
in the past couple of decades at three tracks it owns Atlanta Motor Speedway, Lowes
Motor Speedway, and Texas Motor Speedway.
The ever-more elaborate condos are part of a trend that has seen tracks add
amenities like high-end spas, where fans can get $75 facials in between races.
In 2009, Lowes Motor Speedway replaced a 9,000-seat grandstand with a luxury
motorcoach camping area. Annual passes cost $17,000 to $22,000; single-race
passes sell for $6,000 to $8,000.
35.6 Sprint Cup Series
The following is the 2010 schedule for the Sprint Cup Series:
February 14: Daytona 500 (Daytona International Speedway)
February 21: Auto Club 500 (Auto Club Speedway)
February 28: Shelby American (Las Vegas Motor Speedway)
March 7: Kobalt Tools 500 (Atlanta Motor Speedway)
March 21: Food City 500 (Bristol Motor Speedway)
March 28: Goodys Fast Relief 500 (Martinsville Speedway)
April 10: Subway Fresh Fit 500 (Phoenix International Raceway)
April 18: Samsung Mobil 500 (Texas Motor Speedway)
April 25: Aarons 499 (Talladega Superspeedway)
May 1: Crown Royal presents the Health Calhoun 400 (Richmond
International Raceway)
May 8: Showtime Southern 500 (Darlington Raceway)
May 16: Autism Speaks 400 presented by Hershey's Milk & Milkshakes
(Dover International Speedway)
May 22: Showdown (Lowes Motor Speedway)
May 30: Coca-Cola 600 (Lowes Motor Speedway
June 6: Gillette Fusion ProGlide 500 presented by Target (Pocono
Raceway)
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June 13: Heluva Good! Sour Cream Dips 400 (Michigan International
Speedway)
June 20: Toyota SaveMart 350 (Infineon Raceway)
June 27: Lenox Industrial Tools 300 (New Hampshire Motor Speedway)
July 3: Coke Zero 400 powered by Coca-Cola (Daytona International
Speedway)
July 10: LifeLock.com 400 (Chicagoland Speedway)
July 25: Brickyard 400 (Indianapolis Motor Speedway)
August 1: Sunoco Red Cross Pennsylvania 500 (Pocono Raceway)
August 8: Heluva Good! Sour Cream Dips at the Glen (Watkins Glen
International)
August 15: Carfax 400 (Michigan International Speedway)
August 21: Irwin Tools Race Night (Bristol Motor Speedway)
September 5: Emory Healthcare 500 (Atlanta Motor Speedway)
September 11: Air Guard 400 (Richmond International Raceway)
September 19: Sylvania 300 (New Hampshire Motor Speedway)
September 26: AAA 400 (Dover International Speedway)
October 3: Price Chopper 400 presented by Kraft Foods (Kansas
Speedway)
October 10: Pepsi 400 (Auto Club Speedway)
October 16: Bank of America 500 (Lowes Motor Speedway)
October 24: Tums Fast Relief 500 (Martinsville Speedway)
October 31: Amp Energy 500 (Talladega Superspeedway)
November 7: AAA Texas 500 (Texas Motor Speedway)
November 14: Kobalt Tools 500 (Phoenix International Raceway)
November 21: Homestead-Miami Speedway
35.7 Nationwide Series
In 2007, NASCAR announced sponsorship by Nationwide for its No. 2 series.
Called the Busch Series for the previous 25 years, it was renamed the NASCAR
Nationwide Series for the 2008 racing season. The title sponsorship will continue
through 2014.
While terms of the agreement were not disclosed, Sports Business Journal
estimated the rights fees at $10 million annually, with a 6% escalator each year.
Including ad buys from ESPN, track sponsorship with Speedway Motorsports, and other
promotions, Nationwide spends approximately $20 million annually through NASCAR.
35.8 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, NASCAR fan distribution is as follows:
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Gender
Men: 63%
Women: 37%
Age
12-to-17: 9%
18-to-24: 9%
25-to-34: 18%
35-to-44: 18%
45-to-54: 22%
55 and older: 23%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 77%
African-American: 9%
Hispanic-American: 9%
Other: 5%
35.9 Market Resources
NASCAR, P.O. Box 2875, Daytona Beach, FL 32120. (386) 681-5977.
(www.nascar.com)
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36
RACING CIRCUITS
36.1 American Le Mans Series
The American Le Mans Series (www.americanlemans.com), an endurance
racing series patterned after the world renown 24 Hours of Le Mans, was founded in
1999. Series events vary from the two-hour, 45-minute sprint format to the 12 Hours
of Sebring endurance format. The American Le Mans Series includes different classes
of cars Prototype and Grand Touring which race on the track simultaneously.
The series runs from March through October. Combined attendance at the 10
races exceeds one million people.
The 2011 Le Mans season is as follows:
March 19: 59 Mobil 1 12 Hours of Sebring (Sebring International Raceway;
th
Sebring, Florida)
April 16: American Le Mans Series at Long Beach (Long Beach Street Circuit; Long
Beach, California)
July 3: Open
July 9: American Le Mans Northeast Grand Prix (Lime Rock Park; Lakeville,
Connecticut)
July 31: Grand Prix of Mosport (Mosport International Raceway; Bowmanville,
Ontario, Canada)
August 6: Mid-Ohio Sports Car Challenge (Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course; Lexington,
Ohio)
August 21: American Le Mans Series powered by eStar (Road America; Elkhart
Lake, Wisconsin)
September 3: Festival of Speed (street course; Baltimore, Maryland)
September 17: American Le Mans Monterey (Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca;
Monterey, California)
October 15: 14 Annual Petit Le Mans (Road Atlanta; Braselton, Georgia)
th
The Long Beach Grand Prix in April is the single largest event in the city of Long
Beach. Attendance for the weekend regularly exceeds 200,000 people.
The Baltimore Grand Prix will have its inaugural event in 2011. The race will be
staged on a temporary street circuit around the citys downtown Inner Harbor area.
The Festival of Speed weekend, which centers around the race, is expected to attract
more than 100,000 people to the area and to have an economic impact of $70 million,
based on visitor spending on hotel nights, meals, tickets and other purchases.
Sponsors of the American Le Mans Series are Audi, Auto Aficionado magazine,
DHL, the Ethanol Promotion and Information Council, Ferrari, Hyatt, Klein Tools,
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Kumho Tires, Lowes, LP Watch Group, Mazda, Michelin, Momo Italy, Panoz, Porsche,
Shell Oil Co., Team Chevy, VP Racing Fuel, XM Satellite Radio, and Yokohama.
ABC broadcasts two American Le Mans races each year, NBC broadcasts one,
and the remainder are telecast on Speed.
36.2 Grand American Road Racing
The Grand American Road Racing Association (www.grand-am.com), or Grand-
Am, a road racing sanctioning body established in 1999, sanctions two sports car
series: the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series presented by Crown Royal Cask No. 16
and the Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge.
Although begun by some members of the NASCAR community, Grand-Am
centers on different styles of racing, including sports car racing, touring car racing, and
motorcycle racing.
The Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series presented by Crown Royal Cask No. 16
for 2010 is scheduled as follows:
January 28-31: Rolex 24 at Daytona (Daytona International Speedway)
March 5-6: Grand Prix of Miami (Homestead Miami Speedway)
April 8-10: Porsche 250 (Barber Motorsports Park; Birmingham)
April 23-24: Bosch Engineering 250 (Virginia International Raceway)
May 28-31: Memorial Day Classic (Lime Rock Park; Connecticut)
June 4-5: Sahlens Six Hours Of The Glen (Watkins Glenn International
Raceway)
June 18-19: Emco Gears Classic Presented By KeyBank (Mid-Ohio Sports
Car Park; Lexington, Ohio)
July 2-3: Brumos Porsche 250 (Daytona International Speedway)
July 16-18: NJMP 250 Presented By Crown Royal (New Jersey
Motorsports Park)
August 6-7: Crown Royal 200 At The Glen (Watkins Glenn International
Raceway)
August 27-28: Montreal 200 (Circuit Gilles Villeneuve; Quebec, Canada)
September 10-11: Utah 250 (Miller Motorsports Park; Tooele)
October 19-20: October Test Days (Virginia International Raceway; Alton)
Sponsors for the 2010 racing season are Coca-Cola, Continental Tire, Crown
Royal Cask No. 16, Featherlite Trailers, KONI Shock Absorbers, OMP Racing, Piloti,
Pirelli, Rolex, Sahlen, SPEEDCOM Communications, Sunoco, SunTrust, and Toshiba.
36.3 NHRA Drag Racing
Second to only NASCAR among auto racing circuits in attendance, fan appeal,
and sponsorship commitment, National Hot Rod Association (NHRA, www.nhra.org)
drag racing is moving into mainstream America. With more than 35,000 licensed
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competitors and 140 member tracks, broad participation helps drive NHRA popularity.
In 2007, NHRA adopted a playoff format for its championship series; points are
reset for all four pro divisions Top Fuel Dragster, Top Fuel Funny Car, Pro Stock, and
Pro Stock Bike for a six-event title run. The revised format has increased interest
among casual fans.
NHRA hosts four series, as follows:
Full Throttle Drag Racing Series
Lucas Oil Drag Racing Series
Summit Racing Series
Jr. Drag Racing League
All 23 NHRA Full Throttle Drag Racing Series events feature same-day television
coverage on ESPN2 of the Professional-class events. ESPN2 also offers coverage of
the NHRA Lucas Oil Drag Racing Series. NHRA Drag Racing also is aired in Canada
on TSN.
Coca-Cola (official soft drink) and its brands Powerade (title sponsor through
2011), Dasani (official water), and Full Throttle (official energy drink) hold partnership
positions. Other sponsoring partners are Brut, Budweiser, Craftsman, CSK Auto, Elite,
Fram, GMC Trucks, Goodyear, Harley-Davidson, Hurst, Lend America, Lucas Oil, Main
Gate, Motel 6, Okuma, Phoenix Custom Apparel, Pontiac, Prestone, R.E. Racing
Electronics, Ringers Gloves, Sioux City Truck and Trailer, Skoal, Summit Racing
Equipment, U.S. Army, UPS, VP Racing, and WyoTech.
36.4 World of Outlaws
An estimated 4.5 million people attend dirt racing events each year. Of the
1,000 speedways in the U.S., some 800 are dirt tracks, most no bigger than a half mile.
More than 50,000 competitive dirt racers enjoy the sport as a hobby.
The World of Outlaws (www.worldofoutlaws.com) is the only sanctioning body for
full-time professional dirt racers. There are two racing series: World of Outlaws Sprint
Car Series and World of Outlaws Late Model Series. More than 1.2 million fans
attended a World of Outlaws event in 2009. After more than a decade without national
television exposure, World of Outlaws events have been broadcast on ESPN and
Speed since 2007.
Sponsoring partners are Armor All, ButlerBuilt, Chizmark Larson Insurance
Agency, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, LaCrosse, MSD Ignition, R2C
Performance, STP, Super Clean, THQ Inc., TNT Rescue, UCoat It, Vicci, and VP
Racing Fuels.
36.5 Market Resources
American Le Mans Series, 1394 Broadway Avenue, Braselton, GA 30517.
(706) 654-2983. (www.americanlemans.com)
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Grand American Road Racing Association, One Daytona Boulevard, Daytona Beach,
FL 32114. (386) 310-6500. (www.grand-am.com)
National Hot Rod Association, 2035 Financial Way, Glendora, CA 91741.
(626) 914-4761. (www.nhra.com)
World of Outlaws, 7575-D West Winds Boulevard, Concord, NC 28027.
(704) 795-7223. (www.worldofoutlaws.com)
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37
SUPERCROSS
37.1 Overview
Supercross (www.supercrossonline.com) evolved in the 1970s out of motocross,
cycle racing done outdoors over more open terrain.
Attendance at Supercross events has been as follows:
1998: 770,432
1999: 753,124
2000: 759,112
2001: 791,253
2002: 792,909
2003: 811,428
2004: 791,445
2005: 819,093
2006: 830,851
2007: 831,987
2008: 799,401
2009: 786,913
2010: 787,593 (average 46,329 per event)
Supercross is sanctioned by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA,
www.ama-cycle.org). Feld Entertainment acquired Supercross from Live Nation Motor
Sports in September 2008 for $205 million.
Sports Business Journal estimates the Supercross series annual revenue at
$44.4 million, distributed as follows:
Ticket sales: $20.8 million
Sponsorship: $14.2 million
Merchandise: $ 8.3 million
Television rights: $ 1.1 million
37.2 Television Broadcast Rights
Supercross recently extended its broadcast deal with CBS and Speed, adding a
live event along with pre-season and post-season specials. Supercross had been
broadcast on ESPN prior to the 2006 season.
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37.3 Sponsors
In 2007, Monster Beverage Co. was named title sponsor for the series, which
was renamed Monster Energy Supercross.
Supporting sponsors are Acerbis, Alpinestars, AMA Pro Racing, Athena, Dirt
Wurx, Dunlop Tire, EBC Brakes, FMF, Giant, Honda, Kawasaki, KTM, Las Vegas
Convention and Visitors Authority, Makita, MasterCraft, Mechanix Wear, OGIO, Parts
Unlimited, Progressive Direct Insurance, Racer X, Redline Revolution, Rockstar Energy
Drink, Scott USA, Suzuki, Thor, Toyota Trucks, U.S. Air Force, and Yamaha.
37.4 Racing Teams
Supercross teams are as follows:
Bloodshot/Rockstar Suzuki
Butler Brothers Mx
Cernics Kawasaki
Gibbs Racing
Honda
L&M Racing
Makita Suzuki
MB1/Tokyo Mods
MDK/KTM Factory Team
MDK/KTM Lites Team
Monster Kawasaki
Monster/Pro Circuit Kawasaki
Moto XXX
Pro30.com/Ware Enterprises Racing
Richardsons RV
Sobe/NoFear/Samsung Mobile
Solitaire/MB1
Star Racing
Tamer Motorsports
Troy Lee
WBR/Rockstar Suzuki
Yamaha of Troy
37.5 Monster Energy AMA Supercross
The 2011 Monster Energy Supercross racing season has 17 events. They are
as follows:
January 8: Angel Stadium (Anaheim, California)
January 15: Chase Field (Phoenix, Arizona)
January 22: Dodger Stadium (Los Angeles, California)
January 29: Oakland-Alameda Coliseum (Oakland, California)
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February 5: Angel Stadium ( Anaheim, California)
February 12: Reliant Stadium (Houston, Texas)
February 19: Qualcomm Stadium (San Diego, California)
February 26: Georgia Dome (Atlanta, Georgia)
March 5: Daytona International Speedway (Daytona, Florida)
March 12: Lucas Oil Stadium (Indianapolis, Indiana)
March 19: Jacksonville Municipal Stadium (Jacksonville, Florida)
March 26: Rogers Centre (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
April 2: Cowboys Stadium (Dallas, Texas)
April 9: Edward Jones Dome (St. Louis, Missouri)
April 16: Qwest Field (Seattle, Washington)
April 30: Rice-Eccles Stadium (Salt Lake City, Utah)
May 7: Sam Boyd Stadium (Las Vegas, Nevada)
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PART VI: FIGHTING SPORTS
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38
BOXING
38.1 Overview
Professional boxing has four sanctioning bodies, as follows:
World Boxing Association (WBA, www.wbaonline.com)
World Boxing Council (WBC, www.wbcboxing.com)
World Boxing Organization (WBO, www.wbo-int.com)
International Boxing Federation-United States Boxing Association (IBF-USBA,
www.ibf-usba-boxing.com)
With each of the sanctioning bodies crowning separate champions, landmark
title fights have largely been absent in recent years.
Once the most profitable division for televised pay-per-view (PPV) broadcasts,
the heavyweight class with three current champions: Wladimir Klitschko (WBO),
David Haye (WBA), and Vitali Klitschko (WBC) has failed to generate a marketable
champion in recent years. In the absence of a recognized heavyweight champion, fans
have turned to other divisions with their interests.
_________________________________________________________________
The sport that brought fourth iconic stars such
as Joe Lewis, Muhammad Ali, and Sugar Ray
Leonard is as vibrant as ever, if only you look
beyond U.S. shores.
SportsBusiness Journal, 10/12/09
_________________________________________________________________
38.2 Professional Boxing Fans
The popularity of professional boxing in the United States has remained
relatively unchanged throughout the past decade. In its annual assessment of sports
fans, the ESPN Sports Poll reported the percentage of sports fans who say they are
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very interested in professional boxing as follows:
2000: 11.1%
2001: 10.8%
2002: 10.8%
2003: 9.4%
2004: 11.0%
2005: 9.9%
2006: 10.2%
2007: 11.3%
2008: 10.8%
2009: 10.7%
38.3 Pay-per-View Events
HBO Sports (www.hbo.com/sports) has been the primary producer of PPV
boxing events in recent years, a position that had been held by Showtime Sports
(http://sports.sho.com/) during the late-1990s. Unwilling to get into bidding wars with
HBO over high-profile bouts or unable to develop exclusive distribution deals with
various boxing promoters, Showtime temporarily discontinued, then cut back PPV
boxing broadcasts.
The most recent high-profile bout, the May 2010 fight between Floyd
Mayweather Jr. and Shane Mosley, was the sixth most watched PPV fights of all time.
The top PPV fights ranked by number of viewing households are as follows:
Fight Date No. of HHs
Oscar De La Hoya vs. Floyd Mayweather Jr.: May 2007 2.40 million
Lennox Lewis vs. Mike Tyson: June 2002 1.98 million
Evander Holyfield vs. Mike Tyson II: June 1997 1.98 million
Evander Holyfield vs. Mike Tyson I: November 1996 1.59 million
Evander Holyfield vs. George Foreman: April 1991 1.45 million
Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Shane Mosley: May 2010 1.40 million
Oscar De La Hoya vs. Felix Trinidad: September 1999 1.40 million
Mike Tyson vs. Frank Bruno II: March 1996 1.37 million
Mike Tyson vs. Peter McNeeley: August 1995 1.35 million
Oscar De La Hoya vs. Manny Pacquiao: December 2008 1.25 million
38.4 Live Events
Boxing promoters are continually trying to find the optimum balance between
venue selection and pay-per-view revenue.
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_________________________________________________________________
Fights in casino ballrooms and Las Vegas arenas
generate larger guarantees at a lower cost, but
shrink the audience. Its also key to remember
that, for the three or four biggest U.S. fights each
year, the bulk of money is made not from the arena
or even from a standard TV rights deal, but from
pay-per-view sales.
SportsBusiness Journal, 6/14/10
_________________________________________________________________
In 2010, two fights were held in new major sports venues: Manny Pacquiao vs.
Joshua Clottey at Cowboys Stadium on March 13, 2010, which drew a paid attendance
of 36,371, and Miguel Cotto vs. Yuri Foreman at Yankee Stadium on June 5, 2010,
which drew a crowd of 20,272. SportsBusiness Journal reported that the bout at
Yankee Stadium cost about $1 million to stage.
Fights at Las Vegas venues virtually never approach these audience sizes, but
can command higher ticket prices. The Pacquiao-Clottey fight, with a maximum ticket
price of $700, generated $6.4 million in ticket revenue. For comparison, the May 1,
2010 bout between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Shane Mosley at MGM Grand in Las
Vegas drew a paid audience of 14,038 with a reported $11.0 million in ticket revenue.
The appeal of holding major fights outside of Las Vegas is that they serve to
enhance the popularity of boxing.
_________________________________________________________________
Its essential for the future popularity of the sport
that we do more events in stadiums and arenas.
You cant have a sport that has all of its events of
any note in casinos. It may make economic sense.
But to grow the sport and have it appeal to more
people, you cant survive that way.
Bob Arum, CEO
Top Rank
SportsBusiness Journal, 6/14/10
_________________________________________________________________
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38.5 Market Resources
Golden Boy Promotions, 626 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 350, Los Angeles, CA 90017.
(213) 489-5631. (www.goldenboypromotions.com)
HBO Sports, 1100 6 Avenue, New York, NY 10036. (212) 512-1000.
th
(www.hbo.com/sports)
Showtime Sports, 1633 Broadway New York, NY 10019. (212) 708-1600.
(http://sports.sho.com/)
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39
MIXED MARTIAL ARTS
39.1 Overview
Arguably the fastest-growing sport in the U.S., mixed martial arts (MMA) is near
to surpassing boxing as the biggest sports draw in Las Vegas. Matches of the Ultimate
Fighting Championship (UFC, www.ufc.com) circuit frequently sell out venues like the
Mandalay Bay Events Center and MGM Grand Garden Arena, both of which have a
capacity of more than 10,000.
MMA traces its roots to unregulated, no-holds-barred free-for-alls staged at
Indian casinos. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, events implemented additional rules
for the safety of the athletes and to promote acceptance of the sport, yet still maintains
as much of the original concept as possible. Since these changes, the sport has grown
rapidly, to the point of setting pay-per-view (PPV) records.
39.2 MMA Fans
MMA popularity is on the rise and generally viewed as on par with professional
boxing and wrestling. In its annual assessment of sports fans, the ESPN Sports Poll
reported the percentage of sports fans who say they are very interested in MMA as
follows:
2007: 12.6%
2008: 12.9%
2009: 13.1%
For comparison, 10.7% and 6.4% of sports fans in 2009 said they were in very
interested in professional boxing and professional wrestling, respectively.
According to a November 2009 report by Scarborough Sports Marketing
(www.scarborough.com), mixed martial arts fans are 51% more likely than the
average American to be ages 18-to-24; 25% more likely to have a household size of
three or more people; and 67% more likely to be male.
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_________________________________________________________________
In addition to their youthful demographics,
MMA fans have sound financials. They are 15%
more likely than the average American adult to
have a household income of $75,000 and 10%
more likely to own a second home. They are
selective investors and 6% more likely to have
stocks or stock options in their household, and
33% more likely to invest online.
Scarborough Sports Marketing, 11/23/09
_________________________________________________________________
39.3 Ultimate Fighting Championship
Ultimate Fighting Championship is owned by Las Vegas-based Zuffa LLC, a
private company. Forbes estimated UFC annual revenue at $250 million, representing
90% of the MMA business.
Overall, UFCs pay-per-view events draw an average of between 400,000 to
500,000 buys, according to Multichannel News. UFC 100, featuring Brock Lesnar vs.
Frank Mir in the main bout in July 2009, posted a record 1.72 household buys.
Spike TV renewed its broadcast rights for Ultimate Fighting Championship
events through 2011. The deal, which Multichannel News estimates cost Spike more
than $100 million, gives 12 live fight cards to the networks 96 million viewers. UFC
fights on Spike TV average 869,000 viewers in the coveted 18-to-34 age demographic.
World Extreme Cagefighting (WEC), a sister production to UFC and also owned
and produced by Zuffa, has been broadcast on Versus since 2007. Telecasts through
mid-2010 averaged 614,000 viewers; two have had more than one million viewers.
The reality series The Ultimate Fighter, airing on Spike TV, which houses up-
and-coming UFC fighters under one roof as they battle to win a contract, averaged 1.68
million viewers for its first nine episodes of 2010.
The UFC website generates 3.8 million unique viewers a month. Videos of
individual UFC fights can be purchased online for $1.99 or through a $14.99
subscription that allows unlimited downloads.
UFC is now striving to extend MMA popularity worldwide. One effort is to
achieve regulatory approval and establish consistent rules in overseas countries.
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_________________________________________________________________
As we take this thing global, were bringing in
talent from all over the world, and were working
on doing a global Ultimate Fighter. People are
watching the same things, people are interested
in the same things. One of the things that
crosses all borders is fighting. Our goal is to
turn this into a sport worldwide in which people
are playing by the same rules.
Dana White, President
Ultimate Fighting Championship
USA Today, 6/11/09
_________________________________________________________________
39.4 Strikeforce
Among several MMA startups in recent years, Strikeforce (www.strikeforce.com)
has emerged as a contender in the sport, behind UFC. Strikeforce hosts kick boxing
events as well as MMA and has female as well as male fighters.
While UFC hosts fights primarily in Las Vegas, Strikeforce has staked out its
territory in California. Strikeforce has a deal with Showtime for production of its fights,
and CBS has the option to pick up fights. Approximately 40% of Strikeforce revenue
comes from ticket sales.
Strikeforce is owned by Silicon Valley Sports and Entertainment, operators of the
HP Pavilion and the San Jose Sharks.
39.5 Market Resources
Strikeforce, 668 Lincoln Avenue, Unit B, San Jose, CA 95126. (408) 998-8232.
(www.strikeforce.com)
Ultimate Fighting Championship, 2960 West Sahara Avenue, Suite 100, Las Vegas, NV
89102. (702) 221-4780. (www.ufc.com)
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40
WORLD WRESTLING ENTERTAINMENT
40.1 Overview
World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE, www.wwe.com) is the top producer of
wrestling events. The fact that WWE events are scripted productions rather than true
sports competitions does not diminish their popularity. From a sports marketing
perspective, WWE is noted for its success with a wide range of entertainment and
media formats. In addition to live events, broadcast television, and pay-per-view (PPV)
television, WWE generates revenue from film, music, product licensing, and direct
product sales.
A publically traded corporation, World Wrestling Entertainment Inc. (stock
symbol: WWE) has reported revenue and operating income as follows:
Revenue Operating Income
2005: $366.4 million $50.3 million
2006: $262.9 million $39.2 million
2007: $485.6 million $68.4 million
2008: $526.5 million $70.3 million
2009: $475.2 million $77.1 million
WWE revenue is distributed by source as follows:
Pay-per-view: 17%
Domestic television rights fees: 12%
Live events, North America: 12%
DVDs: 11%
Live events, international: 8%
International television rights fees: 7%
Digital media: 7%
Other: 26%
40.2 Professional Wrestling Fans
While professional wrestling maintains a huge and loyal fan base, its popularity
has diminished during the past decade. In its annual assessment of sports fans, the
ESPN Sports Poll reported the percentage of sports fans who say they are very
interested in pro wrestling as follows:
2000: 11.6%
2001: 9.9%
2002: 8.9%
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2003: 8.0%
2004: 6.7%
2005: 6.4%
2006: 6.9%
2007: 7.9%
2008: 7.6%
2009: 6.4%
40.2 Live Events and Television
A perpetual traveling roadshow that crisscrosses the nation while broadcasting
from packed arenas 52 weeks a year, more than two million fans pass through WWE-
event turnstiles each year. And each week, wrestling shows attract more than 15
million television viewers, making them a fixture among the top-rated cable programs.
Monday Night Raw, broadcast on USA network, is the most-watched regularly
scheduled program on ad-supported cable.
Friday Night SmackDown, broadcast on MyNetwork, has consistently been one
of the top 10 English-language primetime programs among Hispanic households.
Average TV viewership for WWE programming has been as follows (sources:
The Nielsen Company and SportsBusiness Journal):
2007 2008 2009
Raw (USA): 5.05 million 4.74 million 5.37 million
Smackdown (MyNetwork): 4.50 million 3.55 million 3.25 million
WWE Superstars (WGN): - - 888,000
WWE programming is popular worldwide. In Italy, for example, some 40% of all
youths ages 4-to-14 watch WWE SmackDown each week.
_________________________________________________________________
The WWE already is pretty mature in the U.S.,
so their growth will probably track the GDP
here. Thus, the balance of the companys
growth must come from outside the U.S. if the
WWE intends to grow at a faster rate.
Michael Pachter, Analyst
Wedbush Securities
SportsBusiness Journal, 10/12/09
_________________________________________________________________
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40.3 Pay-per-View Events
WWE produces 16 PPV events annually and is the largest provider of PPV live
event programming in the world. The following are the major WWE PPV events:
WrestleMania
Royal Rumble
SummerSlam
Survivor Series
Cyber Sunday
WrestleMania remains the pinnacle of WWE. An annual event that began at
Madison Square Garden in 1985, WrestleMania is now an almost weeklong celebration.
WrestleMania PPV buys have been as follows:
2004: 950,000
2005: 940,000
2006: 1.00 million
2007: 1.19 million
2008: 1.06 million
2009: 960,000
40.4 Viewer Demographics
The demographics of WWE viewers are as follows:
Gender
Male: 64%
Female: 36%
Age
Under 18: 23%
18-to-54: 62%
55 and above: 15%
Education
Some high school: 28%
High school graduate: 45%
College: 18%
Income
Under $10,000: 18%
$10,000-$19,999: 22%
$20,000-$29,999: 16%
$30,000-$39,999: 13%
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$40,000-$49,999: 12%
$50,000-$59,999: 6%
$60,000-$74,999: 5%
Over $75,000: 8%
40.5 Market Resources
World Wrestling Entertainment, 1241 East Main Street, Stamford, CT 06902.
(203) 352-8600. (www.wwe.com)
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PART VII: COLLEGIATE & HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS
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41
NCAA SPORTS
41.1 Overview
College sports are deeply woven into Americas tapestry.
_________________________________________________________________
Athletics are the front porch of the university.
Its not the most important room in the house,
but it is the most visible.
Scott Barnes, Athletic Director
Utah State University
The New York Times, 5/30/09
_________________________________________________________________
College and university sports are organized through the National Collegiate
Athletic Association (NCAA, www.ncaa.org and www.ncaasports.com).
According to Sports Business Journal, college sports generates $10.7 billion
annually. Operating expenses are $6.0 billion, giving an operating income of $4.7
billion.
All regular-season college games, conference tournaments, and football bowl
game broadcast rights remain the property of the NCAA member colleges, universities,
and individual conferences. The NCAA retains exclusive copyright to all video of NCAA
championships.
Attendance at college sports events is approximately 100 million annually.
41.2 Mens and Womens Sports
The following sports competitions are sponsored by NCAA schools:
Fall
Cross country (mens)
Cross country (womens)
Field hockey (womens)
Football (mens)
Soccer (mens)
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Soccer (womens)
Volleyball (womens)
Water polo (mens)
Winter
Basketball (mens)
Basketball (womens)
Bowling (womens)
Fencing (mens/womens)
Gymnastics (mens)
Gymnastics (womens)
Ice hockey (mens)
Ice hockey (womens)
Rifle (mens/womens)
Skiing (mens/womens)
Swimming and diving (mens)
Swimming and diving (womens)
Indoor track and field (mens)
Indoor track and field (womens)
Wrestling (mens)
Spring
Baseball (mens)
Golf (mens)
Golf (womens)
Lacrosse (mens)
Lacrosse (womens)
Rowing (womens)
Softball (womens)
Tennis (womens)
Tennis (mens)
Outdoor track and field (mens)
Outdoor track and field (womens)
Volleyball (mens)
Water polo (womens)
The development of womens athletic programs has, in large part, been driven by
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. According to the NCAAs Sports
Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report, womens share among all intercollegiate
athletes is 42.8%; in 1972 that figure was 15%.
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41.3 Conferences
The NCAA is divided into three divisions, based roughly on school size.
Conferences within each division and subdivision are as follows:
DIVISION I Schools
Football Bowl Subdivision
Atlantic Coast Conference: 12
Big 12 Conference: 12
Big East Conference: 16
Big Ten Conference: 11
Conference USA: 12
Mid-American Conference: 12
Mountain West Conference: 9
Pacific-10 Conference: 10
Southeastern Conference: 12
Sun Belt Conference: 12
Western Athletic Conference: 9
Independent schools: 3
Football Championship Subdivision
Big Sky Conference: 9
Big South Conference: 10
Colonial Athletic Association: 12
Great West Conference: 7
Ivy League: 8
Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference: 13
Missouri Valley Football Conference: 9
Northeast Conference: 12
Ohio Valley Conference: 11
Patriot League: 8
Pioneer Football League: 10
Southern Conference: 12
Southland Conference: 12
Southwestern Athletic Conference: 10
Independent schools: 4
Non-Football
America East Conference: 9
Atlantic 10 Conference: 14
Atlantic Sun Conference: 11
Big West Conference: 9
Horizon League: 10
Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference: 10
Missouri Valley Conference: 10
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The Summit League: 10
West Coast Conference: 13
Independent schools: 5
Ice Hockey
Atlantic Hockey: 12
Central Collegiate Hockey Association: 11
College Hockey America: 5
ECAC Hockey: 12
Hockey East: 11
Western Collegiate Hockey Association: 13
Independent schools: 2
Other Conferences
Atlantic Soccer Conference: 5
American Lacrosse Conference: 5
Coastal Collegiate Swim Association: 12
Collegiate Water Polo Association: 25
ECAC Lacrosse League: 8
East Atlantic Gymnastics League: 8
Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges: 17
Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastics League: 7
Eastern Intercollegiate Ski Association: 12
Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association: 13
Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association: 19
Eastern Wrestling League: 7
Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association: 6
Mountain Pacific Sports Federation: 32
National Lacrosse Conference: 7
Northern Pacific Field Hockey Conference: 7
Pacific Coast Softball Conference: 12
Pacific Coast Swim Conference: 16
Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association: 8
Western Water Polo Association: 20
Western Wrestling Conference: 7
DIVISION II Schools
California Collegiate Athletic Association: 12
Central Atlantic Collegiate Conference: 12
Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association: 12
Conference Carolinas: 11
East Coast Conference: 9
Great Lakes Football Conference: 5
Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 14
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Great Lakes Valley Conference: 13
Great Northwest Athletic Conference: 9
Gulf South Conference: 15
Heartland Conference: 8
Lone Star Conference: 15
Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association: 11
Northeast Ten Conference: 16
Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference: 14
Pacific West Conference: 9
Peach Belt Conference: 13
Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference: 16
Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference: 14
South Atlantic Conference: 10
Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 13
Sunshine State Conference: 9
West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 16
Independent schools, basketball: 21
Independent schools, football: 14
DIVISION III Schools
Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference: 10
American Southwest Conference: 15
Atlantic Central Football Conference: 4
Capital Athletic Conference: 9
Centennial Conference: 11
City University of New York Athletic Conference: 10
College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin: 8
Colonial States Athletic Conference: 12
Commonwealth Coast Conference: 14
Empire 8: 12
Great Northeast Athletic Conference: 14
Great South Athletic Conference: 7
Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference: 9
Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 9
Landmark Conference: 8
Liberty League: 13
Little East Conference: 8
Massachusetts State College Athletic Conference: 8
Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association: 9
Middle Atlantic Corporation: 16
Midwest Conference: 10
Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 13
New England Collegiate Conference: 9
New England Football Conference: 16
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New England Womens and Mens Athletic Conference: 10
New Jersey Athletic Conference: 10
North Atlantic Conference: 8
North Coast Athletic Conference: 10
North Eastern Athletic Conference: 8
Northern Athletics Conference: 13
Northwest Conference: 9
Ohio Athletic Conference: 10
Old Dominion Athletic Conference: 13
Presidents Athletic Conference: 10
Skyline Conference: 11
Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 8
Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference: 12
State University of New York Athletic Conference: 11
St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 9
University Athletic Association: 8
Upper Midwest Athletic Conference: 8
Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference: 9
Independent schools, basketball: 6
Independent schools, football: 2
Three Division I schools will switch conferences in 2011:
The University of Colorado will leave the Big 12 Conference and join the Pacific-10
Conference.
The University of Nebraska will move from to the Big 10 Conference from the
Pacific-10 Conference.
The University of Utah will switch from the Mountain West Conference to the Pacific-
10 Conference.
41.4 NCAA Revenue
Television and marketing rights account for 86% of the NCAAs total annual
revenue of $508 million.
NCAA championships are broadcast on network television, cable television,
radio, satellite radio, and the Internet. The NCAA oversees only the broadcasts of its
88 NCAA championships.
Twenty-five (25) of the 88 championships receive some sort of live television
coverage. All remaining championships receive coverage on a tape-delay or highlights
show basis.
CBS owns the rights to 67 championships while ESPN maintains 21
championships. CBS, ESPN, ESPN2, ESPNU, and ESPNEWS broadcast NCAA
championships via television and the Internet. In addition, CSTV, FSN, NCAA
Productions, and selected regional sports networks air telecasts of remaining
championship games.
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The complete NCAA broadcast schedule is available online at
www.ncaasports.com/broadcast.
NCAAs sponsorships are led by their three Corporate Champions: AT&T,
Coca-Cola, and General Motors. This sponsorship level is worth approximately $35
million annually. NCAA Corporate Partners, with sponsorships of about $10 million
annually, are Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Hartford Financial Services Group, Hersheys,
Lowes, State Farm Insurance, and Sheraton Hotels & Resorts International.
41.5 Conference Revenue
Revenue of the six major conferences for fiscal year 2009 was as follows
(source: USA Today based on conference tax returns):
Revenue Teams
Big Ten: $222.0 million 11
Atlantic Coast: $172.7 million 12
Southeastern: $148.0 million 12
Big 12: $144.0 million 12
Big East: $103.1 million 16
Pacific-10: $ 96.8 million 10
For the top six college football conferences, the following percentage of revenue
comes from media rights (source: SportsBusiness Journal):
Big Ten: 64%
Pacific-10: 61%
ACC: 51%
Big East: 49%
Big 12: 48%
SEC: 44%
41.6 Athletic Department Revenue
Athletic department revenue in 2009 for the schools in the top four conferences
was as follows:
Big 12 Conference
Texas: $138.5 million
Oklahoma: $ 81.5 million
Nebraska: $ 74.8 million
Texas A&M: $ 72.9 million
Oklahoma State: $ 71.8 million
Kansas: $ 70.6 million
Missouri: $ 57.8 million
Baylor: $ 48.5 million
Kansas State: $ 47.4 million
Colorado: $ 49.2 million
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Texas Tech: $ 46.6 million
Iowa State: $ 45.8 million
Big Ten Conference
Ohio State: $119.9 million
Penn State: $ 96.0 million
Michigan: $ 95.2 million
Wisconsin: $ 89.8 million
Iowa: $ 79.5 million
Michigan State: $ 75.6 million
Minnesota: $ 70.3 million
Indiana: $ 60.6 million
Purdue: $ 59.9 million
Illinois: $ 55.6 million
Northwestern: $ 48.6 million
Pacific-10 Conference
Arizona: $ 51.8 million
Arizona State: $ 53.3 million
California: $ 73.4 million
Oregon: $ 50.3 million
Oregon State: $ 60.2 million
Stanford: $ 74.7 million
UCLA: $ 66.2 million
USC: $ 80.2 million
Washington: $ 60.6 million
Washington State: $ 38.3 million
Southeastern Conference
Florida: $108.3 million
Alabama: $103.9 million
Louisiana State: $100.1 million
Tennessee: $ 92.5 million
Auburn: $ 87.0 million
South Carolina: $ 76.3 million
Kentucky: $ 72.1 million
Arkansas: $ 64.0 million
Georgia: $ 61.5 million
Vanderbilt: $ 45.6 million
Mississippi: $ 41.3 million
Mississippi State: $ 36.5 million
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41.7 Market Resources
National Collegiate Athletic Association, 700 West Washington Street, Indianapolis,
Indiana 46206. (317) 917-6222. (www.ncaa.org and www.ncaasports.com)
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42
COLLEGE FOOTBALL
42.1 Fans and Spectators
In ESPNs most recent Sports Poll (www.sportspoll.com), 63% of adults
indicated that they are fans of college football; 35% are avid fans. This trails only
professional football in popularity.
Regular-season game attendance is as follows:
Teams Games Approx. Avg. Average
Division I: 119 1,438 29,600
Division II: 143 776 3,900
Division III: 229 1,141 1,800
According to the NCAA, the following were the Division I universities with the
highest average game attendance:
Michigan: 108,571
Penn State: 108,254
Ohio State: 104,976
Tennessee: 101,448
Texas: 98,046
Georgia: 92,746
Louisiana State: 92,383
Alabama: 92,138
Florida: 90,544
Auburn: 86,915
42.2 Market Assessment
According to Sports Business Journal, based on data from the U.S. Department
of Education, the following universities have the highest football program revenue:
Texas: $73.0 million
Georgia: $67.1 million
Florida: $66.1 million
Ohio State: $65.2 million
Notre Dame: $59.8 million
Auburn: $59.7 million
Michigan: $57.5 million
Alabama: $57.4 million
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Penn State: $53.8 million
Louisiana State: $52.7 million
42.3 Regular-Season Broadcasts
The following are television rights deals for broadcasts of football games for the
major conferences:
ACC: ESPN through 2011
Big 12: Fox Sports Net through 2011
Big East: ESPN through 2012
Big Ten: ESPN through 2017
Pacific-10: ESPN and Fox Sports Net through 2011
SEC: CBS and ESPN through 2023
Regular season viewership for Saturday Night college football telecasts has
been as follows (source: Nielsen Media Research):
2006: 7.26 million
2007: 5.24 million
2008: 8.25 million
2009: 6.06 million
College Sports Television (www.cstv.com), a recently launched broadcast and
online provider owned by CBS, reaches 15 million cable subscribers.
The Big Ten and Mountain West Conference have established their own
networks.
42.4 Bowl Games
Several college football bowl games are played over a three-week period each
year. According to Sports Business Journal, revenue for the combined games totals
$400 million. Primary revenue sources are ticket sales, title sponsorships, and
broadcast rights.
Bowl games, ranked by payout to participating teams, are as follows:
Capital One Bowl (Citrus Bowl; http://www.fcsports.com/): $4.25 million
Outback Bowl (www.outbackbowl.com): $3.30 million
AT&T Cotton Bowl Classic (www.attcottonbowl.com): $3.00 million
Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl (Peach Bowl; www.chick-fil-abowl.com): $3.00 million
Konica Minolta Gator Bowl (www.gatorbowl.com): $2.50 million
Bridgepoint Education Holiday Bowl (www.holidaybowl.com): $2.35 million
Champs Sports Bowl (Tangerine Bowl; www.champssportsbowl.com): $2.25 million
Valero Alamo Bowl (www.alamobowl.com): $2.25 million
New Era Pinstripe Bowl (www.pinstripebowl.com): $2.00 million
Hyundai Sun Bowl (www.sunbowl.com): $1.90 million
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AutoZone Liberty Bowl (www.libertybowl.org): $1.70 million
Franklin American Mortgage Music City Bowl
(www.musiccitybowl.com): $1.60 million
Meineke Car Care Bowl (www.meinekecarcarebowl.com): $1.60 million
Insight Bowl (www.fiestabowl.org/index.php/insight/): $1.35 million
AdvoCare V100 Independence Bowl (www.independencebowl.org): $1.10 million
Beef O Bradys Bowl (www.stpetersburgbowl.com): $1.00 million
EagleBank Bowl (www.eaglebankbowl.org): $1.00 million
Maaco Bowl Las Vegas (www.lvbowl.com): $1.00 million
Kraft Fight Hunger Bowl (www.kraftbowl.org): $ 850,000
GMAC Bowl (www.gmacbowl.com): $ 750,000
Little Caesars Pizza Bowl (www.littlecaesarspizzabowl.com): $ 750,000
New Mexico Bowl (www.newmexicobowl.com): $ 750,000
San Diego County Credit Union Poinsettia Bowl
(www.poinsettabowl.com): $ 750,000
uDrove Humanitarian Bowl (www.humanitarianbowl.org): $ 750,000
Texas Bowl (www.thetexasbowl.com): $ 700,000
Bell Helicopter Armed Forces Bowl (www.armedforcesbowl.com): $ 600,000
Sheraton Hawai#I Bowl (www.hawaiibowl.com): $ 398,000
R+L Carriers New Orleans Bowl (www.neworleansbowl.com): $ 325.000
Birmingham Bowl (www.papajohnsbowl.com): $ 300,000
42.5 Bowl Championship Series
The games in the current Bowl Championship Series (BCS, www.bcsfootball.org)
format are the Rose Bowl Game presented by Citi (Pasadena, California), the Allstate
Sugar Bowl (New Orleans), the Tostitos Fiesta Bowl (Glendale, Arizona), and the
FedEx Orange Bowl (Miami).
Fox Sports Network has a four-year, $80 million contract to broadcast the BCS.
The price for a 30-second spot during the championship game is $850,000. The rights-
carrying sponsors for Foxs BCS coverage are Allstate, Anheuser-Busch, Blockbuster,
Cingular, DirecTV, FedEx, Ford, Gatorade, Taco Bell, Texas Instruments, and Tostitos.
Each of the BCS Bowls, including the National Championship, has a payout of
$17 million.
The following are television viewerships for the January 2010 BCS bowl games:
BCS National Championship (on ABC, Alabama vs. Texas): 30.78 million
AllState Sugar Bowl (on FOX, Florida vs. Cincinnati): 15.53 million
Rose Bowl Game presented by Citi (on ABC, Ohio State vs. Oregon): 24.02 million
Tostitos Fiesta Bowl (on FOX, TCU vs. Boise State): 13.82 million
FedEx Orange Bowl (on FOX, Georgia Tech vs. Iowa): 10.88 million
42.6 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, college football fan distribution is as
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follows:
Gender
Men: 62%
Women: 38%
Age
12-to-17: 13%
18-to-24: 10%
25-to-34: 17%
35-to-44: 15%
45-to-54: 19%
55 and older: 25%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 75%
African-American: 11%
Hispanic-American: 9%
Other: 5%
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43
COLLEGE MENS BASKETBALL
43.1 Fans and Spectators
In ESPNs most recent Sports Poll, 51% of adults indicated that they are fans of
college basketball, the same percentage that are fans of professional basketball.
A 2010 survey by International Demographics (www.themediaaudit.com) found
that 38% of all U.S. adults regularly follow college basketball on television or radio.
According to the NCAA, regular-season game attendance for the 2009-2010
season was as follows:
Teams Games Attendance Average
Division I: 334 5,251 27.5 million 5,245
Division II: 274 3,737 2.8 million 759
Division III: 409 4,909 2.0 million 409
The following were the Division I universities with the highest average
attendance:
Kentucky: 24,111
Syracuse: 22,152
Louisville: 19,397
Tennessee: 19,168
North Carolina: 17,786
Wisconsin: 17,230
Maryland: 16,792
Memphis: 16,498
Kansas: 16,433
Marquette: 15,617
43.2 Favorite Teams
Sports fans responding to a March 2010 Harris Poll (www.harrisinteractive.com)
ranked their favorite college mens basketball teams as follows:
1. North Carolina
2. Duke
3. Connecticut
4. Texas
5. Maryland
6. Ohio State
7. Kentucky
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8. UCLA
9. Purdue
10. Wisconsin
43.3 Market Assessment
According to Sports Business Journal, based on data from the U.S. Department
of Education, the following universities have the highest mens basketball program
revenue:
University of Louisville: $23.2 million
University of North Carolina: $17.2 million
University of Arizona: $16.7 million
University of Texas: $14.7 million
University of Wisconsin: $14.3 million
Syracuse University: $13.8 million
Duke University: $13.4 million
Michigan State University: $13.2 million
University of Kansas: $13.2 million
University of Arkansas: $13.1 million
43.4 Regular-Season Broadcasts
The following are television rights deals for broadcasts of basketball games for
the major conferences (source: Sports Business Journal):
ACC: Lincoln Financial/Raycom Sports through 2010-2011
Big 12: ESPN through 2012
Big East: ESPN through 2012-2013
Big Ten: ESPN through 2017; CBS through 2009-2010
Pacific-10: Fox Sports Net through 2011-2012
SEC: CBS and ESPN through 2023
The Big Ten and Mountain West Conference have established their own
networks.
43.5 NCAA Division I Mens Basketball Tournament Revenue
CBS holds all TV, radio, satellite, digital, Internet, and home video rights to the
NCAA Division I championship tournament under an 11-year, $6 billion deal that runs
through 2014. CBS asks about $1.4 million per 30-second TV spot for the two Final
Four games and the championship game.
According to Kantar Media (www.kantarmedia.com), NCAA Mens Basketball
Tournament network television advertising revenue has been as follows:
2002: $358 million
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2003: $380 million
2004: $451 million
2005: $475 million
2006: $500 million
2007: $520 million
2008: $643 million
2009: $589 million
Dubbed March Madness, the NCAA Mens Championship Basketball
Tournament compares in popularity to other favored American sports competitions.
Total annual ad revenue for the NCAA Mens Basketball playoffs is higher than MLB,
NBA, or NFL playoffs. According to Kantar Media, March Madness attracts almost 75%
of the total advertising spent on NCAA basketball throughout the season.
CBSSports.com offers all tournament games free online. The ad-supported
video streams have generated revenue as follows:
2006: $ 4 million
2007: $ 9 million
2008: $23 million
2009: $30 million
2010: $37 million
43.6 NCAA Finals
The following are the number of TV broadcast viewers of recent championship
finals games, broadcast by CBS:
2002 (Maryland vs. Indiana): 23.69 million
2003 (Syracuse vs. Kansas): 18.57 million
2004 (Georgia Tech vs. Connecticut): 17.09 million
2005 (Illinois vs. North Carolina): 23.90 million
2006 (Florida vs. UCLA): 17.54 million
2007 (Florida vs. Ohio State): 19.56 million
2008 (Kansas vs. Memphis): 19.50 million
2009 (North Carolina vs. Michigan State): 17.60 million
Championship game attendance has been as follows:
2002 (Georgia Dome; Atlanta): 52,647
2003 (Louisiana Superdome; New Orleans): 54,524
2004 (Alamodome; San Antonio): 44,468
2005 (Edward Jones Dome; St. Louis): 47,262
2006 (RCA Dome; Indianapolis): 43,168
2007 (Georgia Dome; Atlanta): 51,458
2008 (Alamodome; San Antonio): 43,257
2009 (Ford Field; Detroit): 72,456
2010 (Lucas Oil Stadium; Indianapolis): 70,930
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More than 100 million people followed the tournament on the Internet at work,
and 57% participate in office pools. According to Challenger, Gray & Christmas
(www.challengergray.com), these activities cost employers $1.2 billion in lost
productivity.
Upcoming tournament finals games will be hosted in the following cities:
2011: Reliant Stadium (Houston, Texas)
2012: Louisiana Superdome (New Orleans, Louisiana)
2013: Georgia Dome (Atlanta, Georgia)
2014: Cowboys Stadium (Arlington, Texas)
2015: Lucas Oil Stadium (Indianapolis, Indiana)
2016: Reliant Stadium (Houston, Texas)
43.7 Fan Demographics
According to the 2009 ESPN Sports Poll, college basketball fan distribution is as
follows:
Gender
Men: 63%
Women: 37%
Age
12-to-17: 15%
18-to-24: 8%
25-to-34: 15%
35-to-44: 15%
45-to-54: 20%
55 and older: 28%
Ethnicity
Caucasian: 73%
African-American: 13%
Hispanic-American: 9%
Other: 5%
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44
COLLEGE WOMENS BASKETBALL
44.1 Fans and Spectators
According to the NCAA, womens basketball attendance for the 2009-2010
season was as follows:
Teams Games Attendance Average
Division I: 332 4,918 8.1 million 1,637
Division II: 270 3,670 1.8 million 484
Division III: 419 5,121 1.2 million 227
The following were the Division I universities with the highest average
attendance:
Tennessee: 12,896
Connecticut: 10,182
Iowa State: 9,316
Notre Dame: 8,377
Purdue: 8,159
Oklahoma: 7,681
Nebraska: 7,390
Baylor: 7,209
New Mexico: 7,090
Texas Tech: 6,837
44.2 Favorite Teams
Sports fans responding to a March 2010 Harris Poll (www.harrisinteractive.com)
ranked their favorite college womens basketball teams as follows:
1. Connecticut
2. Tennessee
3. Texas
4. Maryland
5. UCLA
6. Wisconsin
7. Purdue
8. Nebraska
9. Ohio State
10. Michigan State
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44.3 NCAA Womens Final Four Championship Game
In 2010, ESPN televised all 63 games of the NCAA Division I Womens
Basketball Championship for the eighth consecutive year.
The 2010 championship game, played at the Astrodome in San Antonio on April
6, was seen by an average of 3.53 million viewers, an increase of 32% over 2009.
Connecticut defeated Stanford 53-47 in the championship game.
The following are Nielsen ratings of recent championship final games, broadcast
by ESPN:
2002 (Connecticut vs. Oklahoma): 3.3
2003 (Connecticut vs. Stanford): 2.8
2004 (Tennessee vs. Connecticut): 3.5
2005 (Baylor vs. Michigan State): 2.2
2006 (Maryland vs. Duke): 2.5
2007 (Tennessee vs. Rutgers): 1.9
2008 (Tennessee vs. Stanford): 2.5
2009 (Connecticut vs. Louisville): 2.1
2010 (Connecticut vs. Stanford): 2.7
Upcoming tournament final games will be hosted in the following cities:
2009: Scottrade Center (St. Louis, Missouri)
2010: Alamodome (San Antonio, Texas)
2011: Lucas Oil Stadium (Indianapolis, Indiana)
2012: Pepsi Center (Denver, Colorado)
2013: New Orleans Arena (New Orleans, Louisiana)
2014: Sommet Center (Nashville, Tennessee)
2015: St. Pete Times Forum (Tampa, Florida)
2016: Lucas Oil Stadium (Indianapolis, Indiana)
Nielsen Media Research (www.nielsenmedia.com) reported that 63% of adult
viewers of womens championship games were men.
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45
HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS
45.1 Overview
A total of 7,628,377 high school students 4,455,740 boys and 3,172,637 girls
participated in organized sports programs during the 2009-2010 school year, according
to the National Federation of State High School Associations (www.nfhs.org).
45.2 Participation by Sport
The following were the most popular boys programs, ranked by participation:
Football: 1,109,278
Track and field (outdoor): 572,123
Basketball: 540,207
Baseball: 472,644
Soccer: 391,839
Wrestling: 272,890
Cross country: 239,608
Tennis: 162,755
Golf: 157,756
Swimming and diving: 131,376
The following were the most popular programs for girls:
Track and field (outdoor): 469,177
Basketball: 439,560
Volleyball: 403,985
Softball (fast pitch): 378,211
Soccer: 356,116
Cross country: 201,968
Tennis: 182,395
Swimming and diving: 158,419
Competitive spirit squads: 123,644
Golf: 70,872
45.3 Participation by State
Participation by state during the 2009-2010 school year was as follows:
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Boys Girls Total
Texas: 476,210 304,511 780,721
California: 443,154 328,311 771,465
New York: 217,366 162,311 379,677
Illinois: 205,544 138,713 344,257
Ohio: 206,470 128,327 334,797
Pennsylvania: 170,846 146,580 317,426
Michigan: 181,135 132,683 313,818
New Jersey: 146,629 106,468 253,097
Florida: 140,080 107,348 247,428
Minnesota: 124,479 105,564 230,043
Massachusetts: 123,336 95,226 218,562
North Carolina: 114,919 86,917 201,836
Wisconsin: 118,899 80,440 199,339
Georgia: 110,961 72,822 183,783
Virginia: 100,349 72,066 172,415
Missouri: 102,184 68,472 170,656
Washington: 94,764 70,807 165,571
Indiana: 93,424 63,645 157,069
Iowa: 84,296 58,701 142,997
Arizona: 70,472 51,553 122,025
Colorado: 69,032 52,837 121,869
Maryland: 66,219 46,525 112,744
Connecticut: 62,393 49,101 111,494
Tennessee: 69,067 37,636 106,703
Kansas: 62,094 40,378 102,472
Oregon: 60,124 41,468 101,592
Mississippi: 63,697 36,916 100,613
Kentucky: 53,832 43,264 97,096
Louisiana: 51,963 40,100 92,063
South Carolina: 57,939 33,611 91,550
Alabama: 59,861 28,900 88,761
Oklahoma: 43,754 41,922 85,676
Nebraska: 46,782 31,998 78,780
Arkansas: 37,453 22,066 59,519
Maine: 30,510 25,664 56,174
Utah: 32,349 21,810 54,159
New Hampshire: 24,434 22,510 46,944
New Mexico: 27,501 19,383 46,884
Idaho: 27,116 19,017 46,133
Nevada: 25,563 15,847 41,410
West Virginia: 22,007 15,880 37,887
Hawaii: 21,620 16,247 37,867
Montana: 18,696 14,145 32,841
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Rhode Island: 17,143 12,443 29,586
South Dakota: 17,086 12,486 29,572
Delaware: 15,503 12,053 27,556
North Dakota: 14,793 10,528 25,321
Alaska: 11,855 10,041 21,896
Wyoming: 10,096 7,686 17,782
Vermont: 9,463 8,035 17,498
District of Columbia: 2,178 1,262 3,440
45.4 High School Sports Online
Despite the high level of interest in high school sports, major media companies
have not been significantly involved in high school sports broadcasting.
A flurry of companies, however, have poured tens of millions of dollars into
purchasing or developing online properties devoted to high school sports. The following
are some of the ventures:
In 2007, CBS acquired online high school sports network MaxPreps.com for $43
million. MaxPreps provides information on some 80,000 high school football games
and more than 500,000 basketball games each year.
Hearst-Argyle Television Inc. started HighSchoolPlaybook.com in seven of its 26
local TV markets.
In 2007, Yahoo! acquired Rivals.com, a network of more than 150 high school and
college sports websites.
Belo Corp. operates HSgametime.com in 16 of its local TV markets.
Emmis Communications operates IHSAAsports.org to cover prep sports in Indiana.
Fox Television Group partnered with Varsity Networks (www.varsitynetworks.com) to
develop online communities built around individual high school sports teams.
Time Warner formed an alliance with Takkle (www.takkle.com), which operates a
social-networking website for high school athletes. Visitors to the site can nominate
students for the Face in the Crowd feature in Sports Illustrated.
Wasserman Media Group (www.wmgllc.com) invested in Takkle.com and Prep
Sports Online (www.prepsportsonline.com) which, similar to Varsity Networks, help
high schools develop websites devoted to their sports programs.
45.5 Local Television Broadcasting
Local television stations are increasing high school sports programming within
their markets. WNYW New York, for example, has game-of-the-week highlights during
its 10 p.m. news broadcasts, WMC Memphis airs Game of the Week, and KUTV Salt
Lake City presents the High School Touchdown Report. WFSB, Merediths CBS
affiliate in Hartford, Connecticut, reports that Friday Night Football rules its sports
segments.
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45.6 Sponsorships and Promotions
A recent survey by Turnkey Sports (www.turnkeysports.com) found significant
interest among consumers in patronizing companies that support local high school
sports programs. When asked which one of the following should a company or
organization utilize to have the greatest impact on you? survey participants responded
as follows:
Sponsor local high school: 69.2%
Television advertising: 14.4%
Sponsor local professional sports team: 4.4%
Other (newspaper, radio, Internet, etc.): 12.0%
Home Team Marketing (www.hometeammarketing.com) has developed a
nationwide network to facilitate marketing and sponsorships for high school sports
programs. Approximately 3,000 high schools are members of the network. Marketers
can purchase local, regional, or national campaigns for exposure at thousands of high
school events. Companies and organizations that have participated in the program
include Ace Hardware, Allstate, AT&T, Grand Home Furnishings, the National Guard,
and the U.S. Army, among others.
45.7 Market Resources
National Federation of State High School Associations, P.O. Box 690, Indianapolis, IN
46206. (317) 822-5700. (www.nfhs.org)
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46
YOUTH SPORTS
46.1 Participation
According to Sports Participation in America 2009, by the Sporting Goods
Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com), sports participation among children ages
6 and older is as follows (change from 2000 in parenthesis):
Basketball: 26.2 million (0.1%)
Baseball: 15.0 million (-5.2%)
Soccer (outdoor): 14.2 million (n/a)
Football, touch: 10.5 million (n/a)
Softball (slow pitch): 9.8 million (-27.6%)
Volleyball (court): 8.2 million (n/a)
Football, tackle: 7.7 million (-6.5%)
Football, flag: 7.3 million (n/a)
Volleyball (grass): 5.1 million (n/a)
Paintball: 4.9 million (34.3%)
Ultimate frisbee: 4.9 million (n/a)
Soccer (indoor): 4.7 million (n/a)
Track and field: 4.5 million (n/a)
Volleyball (beach): 4.2 million (-20.5%)
Gymnastics: 3.9 million (-20.4%)
Wrestling: 3.4 million (-10.3%)
Cheerleading: 3.1 million (17.8%)
Softball (fast pitch): 2.3 million (-14.0%)
Ice hockey: 1.9 million (-21.8%)
Roller hockey: 1.6 million (-59.8%)
Field hockey: 1.1 million (n/a)
Lacrosse: 1.1 million (117.6%)
Rugby: 690,000 (n/a)
46.2 Youth Baseball
Participation in the three primary organized youth baseball leagues is as follows:
Little League Baseball (www.littleleague.org): 2.7 million
Babe Ruth League (www.baberuthleague.org): 886,500
PONY League Baseball (www.pony.org): 500,000
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Little League Baseball has a television broadcast rights agreement for
championship games with ESPN that pays it $20.5 million over eight years; the deal
runs through 2014.
Little League Baseball sponsors for 2010 are Active Network, Allstate Insurance,
Baseball Factory, David Seeds, Dicks Sporting Goods, Easton Sports, Honda,
Kelloggs Frosted Flakes, Musco Sports Lighting, New Era, Powerade, Russell Athletic,
Subway, Sunkist, Youth Sports Live, and Wilson.
Babe Ruth League sponsors for 2010 are Adidas, Babe Ruth Store, David
Seeds, Hersheys, K&K Insurance, Musco Sports Lighting, Rawlings, The Sports
Authority, and TSS Photography.
PONY League Baseball does not seek sponsorship.
46.3 Youth Football
Pop Warner (www.popwarner.com) football was founded in 1929, making it the
oldest among youth sports organizations. Over 240,000 youths participate in Pop
Warner-sanctioned football programs.
Pop Warners regional and national playoff system, culminating with the week-
long Pop Warner Super Bowl and National Cheer & Dance Championships, are
broadcast on ESPN.
Pop Warner sponsors for 2010 are Active Network, Bike Athletic, Chartis
Insurance, H.K. Anderson, Jostens, Kelloggs Frosted Flakes, Modells, OurHubub,
Panini America (formerly Donruss), Powerade Play, Russell Athletic, Schutt Sports,
Spalding, Sports Authority, and Team Cheer.
American Youth Football (www.americanyouthfootball.com) sanctions over
16,000 teams with some 574,000 players ages 5 though 16. Sponsors for 2010 are
Awardsco.com, Eastbay, FieldTurf, IMG Academies, Modells, Riddell, Sadler Sports
Insurance, Shutterfly, UCA, and Wilson.
46.4 Youth Soccer
US Youth Soccer (www.usyouthsoccer.org) is the largest member of the United
States Soccer Federation (www.ussoccer.com), the governing body for soccer in the
United States. The organization registers over 3,000,000 youth players between the
ages of five and 19, representing over 85% of all who play organized soccer in the U.S.
US Youth Soccer is made up of 55 member state associations; one in each state, and
two in California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The organization has over
600,000 volunteers and administrators, along with over 300,000 dedicated coaches,
most of whom also are volunteers.
US Youth Soccer sponsors are Adidas, AirHeads, Baymont Inn & Suites,
Chlorox 2, Degree, Fox Soccer Channel, Kohls, Kwik Goal, Liberty Mutual, Sports
Authority, Sunbelt Brands, and Xtremes.
Dedicated to youth soccer, the US Youth Soccer Show airs on Fox Soccer
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Channel and is available to over 25 million households nationwide.
American Youth Soccer Organization (www.soccer.org) coordinates participation
among 650,000 kids. Sponsors for 2010 are American Soccer Co./Score, Banners
USA, Chilean Avacados, Clubspace, Fold-A-Goal, Herbalife, MedImmune, People to
People, Ralphs, ShutterFly, Sport Pins International, The Umbrella Store, and Zaavy.
46.5 Streaming Youth Sports Online
Several youth sports leagues have recently launched online streaming programs.
Little League, for example, streams non-televised tournament games at Youth Sports
Live (www.youthsportslive.com). The subscription fee is $14.99 per season.
ESPNs RISE website (http://rise.espn.go.com) streams a wide range of youth
sports.
_________________________________________________________________
Broadband is the new television, as far as many
youth sports groups are concerned. Where
youth and high school leagues once chased
television deals as the easiest way to market
their sports, many are now being seduced by the
low cost and easy distribution of broadband
services.
SportsBusiness Journal, 8/17/09
_________________________________________________________________
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PART VIII: MULTI-SPORT EVENTS
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47
ACTION SPORTS
47.1 Overview
Action sports, or extreme sports, include inline skating, skateboarding,
snowboarding, BMX, and surfing, among other activities. Action sports, arguably, have
no more action nor are they any more extreme than many other sports or recreational
activities the distinction between action sports and conventional sports has more to do
with marketing.
Interest in action sports for sports marketers centers around promotions
associated with sponsorship and broadcasts of events and tours. In particular, these
events offer a vehicle to reach the youth and young adult demographics.
This chapter assesses participation in extreme sports and the two largest action
sports tours: Dew Tour and X Games. Supercross, assessed in chapter 37 of this
handbook, is also generally classified in the action sport category.
47.2 Dew Tour
The Dew Tour, owned and operated by the Alliance of Action Sports (Alli,
www.allisports.com), features three sports: BMX (park, vert, and dirt), freestyle
motocross, and skateboard (park and vert). Alli is owned by NBC Sports and MTV
Networks.
Mountain Dew is the title sponsor. SportsBusiness Journal estimates the
sponsorship deal, which runs through 2011, at $4.5 million to $5.5 million per year.
The 2010 Dew Tour consists of five events, each with a title sponsor, as follows:
iSF Skateboarding World Championships: June 25-26 Boston
Nike 6.0 BMX Open: July 23-24 Chicago
Wendys Invitational: August 15-16 Portland
Toyota Challenge: September 16-19 Salt Lake City
Dew Tour Championships: October 14-17 Las Vegas
Combined annual attendance at the five events is approximately 300,000. There
is live music, video gaming, and interactive events along with the sports competitions
within the tour.
The average number of viewers for Dew Tour broadcasts on NBC have been as
follows (sources: The Nielsen Company and SportsBusiness Journal):
2005: 1.23 million
2006: 1.08 million
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2007: 907,000
2008: 1.13 million
2009: 677,000
A three-stop Winter Dew Tour launched in 2008. The 2010-2011 Winter Dew
Tour is as follows:
December 16-19, 2008: Breckenridge Resort, Colorado
January 20-23, 2009: Killington Resort, Vermont
February 10-13, 2009: Snowbird Resort; Ogden, Utah
Title Level Sponsors of the Winter Dew Tour are Totinos and Toyota. Associate
Level Sponsors are Ball Park Franks, Jack Links Matador, Nike 6.0, and Verizon.
47.3 X Games
The X Games (http://espn.go.com/action/), owned by ESPN, include the Summer
X Games (held in August) and Winter X Games (held in January or February). There
are also three international events: X Games Asia (May, Shanghai), X Games Dubai
(December), and X Games Mexico (May).
Summer X Games 16 were held in Los Angeles, July 29-August 1, 2010. The
games included five sports: freestyle BMX (three events), MotoX (six events),
skateboard (six events), surfing (two events), and rallying.
Recent emphasis in the summer games has been on expanding motorsports.
Since dropping to four paid-attendance days in 2004, attendance has been relatively
constant, with approximately 125,000 spectators each year.
Ratings of TV broadcasts have remained relatively constant as well, with
programming on ESPN averaging 0.8 in 2008. During the four-day event, there were
more than 500,000 unique visitors to EXPN.com, the official website of the games. X
Games 16 were also streamed on ESPN3.
Winter X Games 14, held January 28-31, 2010, set a new attendance record in
Aspen with a total of 84,100 spectators over four days. ESPN and ESPN2 televised
24.5 hours of live high-definition programming, with more than 43 million viewers tuning
in to watch. The ESPN telecasts posted a 1.2 household rating, representing an
average of 1,147,000 households.
The following are sponsors of the Summer X Games: Activision, Axe, B.F.
Goodrich, Burger King, Columbia, Craftsman, Discovery, Ford, Mobil 1,
Samsung/AT&T, Sony, Target, and U.S. Navy.
47.4 Market Resources
Alliance of Action Sports. (630) 908-6308. (www.allisports.com)
X Games, ESPN Action Sports, ESPN Plaza, Bristol, CT 06010.
(http://espn.go.com/action/)
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48
EVENTS FOR ATHLETES WITH DISABILITIES
48.1 Overview
According to U.S. Paralympics (www.usparalympics.org), there are 21 million
individuals in the United States who are living with a disability. Only one in 10 takes
part in fitness activities on a daily basis.
U.S. Paralympics, a division of the U.S. Olympic Committee, formed in 2001,
sanctions paralympic sports in the United States. The groups activities extend beyond
hosting teams for international competitions, and through a range of sports programs
strives to make a difference in the lives of thousands of physically disabled people
throughout the country.
Several other organizations work to expand fitness activities for people with
disabilities through organized competitions. Major national competitions are part of
these efforts.
48.2 Summer and Winter Paralympic Games
The Summer and Winter Paralympic Games, hosted by International Paralympic
Committee (www.paralympic.org), are Olympic equivalent competitions for individuals
with disabilities and are recognized by the International Olympic Committee
(www.ioc.org). There are national and international competitions in alpine and nordic
skiing, track and field, volleyball, swimming, cycling, and powerlifting, along with various
other sports.
The Summer and Winter Paralympic Games are held every four years,
immediately following their respective Olympic Games. The Summer Paralympic
Games are the second-largest international multi-sport event, trailing only the Summer
Olympic Games.
The 2010 Winter Paralympics, held in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia,
featured five sports, as follows:
Alpine skiing
Biathlon
Cross-country skiing
Sledge hockey
Wheelchair curling
The 2012 Paralympic Games, to be held in London, will feature 20 sports, as
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follows:
Archery
Athletics
Coccia
Cycling
Equestrian
Football 5-a-side
Football 7-a-side
Goalball
Judo
Powerlifting
Rowing
Sailing
Shooting
Swimming
Table tennis
Volleyball
Wheelchair basketball
Wheelchair fencing
Wheelchair rugby
Wheelchair tennis
U.S Paralympic sponsors for 2010 are 24 Hour Fitness, Adecco, Allstate, AT&T,
BMW, BP, Deloitte, GE, Hilton Hotels, McDonalds, Nike, Oroweat, Proctor & Gamble,
The Hartford, United Airlines, and Visa.
48.3 Special Olympics
International Special Olympics, for people with mental disabilities, are recognized
by the International Olympic Committee. Summer Games have been held every four
years since 1968; Winter Games have been held every four years since 1997.
The are also national, regional, and local Special Olympics competitions in over
150 countries. More than three million athletes of all ages are involved in Special
Olympics sports training and competition worldwide.
The Special Olympics USA National Games were first held in 2006. The 2010
games were held July 18-23 in Lincoln, Nebraska.
Special Olympics sponsors for 2010 are Bank of America Charitable Foundation,
Blue Cross and Blue Shield Foundation, DHL, Disney Media Networks, ESPN Star
Sports, ESPN.com, Essilor, Fraternal Order of Police, Health Cone Global, International
Association of Chiefs of Police, Lions Club International, Mattel, Midwest Trophy
Manufacturing, Minor League Baseball, OSEP Ideas That Work, Proctor & Gamble
Company, Professional Golfers Association of America, Safeway, Safilo, Shanghai
Fudan Microelectronics, Sunray Technologies, The Coca-Cola Company, think-cell,
United States Golf Association, Universal Sports Network, Versus, and Walmart.
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48.4 Extremity Games
The Extremity Games (www.extremitygames.com), organized by the Athletes
with Disabilities Network (www.adnpage.org), is a multi-sport, action sports competition,
similar to the X Games, but for athletes with amputations and limb differences.
The Extremity Games were started in 2006 by College Park Industries
(www.college-park.com), a manufacturer of prosthetic feet, and have been held
annually since. Competitors perform in various sports, categories, and styles, vying for
gold, silver, and bronze medals as well as prizes and money. In addition to the
competitions there are instructional clinics held in each of the sports.
Other events at the Extremity Games include live music, an interactive exhibit
area, and featured demonstration sports.
Extremity Games sponsors for 2010 are Adaptive Action Sports, Adaptive
Adventures, AmpuTeam div. of Wright & Filippis, Amputee Coalition of America,
AristoCast, Athletes With Disabilities Network, bds Mongolian Grill, Buy Skate Shoes,
buywake.com, College Park Industries, CWB Board Co., Dicks Sporting Goods,
Disability Sports USA, Easter Seals, Evolv Sports, Foresters, Freedom Innovations, fl
Inc., Harmonie Network, Heal Clothing, Julian Pavone, O&P Business News, Ohio
Willow Wood, Orthotic Prosthetic Technologies, ssur Americas, ResMed, U.S.
Paralympics, and Wounded Warrior Project.
48.5 Disabled Sports USA
Disabled Sports USA (DS/USA, www.dsusa.org), a national nonprofit
organization established in 1967 by disabled Vietnam veterans to serve the war injured,
offers sports rehabilitation programs to anyone with a permanent disability. Activities
include winter skiing, water sports, summer and winter competitions, fitness and special
sports events. Participants include those with visual impairments, amputations, spinal
cord injury, dwarfism, multiple sclerosis, head injury, cerebral palsy, and other
neuromuscular and orthopedic conditions.
DS/USA Gold Sponsors are Anthem Life, Ariel Corp., Beaver Run Resort &
Conference Center, Breckenridge Ski Resort, Challenged Athletes Foundation, Harry &
Jeanette Weinberg Foundation, No Bats Baseball Club, Non-Commissioned Officers
Association, Oshkosh Defense, Ping, Tee It Up From The Troops, The Chart Group,
The Hartford, The United States Association of Former Members of Congress, Trijicon,
U.S. Department of Education, and Wounded Warrior Project. Silver Sponsors are
BAE Systems, Battelle Science & Technology International, Burr, Pilger & Mayer, CVS
Caremark Charitable Trust, Fournier Family Foundation, Franklin Templeton
Investments, The Hartford Foundation, Heisman Trophy Trust, HUB Financial Charities,
KBR, Phoenix Beehive Lobo Distributing, Robert Trent Jones Golf Club Charitable
Foundation, and The Moore Charitable Foundation. Bronze Sponsors are American
Board Certification, Bank of America, BIC Sport, BMW of Fairfax, Clear Brook Advisors,
Commerce Street Capital, Cranaleith Foundation, Inc., John Doyle, FDNY Family
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Transport Foundation, Fire Department of New York, General Electric, Genesis Today,
Graybeards, Ltd., Flancers Caf, Freedom Group, Gallagher Briody & Butler, Health
Discovery Corporation, Intermedia Partners, Loyola Recovery Foundation, Luck Family
Foundation, Maritime Telecommunications Network, W.H. Mell Associates, National
Beer Wholesalers Association, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, New
York City Police Department, Pentagon Ski Club, PGA of America, Gary and Kathryn
Purwin, R&B Sports, South Carolina Research Authority, Thunderbirds Charities,
Turner Foundation, and US Family Health Plan.
48.6 Market Resources
Athletes with Disabilities Network, 2845 Crooks Road, Rochester Hills, MI 48309.
(248) 829-8353. (www.adnpage.org)
Challenged Athletes Foundation, P.O. Box 910769, San Diego, CA 92191.
(858) 866-0959. (www.challengedathletes.org)
Disabled Sports USA, 451 Hungerford Drive, Suite 100, Rockville, MD 20850.
(301) 217-0960. (www.dsusa.org)
Special Olympics, 1133 19 Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. (202) 628-3630.
th
(www.specialolympics.org)
U.S. Paralympics Division, United States Olympic Committee, One Olympic Plaza
Colorado Springs, CO 80909. (719) 866-2030. (www.usparalympics.org)
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49
OLYMPIC GAMES
49.1 Summer Olympics
The International Olympic Committee (www.olympic.org) took in an estimated $3
billion to $4 billion in gross revenue from the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, with an
estimated $1.7 billion coming from broadcast rights.
NBC paid $894 million for broadcast rights for Summer Olympics XXIX, held in
Beijing, China, and will pay $1.18 billion for the 2012 games, to be held in London,
England. NBC priced its 30-second broadcast spots in primetime at $700,000, a figure
that included daytime cable spots and prime-time network spots for most buyers. The
games drew an average audience of about 30 million a night on NBC, millions more on
NBCs cable channels, and 30 million unique visitors to NBCs Olympics website.
Network executives estimated overall profit was more than $100 million.
Along with being one of the most-watched events on television, online coverage
of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games made it the biggest sporting event in Internet
history.
Prime-time ratings/share for the Summer Olympic TV broadcasts have been as
follows (sources: NBC, Nielsen Media Research, and Sports Business Journal):
Opening Ceremony 17-Night Avg.
Rating Share Rating Share
1996 Atlanta: 23.6 45 21.6 41
2000 Sydney: 26.2 29 13.8 24
2004 Athens: 14.6 27 15.0 26
2008 Beijing: 18.6 33 16.2 28
Note: The rating is the percentage of all homes with televisions watching the broadcast; share is the
percentage of TVs in use at the time that are tuned in.
The median age of TV viewers for 2008 Summer Olympics broadcasts was 48.
The average prime-time 17-night average rating by gender and age was as follows
(sources: Magna Global, Nielsen Media Research, and Sports Business Journal):
Male Female
12-to-17: 5.0 4.5
18-to-34: 7.4 7.7
35-to-64: 11.7 12.5
Nationally, 57% of adults followed the Summer Olympics in 2008, according to
Scarborough Sports Marketing (www.scarborough.com).
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Broadcasting the entire Summer 2008 Olympic Games, NBCOlympics.com
served up more than 1.2 billion pages and 72 million video streams, more than doubling
the combined traffic to its site during the 2004 Summer Games in Athens and the 2006
Winter Games in Turin.
Olympics sites operated by various online portals, news sites, and the Beijing
Organizing Committee also drew heavy online traffic, differentiating themselves from
the NBC site by offering slice-of-life features and entertainment stories.
According to Nielsen Online, the daily average unique audience to Olympics-
related destinations was as follows:
Yahoo! Olympics: 4.73 million
NBC Olympics: 4.27 million
AOL Olympics: 1.32 million
Sports Illustrated Olympics: 704,000
ESPN Olympics: 676,000
Beijing2008.cn: 515,000
New York Times Olympics: 461,000
USA Today Olympics: 239,000
Olympic online content proved to be more complementary than competitive for
television broadcast coverage. One-half of NBC Olympics viewers said they used the
Internet to catch up with sports they had missed. Another 40% wanted to watch again
something they had first seen on TV. Just 0.2% used only the Internet to follow the
Olympics.
Partners for the 2008 Summer Olympics included Adidas, Coca-Cola, General
Electric, Johnson & Johnson, Kodak, McDonalds, Omega, Panasonic, Samsung, Visa,
and Volkswagen. Sponsors were Budweiser and UPS. A top-level international
sponsorship costs as much as $80 million.
The 2012 Summer Olympic Games will be held in London, England, from July 27
to August 12, 2012.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, will host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.
49.2 Winter Olympic Games
The 2010 Winter Olympic Games were held in Vancouver, British Columbia.
U.S. rights fees for the broadcast by NBC were $820 million.
Vancouver 2010 officials reported that as many as 3.5 billion viewers worldwide
tuned in to watch the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics. The 2010 Winter Olympic
Games were shown on more than 300 television stations and more than 100 websites
globally, with a total of about 50,000 hours of broadcast hours of the games across all
media platforms. The 24,000 hours of television coverage was 47% more than for the
Torino Winter Olympic Games four years earlier.
According to NBC, its broadcast of the Winter Olympics attracted 190 million
U.S. viewers over the 17 days. The figures place the ratings for the Vancouver Games
behind only Lillehammer in 1994. The prime-time average nightly audience for the
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Vancouver Winter Olympics was 24.4 million. The U.S. vs. Canada mens gold medal
hockey game (which Canada won) drew an average viewership of 27.6 million, a 45.5%
increase over the same gold medal hockey matchup at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games.
According to The Nielsen Company (www.nielsen.com), 56% of the U.S. viewers
watching the Olympics were female. Viewers were predominantly older ratings
among teenagers were 57% lower than the national average for primetime Olympics
broadcasts. Ratings among those ages 18-to-49 were 20% lower than the national
average; among those ages 55 and older, ratings were 82% higher. Nielsen also
provided the following assessment:
Ratings among African-American and Hispanic-American viewers were each 74%
below the national average.
Asian-American ratings were 15% below the national average.
Ratings in the West Central region of the United States area were 24% higher than
the national average.
Viewership in the Southwest was 28% lower than the national average.
Fifty-five percent (55%) of Olympic viewers were in HD-capable/receivable homes.
Viewing in these homes was 14% higher than the national average.
Forty-one percent (41%) of Olympic viewers were in DVR homes and had ratings
12% higher than the national average.
The following is average primetime and overall viewership for previous recent
Winter Olympic Games (source: Nielsen Media Research):
Primetime Overall
1992 Albertville: 29.0 million 12.8 million
1994 Lillehammer: 43.2 million 16.9 million
1998 Nagano: 25.1 million 9.3 million
2002 Salt Lake City: 31.9 million 12.6 million
2006 Torino: 20.2 million 12.4 million
The 2014 Winter Olympics will be held in Sochi, Russia.
49.3 United States Olympic Committee
The United States Olympic Committee is chartered under the Ted Stevens
Olympic and Amateur Sports Act to host the teams representing the United States in
the Summer and Winter Olympic Games. Despite this federal mandate, the
organization receives no continuous financial assistance from the U.S. government.
The United States Olympic Committee hosts teams in the following sports:
Archery
Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Biathlon
Bobsled & skeleton
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Bowling
Boxing
Canoe/kayak
Curling
Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Figure skating
Gymnastics
Team handball
Hockey
Judo
Karate
Luge
Modern pentathlon
Racquetball
Roller sports
Rowing
Sailing
Shooting
Ski & snowboard
Soccer
Softball
Speedskating
Squash
Swimming
Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tae kwon do
Tennis
Track & Field
Triathlon
Volleyball
Water polo
Water ski
Weightlifting
Wrestling
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49.4 Market Resources
International Olympic Committee, Chteau de Vidy, Case postale 356, 1001 Lausanne,
Switzerland. (+41 21) 621 61 11. (www.olympic.org)
United States Olympic Committee, 1 Olympic Plaza Colorado Springs, CO 80909.
(719) 632-5551. (www.teamusa.org)
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50
SENIOR GAMES
50.1 Overview
The National Senior Games Association (NSGA, www.nsga.com) organizes and
presents the biennial Summer National Senior Games, also known as The Senior
Olympics. For adults ages 50 and older, national competitions are held during odd-
numbered years. The Summer National Senior Games are the largest multi-sport event
in the world for seniors.
NSGA serves as the umbrella for member state organizations across the United
States that host State Senior Games or Senior Olympics. There are Senior Games in
49 states; only North Dakota is without games. Athletes must place in State Senior
Games to qualify for participation in the National Senior Games. State games qualify
25,000 to 30,000 athletes; about 10,000 actually participate in the national games.
There are 18 medal sports in the National Senior Games and most state senior
games: archery, badminton, basketball, bowling, cycling, golf, horseshoes, racewalk,
racquetball, road race, shuffleboard, softball, swimming, table tennis, tennis, track and
field, triathlon, and volleyball. Demonstration sports include equestrian, fencing, lawn
bowling, rowing, sailing, soccer, and water polo.
NSGAs overall mission is to assist seniors in achieving greater value and quality
in their lives by staying healthy, active, and fit. Some 250,000 senior athletes
participate in NSGA-sponsored events.
50.2 Biennial Summer Games
Senior National Senior Games have been as follows:
Year Location Participants
1987 St. Louis 2,500
1989 St. Louis 3,400
1991 Syracuse 5,000
1993 Baton Rouge 7,200
1995 San Antonio 8,200
1997 Tuscon 10,300
1999 Orlando 12,000
2001 Baton Rouge 8,900
2003 Hampton Roads 10,700
2005 Pittsburgh 12,000
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2007 Louisville 12,100
2009 San Francisco Bay 10,000
The 2011 Summer National Senior Games will be held June 16-30, 2011 in
Houston, Texas. The 2013 Summer National Senior Games will be held in Cleveland,
Ohio.
50.3 Sponsors
Humana is the presenting sponsor for the Summer National Senior Games.
AstraZeneca is the gold medal sponsor. Euflexxa and Memorial Hermann Healthcare
System are silver medal sponsors.
50.4 Winter Senior Games
In 2000, the Winter National Senior Games were staged. More than 350 senior
competitors came to Lake Placid, New York, for alpine skiing, cross-country skiing,
curling, ice hockey, and snowshoeing. National winter games were discontinued after
the inaugural event.
California, Michigan, and Wyoming have Winter Senior Games for residents of
their states.
50.5 Market Resources
National Senior Games Association, P.O. Box 82059, Baton Rouge, LA 70884.
(225) 766-6800. (www.nsga.com)
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51
STATE GAMES
51.1 Overview
Twenty nine states conduct statewide sports festivals known as State Games
and generally modeled after the Olympic Games. Forty states have held State Games;
some have been discontinued or suspended.
Nationwide more than 90 sports are offered each year in State Games, with
competitions held in 536 communities for participants from over 6,000 cities and towns.
Both recreational and competitive, events have been the first step for many Olympic
and professional athletes.
State Games competitions include Olympic or Pan American sports such as
basketball, bowling, diving, figure skating, tennis, tae kwon do, gymnastics, ice hockey,
road races, soccer, softball, swimming, track & field, volleyball, etc., as well as a wide
variety of favorites such as arm wrestling, field hockey, horseshoes, equestrian,
mountain biking, and more.
Each year nearly 500,000 athletes of all age, background, and skill level take
part in State Games competitions nationwide. An additional 1.2 million spectators
attend State Games events, all made possible by the work of thousands of coaches,
parents, officials, sponsors, and more than 100,000 volunteers.
The Empire State Games are the oldest and largest among State Games.
Previously funded by the State of New York, the 2010 games were sponsored by
Buffalo businesses, which raised $1.4 million to host the event. The economic impact
for the City of Buffalo was estimated at $10 million.
_________________________________________________________________
The Empire State Games have long been the
gold standard in the state games movement,
providing an Olympics-like atmosphere for a
spectrum of New York athletes. In 1978, Empire
State was the first to adopt the egalitarian
format that treats the barely ambulatory 75-year-
old runner the same as a 20-year-old sprinter
with Olympic potential.
USA Today, 7/22/10
_________________________________________________________________
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51.2 Calendar of 2010 State Games
Winter Games
Badger State Games (www.sportswisconsin.com): January 22-24, 29-31;
February 4-7, 2010
Bay State Games (www.baystategames.org): January 22-24, 2010
California State Games (www.calstategames.org): February 15 - March 7, 2010
Empire State Games (www.empirestategames.org), February 19-21, 2010
Games of Texas (http://www.taaf.com/site/): January 15-17, 2010
Grand Canyon State Games (www.gcsg.org): January - April 2010
Iowa Games (www.iowagames.org), January 23-24, 29-31; February 6, 13-14, 2010
Keystone State Games (www.keystonegames.com), January 29-31;
February 12-15; March 6-7, 2010
Sooner State Games (www.soonerstategames.org): January 2-4, 23-24, 30;
February 13; March 6, 2010
Summer Games
Alabama Sports Festival (www.alagames.com): June 19-20, 2010
Badger State Games (www.sportsinwisconsin.com): June 18-20, 24-27, 2010
Bay State Games (www.baystategames.org): July 5-18, 2010
Big Sky State Games (www.bigskygames.org): July 16-18, 2010, 2010
Bluegrass State Games (www.bgsg.org): July 9-11, 16-18, 23-25 & July 30-
August 1, 2010
California State Games (www.calstategames.org): July 8-11, 2010
Commonwealth Games of Virginia (www.commonwealthgames.org): July 16-18,
2010
Cornhusker State Games (www.cornhuskerstategames.com): June 25-27, 2010
Games of Texas (www.taaf.com/site/): August 5-10, 2010
Georgia Games (www.georgiagames.org): July 9-11, 16-19, 24-25, 2010
Grand Canyon State Games (www.gcsg.org): June 2010
Iowa Games (www.iowagames.org): July 10-11, 15-18, 24-25, 2010
Keystone State Games (www.keystonegames.com): July 20-25, 2010
Empire State Games (www.empirestategames.org): July 21-25, 2010
Maine Games (www.mainegames.org): June 19-20, 26-27, 2010
New Mexico State Games (www.nmgames.com): Memorial Day - June 2010
Nutmeg State Games (www.nutmegstategames.org): July 24 - August 1, 2010
Prairie Rose State Games (www.prairierose.org): July 9-11, 2010
Rocky Mountain State Games (www.rockymountainstategames.org): July 30 -
August 1, 2010
Show-Me State Games (www.smsg.org): July 16-18, 23-25, 2010
Sooner State Games (www.soonerstategames.org): June 2010
Southeast Sports Festival (www.alagames.com), July 30 - August 1, 2010
Star of the North State Games (www.starofthenorthgames.org): June 19-27, 2010
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State Games of Michigan (www.stategamesofmichigan.com): June 25-27, 2010
State Games of Mississippi (www.stategamesofms.org): June 19-27, 2010
State Games of the West (www.utahsummergames.com), June 9-26, 2010
State Games of Oregon (www.stategamesoforegon.org): July 11-12, 2010
State Games of North Carolina (www.ncsports.org): June 18-27, 2010
Sunflower State Games (www.sunflowergames.com): July 9-25, 2010
Sunshine State Games (www.flasports.com): April - June 2010
Utah Summer Games (www.utahsummergames.org): June 9-26, 2010
Washington Games (www.washingtongames.org): June 8 - August 1, 2010
51.3 Market Resources
National Congress of State Games, 1631 Mesa Avenue, Suite E, Colorado Springs, CO
80906. (719) 634-7333. (www.stagegames.org)
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PART IX: ORGANIZED SPORTS/COMPETITIONS
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52
AMERICAS CUP
52.1 Overview
The Americas Cup (www.americascup.com) is the most famous and most
prestigious regatta and match race in sailing. The Louis Vuitton Cup regattas of the
Americas Cup is a challenge-driven yacht series that currently consists of a best-of-
nine series of match racing (a duel between two boats).
For spectators, the regattas are among the most extravagant social events in all
of sports. Held around the world, over six million people attended regattas in 2009 and
2010.
Among sporting competitions, the Americas Cup is the most costly for
participants. The average cost for entry is estimated at a minimum of $200 million.
52.2 The 33 and 34 Americas Cups
rd th
The 33 Americas Cup was raced in 90-foot multi-hull yachts in a one-on-one,
rd
best-of-three race regatta in Valencia, Spain, in February 2010. Challenger BMW
Oracle Racing beat the defender Alinghi 2-0 and won the Cup for the Golden Gate
Yacht Club.
The 34 Americas Cup, which will be held in 2013 or 2014, with preliminary
th
racing beginning in some form in 2011, is in the planning stage. Golden Gate Yacht
Club (GGYC) holds the Americas Cup as trustee and has accepted a challenge from
Club Nautico di Roma (CNdR) from Italy. GGYC will be represented by BMW Oracle
Racing, and CNdR will be represented by Mascalzone Latino Audi. Additional
challenger candidates, and possibly defender candidates, will be accepted beginning
October 2010.
The 34 Americas Cup match will most likely be held in San Francisco, with
th
preliminary racing in locations around the world.
52.3 Television Broadcasts and Web-Streamed Video
Across 80 channels, a global cumulative television audience of more than one
billion viewers watched 980 hours of the 33 Americas Cup television and Internet
rd
broadcasting. There was live television in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, among
other countries, along with a live Internet feed. In the United States, Canada, and
several other countries, the Internet feed was the only live coverage. ESPN3 was the
U.S. partner for the Internet feed. There was no live or delayed TV broadcast in the
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U.S. and Canada.
In May 2010, NBCs Universal Sports channel broadcast a one-hour highlights
show of Americas Cup Races from February 2010.
52.4 Market Resources
Golden Gate Yacht Club, One Yacht Road, San Francisco, CA 94123. (www.ggyc.org)
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53
BASS FISHING
53.1 Overview
Bass are the most pervasive sport fish in the U.S., indigenous to the waters of
every state except Alaska. And bass prove to be a worthy opponent even for pro
anglers. In the cult-like devotion it inspires, bass fishing is similar to NASCAR. In fact,
many bass fishermen are NASCAR fans.
According to Sports Illustrated, 30 million Americans fish for bass every year.
The average amateur angler spends about $200 a month on equipment, which
adds up to a $40 billion industry, according to B.A.S.S.(Bass Anglers Sportsman
Society, www.bassmaster.com). That is more than is spent on tennis or biking.
Numerous bass fishing competitions are held across the U.S., the largest of
which are hosted by B.A.S.S, FLW Outdoors (www.flwoutdoors.com), and Western
Outdoor News Bass (WON BASS, www.wonbass.com).
53.2 Bass Anglers Sportsmans Society
B.A.S.S., primarily a conservation and advocacy group, has about 600,000
members. Founded by Ray Scott in 1967, B.A.S.S. manages more than 30 national
fishing tournaments annually. Events are televised on ESPN, which paid an estimated
$35 million to $40 million in 2001 to buy the family-run operation.
The top 50 anglers compete in 12 annual events. The top prize in the
Bassmaster Classic is $500,000.
The 2010 Bassmaster Tournament Trail is as follows:
Bassmaster Classic
Bassmaster Classic 2010: February 19-21 Lay Lake, Birmingham, Alabama
Elite Series
Duel in the Delta: March 11-14 Stockton, California
Golden State Shootout: March 18-21 Clear Lake, Lakeport, California
Blue Ridge Brawl: April 15-18 Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia
Alabama Charge: April 29-May 2 Pickwick Lake, Florence, Alabama
Southern Challenge: May 6-9 Lake Guntersville, Alabama
Pride of Georgia: May 20-23 Clarks Hill Lake, Evans, Georgia
Tennessee Triumph: June 9-12 Kentucky Lake, Paris, Tennessee
AutoZone Sooner Run: June 17-20 Fort Gibson Lake, Oklahoma
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Elite Series Postseason
Trophy Chase: July 24-25 Lake Jordan, Wetumpka, Alabama
Trophy Triumph: July 30-31 Montgomery, Alabama
Opens
Southern Open 1: January 14-16 Lake Okeechobee, Florida
Central Open 1: April 4-8 Lake Amistad, Del Rio, Texas
Southern Open 2: May 13-15 Smith Lake, Jasper, Alabama
Central Open 2: June 3-5 Red River, Shreveport, Louisiana
Northern Open 1: July 22-24 Lake Champlain, Plattsburgh, N.Y.
Northern Open 2: August 19-21 Detroit River, Detroit, Michigan
Northern Open 3: September 16-18 Chesapeake Bay, Maryland
Southern Open 3: October 7-9 Lake Seminole, Bainbridge, Georgia
Central Open 3: October 21-23 Lake Texoma, Denison, Texas
Bassmaster sponsors for 2010 are Berkley Fishing, Booyah Bait Co., Evan
Williams Bourbon, Hummingbird, Mercury, Minn Kota Motors, Optima Batteries,
Skeeter Fishing Boats, Toyota Trucks, and Yamaha.
53.3 Tournaments
FLW Outdoors named after Forrest L. Wood, developer of the Ranger bass-
fishing boat is the sanctioning organization for a series of sportfishing tournament
tours, the most prominent of which is the Walmart FLW Tour of high-stakes bass fishing
tournaments. The top bass tournament on the FLW Tour, the Forrest Wood Cup, was
the first to offer a $1 million prize for the winner, in 2007.
For a variety of reasons, bass tournaments are the biggest in the sport, but there
are other fishing tournaments. Saltwater fishing offers a bluefish tournament with a
$1.8 million purse. The American Carp Society (www.americancarpsociety.com) has
offered purses of $1 million for its events. And there are numerous regional
tournaments of all types.
The following are some of the major fishing tournaments (source: USA Today):
$150,000 Ice Fishing Extravaganza
Brainerd, Minnesota; held in January (www.icefishing.org)
According to The Brainerd Jaycees, the event sponsors, some 20,000 holes are
drilled in the ice and 9,000 bundled-up anglers brave the freezing weather for this
annual three-hour contest. Acclaimed as the largest ice-fishing tournament in the
world, the first-place prize is a pickup truck.
Bisbees Black & Blue Marlin Tournament
Cabo San Lucas, Mexico; held in October (www.bisbees.com)
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_________________________________________________________________
This one is billed as the richest fishing
tournament in the world. A single crew took
home a check for almost $4 million one year.
Its a wild scene, too, with colorful contestants,
super-expensive boats and lavish parties.
David Kinney, author
The Big One (DreamWorks, 2009)
_________________________________________________________________
Big Rock Blue Marlin Tournament
Morehead City, North Carolina; held in June (www.thebigrock.com)
This is the most notable among several big-money ocean fishing tournaments held
on the East Coast. More than 150 boats convene on the Crystal Coast of North
Carolina to try for $1.8 million in prizes.
S. Tokunaga Store Ulua Challenge
Hilo, Hawaii; held in June (www.tokunagastore.com)
In a unique feature among ocean-fishing tournaments, all participants must fish from
shore. The quarry is the ulua, or giant trevally, which can top 100 pounds.
Okie Noodling Tournament
Pauls Valley, Oklahoma; held in July (www.okienoodling.com)
Entrants in this contest catch catfish bare-handed. Participants prowl the
lakeshores and riverbanks in search of catfish holes, then reach in and try to pull the
fish out.
Alabama Deep Sea Fishing Rodeo
Mobile, Alabama; held in July (www.adsfr.com)
Started in 1929, this is the oldest ongoing fishing tournament in the U.S. More than
3,000 contestants chase tarpon, king mackerel, amberjack, and two dozen other
kinds of sport fish. Prizes total $400,000.
Marthas Vineyard Striped Bass & Bluefish Derby
Marthas Vineyard, Massachusetts; held in September (www.mvderby.com)
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_________________________________________________________________
Fishing enthusiasts get to spend five weeks
chasing stripers and bluefish while competing for
more than $250,000 in cash and prizes. To a
Vineyarder, winning the derby is like slipping on
the green jacket at the Masters.
David Kinney, author
The Big One (DreamWorks, 2009)
_________________________________________________________________
Events of the Walmart FLW Tour are nationally televised on Fox Sports Net.
FLW Tour sponsors for 2010 are Cabelas, Castrol, Chevrolet, Crisco, Damiki,
Dunkin Donuts, Evinrude, Folgers, Goodwill Industries, H2O Hydro Wraps, Jif,
LowRange, Minnokota Motors, National Guard, Ranger Boats, Rapala, Sufix, The Bass
Federation, Trigger, US Bank, Walmart, Wolverine, and Yamaha.
53.4 Western Outdoor News Bass
WON BASS is the bass fishing tournament arm of Western Outdoor News, the
largest outdoor weekly newspaper. WON BASS has been the main regional circuit on
the West since the 1980s.
WON BASS conducts the annual U.S. Open of Bass Fishing at Lake Mead,
Nevada, a test of both angling skill and endurance as the anglers compete for 3 days in
the scorching hot sun and windy conditions of the Mohave desert. Winners collect up
to $500,000.
The following are the major events in 2010:
WON BASS NEVADA: August 14, 2010
WON BASS Pro-AM at Lake Mead: September 10-11, 2010
WON BASS Delta Team Event: September 19, 2010
WON BASS TRI-STATES Team Championship: October 15-16, 2010
WON BASS Grand Finale at The Delta: October 22-23 2010
The Western Classic: November 5-6, 2010
WON BASS sponsors for 2010 are Anglers Marine, Bass Pro Shops, BassKing,
Battery Systems, Boat Bling, Cardon Adventure Resort, Costa, Costa Del Mar, El Cajon
Ford, Forever Resorts, Hi-Seas, High Sierra Woodworking, Jackall Boats, Lowrange,
Mercury, Motor Guide, Nitro, Phillip Fishing Products, Plano, Quality Performance
Marine, Quantum, Rat-L-Trap, Seaguar, Sebile, Trojan Battery, Trolling Motor Doctor,
Tru-Tungston, and Yo-Zuri America.
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53.5 Fantasy Fishing
FLW Outdoors administers fantasy fishing competitions in conjunction with its six
regular-season FLW tournaments. Players pick 10 anglers from the 155 pros who
enter each tourney, in the order they believe the fishermen will finish. The player with
the most points at the end of each competition gets $100,000. Whoever compiles the
most points over all six tournaments wins $1 million, a record fantasy-sports payout.
_________________________________________________________________
Its crazy enough that someone can get paid $1
million for catching a fish the angler who wins
the championship tournament on the largest
professional bass-fishing circuit in the country
takes that awfully sweet bait. But its certifiably
insane that someone else can sit on his or her
butt and win a million bucks by predicting
(actually, more like guessing) which fisherman
will hook the biggest bass. All the fantasy
baseball leagues that give $1,000 to the winner
are small fry compared with the high-stakes world
of fantasy fishing.
Time, 2/16/09
_________________________________________________________________
53.6 Market Resources
Bass Anglers Sportsman Society (B.A.S.S.), ESPN Plaza, Bristol, CT 06010.
(877) 227-7872. (www.bassmaster.com)
FLW Outdoors, 30 Gamble Lane, Benton KY 42025. (270) 252-1000.
(www.flwoutdoors.com)
WON BASS, P.O. Box 73370, San Clemente, CA 92673. (818) 487-2029.
(www.wonbass.com)
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54
BOWLING
54.1 Overview
According to the 2009 Sports & Fitness Participation Topline Report, published
by the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (SGMA, www.sgma.com), 58.8
million people bowled at least once in 2009, 13.5 million bowled 13 or more times.
54.2 United States Bowling Congress
The United States Bowling Congress (USBC, www.bowling.com) is the national
sanctioning body for bowling, recognized by the United States Olympic Committee.
USBC was formed in 2005 by a merger of the American Bowling Congress,
Womens International Bowling Congress, Young American Bowling Alliance, and USA
Bowling.
More than 2 million compete regularly in league play certified by the USBC.
54.3 Professional Bowlers Association
The Professional Bowlers Association (PBA, www.pba.com) is the major
governing body for professional bowling in the United States. Membership, which
numbers over 4,300, includes pro shop owners and staff, teaching professionals, and
bowlers who compete in the various events hosted by the PBA.
G. Chris Peters, a former Microsoft executive, bought the beleaguered PBA for
$5 million in 2001. The PBA appeared headed for extinction before being revived by
Mr. Peters.
The PBA oversees competition between professional bowlers on four tours, as
follows:
PBA Tour
The PBA Tour is an annual calendar of events running from September to April.
The premier event of the tour is the PBA World Series of Bowling; the 2010 event is
in Las Vegas from October 24 thru November 6.
PBA Womens Series
Selected PBA Tour events include a separate event for female professionals.
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PBA Senior Tour
PBA members 50 years and older compete in events through the PBA Senior Tour.
PBA Regional Tour
Allowing members and amateurs to compete in weekend events, the PBA Regional
Tour consists of seven regions: Central, East, Midwest, Northwest, South,
Southwest, and West.
In 2003, ESPN began televising PBA events on Sunday afternoons and Tuesday
evenings. ABC had dropped the league in 1996, as ratings dropped after a 35-year
run.
The PBA, in conjunction with the USBC, inaugurated the PBA Womens Series
in 2007. Broadcast on ESPN, the series marked a return to televised womens bowling
for the first time since the Professional Womens Bowling Association (PWBA) folded in
2003. The Womens Series expanded from four events in 2007 to eight events in the
2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons.
PBA sponsors are Bayer, Brunswick, Etonic, GEICO, The Go RVing Coalition,
Lumber Liquidators, One-A-Day, Pepsi, and the United States Bowling Congress.
Lumber Liquidators is the title sponsor of the PBA Tour through the 2010-2011
season.
_________________________________________________________________
In replacing Dennys as title sponsor of the
PBA Tour, Lumber Liquidators creatively took
ownership of a sport that puts hundreds of
shiny wooden planks on display through every
minute of every competition. As title sponsor of
a tour with a regular weekend slot on ESPN and
a national footprint, Lumber Liquidators gets
the sort of integration that Sprint gets with
NASCAR. Its name is on the PBA Tour logo,
which was redone to match the yellow Lumber
Liquidators logo.
SportsBusiness Journal, 6/22/09
_________________________________________________________________
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54.4 Market Resources
Professional Bowlers Association, 719 Second Avenue, Suite 701, Seattle WA 98104.
(206) 332-9688. (www.pba.com)
United States Bowling Congress, 621 Six Flags Drive, Arlington, TX 76011.
(800) 514-2695. (www.bowl.com)
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55
COMPETITIVE CHEERLEADING
55.1 Overview
Long recognized as an activity to generate fan spirit at sports competitions,
cheerleading itself began to be recognized as a sport in the early 1980s when
cheerleading squads not associated with a schools or sports leagues, whose main
objective was competition, began to emerge.
Competitive cheerleading, also called competitive cheer and all-star
cheerleading, has an estimated 1.5 million participants in the United States and about
100,000 abroad.
ESPN has broadcast various competitive cheer events since 1997.
55.2 Sanctioning Organizations
The National Cheerleaders Association (NCA, www.nationalspirit.com), founded
in 1948, sponsors cheerleading competitions and camps throughout the United States.
Competitions include regional Classic Championships, NCA nationals for school
cheerleaders, and the NCA All-Star Nationals for All-Star Cheerleaders.
Universal Cheerleaders Association (UCA, http://uca.varsity.com), founded in
1974, provides training for college and high school cheerleaders through summer
camps and clinics on college campuses.
Several organizations host their own state and national competition. These
include AmeriCheer, Americas Best, Cheersport, Eastern Cheer and Dance
Association, the JAM Brands, Planet Spirit, and Universal Spirit.
In 2003, the NCA, UCA, and several competition hosting organizations formed
the U.S. All Star Federation (USASF, www.usasf.net) to unify competitive cheerleading
as a sport. The founding organizations continue to exist in their previous capacities but
work through USASF to develop a standard set of safety rules and competition
regulations. USASF also hosts the annual Cheerleading Worlds, the largest event in
the field.
In 2006, USASF created the International All-Star Federation (IASF), the first
international governing body for the sport of cheerleading.
55.3 Sponsors
NCA sponsors are Action Moments, Cheerleader & DanzTeam, Degree Girl,
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Gatorade, Invisalign, Mr. Video Productions, Nfinity Shoes, PBteen, and Varsity Brands.
USASF partners for 2010 are Action Moments, Cheer Travel Rewards,
Cheerleader & DanzTeam, Nfinity Shoes, Ozone, Ross Athletics, and Varsity Brands.
55.4 Collegiate Competitive Cheer
In July 2010, a federal court ruled that competitive cheerleading is not an official
sport that colleges can use to meet gender-equality requirements mandated by Title IX,
the 1972 federal law that requires equal opportunities for men and women in athletics.
_________________________________________________________________
Competitive cheer may, some time in the
future, qualify as a sport under Title IX. Today,
however, the activity is still too underdeveloped
and disorganized to be treated as offering
genuine varsity participation opportunities for
students.
The Honorable Stefan R. Underhill
United States District Judge, 7/21/10
_________________________________________________________________
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, www.ncaa.org) does not
officially recognize competitive cheerleading as a sport.
55.5 Market Resources
National Cheerleaders Association, 2010 Merritt Drive, Garland, TX 75041.
(800) 622-2946. (www.nationalspirit.com)
U.S. All Star Federation, 6745 Lenox Center Court, Suite 300, Memphis, TN 38115.
(800) 829-6237. (www.usasf.net)
Universal Cheerleaders Association, 6745 Lenox Center Court, Suite 300, Memphis,
TN 38115. (888) 243-3787. (http://uca.varsity.com)
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56
CRICKET
56.1 Overview
Cricket, which dates to the 15 century when it was first played in England, is the
th
worlds second most popular sport, after soccer.
The International Cricket Council (ICC, http://icc-cricket.yahoo.net/), the
governing body for the sport, has 104 member countries. Australia, Bangladesh,
England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, West Indies, and
Zimbabwe are Full Members. There are 35 Associates Members, including the United
States, and 59 Affiliate Members.
Cricket was popular in the U.S. during the 18 and 19 centuries, but the rise of
th th
baseball displaced cricket as a popular pastime. Smithsonian estimates that 30,000
American people now play or watch cricket annually.
_________________________________________________________________
Though cricket counts its fans by the billion
worldwide, the sport does not register a pulse in
the United States. Nearly all the players were
born abroad. And even though the sport had a
rich history in the United States until World War
II, it is still widely seen here an a obscure game
played exclusively by foreigners. Most who play
it here are from countries that belonged to the
British Commonwealth.
The New York Times, 3/25/09
_________________________________________________________________
There are several variations in the length of a game of cricket ranging from Test
Cricket, which is played over five days, to Twenty20, which places a limit of 20 overs
per side and takes about three hours.
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_________________________________________________________________
Has there every been a sport as willing as
cricket to change itself so dramatically to keep
up with the modern world? The addition of the
3-point shot in basketball was nothing
compared with that cricket has done with
Twenty20. In the world tournament, matches
were cut from days to three hours, and there
were cheerleaders and music to boot.
SportsBusiness Journal
_________________________________________________________________
ESPN Star Sports, a 24-hour channel dedicated to cricket, launched in 2007.
The network is reported to have paid $1.1 billion for the broadcast rights for a package
of games that includes two Cricket World Cups.
56.2 Organized Cricket in the United States
USA Cricket Association (USACA, www.usaca.org) is the governing body for
cricket in the United States and is recognized by the International Cricket Council.
USACA recognizes 46 leagues, each of which has eight or more teams.
Leagues are as follows:
American Cricket Conference (Chicago; www.americancricketconference.org)
American Cricket League (New York; www.newyorkcricket.com)
Arizona Cricket Association (www.dreamcricket.com/azcricket/)
Atlanta-Georgia Cricket League (no website)
Bangladeshi Cricket League (New York; http://bcana.com)
Bay Area Cricket Alliance (California; www.bayareacricket.org)
California Cricket Academy (www.calcricket.org)
California Cricket League (www.californiacricketleague.org)
Central Florida Cricket Association (www.cflacricket.org)
Central Texas Cricket League (www.centraltxcricket.org)
Colorado Cricket League (www.coloradocricket.org)
Commonwealth Cricket League (New York;
www.commonwealthcricketassociation.com)
Connecticut Cricket League (http://ctcricket.homestead.com/cricket.html)
Cricket League of New Jersey (www.dreamcricket.com/clnj)
Eastern American Cricket Association (New York; www.newyorkcricket.com)
Florida Southeast Cricket League (www.fsclcricket.org)
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Garden State Cricket League (New Jersey; www.dreamcricket.com/gsclnj)
Great Lakes Cricket Conference (www.greatlakescricket.org)
Greater Los Angeles Cricket Association (www.glaca.org)
Houston Cricket League (www.houstoncricket.org)
International Cricket Management League (www.dreamcricket.com/icml/)
Massachusetts State Cricket League (www.mscl.org)
Metropolitan Cricket League (New York; www.newyorkcricket.com)
Michigan Cricket Association (www.michca.org)
Midwest Cricket Conference (www.midwestcricket.org)
Millennium Cricket League (New Jersey; www.millenniumcricketleague.com)
Minnesota Cricket Association (www.minnesotacricket.com)
Nassau New York Cricket Association (www.newyorkcricket.com)
National Cricket League (no website)
New Jersey Cricket Association (www.dreamcricket.com/njca)
New Jersey State Cricket & Umpires Association (www.njscua.com)
New York Cricket League (www.newyorkcricket.com)
New York Metropolitan and District Association League
North Texas Cricket Association (www.ntcricket.com)
Northern California Cricket Association (www.ncalcricket.org)
NorthWest Cricket League (Washington; www.nwcl.org)
NYPD Cricket League (New York; www.newyorkcricket.com)
Orange County Cricket Association
(www.sportstatz.com/ss/web.asp?mode=17&club=713)
Sacramento Cricket Association (http://sca.hitscricket.com)
San Diego Cricket Association (www.dreamcricket.com/sdcc/)
South Florida Cricket Association (www.southfloridacricket.com)
Southern California Cricket Association (www.sccacricket.org)
Southern Connecticut Cricket Association (www.dreamcricket.com/sctca/)
United Cricket Conference (no website)
Washington Cricket League (District of Columbia; www.wclinc.com)
Washington Metro Cricket League (District of Columbia; www.wmcl.net)
The USACA selects a national cricket team which competes in the ICC Americas
Championship.
A few colleges Boston University, Carnegie Mellon University, Montgomery
College, University of Miami, University of South Florida, among others have cricket
clubs; they exist primarily as social clubs. The National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA, www.ncaa.org) does not officially recognize cricket.
56.3 Professional Cricket
There is currently no professional cricket league in the United States. Pro
Cricket organized in 2004 and disbanded after playing only one season. Major League
Cricket was organized in 2000 but disbanded in 2007 without playing a season. Neither
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league was sanctioned by the USACA.
Professional cricket is most active in India, where some players earn salaries of
$400,000.
_________________________________________________________________
A burgeoning Indian middle class is giving the
old sport new appeal. Cricket is the cultural
unifier of India ... its no secret that India is
becoming the financial powerhouse of the
sport.
Newsweek
_________________________________________________________________
56.4 Market Resources
USA Cricket Association, 429 Lenox Avenue, Suite P-405, Miami Beach, FL 33139.
(305) 537-3764. (www.usaca.org)
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57
FIGURE SKATING
57.1 Overview
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins,
jumps, footwork, and other intricate moves on ice. There are local, national, and
international competitions. Figure skating is an official event in the Winter Olympic
Games.
According to International Demographics (www.themediaaudit.com), 17.9% of
U.S. adults watched figure skating events on television during the 2010 Winter Olympic
Games. Among those ages 45 and older, the figure was 23.5%. Among those who
regularly watched the events, 67.4% were women, while 32.6% were men.
_________________________________________________________________
Adults who are 45 years or older are more
likely than younger viewers to regularly follow
ice skating on television. Not surprisingly,
figure skating is viewed by more females than
males.
International Demographics
fyi, 2/10
_________________________________________________________________
57.2 Sanctioning Organization
International Skating Union (ISU, www.isu.org) sanctions international figure
skating competitions. These include the Winter Olympic Games, the World
Championships, the World Junior Figure Skating Championships, the European Figure
Skating Championships, the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships, and the
ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating.
The United States Figure Skating Association (USFS, www.usfigureskating.org)
is responsible for figure skating in the United States. USFS, with more than 170,000
members, is composed of more than 700 member clubs, collegiate clubs, school-
affiliated clubs, individual members, Friends of Figure Skating, and more than 900
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Basic Skills programs.
Skaters represent the USFS in world level figure skating competitions including
the World Figure Skating Championships and Four Continents. USFS sanctions
competitions and testing for pairs, singles, and ice dance skating in the United States
and executes programs like the Basic Skills program, Special Olympics programs, and
collegiate programs for members. Skate America and other international and made-for-
television competitions are produced each year by the association. USFS is recognized
by the United States Olympic Committee and organizes the U.S. team for the Winter
Olympics.
The USFS Basic Skills Program, created in 1968, has taught more than 1.5
million people how to skate. The program has 946 skating schools throughout the
United States.
USFSA, in Colorado Springs, hosts the World Figure Skating Museum & Hall of
Fame, which is toured by more than 15,000 visitors annually.
The USFSA annual budget is approximately $16 million.
57.3 Sponsors
United States Figure Skating Association 2010 Partners are the American
Society of Clinical Oncology, AT&T, The J.M. Smucker Co., and State Farm.
57.4 Market Resources
International Skating Union, Chemin de Primerose 2, 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland
(+41 21) 612 66 66. (www.isu.org)
U.S. Figure Skating, 20 First Street, Colorado Springs, CO 80906. (719) 635-5200/
(www.usfigureskating.org)
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58
GYMNASTICS
58.1 Overview
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com),
1.5 million people in the U.S. participate in gymnastics on a weekly basis.
Gymnastics is recognized as an official sport for both men and women by the
National Conference of Athletic Associations (NCAA, www.ncaa.org).
More than 550 gymnastics camps are held each summer throughout the U.S.
58.2 Sanctioning Organizations
The Fdration Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG, www.fig-gymnastics.org), or
International Federation of Gymnastics (IFG), is the governing body of competitive
gymnastics.
USA Gymnastics (www.fig-gymnastics.org), recognized by the U.S. Olympic
Committee and FIG, is the sole national governing body for the sport of gymnastics in
the United States. The organization has programs in mens and womens artistic
gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, trampoline and tumbling, and acrobatic gymnastics.
USA Gymnastics has more than 90,000 athletes registered in competitive programs, as
well as more than 20,000 professional, instructor, and club members. Approximately
3,500 competitions and events throughout the U.S. are sanctioned annually.
58.3 Major Events
National and International Premier Events
Tyson American Cup (Worcester, Massachusetts): March 6, 2010
Pacific Rim Championships (Melbourne, Australia): April 29-May 2, 2010
Visa Championships (Hartford, Connecticut): August 10-14, 2010
Artistic Gymnastics World Championships
(Rotterdam, Netherlands): October 16-24, 2010
Collegiate
NCGA Championships (Springfield, Massachusetts): March 26-27, 2010
USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships - Men
(USAF Academy, Colorado): March 26-27, 2010
NAIGC Championships (San Marcos, Texas): April 8-10, 2010
USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships - Women
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(Denton, Texas): April 15-17, 2010
NCAA Championships - Men (West Point, New York): April 15-17, 2010
NCAA Championships - Women (Gainesville, Florida): April 22-24, 2010
58.4 Sponsors
USA Gymnastics sponsors are A-1 Gymnastics Awards, Adidas, American
Athletic, AT&T, Bemco Mattresses, CoverGirl, Dearys Gymnastics Supply, Gillette
Venus Razors, GK Elite Sportswear, NBC Sports, St. Vincent Sports Performance,
Tyson, Universal Sports, and VISA.
58.5 Market Resources
International Federation of Gymnastics, Ave de la Gare 12, 1003 Lausanne,
Switzerland. (+41 21) 321 5510. (www.fig-gymnastics.org)
USA Gymnastics, 132 East Washington Street, Suite 700, Indianapolis, IN 46204.
(317) 237-5050. (www.usa-gymnastics.com)
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59
HORSE RACING
59.1 Overview
There is live horse racing with parimutuel wagering in 36 states, with a total of
122 horse racetracks (including some tracks at county fairs).
According to Equibase Corporation (www.equibase.com), wagering on U.S.
thoroughbred races totaled $12.32 billion in 2009, a 9.9% decline from a year prior;
89% of wagers are placed off-track.
Challenged by alternative wagering options as well as a myriad of other forms of
entertainment, the horse racing industry has struggled for growth for over two decades.
Large one-day races and niche events, however, continue to prosper.
Within the scope of sports marketing, sponsorships and television broadcasts of
horse races are the focus. This chapter assesses these activities for the Triple Crown
races, the Breeders Cup, and Saratoga.
59.2 Triple Crown
The Triple Crown consists of the Kentucky Derby (www.kentuckyderby.com),
held at Churchill Downs (www.churchilldowns.com) in Louisville, Kentucky; the
Preakness Stakes (www.preakness.com), held at Pimlico Race Course
(www.pimlico.com) in Baltimore, Maryland; and the Belmont Stakes (www.belmont-
stakes.info), held at Belmont Park (www.nyra.com/index_belmont.html) in Elmont, New
York.
At the 2009 Kentucky Derby, attendance surpassed 150,000 for only the 9 time,
th
with 154,000 people watching the races live at Churchill Downs; an additional 15 million
watched on television.
The Triple Crown is currently without a sponsor. After nearly 10 years as one of
thoroughbred racings biggest backers, Visa gave up its sponsorship of the Triple
Crown in 2005. Visas sponsorship of the Triple Crown from 2001 through 2005 was
valued between $20 million and $25 million.
The Triple Crown races were broadcast on NBC from 2001 to 2005. The races
were not packaged for broadcasting after 2005. NBC has shown the Kentucky Derby
and Preakness Stakes since 2006 and the Belmont Stakes have been broadcast on
ABC.
Kentucky Derby ratings on NBC have been as follows (sources: The Nielsen
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Company and SportsBusiness Journal):
Ratings Households Viewers
2005: 9.0 9.83 million 13.58 million
2006: 8.4 9.30 million 12.89 million
2007: 8.8 9.75 million 13.75 million
2008: 8.8 9.96 million 14.20 million
2009: 9.8 11.17 million 16.29 million
The operators of the three races are again considering joining the events in a
broadcast package. The broadcast contracts for all three races expire in 2010.
_________________________________________________________________
What we agreed is after the Triple Crown we
would get together and talk about the possibility
of putting the three races back together. The
Triple Crown is a brand that is not being
exploited right now.
Charles Hayward, CEO
New York Racing Association
SportsBusiness Journal, 4/26/10
_________________________________________________________________
59.3 \Breeders Cup
The Breeders Cup World Championships (www.breederscup.com) was created
in 1984 by the National Thoroughbred Racing Association (www.ntra.com) and other
racing organizations as a year-end championship for thoroughbred racing. The location
of the race changes each year. With $20 million in prize money, the final day of the
Breeders Cup is the richest day in sports.
The 2009 Breeders Cup at Santa Anita Park drew 96,000 people, an 11%
increase from the 2008 event.
Eight of the 14 Breeders Cup races have title sponsors. Premium sponsors are
Bessemer Trust, Emirates Airline, Grey Goose, and Sentient Flight Group.
Sponsorships generate approximately $14 million, according to Sports Business
Journal.
The 27 Breeders Cup will be held November 5-6, 2010, at Churchill Downs.
th
The event, featuring more than 150 horses competing for a $25 million purse, will be
broadcast on ABC, ESPN, and ESPN2.
Breeders Cup sponsors for 2010 are Dos Equis, Emirates Airline, Fenwick, Grey
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Goose, John Deere, Mont Blanc, and Sentient Jet.
According to SportsBusiness Journal, The Breeders Cup Board of Directors is
considering a permanent location for future races.
_________________________________________________________________
One big advantage of keeping the Breeders
Cup at one site is the opportunity for long-term
sponsorship deals with local as well as national
corporations.
SportsBusiness Journal, 4/19/10
_________________________________________________________________
59.4 Saratoga
The Saratoga Race Course opened in 1863 and is the oldest organized sporting
venue of any kind in the United States. Its races have long been recognized as one of
the premier upscale social events in the country.
Saratoga, the six-week meet in upstate New York, drew 854,000 people in 2009,
an average of more than 24,000 visitors, and a $14 million handle daily.
NetJets, a private jet company, is one of four title sponsors for Saratoga races.
Three thoroughbred businesses, Fasig/Tipton, Shadwell, and Three Chimneys, also
sponsor races.
59.5 Market Resources
Churchill Downs, 700 Central Avenue, Louisville, KY 40208. (502) 636-4400.
(www.churchilldowns.com)
Equibase Corporation, 821 Corporate Drive, Lexington KY 40503. (800) 333-2211.
(www.equibase.com)
National Thoroughbred Racing Association, 2525 Harrodsburg Road, Lexington, KY
40504. (859) 223-5444. (www.ntra.com)
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60
LACROSSE
60.1 Overview
Lacrosse is North Americas oldest sport. Its origin stretches back to the 15
th
century, when Native Americans played matches with hundreds of players that lasted
days on mile-long fields.
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com),
an estimated 1.1 million people in the U.S. have played lacrosse; approximately
565,000 currently play at least 13 times annually.
60.2 Sanctioning Organization
US Lacrosse (www.uslacrosse.org) was founded in 1998 as the national
governing body of mens and womens lacrosse. The organization is the result of a
three-year strategic initiative to unify all national lacrosse associations in an effort to
effectively maxamize resources as well as promotion and development.
US Lacrosse sponsors for 2010 are Bollinger Insurance, Champion, deBeer
Lacrosse, Heather Leigh Albert Lacrosse Foundation, Nationwide, Positive Coaching
Alliance, US Bank, and Warrior.
60.3 Growth of Soccer in the United States
The Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association estimates that participation in
lacrosse among children ages 6 and older increased 117.6% between 2000 and 2008,
ranking it as the most rapidly growing youth sport in the U.S.
Lacrosse participation has expanded nationwide from a base that had previously
existed only in prep schools around Baltimore and parts of New York State and New
England.
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_________________________________________________________________
It took the last 20 years for lacrosse to spread
from a prep school sport into mainstream. And
now that it has, youve got kids seeing the game
and having a burning desire to get started
playing. I think were just at the tip of the
iceberg of where the games going to go in
terms of participants.
David Gross, Commissioner
Major League Lacrosse
_________________________________________________________________
A 2010 research project at Syracuse University documented the following growth
of lacrosse in the United States:
Participation in high school lacrosse grew 528% between 1990 and 2008.
In 2009, 520,000 people played lacrosse, an increase of 8.4% from 2008 and more
than double the 2001 number.
There are more than 240 mems and more than 300 womens college lacrosse
teams playing in Divisions I, II, and III.
Rick Burton, Ph.D., the David B. Falk Professor of Sport Management at
Syracuse University, identifies the following market drivers for lacrosse:
Lacrosse is a relatively easy game to learn and understand. It sets up easily on a
football or soccer field.
Lacrosse is generally a high-scoring game that is played and enjoyed by both men
and women.
Lacrosse is benefitting NCAA athletic departments as they deal with the
complexities of gender equality because it provides a large-number participant team
sport for women.
Lacrosse can be played in a low-cost way. True, the full competition game requires
a helmet/eye guard and some padding, but recreationally, other than the stick and a
ball, the game can be played on any area of grass with two makeshift nets. A
decent game can be played with as few as six people, and two people can play a
game of catch almost anywhere.
Lacrosse has caught the attention of big-time sports apparel and equipment
companies who are helping grow the game while extending their team businesses.
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60.4 Market Resources
US Lacrosse, 113 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210. (410) 235-6882.
(www.uslacrosse.org)
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61
MARATHONS
61.1 Overview
According to research by ING (www.ing.com), more than 13.4 million U.S. adults
are avid runners, defined as running 100 or more times a year. Of that group, more
than 8.1 million compete in organized road races.
According to Running USA (www.runningusa.org), since 1997, the number of
marathons has grown 29% to over 400; participation is up 31% to 410,000. The
number of half-marathon runners in that time period soared 63% to 590,000. There are
about 300 half-marathon events in the U.S. each year.
The Boston Marathon and ING New York City Marathon, with 22,000 and 40,000
participants in 2009, respectively, are the most well-known among marathons. With
55,000 runners, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Peachtree Road Race 10K is the
largest in the U.S., surpassed by only the Vancouver Sun Run, which had over 59,000
registrants in 2009.
61.2 Economic Impact
Marathon races are recognized as more than niche sports events as they have
become major tourist attractions. The following are economic impacts of select
marathons (source: U.S. Travel Association [www.ustravel.org]):
ING New York City Marathon (www.nycmarathon.org): $188 million
Honolulu Marathon (www.honolulumarathon.org): $100 million
Boston Marathon (www.bostonmarathon.org): $ 95 million
LaSalle Bank Chicago Marathon (www.chicagomarathon.com): $ 80 million
City of Los Angeles Marathon (www.lamarathon.com): $ 60 million
P.F. Changs Rock n Roll Arizona Marathon (www.rnraz.com): $ 41 million
ING Miami Tropical Marathon (www.ingmiamimarathon.com): $ 35 million
Marine Corps Marathon, Washington, D.C.
(www.marinemarathon.com): $ 20 million
Portland Marathon (www.portlandmarathon.org): $ 15 million
Under Armour Baltimore Marathon
(www.thebaltimoremarathon.com): $ 15 million
HP Houston Marathon (www.hphoustonmarathon.com): $ 12 million
Peachtree Road Race (www.atlantatrackclub.com): $ 10 million
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61.3 Business Assessment
Among U.S. marathons, The ING New York City Marathon is the top revenue
generator, bringing in $50 million annually. About half of the revenue comes from
runners entry fees, and approximately $10 million is from sponsorships. The
remainder comes from licensing, merchandise sales, and TV broadcast rights. New
York Road Runners (NYRR, www.nyrr.org) owns the race. The entry fee for the race
ranges between $125 and $210. The race turns away about 50,000 applicants a year.
Like many corporations, NYRR is aggressively looking to expand its business.
_________________________________________________________________
While the ING New York City Marathon is
already the peak of professional running in
America, the New York Road Runners is
building a series of complementary events that
would make the late October/early November
race week akin to an Olympics, with opening
and closing ceremonies at venues possibly as
large as Times Square or Yankee Stadium,
along with related concerts, additional races
and a variety of media extensions. Its a large
component of a plan under which the NYRR
hopes to double revenue over the next five
years, from $50 million to $100 million.
Sports Business Journal, 7/12/10
_________________________________________________________________
By contrast, the Boston Marathon, the oldest marathon in the country, pulls in
around $7 million annually in revenue and has a negligible profit. According to Guy
Morse, executive director of the Boston Athletic Association (www.baa.org), which owns
the race, the promoters dont go overboard in overly commercializing the race.
Runners must qualify for the Boston race, and therefore, only about half the runners as
in New York compete.
Falconhead Capital (www.falconheadcapital.com) became a major player in the
marathon race business in 2008 with the acquisition of the Rock n Roll marathons
(http://runrocknroll.competitor.com/) from Elite Racing. Subsequently, Falconhead
Capital launched new races in Seattle and San Antonio and acquired a half-marathon in
Chicago. In 2009, The firm acquired the Las Vegas Marathon from Devine Racing.
Falconhead Capital owns 24 road races, including nine marathons.
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U.S. Road Sports & Entertainment (www.usroadsports.com) recently acquired
the ING Georgia Marathon & Half Marathon and the Banco Popular Chicago Half
Marathon.
61.4 Sponsorships
ING Group (the most active corporate backer in the marathon industry) centers
its marketing strategy around marathon races. When the financial-services company
expanded its business to the United States in 2001, it had little name recognition.
Using sports sponsorships to build its brand, ING departed from the industry norm,
eschewing golf, tennis, and team sports in favor of the New York City Marathon,
becoming the events title sponsor for 2003.
In 2006, ING assumed title sponsorship with the Miami Marathon and San
Franciscos popular Bay to Breakers event. In 2007, ING became title sponsor of the
inaugural Georgia Marathon in Atlanta. The company also takes a non-title role with
the Denver Marathon.
Sponsors of the November 2010 running of the ING New York City Marathon are
Andalucia, ASICS, Continental Airlines, Coors Light, Dunkin Donuts, Emerald Nuts,
Foot Locker, Gatorade Endurance Formula, Grana Padano, Hospital for Special
Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York Apple Association,
Nissan, Philips, Poland Spring Water, PowerBar, Robin Hood Foundation, Runners
World, Sports Illustrated, Subway, Tata Consultancy Services, The New York Times,
The Rudin Family, Tiffany & Co., Time Warner Cable, Timex, Unilever, and UPS.
Lead sponsor John Hancock focuses its efforts at the Boston Marathon on
community relations, bringing out 1,200 employee volunteers on race day to help
manage logistics.
Some brands also use marathon sponsorships to connect with participants.
Wheaties, for example, gives away 15,000 samples to participants at the LaSalle Bank
Chicago Distance Classic, where it teams up with a local dairy to provide a post-race
refueling snack.
P.F. Changs, the title sponsor of the Arizona Rock n Roll Marathon and Half
Marathon, sends all registered runners a $10 gift certificate for use at one of its 163
restaurants; and the Chinese cuisine bistro also offers a training table menu as part of
the campaign.
An appeal for marketers of marathon sponsorships is the high-end demographic
of race participants.
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_________________________________________________________________
You have an average household income of
$160,000, every one of them has a computer,
98% use it daily. It is an affluent group that
spends, and from a marketers perspective, it is
a very attractive demographic.
David Moross, CEO
Falconhead Capital
_________________________________________________________________
61.5 Market Resources
2010 Marathon, Half-Marathon and State of the Sport Reports, Running USA, 2010.
Falconhead Capital, 450 Park Avenue, 3 Floor, New York, NY 10022.
rd
(212) 634-3304. (www.falconheadcapital.com)
New York Road Runners, 9 East 89 Street, New York, NY 10128. (212) 860-4455.
th
(www.nyrr.org)
U.S. Road Sports & Entertainment, 528 Plasters Avenue NE, Atlanta, GA 30324.
(404) 892-8383. (www.usroadsports.com)
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62
POKER
62.1 Overview
The U.S. saw a boom in poker playing throughout the early 2000s. Pokers
popularity spiked largely because of the introduction of online poker ... along with the
invention of the hole-card camera, which turned the game into a televised spectator
sport.
According to Luntz, Maslansky Strategic Research (www.luntz.com) and
Peter D. Hart Research Associates (www.hartresearch.com), 15% of U.S. adults played
poker in 2009, an increase from 11% who played in 2008.
_________________________________________________________________
The popularity of poker seemed to be waning
in recent years compared to the poker boom of
2004 and 2005; however, the percentage of
Americans who played poker either in person or
on the Internet increased in 2009.
2010 Survey of Casino Entertainment
American Gaming Association, 5/10
_________________________________________________________________
The percentages of consumers, by gender and age demographic, that play poker
are as follows:
Gender
Male: 25%
Female: 13%
Age
21-to-39: 35%
40-to-49: 18%
50-to-64: 15%
65 and older: 11%
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Poker is a highly social activity. When asked in a survey by Luntz, Maslansky
Strategic Research why they play poker, players responded as follows:
Spending time with family and friends: 51%
The skill and strategy involved: 20%
The chance to win money: 12%
Its a popular game and lots of people are playing: 7%
Other reasons: 10%
Poker enthusiasts play the game in a variety of settings, according to survey
responses. More than three-quarters (78%) of poker players reported playing with
friends and family in the past year, 27% have played in a casino or tournament, 10%
reported playing on the Internet for money, and 29% have played online, just for fun.
Others surveys have reported similar participation. A survey by AOL Games and
SRBI Public Affairs (www.srbi.com) found that 47% of Americans have played poker in
some form, 17% played more during the previous 12-month period than ever, and 26%
of those playing had taken up the game within the previous year. The poll also found
37% of respondents watch poker events on television; 11% have played poker online.
_________________________________________________________________
Poker is now the No. 1 leisure game in
America, with upwards of 65 million people who
play. Thats more than practitioners of golf,
tennis, and billiards combined.
Brandweek
_________________________________________________________________
62.2 Poker Tournaments on Television
Broadcasts of poker tournaments such as the World Series of Poker (WSOP),
aired on ESPN, and the World Poker Tour (WPT), broadcast on The Travel Channel,
have brought in huge audiences for cable and satellite TV distributors. And because of
the increasing coverage of poker events, poker pros are becoming more and more like
celebrities, with poker fans all over the world entering into expensive tournaments for
the chance to play against them. Major poker tournaments have grown still further
because of the growing popularity of online satellite-qualifier tournaments where the
prize is an entry into a major tournament.
In addition to the World Series of Poker and World Poker Tour, the popularity of
poker has spawned several other televised competitions. The following is a list of poker
programming being aired in 2010:
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Channel Launch
World Series of Poker: ESPN 1978
World Poker Tour: Fox Sports Net 1997
Poker Superstars Invitational Tournament: Fox Sports Net 2004
Ultimate Poker Challenge: syndication 2004
National Heads-Up Poker Championship: NBC 2005
High Stakes Poker: GSN 2006
Poker After Dark: NBC 2007
Some consider tournament poker a sport, others consider it a game. In either
case, the World Series of Poker tournaments are a successful draw and the highest-
rated regular series in ESPNs history. With a 1.3 Nielsen rating (1.1 million
households), the poker tournament broadcasts have topped several live sporting events
on ESPN and ESPN2. The PGA Tour, for example, had a 0.7 rating, the regular
season womens basketball and the WNBA regular season each pulled a 0.3 rating,
and the Major League Soccer regular season had a 0.2 rating.
Many of the major tournaments are played at casinos. Not only does hosting
tournaments provide national exposure for casino brands, it is also profitable. In a
recent World Series of Poker Main Event, hosted by Harrahs, for example, 5,619
players contributed $10,000 each to compete, for a total buy-in amount of $56.19
million. Harrahs paid out $52.82 million, retaining 6%, or $3.37 million.
While tournament poker is generally associated with the major televised events,
there are hundreds of smaller tournaments at casinos across the country.
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63
RODEO
63.1 Overview
According to The Economist, the popularity of rodeos appears to be increasing,
as are the opportunities to participate. Children start young, compete in high-school
championships, win college scholarships, and hone their skills at rodeo schools. For
farming families, rodeo is a way of life. Others are attracted to its western flavor and
appreciate the athletic skills of people who can leap from a horse and wrestle a steer to
the ground in a few seconds flat, or survive a wild ride on a bucking bronco.
63.2 Professional Bull Riders
The Professional Bull Riders (PBR, www.pbrnow.com), which broke away from
other traditional rodeo events, sponsors 150 events nationwide each year and draws
$14 million in sponsorships annually. The season runs January through November.
The PBRs premier circuit tour is the 31-city Built Ford Tough Series. Broadcast
on Versus, the circuit events have an average 0.4 rating, the networks highest rated
prime-time series. Versus broadcast rights agreement, which ends in 2010, yields PBR
more than $1 million annually.
The two-week, seven-session PBR World Finals are held in Las Vegas in late
October. The event is held in the 16,700-seat Thomas & Mack Center. The first six
rounds of the finals are broadcast on Versus, with the seventh round on NBC.
PBR has two other circuits: the 51-event U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Challenger
Tour and the 31-event Humps N Horns Tour.
PBR sponsors for 2010 are Allegiant Air, Ariat, B&W Trailer Hitches, Bad Boy
Movers, Bass Pro Shops, Big Tex Trailers, Bulls-Eye BBQ Sauce, City of Las Vegas,
Cooper Tires, Dickies, Dish Network, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Exclusive Genetics,
Express Ranches, Ford, Gilleys Las Vegas at Treasure Island, Jack Daniels, Jeffrey
Scott Fine Magnetics, Lincoln Welders, Mandalay Bay, PBR Big Sky, Pike Energy
Solutions, Priefert Rodeo & Ranch Equipment, RockStar Energy Drink, Rocky Mountain
Elk Foundation, Salem Nationalease, Stanley, U.S. Air Force, US Bank, Vegas Hard
Rock Hotel & Casino, Versus, Visa Connection, and Wrangler.
PBR sponsors receive signage, event title sponsorship, and television units on
rodeo events broadcast by NBC and Versus. Since the sport is new to TV, sponsorship
fees are relatively low. National packages which can include ringside signs, tour title
sponsorships, and media time cost $1 million to $2 million, according to Sean
Gleason, chief marketing officer of the PBR. On the lower end, an advertiser might buy
local exposure for $500,000 or less.
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63.3 Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association
Over 750 professional rodeos are sanctioned annually by the Professional
Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA, www.prorodeo.com). An estimated 22 million
people attend PRCA events annually, and another 40 million watch from home.
The Wrangler Pro Rodeo Tour, the primary circuit of the PRCA, hosts 26 events
for the 2010 season. Combined, the 26 rodeos offered $8.3 million in prize money.
The top 15 money winners in each of the eight PRCA disciplines earn a trip to the
Wrangler National Finals Rodeo, the largest event of the tour. Held each December in
Las Vegas, Nevada, the event is attended annually by approximately 170,000 people.
The PRCA has announced that the event will be hosted in Las Vegas through 2014.
ESPN/ESPN2 which has broadcast the finals for 13 years attracts over 9
million viewers for their 10-round broadcasts.
In 1975, the PRCA created the Dodge Circuit System for circuit cowboys those
who typically work normal jobs and compete in only a few rodeos near home on
weekends. The Dodge Circuit System designed for cowboys who might never qualify
for a Wrangler National Finals Rodeo consists of 12 geographic regions, and
cowboys compete throughout the year for points within their circuit. Each circuits top
cowboys in each event qualify for that circuits finals at the end of the season. After all
12 circuit finals are completed, the top regular-season cowboys in each event and the
winners of the circuit finals qualify for the Dodge National Circuit Finals Rodeo.
PRCA sponsors for 2010 are American Quarter Horse Association, AT&T, B&W
Custom Truck Beds, Boyd Gaming, Coors Brewing Co., Dodge, Justin Boots, Las
Vegas Convention & Visitors Authority, Las Vegas Events, Montana Silversmiths,
Priefert Rodeo & Ranch Equipment, Restol Hats, South Point Hotel Casino & Spa, and
Wrangler.
63.4 Fan Demographics
According to Scarborough Research (www.scarborough.com), demographics of
professional rodeo fans are as follows:
Gender
Male: 56%
Female: 44%
Age
18-to-24: 13%
25-to-34: 17%
35-to-44: 21%
45-to-54: 21%
55-to-64: 13%
65 and older: 14%
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Household Income
Below $35,000: 14%
$35,000 to $49,999: 22%
$50,000 to $74,999: 21%
$75,000 and higher: 28%
$100,000 and higher: 14%
Education
High school graduate: 40%
Some college: 31%
College graduate: 11%
Post graduate degree: 5%
63.5 Market Resources
Professional Bull Riders, 101 West Riverwalk, Pueblo, CO 81003. (719) 242-2800.
(www.pbrnow.com)
Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association, 101 ProRodeo Drive, Colorado Springs, CO
80919. (719) 593-8840. (www.prorodeo.com)
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64
RUGBY
64.1 Overview
Rugby, also called rugby football, is one of the worlds most popular sports. The
sport has only modest popularity in the United States. The global popularity of rugby
can be traced to its English roots and the spread of the game throughout Europe and
the Commonwealth nations. The popularity of rugby in England is similar to that of
American football in the United States. It is the national sport in New Zealand, South
Africa, Wales, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and Madagascar.
A full-contact team sport, rugby has several formats, the most popular of which
are rugby union, rugby sevens, and rugby league.
Rugby union, played with 15 players per side, is administered by the
International Rugby Board (IRB, www.irb.com) and is the most popular form of rugby
globally.
Rugby sevens, also known as seven-a-side, is a variant of rugby union in which
teams are made up of seven players, instead of the usual 15, and play shorter
matches.
Rugby league, played with 13 players per side, is administered by the Rugby
League International Federation (www.rlif.org). Rugby league is most prominent in
Australia, England, New Zealand, France, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea.
64.2 Rugby in the United States
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com),
690,000 adults in the U.S. play rugby each year; 289,000 participate eight or more
times annually and are considered core players for the sport.
The American National Rugby League (AMNRL, www.amnrl.com), the primary
organizing body for rugby in the United States, has 11 teams, as follows:
Aston Bulls (Pennsylvania)
Boston 13s
Connecticut Wildcats
Fairfax Eagles (Virginia)
Jacksonville Axemen
New Haven Warriors (Connecticut)
New York Knights
Northern Raiders (New York)
Philadelphia Fight
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Pittsburgh Vipers
Washington DC Slayers
The AMNRL plays eight rounds of games on weekends in June and July and a
tournament among eight top-seeded teams in August.
The AMNRL also organizes the Tomahawks, a national team which has
competed in international tournaments since 1954.
64.3 Rugby World Cup
The Rugby World Cup (www.rugbyworldcup.com), held every four years, is the
premier international rugby union competition and one of the largest sporting
competitions in the world, exceeded in television audience only by the FIFA World Cup
and the Summer Olympics.
The cumulative worldwide television audience of the 2007 Rugby World Cup,
won by South Africa, was estimated at over three billion and as high as four billion.
The Rugby World Cup is under the control and direction of the International
Rugby Board. Worldwide Partners are EDF, GMF, Peugeot, SNCF, Socit Gnrale,
and VISA. Official Sponsors are Capgemini, Emirates Airline, Heineken, Orange,
Toshiba, and Vediorbis.
The 2011 Rugby World Cup will be held in New Zealand.
64.4 RBS Six Nations
The RBS Six Nations Europes Premier International Rugby Tournament
(www.rbs6nations.com) is the largest rugby tournament in Europe. England, France,
Ireland, Italy, Scotland, and Wales play in the annual tournament.
Matches for the 2010 tournament, held in February and March, were in Cardiff,
Dublin, Edinburgh, London, Paris, and Rome. An assessment commissioned by
MasterCard found that the games delivered a $632.8 million total economic impact for
the six competing nations.
64.5 Rugby in the Summer Olympic Games
Rugby was last played in the Summer Olympic Games in 1924. The fifteen-a-
side version of rugby union was played, with the United States winning the gold medal.
In October 2009, the International Olympic Committee voted that rugby union in
the rugby sevens, 4-day tournament format be reinstated as an Olympic sport in at least
the 2016 and 2020 games.
According to Bernard Lapasset, president of the International Rugby Board, the
Olympic gold medal will be considered to be the pinnacle of our sport.
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64.6 Market Resources
American National Rugby League, 5100 North Leavitt Street, Chicago, IL 60625.
(312) 742-5101. (www.amnrl.com)
International Rugby Board, Huguenot House, 35-38 St Stephens Green, Dublin 2
Ireland. (+00 353) 1 240 9200. (www.irb.com)
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SOCCER
65.1 Overview
With over 3.5 billion fans worldwide, soccer, generally called football outside the
United States, is the worlds most popular sport.
The Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA, www.fifa.com) is
soccers global governing body.
Founded in 1913, the U.S. Soccer Federation (www.ussoccer.com) is the
governing body of soccer in all its forms in the United States.
Soccer is recognized as an official sport for both men and women by the
National Conference of Athletic Associations (NCAA, www.ncaa.org).
Major League Soccer is assessed in chapter 26 of this handbook.
65.2 FIFA World Cup
The World Cup is, arguably, the biggest show on earth. Under the jurisdiction
of FIFA, the event is held every four years.
The 2010 World Cup was held in South Africa. The South African bid committee
estimated the World Cup was worth $3.1 billion to the nations economy, with 160,000
jobs created.
Thirty-two teams qualified to play in the 2010 World Cup in tournaments that
began in 2007. The matches were played in 10 stadiums in nine host cities, with the
final game played at Soccer City stadium in Johannesburg. In the final, Spain defeated
The Netherlands, 1-0.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the most-watched television event in history.
Hundreds of broadcasters, representing about 70 countries, transmitted the World Cup
games to a TV audience that FIFA officials estimated to exceed a cumulative 26 billion
people, an average of approximately 400 million viewers per match. FIFA estimated
that around 700 million viewers watched the World Cup final.
In the United States, ABC, ESPN, and ESPN2 averaged a 2.1 rating, 2.29 million
households, and 3.26 million viewers for the 64 World Cup games. The rating was a
31% increase from 2006. Prior to the elimination of the United States from competition,
ratings were up 48%. Univision averaged 2,624,000 viewers for the tournament, up
17% from 2006.
Live World Cup streaming on ESPN3.com pulled in some of the largest
audiences in history as 7.4 million unique viewers tuned in for matches. In total,
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ESPN3.com generated 942 million minutes of viewing, or more than two hours per
unique viewer. All 54 live matches were viewed by an average of 114,000 persons per
minute.
Americans bought more tickets to World Cup games than fans from any country
other than South Africa, and more than half a million fans watched Europes best teams
play in the United States in July and August 2010.
Even though the American team had long since left the tournament, more than
24 million fans watched the World Cup championship match on ABC and Univision, a
figure more than the average viewership for the 2009 World Series games.
_________________________________________________________________
The 2010 World Cup has been a huge success
by just about any business metric. TV ratings
are up significantly in the United States. Buzz
around the sport is at an all-time high and a
couple of the U.S. national players Landon
Donovan and Tim Howard appear to be the
first domestic soccer stars to cross over into
the mainstream since Alexi Lalas did in the mid-
1990s.
SportsBusiness Journal, 7/12/10
_________________________________________________________________
The World Cup final match in 2014 will be played in Brazil.
65.3 Growth of Soccer in the United States
Soccer has seen significant recent growth in the United States, both in
participation and as a spectator sport.
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_________________________________________________________________
Soccer is an American sport. Americans love
to play it, certainly. Soccer trails only basketball
in number of participants. Its the most popular
sport for women among NCAA schools. Thats
been true for a long time. Indeed, the game has
deep roots in the U.S., arriving with immigrants
from Scotland, Germany, Italy, and elsewhere.
Time, 6/14/10
_________________________________________________________________
The number of youth soccer players in the United States has doubled to 4.0
million players since 1990, according to the United States Soccer Federation.
The number of high school soccer players has more than doubled since 1990 to
730,106 athletes in 2009, the fastest growth rate among any major sport, according to
the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com).
The number of womens collegiate teams has increased 115% since the United
States hosted the Womens World Cup in 1994, and the number of mens teams rose
28% over the same period, according to the NCAA.
Attendance at Major League Soccer games increased 4.6% following the World
Cup compared with games earlier in the 2010 season.
_________________________________________________________________
They have these big jumps, and it goes back,
but never to the same level. There is slow,
steady growth, and then you see the excitement
around MLSs teams. The World Cup is a
piggyback vehicle.
Prof. John Francis, Ph.D.
San Diego State University
The New York Times, 7/23/10
_________________________________________________________________
With a growing number of soccer channels available through cable and satellite
television providers, U.S. fans are also following Englands Premier League, Spains La
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Liga, and other international leagues.
65.4 Sponsors
FIFA Partners are Adidas, Coca-Cola, Emirates Airline, Hyundai-KIA Motors,
Sony, and VISA. FIFA World Cup Sponsors are Budweiser, Castrol, Continental,
McDonalds, MTN Group, Mahindra Satyam, Seara, and Yingli Solar.
U.S. Soccer Federation sponsors are AT&T, Budweiser, Castrol, Dicks Sporting
Goods, Gatorade, Jos Cuervo, McDonalds, Nike, Pepsi, and VISA.
65.5 Market Resources
Fdration Internationale de Football Association, Strasse 20, P.O. Box 8044, Zurich,
Switzerland. (+41 0) 43 222 7777. (www.fifa.com)
U.S. Soccer Federation, 1801 South Prairie Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616.
(312) 808-1300. (www.ussoccer.com)
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SOFTBALL
66.1 Overview
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (SGMA,
www.sgma.com), 9.8 million people played slow pitch softball in 2009; 5.9 million
played 13 or more times. Also in 2009, 2.3 million people played fast pitch softball; 1.2
million played 26 or more times.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, www.ncaa.org) recognizes
womens softball as an official sport and has hosted the Womens College World Series
since 1982.
According to the National Federation of State High School Associations
(www.nfhs.org), 368,921 girls played on high school softball teams in 2009.
Womens softball was played in the Summer Olympic Games from 1996 to 2008.
The sport will be dropped for the 2012 Games.
66.2 Governing Bodies
The International Softball Federation (www.internationalsoftball.com) is the
international governing body for softball. The ISF holds world championships in several
categories every four years.
The 1976 Amateur Sports Act designated the Amateur Softball Association
(ASA, www.asasoftball.com) as the national governing body of softball in the United
States.
There are several other governing bodies, including the National Softball
Association (www.playnsa.com) and the United States Specialty Sports Association
(www.usssa.com).
66.3 Amateur Softball Association
The Amateur Softball Association registers over 245,000 softball teams
comprising over 3.5 million players annually. The ASA runs competitions in every state
through a network of 87 state associations and conducts over 100 National
Championships in which 30,000 players compete.
Annually, the ASA registers over 83,000 youth girls fast pitch softball teams
comprising over 1.2 million girls.
ASA sponsors for 2010 are 24 Hour Fitness, AT&T, Boombah, Club Spaces,
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Dermabond, Disney Sports, eFundraising, Great Plains Coca-Cola, Hooters of America,
Inc., KFC, Liberty Mutual, Musco Lighting, Nike, Schutt Sports, Six Flags, Stabilizer
Solutions, United Airlines, and US Sport Camps.
66.4 National Pro Fastpitch
National Pro Fastpitch (NPF, www.profastpitch.com) is the only womens
professional softball league in the United States. There are no professional leagues for
men. NPF launched in 2004 following the demise of its predecessor, the Womens Pro
Softball League.
The NPF season is from June through August. The 2010 season opened with
four teams: Akron Racers, Chicago Bandits, Tennessee Diamonds, and USSSA Florida
Pride.
NPF sponsors for 2010 are 3N2 Sports, Akadema, ArbiterSports, Boombah,
Combat Sports, Diamond Sports, Easton Sports, Louisville Slugger, Majetic Athletic,
Miken Sports, MIZUNO USA, Ringor, Rip-It Sporting Goods, Schutt Sports, The Game,
Wilson Sporting Goods Co., Worth Sports, and XPROTEX.
66.5 Market Resources
Amateur Softball Association of America, 2801 NE 50 Street, Oklahoma City, OK
th
73111. (405) 424-5266. (www.asasoftball.com)

International Softball Federation, 1900 South Park Road, Plant City, FL 33563.
(813) 864-0100. (www.internationalsoftball.com)
National Pro Fastpitch, 3350 Hobson Pike, Hermitage, TN 37076. (615) 232-2900.
(www.profastptich.com)
National Softball Association, P.O. Box 7, Nicholasville, KY 40340. (859) 887-4114.
(www.playnsa.com)
United States Specialty Sports Association, 611 Line Drive, Kissimmee, FL 34744.
(321) 697-3636. (www.usssa.com)
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67
SWIMMING, DIVING & WATER POLO
67.1 Overview
A estimated 300,000 people swim competitively in the United States. An
additional seven million swim for recreation and fitness.
Swimming, diving, and water polo are recognized as official sports for both men
and women by the National Conference of Athletic Associations (www.ncaa.org).
Club swimming in the U.S. has two major seasons. During the short-course
season, from September to the end of March, swimmers swim in 25 yard pools. The
long-course season is swum in 50 meter Olympic pools and lasts from April to the end
of August.
67.2 Sanctioning Organizations
Swimming is governed internationally by the Fdration Internationale de
Natation (FINA, www.fina.org). FINA organizes swimming, diving, synchronized
swimming, and water polo competitions at the Summer Olympics.
United States Aquatic Sports (USAS, www.usaaquaticsports.com) is the national
federation for aquatic sports which represents the United States in FINA. Five separate
national governing bodies make up USAS: USA Swimming (www.usaswimming.org),
USA Diving (www.usadiving.org), United States Synchronized Swimming
(www.usasynchro.org), USA Water Polo (www.usawaterpolo.org), and United States
Masters Swimming (USMS, www.usms.org). Of the five, only USMS is not a member of
the United States Olympic Committee. USMSs main focus is adult swimming,
exclusive of Olympic-swimming, which is the domain of USA Swimming. USAS exists
as an umbrella organization because FINA regulations limit countries to a single
national federation.
USA Swimming, the national governing body for the sport in the U.S., sanctions
over 4,000 events each year. Membership, comprised of swimmers from the age-group
level to the Olympic Team as well as coaches and volunteers, is approximately
300,000.
USA Diving offers a variety of programs for divers of all ages and skill levels.
The most visible annual events run by USA Diving are the AT&T National Diving
Championships, the AT&T USA Diving Grand Prix, and the Junior and Age Group
National Diving Championships.
U.S. Synchronized Swimming, also known as USA Synchro and Synchro
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Swimming USA, was established in 1977 as the national governing body for
synchronized swimming.
USA Water Polo, the governing body for the sport, has approximately 500
registered clubs across the United States.
U.S. Masters Swimming, founded in 1971, organizes swimming programs for
adults that range from lap swimming to international competition. Membership numbers
more than 50,000 and programs are open to all adult swimmers (fitness, triathlete,
competitive, non-competitive). There are more than 500 local and regional
competitions for adult swimmers around the country each year. Almost half of USMS
members compete in meets. USMS holds two national championship meets each year.
The spring championships are held in April or May and are contested in a short course
venue. The summer championships are held in August and are contested in a long
course venue.
67.3 Sponsors
Sponsors for swimming, diving, and water polo are as follows:
U.S. Masters Swimming
Adolph Kiefer & Associates, Agon Sport, All American Swim Supply, Bank of
America, Barracuda, blueseventy, BullFrog Sunblock, Colorado Time Systems,
Endless Pools, FINIS, FitMagnet, Fitness Nutrition, Hammer Nutrition, Kast-A-Way
Swimwear, Liberty Mutual, Nike, Speedo, SwimOutlet.com, Tyr Sports, Ultra Swim
USA Diving
AT&T, Hasty Awards, Choice Hotels International, Colorado Time Systems, Sport
Graphics, Medical Animatics, United Airlines, Sugar and Bruno Store
USA Swimming
AT&T, BMW, CeraVe, ConocoPhillips, Marriott, Mutual of Omaha, Myrtha Pools,
Omega, Speedo, VISA
USA Synchro
Clark Synthesis Tactile Sound, Colorado Time Systems, E-Synchro, Sports
Graphics, and United Airlines
USA Water Polo
AquaHydrate9, Big Fish Payroll Services, Clubspaces, Colorado Time Systems,
Kaenon Polarized, KT Tape, Kitasa, Sea Air Federal Credit Union, S&R Sport,
United Airlines, Vistaprint
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67.4 Market Resources
Fdration Internationale de Natation (FINA), Avenue de lAvant-Poste 4, CH - 1005
Lausanne, Switzerland. (+41 21) 310 47 10. (www.fina.org)
United States Synchronized Swimming, 132 E. Washington Street, Suite 820,
Indianapolis, IN 46204. (317) 237-5700. (www.usasynchro.org)
USA Aquatic Sports, One Olympic Plaza, Colorado Springs, CO 80909.
(719) 866-4578. (www.usaaquaticsports.org)
USA Diving, 132 East Washington Street, Suite 850, Indianapolis, IN 46204.
(317) 237-5252. (www.usadiving.org)
USA Swimming One Olympic Plaza, Colorado Springs, CO 80909.
(719) 866-4578. (www.usaswimming.org)
USA Water Polo, 2124 Main Street, Suite 240, Huntington Beach, CA 92648.
(714) 500-5445. (www.usawaterpolo.org)
U.S. Masters Swimming, 655 North Tamiami Trail, Sarasota, FL 34236.
(800) 550-7946. (www.usms.org)
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68
TRACK & FIELD
68.1 Overview
There more than 30 million adult runners in the United States. This figure
includes those who run for recreation and fitness as well as those who compete in
events.
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com);
4.5 million people in the U.S. participate in track & field activities; 2.3 million participate
at least twice per month.
More than one million boys and girls participate on high school track teams,
according to the National Federation of State High School Associations (www.nfhs.org).
This ranks track & field second, behind football, in high school sports participation.
Track & field is recognized as an official sport for both men and women by the
National Conference of Athletic Associations (NCAA, www.ncaa.org).
Among television broadcasts of Summer Olympic events, track & field has the
highest viewership.
68.2 Sanctioning Organization
USA Track & Field (USATF, www.usatf.org) is the governing body for track and
field, long-distance running, and race walking in the United States.
USATF has approximately 100,000 members. Member organizations include the
U.S. Olympic Committee (www.teamusa.org), NCAA, National Association of
Intercollegiate Athletics (www.naia.org), NFSHSA, Road Runners Club of America
(www.rrca.org), and Running USA (www.runningusa.org).
Fifty-seven USATF-affiliated associations oversee the sport and its 2,500 clubs
at the local level.
68.3 Major Events
USATF sponsors a U.S. team (i.e., Team USA) in several events each year.
The 2010 Team USA Events are as follows:
Five Nations Match (Scotalnd): January 30, 2010
World Masters Athletics Championships Indoor (Canada): March 1-6, 2010
NACAC Cross Country Championships: March 6, 2010
IAAF World Indoor Championships: March 12-14, 2010
IAAF World Cross Country Championships: March 28, 2010
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World 24 - Hour Run Championships: May 13-14, 2010
IAAF World Race Walking Cup: May 15-16, 2010
NACAC U-23 Championships: July 9-11, 2010
IAAF World Junior Championships: July 19-25, 2010
USA vs. Canada Junior Race Walk: July 30, 2010
Thorpe Cup (USA vs. Germany Combined Events): August 7-8, 2010
Youth Olympic Games: August 14-26, 2010
IAAF Continental Cup: September 4-5, 2010
IAAF World Half Marathon Championships: October 16, 2010
IAU 100 km World Championship: November 6, 2010
International Chiba Ekiden: November 23, 2010
68.4 Sponsors
USA Track & Field sponsors are 24 Hour Fitness, Hershey, Nike, and VISA.
68.5 Market Resources
USA Track & Field, 132 East Washington Street, Suite 800, Indianapolis, IN 46204.
(317) 261-0500. (www.usatf.org)
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TRIATHLONS
69.1 Overview
A triathlon is a racing event consisting of swimming, cycling, and running
components over various distances. Triathlon has grown significantly in recent years
and now includes thousands of races with hundreds of thousands of competitors
worldwide.
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com),
more than one million people compete in either a traditional or an off-road triathlon
each year; more than a third race in 10 or more events.
Membership in USA Triathlon (www.usatriathlon.org), the sports governing body,
has grown from 19,000 in 1999 to more than 100,000 in 2010.
69.2 Demographics
Thirty-one percent (31%) of USA Triathlon members fall in the 30-to-39 age
demographic; 35% are female.
The 60,000 subscribers of Triathlete magazine have a median income of
$122,600; 93.4% earn more than $100,000.
The sport attracts a disproportionate share of entrepreneurs, executives,
physicians, and attorneys, many with a willingness to spend thousands of dollars
annually on entry fees, travel, and top-of-the-line equipment and training. Average
income among athletes competing in the 22 official Ironman events: nearly $160,000.
_________________________________________________________________
No participatory sport in the country comes
close to this demographic. Yachting and
equestrian might exceed us by a few dollars.
Murphy Reinschreiber, Sports Agent
Sports Business Journal
_________________________________________________________________
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69.3 Major Events
The World Triathlon Corporation (www.ironman.com) sanctions and organizes a
series of Ironman and Ironman 70.3 distance races each year. These races serve as
qualifying events for the Ford Ironman World Championship, held annually in Kailua-
Kona, Hawaii (October), and the Foster Grant Ironman World Championship 70.3 in
Clearwater, Florida (November).
The Life Time Fitness Triathlon (www.ltftriathlon.com) hosts six events
comprising the Life Time Fitness Triathlon Series Race to the Toyota Cup:
Philadelphia Insurance Triathlon
Life Time Fitness Triathlon (Minneapolis)
Nautica New York City Triathlon
Chicago Triathlon
Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Triathlon
Toyota U.S. Open Triathlon (Dallas)
In addition to Life Time Fitness and Toyota, sponsors are All Whites, American
Express Delta Sky Miles, Avis, Budget, Caribou Coffee, CEP Socks, Champion System,
Clif Bar, Gear West Bike and Triathlon, GU Energy Gel, HealthEZ, JR Watkins, Lasik
Plus, MGD 64, Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute (MOSMI), Muscle Milk,
Old Home Safflower Power, Orbea, Shout, Triathlete magazine, and TYR.
In addition to the Ironman events and Life Time Fitness Series, the following are
other major triathlon events:
Avia Wildflower Triathlon (www.tricalifornia.com), a Half-Ironman distance race
held on or near May 1 at Lake San Antonio in Southern California, has been held
st
since 1983. Known for a particularly hilly course, it has expanded now to include
three races of different lengths. It is one of the largest triathlon events in the world,
with over 8,000 athletes competing each year.

Danskin Womens Triathlon Series (www.danskintriathlon.net) is series of six
womens triathlons that run from mid-May through mid-September. The races in
Seattle, Denver, and Austin attract more than 2,000 athletes.

Escape from Alcatraz (www.escapefromalcatraztriathlon.com) is a non-standard-
length race that begins with a 1.5 mile swim in frigid San Francisco Bay waters from
Alcatraz Island to shore, followed by an 18-mile bicycle and eight-mile run in the
extremely hilly terrain of the San Francisco Bay area. The run includes the
notorious Sand Ladder a 400-step staircase climb up a beachside cliff. The 2011
Escape from Alcatraz Triathlon is scheduled for June 5, 2011.

St. Anthonys Triathlon (www.satriathlon.com) attracts more than 4,000
competitors and is viewed by many as the kickoff to the triathlon season. The May
1, 2011 event will be the 28 annual. St. Anthonys Triathlon, held in St. Petersburg,
th
Florida, is sponsored by St. Anthonys Health Care.
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Major international triathlon events that draw athletes from the U.S. include the
Norseman Xtreme Triathlon (www.nxtri.com), the Michelob ULTRA London Triathlon
(www.londontriathlon.com), and the Nice Triathlon (www.ironmanfrance.com).
69.4 Sponsorships and Promotions
Ironman has had a rotating cast of sponsors over the last decade; current
partners include Ford, Gatorade, PowerBar, and Timex.
NBC, for years, has aired Emmy Award-winning, Ironman-produced coverage of
the world championship in Kona. Sales of licensed Ironman products are $500 million
annually, according to Sports Business Journal.
Life Time Fitness has committed to sponsor the four-event series that bears its
name through 2011. According to Bahram Akradi, CEO of the Life Time Fitness chain,
adding more events and having a series that attracts sponsorship and television dollars
is the focus.
69.5 Market Resources
Life Time Fitness Triathlon, 2902 Corporate Place, Chanhassen, MN 55317.
(952) 947-0000. (www.ltftriathlon.com)
USA Triathlon, 1365 Garden of the Gods Road, Suite 250, Colorado Springs, CO
80907. (719) 597-9090. (www.usatriathlon.org)
World Triathlon Corporation, 2701 North Rocky Point Drive, Suite 1250, Tampa, FL
33607. (813) 868-5940. (www.ironman.com)
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VIDEO GAME COMPETITIONS
70.1 Overview
With almost 100 million people playing video games in the U.S., marketers
believe there is an interest among many to also watch top players compete.
Broadcasts of video game competitions have launched both on major TV networks and
online.
70.2 Major Tournaments
The following are the primary video gaming tournament organizations:
EA Sports Challenge (www.mlgpro.com/easportschallenge)
Electronic Arts Inc. (www.ea.com), the largest of the video game companies,
sponsors competitions centered around four of its game titles. The largest is the EA
Sports Madden Challenge (www.easports.com/maddennfl/challenge/), held for the
fifth year in 2010 and consisting of 32 regional tournaments. Other Challenge
Series competitions are NBA Live, NCAA Football, and FIFA Live.
Major League Gaming (MLG, www.mlgpro.com)
MLG is a series of gaming tournaments with a $700,000 purse. Held around the
country, the 2010 tour visited Columbus, Dallas, Orlando, Raleigh, and Washington,
D.C. All competitions are streamed live on the MLG website.
World Cyber Games (WCG, www.worldcybergames.com)
Sponsored by Korea-based International Cyber Marketing, the World Cyber Games
Grand Final was held in Los Angeles in 2010. The final tournament featured more
than 700 gamers that advanced from 140 preliminary events. These events were
held in 70 countries and had more than one million participants. World Cyber
Championship events are streamed on ESPN3com..
Despite drawing more than 400,000 households to watch its gaming tournament
on CBS, the World Series of Video Games shut down operations. The Cyberathlete
Professional League ceased operations in early 2008. The Championship Gaming
Series, owned and operated by DirecTV, discontinued operations in 2009.
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70.3 Sponsors
The popularity of gaming competitions has drawn interest among advertisers.
Major League Gaming has as its sponsors Astro Pro Gaming Equipment, BIC Flex4,
Doritos, Dr. Pepper, Hot Pockets, Old Spice, and Stride. World Cyber Games sponsors
are AlienWare, PowerColor, Samsung, and Ttesports.
70.4 Market Resources
Major League Gaming, 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 2820, New York, NY 10170.
(212) 920-8190. (www.mlgpro.com)
World Cyber Games, i-Castle, 7th floor, 86-1, Nonhyun-dong, Kangnamgu, Seoul,
Korea 135-010. (+82-2) 2106-6500. (www.worldcybergames.com)
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VOLLEYBALL
71.1 Overview
According to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (www.sgma.com),
participation in volleyball in 2009 was as follows (change from previous year in
parenthesis):
One or more times 13 or more times
Court Volleyball: 8.2 million (17%) 4.7 million (16%)
Grass Volleyball: 5.1 million (3%) 1.2 million (-25%)
Beach Volleyball: 4.2 million (8%) 1.1 million (-19%)
Volleyball is recognized as an official sport for both men and women by the
National Conference of Athletic Associations (NCAA, www.ncaa.org).
According to the National Federation of State High School Associations
(www.nfhs.org), 403,985 girls participated on high school volleyball teams during the
2009-2010 school year.
Volleyball is a sport of the Summer Olympic Games.
71.2 Sanctioning Organization
USA Volleyball (USAV) is the national governing body for the sport of volleyball
in the United States and is recognized as such by the Federation International de
Volleyball (FIVB) and the United States Olympic Committee (USOC).
USAV-affiliated organizations are American Latvian Association
(www.alausa.org), California Beach Volleyball Association (www.cbva.com), Disabled
Sports USA (www.dsusa.org), Girl Scouts of America (www.girlscouts.org), Jewish
Community Centers (www.jcca.org), Maccabi USA Sports for Israel
(www.maccabiusa.com), National Congress of State Games (www.stategames.org),
National Recreation & Parks Association (www.npra.org), People to People Sports
Ambassadors (www.peopletopeople.com/ourprograms/sport/pages/default.aspx),
Positive Coaching Alliance (www.positivecoach.org), the Presidents Council on
Physical Fitness and Sports (www.fitness.gov), Professional Association of Volleyball
Officials (www.pavo.org), Starlings Volleyball Clubs USA (www.starlings.org), United
States Wallyball Association (www.uswalleyball.org), US Specialty Sports
(www.usssa.com), US Youth Volleyball League (www.ysyvl.org), USA Deaf Sports
Federation (www.usdeafsports.org), and the Volleyball Hall of Fame
(www.volleyhall.org).
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71.3 AVP Pro Beach Volleyball
AVP Pro Beach Volleyball (www.avp.com), organized in 2001, ceased operations
in 2010. Over one million people attended an AVP event as recently as 2008.
71.4 Market Resources
USA Volleyball, 715 South Circle Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80910. (719) 228-6800.
(www.usavolleyball.org)
USA Volleyball Beach Headquarters, 222 North Sepulveda Boulevard, Suite 2000,
El Segundo, CA 90245. (310) 364-5214.
(http://usavolleyball.org/volleyball-disciplines/beach-volleyball)
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MARKET RESOURCES
IEG Sponsorship Report, 640 North Lacily, Suite 600, Chicago, IL 60610.
(312) 944-1727. (www.sponsorship.com)
International Demographics, 10333 Richmond Avenue, Suite 200, Houston, TX 77042.
(713) 626-0333. (www.themediaaudit.com)
Kantar Media (formerly TNS Media Intelligence), 100 Park Avenue, 4 Floor, New York,
th
NY 10017. (212) 991-6000. (www.kantarmedia.com)
Kantar Sport, 2 Pickwick Plaza, Greenwich, CT 06830. (203) 618-8621.
(www.tnssport.com)
National Association of Sports Commissions, 9916 Carver Road, Suite 100, Cincinnati,
OH 45242. (513) 281-3888. (www.sportscommissions.org)
Plunkett Research, P.O. Drawer 541737, Houston, Texas 77254. (713) 932-0000.
(www.plunkettresearch.com)
Pro Sports Group, 18208 Preston Road, Suite D9-110, Dallas, TX 75252.
(800) 820-1507. (www.prosportsgroup.com)
Richard K. Miller & Associates, 4132 Atlanta Highway, Suite 110, Loganville, GA 30052.
(770) 466-9709. (www.rkma.com)
Scarborough Sports Marketing, 770 Broadway, New York, NY 10003. (646) 654-8400.
(www.scarborough.com/sports.htm)
Sport Business International, 33-41 Dallington Street, London EC1V 0BB, England.
+44 (020) 7954 3515. (www.sportbusiness.com)
Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, 1150 17 Street NW, Suite 407,
th
Washington, DC 20036. (202) 775-1762. (www.sgma.com)
Sports Business Journal, 112 South Tryon Street, Suite 1600, Charlotte, NC 28284.
(704) 371-3100. (www.sportsbusinessjournal.com)
Team Marketing Report, 660 West Grand Avenue, Suite 100E, Chicago, IL 60610.
(312) 829-7060. (www.teammarketing.com)
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The Licensing Letter, EPM Communications, 19 West 21 Street, New York, NY 10010.
st
(212) 941-0099. (www.epmcom.com)
The Nielsen Company, 770 Broadway, New York, NY 10003. (646) 654-8300.
(www.nielsen.com)
The NPD Group, 900 West Shore Road, Port Washington, NY 11050. (516) 625-0700.
(www.npd.com)
Turnkey Sports & Entertainment, 9 Tanner Street, Suite 8, Haddonfield, NJ 08033.
(856) 685-1450. (www.turnkeysports.com)
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REFERENCES
Chapter 1: Market Summary
Freedman, Jonah, The 20 Highest-Earning International Athletes, Sports Illustrated,
August 2010.
Freedman, Jonah, The 50 Highest-Earning American Athletes, Sports Illustrated,
August 2010.
Ozanian, Michael K. and Kurt Badenhausen, The Worlds Most Valuable Teams and
Athletes, Forbes, August 9, 2010, pp 76-77.
Plunkett, Jack W., Sports Industry Almanac 2011, July 2010.
The Changing Face Of Sports Media, The Nielsen Company, January 2010.
Tiger Is Still Americas Favorite Spots Star, But Shares Title With Kobe, Harris
Interactive, July 20, 2010.
Chapter 2: Top Sports Cities
Broughton, David, Sweet Success, SportsBusiness Journal, August 24, 2009, pp 1,
36-39.
NASCAR Fans Abundant In South, East, fyi, March 2009.
New Poll Finds Boston At The Top ... Again, fyi, May 2009.
Packers, Steelers Fans #1 and #2 In Nation, fyi, September 2009.
Top Pro Basketball Markets Revealed, fyi, November 2009.
PART I: SPORTS MARKET SEGMENTS

Chapter 3: Advertising & Sponsorships
Broughton, David, A-B Again Leads List Of Top Sports Advertisers, SportsBusiness
Journal, April 19, 2010, p. 11.
Fitch, Stephanie, Mike Ozanian and Kurt Baderhausen, When Big Money Doesnt Play
Sports Marketing 2011
313
Ball, Forbes, January 18, 2010, pp 24-26.
Friedman, Jonah, The Fortunate 50: The 50 Highest-Earning American Athletes,
Sports Illustrated, August 2010.
Futterman, Matthew, A Safety For Giants As Clock Ticks Down On Stadium, The Wall
Street Journal, June 17, 2009.
Chapter 4: Concessions
Muret, Don, Serving Notice, Sports Business Journal, June 8-14, 2009, pp 12-19.
Chapter 5: Fantasy Sports
Fisher, Eric, A More Casual Approach, SportsBusiness Journal, March 1, 2010, pp 13-
18.
Greenburg, Zack OMalley, Get Real, Forbes, March 16, 2009.
Chapter 6: Game Promotions
Cooper, William, Promotions: Value Minded, SportsBusiness Journal, July 13, 2009,
pp 15-17.
Muret, Don, Dodgers, Bucks Back For More All-You-Can-Eat, SportsBusiness Journal,
July 13, 2009, p. 5.
Chapter 7: Licensing
Scardino, Emily (ed.), Retail Sales Of Licensed Goods Decline 11.5% in 2009, The
Licensing Letter, February 15, 2010, pp 1-6.
Chapter 9: Participation & Recreation
2009 Sports & Fitness Participation Topline Report, Sporting Goods Manufacturers
Association, 2009.
Chapter 10: Sporting Goods
Miller, Richard K. and Kelli Washington, The 2010 Retail Business Market Research
Handbook, Richard K. Miller & Associates, June 2010.
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Chapter 11: Sports Fans
Comparing Fan Demos In Sports, SportsBusiness Journal, March 2, 2009, pp 16-17.
Football Expands Lead Over Baseball As Americas Favorite Sport, Harris Interactive,
February 1, 2010.
King, Bill, What Makes Fans Crazy About Sports? SportsBusiness Journal, April 19,
2010, pp 15-22.
Who Are The Avids? SportsBusiness Journal, April 13, 2010, p. 1.
Chapter 12: Sports Management
College Programs In Sports Business, SportsBusiness Journal, December 7, 2009, pp
46-52.
Chapter 15: Ticketing
Fisher, Eric, Smartphones Use Drives Mobile Ticketing, SportsBusiness Journal, May
31, 2010, p. 19.
Fisher, Eric, Ticketings Change Up, SportsBusiness Journal, May 31, 2010, pp 15-18.
Lombardo, John, ScoreBig: A Priceline For Sports, SportsBusiness Journal, April 20,
2010, pp 1, 27.
Muret, Don, Variable or Dynamic Ticket Pricing Get Fresh Look From Teams,
SportsBusiness Journal, March 8, 2010, p. 10.
Satariano, Adam, Innovator: Barry Kahn, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, May 24, 2010, p.
39.
PART II: SPORTS MEDIA

Chapter 16: Sports Television Broadcasting
Durand, John, Big Deals, Bigger Questions, SportsBusiness Journal, November 9,
2009, pp 1, 15-19.
Durand, John, Yankees vs. Red Sox Rivalry Extends To Which RSN Is No. 1,
SportsBusiness Journal, February 15, 2010, p. 10.
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Chapter 17: Sports Radio
*Study Examines The Upscale Nature of Sports, fyi, October 2009, pp 1-2.
Mid-Season 2010 Arbitron Sports Report: PPM Radio Listening for Pro Baseball,
TM
Arbitron, August 2010.
Chapter 19: Newspaper Sports Sections
King, Bill, For Tours Like NASCAR and Golf, Disappearing Local Bylines Reduce The
Reach Of The Sports, SportsBusiness Journal, July 20, 2009, pp 30-31.
King, Bill, No News Is Bad News, SportsBusiness Journal, July 20, 2009, pp 1, 28-31.
*Study Examines The Upscale Nature of Sports, fyi, October 2009, pp 1-2.
Chapter 20: Sports Online
Monetizing Sports Content Online, eMarketer, February 19, 2010.
Verna, Paul, Paid Sports Content: Lets Go To The Video Stream, eMarketer, February
2010.
Chapter 21: Mobile
King, Bill, Whats The Right Call On Wireless, SportsBusiness Journal, February 22,
2010, pp 1, 13-16.
Schmidt, Michael S., To Pack A Stadium, Provide Better Video Than TV, The New
York Times, July 28, 2010.
Smith, Aaron, Mobile Access 2010, Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 7, 2010.
Verna, Paul, Paid Sports Content: Lets Go To The Video Stream, eMarketer, February
2010.
PART III: MAJOR TEAM SPORTS

Chapter 22: Major League Baseball
Badenhausen, Kurt, Michael K. Ozanian and Christina Settimi, The Business Of
Baseball, Forbes, April 7, 2010.
Durand, John, Fox Sells Out MLB All-Star Game, SportsBusiness Journal, June 14,
2010, p. 5.
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Durand, John, MLB Numbers Show Ad Sales Continuing To Claw Their Way Back,
SportsBusiness Journal, April 5, 2009, p. 11.
Chapter 23: National Basketball Association
Badenhausen, Kurt, Michael K. Ozanian and Christina Settimi, The Business Of
Basketball, Forbes, December 9, 2009.
Chapter 24: National Football League
Badenhausen, Kurt, Michael K. Ozanian and Christina Settimi, The Most Valuable NFL
Teams, August 25, 2010.
Chapter 25: National Hockey League
Badenhausen, Kurt, Michael K. Ozanian and Christina Settimi, The Business Of
Hockey, Forbes, November 11, 2009.
Burton, Rick and Norm OReilly, NHL Must Be Strong On Power Plays Of Innovation,
Globalization, SportsBusiness Journal, February 22, 2010, p. 21.
Stanley Cup Contenders Have Plenty of Fans, fyi, International Demographics, May
2009.
Chapter 26: Major League Soccer
Mickle, Tripp, MLS Attendance Up, Ratings Flat, SportsBusiness Journal, July 19,
2010, p. 5.
Mickle, Tripp, Toronto FC Keeps Banks Name On Jerseys, SportsBusiness Journal,
June 28, 2010, p. 4.
Chapter 28: Womens Professional Soccer
Mickle, Tripp, WPS Teams Commit To Return, Despite Loss, SportsBusiness Journal,
September 14, 2010, p. 6.
PART V: RACING SPORTS

Chapter 34: Indy Racing League
Smith, Michael, At Difficult Time, IRL Finally Found Its Naming Deal, SportsBusiness
Journal, November 23, 2009, pp 1, 6.
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Chapter 35: NASCAR
Belson, Ken and Dave Caldwell, Economic Slowdown Catches Up With NASCAR,
The New York Times, August 8, 2010.
Bristol, Sean Gregory, NASCAR Needs Another Gear, Time, August 25, 2010, pp 54-
57.
Broughton, David, Sponsor Impressions, Value Jump In 2009, SportsBusiness
Journal, December 14, 2009, p. 9.
Durand, John, Fox Likes NASCARs Changes For 10 And How It Made Them,
SportsBusiness Journal, February 1, 2010, p. 13.
Durand, John and Michael Smith, NASCAR Ratings, Younger Viewers Drop,
SportsBusiness Journal, June 14, 2010, p. 3.
McNichols, Kym, Race To The Bottom Line, Forbes, April 12, 2010, pp 85-86.
Smith, Michael, Speedway Replacing 9,000 Seats With High-End Motorcoach Area,
SportsBusiness Journal, February 16, 2009, p. 4.
Smith, Michael, The Changing Look Of NASCAR Sponsorship, SportsBusiness
Journal, May 24, 2010, pp 14-16.
Chapter 37: Supercross
Smith, Michael, Supercross Attendance Holds Firm As Its TV Numbers Increase,
SportsBusiness Journal, June 8, 2010, p. 27.
Smith, Michael, Supercross Event Jumping To Dodger Stadium,SportsBusiness
Journal, June 28, 2010, p. 9.
PART VI: FIGHTING SPORTS

Chapter 38: Boxing
King, Bill, Big Hits Back Home, SportsBusiness Journal, October 12, 2009, pp 17-18,
28.
King, Bill, Boxings Grand Stage, SportsBusiness Journal, June 14, 2010, pp 1, 16-20,
27.
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Chapter 39: Mixed Martial Arts
Durand, John and Terry Lefton, Networks Paying More Attention To MMA,
SportsBusiness Journal, June 14, 2010, p. 22.
Dure, Beau, UFC Takes On The World, USA Today, June 11, 2009.
Mixed Martial Arts Attracts Young Adults with Purchasing Power, Scarborough Sports
Marketing, November 23, 2009.
Show, Jon, Strikeforce Builds A Following In The Shadows Of The UFC,
SportsBusiness Journal, October 12, 2009, p. 22.
Show, Jon, UFC Feeling Scrappy As Footprint Expands, SportsBusiness Journal,
October 12, 2009, pp 20-22.
Chapter 40: World Wrestling Entertainment
Swanson, Erik, WWE In Battle To Revive Ratings, SportsBusiness Journal, October
12, 2009, pp 24-28.
PART VII: COLLEGIATE & HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS

Chapter 41: NCAA Sports
Berkowitz, Steve, Pac-10 Looks To Pack More Financial Punch, USA Today, June 11,
2010, p. 11C.
Longman, Jere, As Cost Of Sports Rise, Students Balk At Fees, The New York Times,
May 30, 2009.
Smith, Michael, Ohio State Lands $100 Million Deal, SportsBusiness Journal, March
30, 2009, pp 1, 46.
Smith, Michael and John Durand, How Big 12s Beebe Made The Math Work,
SportsBusiness Journal, June 21, 2010, pp 45-49.
Chapter 46: Youth Sports
Durand, John, Broader Reach, SportsBusiness Journal, August 17, 2009, pp 16-17,
22.
Show, Jon, Basketball Still Tops In Youth Participation, SportsBusiness Journal,
August 17, 2009, p. 20.
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PART VIII: MULTI-SPORT EVENTS

Chapter 47: Action Sports
Mickle, Tripp, A la Carte Shift Lands X Games More Sponsors, SportsBusiness
Journal, July 26, 2010, p. 6.
Mickle, Tripp, Dew Keeps Tour Name Through 2011, SportsBusiness Journal,
January 25-31, 2010, pp 1, 27.
Mickle, Tripp, Sponsors Have More Flexibility At X Games, SportsBusiness Journal,
January 25-31, 2010, p. 27.
Mickle, Tripp, Totinos Exits X To Title Winter Dew Event, SportsBusiness Journal,
Mickle, Tripp, X Games Faces Key Decision On Future Sites, SportsBusiness Journal,
July 27, 2009, p. 4.
Mickle, Tripp, X Turns 25, SportsBusiness Journal, July 20, 2009, pp 13-16.
Chapter 51: State Games
Rubial, Sal, Privately Funded, Empire State Games Rise Again, USA Today, July 22,
2010.
PART IX: ORGANIZED SPORTS/COMPETITIONS

Chapter 53: Bass Fishing
Gregory, Sean, Fantasy Fishing, Time, February 16, 2009, p. 45.
Kinney, David and Tim Smight, 10 Great Places To Compete Hook, Line and
Sinker, USA Today, June 5, 2009, p. 3D.
Chapter 54: Bowling
King, Bill, Bowling Tour A Natural Fit For Flooring Company, SportsBusiness Journal,
June 22, 2009, p. 17.
Chapter 56: Cricket
Cricket Booms in India, The Economist, March 27, 2010, pp 68-69.
Overdorf, Jason, Bowling For Bucks, Newsweek, October 29, 2007.
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Robinson, Joshua, On Spring Break, Cricket Gets Serious, The New York Times,
March 25, 2009.
Chapter 57: Figure Skating
Older Viewers More Likely To Watch Ice Skating, FYI, February 2010.
Chapter 59: Horse Racing
Doocey, Paul, Post Time For Change, Casino Journal, February 2010, pp 22-30.
Mullen, Liz, Breeders Cup Studies Permanent Track Option, SportsBusiness Journal,
April 19, 2010, p. 8.
Mullen, Liz, Saratoga Expects To Keep Fields, Seats Filled, SportsBusiness Journal,
July 27, 2009, p. 8.
Mullen, Liz, Triple Crown Considers Joint Sales Effort, SportsBusiness Journal, April
26, 2010, p. 17.
Sandomir, Richard, Seeking Single Home For Triple Crown, The New York Times,
April 30, 2010.
Chapter 60: Lacrosse
Burton, Rick and Norm OReilly, Why Lacrosses Popularity Is Spreading Across The
U.S., SportsBusiness Journal, May 31, 2010, p. 21.
Chapter 61: Marathons
Lefton, Terry, NYC Marathon Eyes Olympic-Style Extensions, SportsBusiness
Journal, July 12, 2010, p. 7.
Chapter 65: Soccer
Belson, Ken, Soccers Growth in the U.S. Seems Steady, The New York Times, July
23, 2009.
Hirshey, David and Roger Bennett, The World Cup As Big Business, Time, June 14,
2010, pp 70-72.
Mirkle, Tripp and John Durand, Soccers Buzz: A Bump Or A Wave? SportsBusiness
Journal, July 12, 2010, pp 1, 31.
Saporito, Bill, Yes, Soccer Is Americas Game, Time, June 14, 2010, pp 81-85.